Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Malathi Balakrishnan

21 Teacher Trainers’ Motivation in Transformation of Teaching and Learning: The Fun Way Approach

Authors: Malathi Balakrishnan, Gananthan M. Nadarajah, Noraini Abd Rahim, Amy Wong On Mei

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to investigate the level of intrinsic motivation of trainers after attending a Continuous Professional Development Course (CPD) organized by Institute of Teacher Training Malaysia titled, ‘Transformation of Teaching and Learning the Fun Way’. This study employed a survey whereby 96 teacher trainers were given Situational Intrinsic Motivational Scale (SIMS) Instruments. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to get validity of this instrument in local setting. Data were analyzed with SPSS for descriptive statistic. Semi structured interviews were also administrated to collect qualitative data on participants experiences after participating in the two-day fun-filled program. The findings showed that the participants’ level of intrinsic motivation showed higher mean than the amotivation. The results revealed that the intrinsic motivation mean is 19.0 followed by Identified regulation with a mean of 17.4, external regulation 9.7 and amotivation 6.9. The interview data also revealed that the participants were motivated after attending this training program. It can be concluded that this program, which was organized by Institute of Teacher Training Malaysia, was able to enhance participants’ level of motivation. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as a multidimensional approach to motivation was utilized. Therefore, teacher trainers may have more success using the ‘The fun way approach’ in conducting training program in future.

Keywords: teaching and learning, motivation, teacher trainer, SDT

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20 Enhancement of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Teacher Trainers by Fun Game Learning Approach

Authors: Malathi Balakrishnan, Gananathan M. Nadarajah, Saraswathy Vellasamy, Evelyn Gnanam William George

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to explore how the fun game-learning approach enhances teacher trainers’ higher order thinking skills. Two-day fun filled fun game learning-approach was introduced to teacher trainers as a Continuous Professional Development Program (CPD). 26 teacher trainers participated in this Transformation of Teaching and Learning Fun Way Program, organized by Institute of Teacher Education Malaysia. Qualitative research technique was adopted as the researchers observed the participants’ higher order thinking skills developed during the program. Data were collected from observational checklist; interview transcriptions of four participants and participants’ reflection notes. All the data were later analyzed with NVivo data analysis process. The finding of this study presented five main themes, which are critical thinking, hands on activities, creating, application and use of technology. The studies showed that the teacher trainers’ higher order thinking skills were enhanced after the two-day CPD program. Therefore, Institute of Teacher Education will have more success using the fun way game-learning approach to develop higher order thinking skills among its teacher trainers who can implement these skills to their trainee teachers in future. This study also added knowledge to Constructivism learning theory, which will further highlight the prominence of the fun way learning approach to enhance higher order thinking skills.

Keywords: constructivism, game-learning approach, higher order thinking skill, teacher trainer

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19 Innovation in Traditional Game: A Case Study of Trainee Teachers' Learning Experiences

Authors: Malathi Balakrishnan, Cheng Lee Ooi, Chander Vengadasalam

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore a case study of trainee teachers’ learning experience on innovating traditional games during the traditional game carnival. It explores issues arising from multiple case studies of trainee teachers learning experiences in innovating traditional games. A qualitative methodology was adopted through observations, semi-structured interviews and reflective journals’ content analysis of trainee teachers’ learning experiences creating and implementing innovative traditional games. Twelve groups of 36 trainee teachers who registered for Sports and Physical Education Management Course were the participants for this research during the traditional game carnival. Semi structured interviews were administrated after the trainee teachers learning experiences in creating innovative traditional games. Reflective journals were collected after carnival day and the content analyzed. Inductive data analysis was used to evaluate various data sources. All the collected data were then evaluated through the Nvivo data analysis process. Inductive reasoning was interpreted based on the Self Determination Theory (SDT). The findings showed that the trainee teachers had positive game participation experiences, game knowledge about traditional games and positive motivation to innovate the game. The data also revealed the influence of themes like cultural significance and creativity. It can be concluded from the findings that the organized game carnival, as a requirement of course work by the Institute of Teacher Training Malaysia, was able to enhance teacher trainers’ innovative thinking skills. The SDT, as a multidimensional approach to motivation, was utilized. Therefore, teacher trainers may have more learning experiences using the SDT.

Keywords: learning experiences, innovation, traditional games, trainee teachers

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18 Employability Skills: The Route to Achieve Demographic Dividend in India

Authors: Malathi Iyer, Jayesh Vaidya

Abstract:

The demographic dividend of India will last for thirty years from now. However, reduction in birth rate, an increase in working population, improvements in medicine and better health practices lead to an ever-expanding elderly population, bringing additional burden to the economy and putting an end to the demographic dividend. To reap the dividend India needs to train the youth for employability. The need of the hour is to improve their life skills which lead the youth to become industrious and have continuous employment. The study will be conducted in perceiving the skill gaps that exist in commerce students for employability. The analysis results indicate the relation between the core study and the right skills for the workforce, with the steps that are taken to open the window for the demographic dividend.

Keywords: demographic dividend, life skills, employability, workforce

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17 Soliton Interaction in Multi-Core Optical Fiber: Application to WDM System

Authors: S. Arun Prakash, V. Malathi, M. S. Mani Rajan

Abstract:

The analytical bright two soliton solution of the 3-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients in birefringent optical fiber is obtained by Darboux transformation method. To the design of ultra-speed optical devices, Soliton interaction and control in birefringence fiber is investigated. Lax pair is constructed for N coupled NLS system through AKNS method. Using two soliton solution, we demonstrate different interaction behaviors of solitons in birefringent fiber depending on the choice of control parameters. Our results shows that interactions of optical solitons have some specific applications such as construction of logic gates, optical computing, soliton switching, and soliton amplification in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system.

Keywords: optical soliton, soliton interaction, soliton switching, WDM

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16 Grid Connected Photovoltaic Micro Inverter

Authors: S. J. Bindhu, Edwina G. Rodrigues, Jijo Balakrishnan

Abstract:

A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) micro inverter with good performance properties is proposed in this paper. The proposed inverter with a quadrupler, having more efficiency and less voltage stress across the diodes. The stress that come across the diodes that use in the inverter section is considerably low in the proposed converter, also the protection scheme that we provided can eliminate the chances of the error due to fault. The proposed converter is implemented using perturb and observe algorithm so that the fluctuation in the voltage can be reduce and can attain maximum power point. Finally, some simulation and experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, MPPT, quadrupler, PV panel

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15 Spontaneous Tumour Lysis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Rojith K. Balakrishnan

Abstract:

Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome is a constellation of electrolyte abnormalities and an acute renal failure which occurs in the setting of rapid cell turnover prior to the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. While spontaneous tumour lysis well-described in patients with Burkitt lymphoma, it is thought to occur less commonly in patients with other hematological malignancies. We present a case of forty-year-old female who presented with features of acute renal failure, on further evaluation turned out to be a newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia with spontaneous tumour lysis best of our knowledge only three cases of AML with spontaneous tumour lysis has reported world wide.

Keywords: AML, tumour lysis, renal failure, myeloid leukemia

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14 The Attitude towards Sustainable Development Issues among Malaysian Engineering Undergraduates

Authors: Balamuralithara Balakrishnan

Abstract:

This paper reports the findings of the perception and attitude towards Sustainable Development among Malaysian undergraduates. The study was carried out involving 86 engineering undergraduates from three universities in Malaysia. This research was conducted based on a survey whereby the respondents were given a questionnaire to gauge their attitude towards sustainable development. The output of the analyses showed that the respondents have an appropriate attitude towards the sustainability issues expect for economic and social equality aspects. These findings suggest that the engineering educators involved in sustainable development education need to educate undergraduate students on this important issue. This investigation serves as a cornerstone to which the current paradigm of sustainable development education can be examined for further improvement by related stakeholders.

Keywords: sustainable development, engineering education, Malaysia, attitude

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13 Block Matching Based Stereo Correspondence for Depth Calculation

Authors: G. Balakrishnan

Abstract:

Stereo Correspondence plays a major role in estimation of distance of an object from the stereo camera pair for various applications. In this paper, a stereo correspondence algorithm based on block-matching technique is presented. Initially, an energy matrix is calculated for every disparity obtained using modified Sum of Absolute Difference (SAD). Higher energy matrix errors are removed by using threshold value in order to reduce the mismatch errors. A smoothening filter is applied to eliminate unreliable disparity estimate across the object boundaries. The purpose is to improve the reliability of calculation of disparity map. The experimental results obtained shows that the final depth map produce better results and can be used to all the applications using stereo cameras.

Keywords: stereo matching, filters, energy matrix, disparity

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12 Plasmablastic Lymphoma a New Entity in Patients with HIV Infections

Authors: Rojith K. Balakrishnan

Abstract:

Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon, recently described B-cell derived lymphoma that is most commonly seen in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Here we report a case of PBL in a 35 year old man with HIV who presented with multiple subcutaneous swellings all over the body and oral mucosal lesions.The biopsy report was suggestive of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry was done which showed, lymphoma cells, positive for MUM1, CD 138, and VS 38. The proliferation index (MIB) was 95%. Final report was consistent with the diagnosis of Plasmablastic Lymphoma. The lesion completely regressed after treatment with systemic chemotherapy. Up to date, only a few cases of plasmablastic lymphoma have been reported from India. Increased frequency of this lymphoma in HIV patients and rarity of the tumour, along with rapid response of the same to chemotherapy, make this case a unique one. Hence the knowledge about this new entity is important for clinicians who deal with HIV patients.

Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), oral cavity lesion, plasmablastic lymphoma, subcutaneous swelling

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11 Polyolefin Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Replacing 20% Cement by Fly Ash

Authors: Suman Kumar Adhikary, Zymantus Rudzionis, Arvind Balakrishnan

Abstract:

This paper deals with the behavior of concrete’s workability in a fresh state and compressive and flexural strength in a hardened state with the addition of polyolefin macro fibers. Four different amounts (3kg/m3, 4.5kg/m3, 6kg/m3 and 9kg/m3) of polyolefin macro fibers mixed in concrete mixture to observe the workability and strength properties difference between the concrete specimens. 20% class C type fly ash added is the concrete as replacement of cement. The water-cement ratio(W/C) of those concrete mix was 0.35. Masterglenium SKY 700 superplasticizer was added to the concrete mixture for better results. Slump test was carried out for determining the flowability. On 7th, 14th and 28th day of curing process compression strength tests were done and on 28th day flexural strength test and CMOD test were carried to differentiate the strength properties and post-cracking behavior of concrete samples.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, polyolefin fibers, fiber reinforced concrete, CMOD test of concrete

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10 Implementation of a Novel Modified Multilevel Inverter Topology for Grid Connected PV System

Authors: Dhivya Balakrishnan, Dhamodharan Shanmugam

Abstract:

Multilevel converters offer high power capability, associated with lower output harmonics and lower commutation losses. Their main disadvantage is their complexity requiring a great number of power devices and passive components, and a rather complex control circuitry. This paper proposes a single-phase seven-level inverter for grid connected PV systems, With a novel pulse width-modulated (PWM) control scheme. Three reference signals that are identical to each other with an offset that is equivalent to the amplitude of the triangular carrier signal were used to generate the PWM signals. The inverter is capable of producing seven levels of output-voltage levels from the dc supply voltage. This paper proposes a new multilevel inverter topology using an H-bridge output stage with two bidirectional auxiliary switches. The new topology produces a significant reduction in the number of power devices and capacitors required to implement a multilevel output using the asymmetric cascade configuration.

Keywords: asymmetric cascade configuration, H-Bridge, multilevel inverter, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

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9 Heavy Vehicles Crash Injury Severity at T-Intersections

Authors: Sivanandan Balakrishnan, Sara Moridpour, Richard Tay

Abstract:

Heavy vehicles make a significant contribution to many developed economies, including Australia, because they are a major means of transporting goods within these countries. With the increase in road freight, there will be an increase in the heavy vehicle traffic proportion, and consequently, an increase in the possibility of collisions involving heavy vehicles. Crashes involving heavy vehicles are a major road safety concern because of the higher likelihood of fatal and serious injury, especially to any small vehicle occupant involved. The primary objective of this research is to identify the factors influencing injury severity to occupants in vehicle collisions involving heavy vehicle at T- intersection using a binary logit model in Victoria, Australia. Our results show that the factors influencing injury severity include occupants' gender, age and restraint use. Also, vehicles' type, movement, point-of-impact and damage, time-of-day, day-of-week and season, higher percentage of trucks in traffic volume, hit pedestrians, number of occupants involved and type of collisions are associated with severe injury.

Keywords: binary logit model, heavy vehicle, injury severity, T-intersections

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8 Virtual Science Laboratory (ViSLab): The Effects of Visual Signalling Principles towards Students with Different Spatial Ability

Authors: Ai Chin Wong, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya, Balakrishnan Muniandy

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the impact of Virtual Reality (VR) using visual signaling principles in learning about the science laboratory safety guide; this study involves students with different spatial ability. There are two types of science laboratory safety lessons, which are Virtual Reality with Signaling (VRS) and Virtual Reality Non Signaling (VRNS). This research has adopted a 2 x 2 quasi-experimental factorial design. There are two types of variables involved in this research. The two modes of courseware form the independent variables with the spatial ability as the moderator variable. The dependent variable is the students’ performance. This study sample consisted of 141 students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the collected data. The major effects and the interaction effects of the independent variables on the independent variable were explored using the Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA). Based on the findings of this research, the results exhibited low spatial ability students in VRS outperformed their counterparts in VRNS. However, there was no significant difference in students with high spatial ability using VRS and VRNS. Effective learning in students with different spatial ability can be boosted by implementing the Virtual Reality with Signaling (VRS) in the design as well as the development of Virtual Science Laboratory (ViSLab).

Keywords: spatial ability, science laboratory safety, visual signaling principles, virtual reality

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7 Root Cause Analysis of Excessive Vibration in a Feeder Pump of a Large Thermal Electric Power Plant: A Simulation Approach

Authors: Kavindan Balakrishnan

Abstract:

Root cause Identification of the Vibration phenomenon in a feedwater pumping station was the main objective of this research. First, the mode shapes of the pumping structure were investigated using numerical and analytical methods. Then the flow pressure and streamline distribution in the pump sump were examined using C.F.D. simulation, which was hypothesized can be a cause of vibration in the pumping station. As the problem specification of this research states, the vibration phenomenon in the pumping station, with four parallel pumps operating at the same time and heavy vibration recorded even after several maintenance steps. They also specified that a relatively large amplitude of vibration exited by pumps 1 and 4 while others remain normal. As a result, the focus of this research was on determining the cause of such a mode of vibration in the pump station with the assistance of Finite Element Analysis tools and Analytical methods. Major outcomes were observed in structural behavior which is favorable to the vibration pattern phenomenon in the pumping structure as a result of this research. Behaviors of the numerical and analytical models of the pump structure have similar characteristics in their mode shapes, particularly in their 2nd mode shape, which is considerably related to the exact cause of the research problem statement. Since this study reveals several possible points of flow visualization in the pump sump model that can be a favorable cause of vibration in the system, there is more room for improved investigation on flow conditions relating to pump vibrations.

Keywords: vibration, simulation, analysis, Ansys, Matlab, mode shapes, pressure distribution, structure

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6 Bulk Transport in Strongly Correlated Topological Insulator Samarium Hexaboride Using Hall Effect and Inverted Resistance Methods

Authors: Alexa Rakoski, Yun Suk Eo, Cagliyan Kurdak, Priscila F. S. Rosa, Zachary Fisk, Monica Ciomaga Hatnean, Geetha Balakrishnan, Boyoun Kang, Myungsuk Song, Byungki Cho

Abstract:

Samarium hexaboride (SmB6) is a strongly correlated mixed valence material and Kondo insulator. In the resistance-temperature curve, SmB6 exhibits activated behavior from 4-40 K after the Kondo gap forms. However, below 4 K, the resistivity is temperature independent or weakly temperature dependent due to the appearance of a topologically protected surface state. Current research suggests that the surface of SmB6 is conductive while the bulk is truly insulating, different from conventional 3D TIs (Topological Insulators) like Bi₂Se₃ which are plagued by bulk conduction due to impurities. To better understand why the bulk of SmB6 is so different from conventional TIs, this study employed a new method, called inverted resistance, to explore the lowest temperatures, as well as standard Hall measurements for the rest of the temperature range. In the inverted resistance method, current flows from an inner contact to an outer ring, and voltage is measured outside of this outer ring. This geometry confines the surface current and allows for measurement of the bulk resistivity even when the conductive surface dominates transport (below 4 K). The results confirm that the bulk of SmB6 is truly insulating down to 2 K. Hall measurements on a number of samples show consistent bulk behavior from 4-40 K, but widely varying behavior among samples above 40 K. This is attributed to a combination of the growth process and purity of the starting material, and the relationship between the high and low temperature behaviors is still being explored.

Keywords: bulk transport, Hall effect, inverted resistance, Kondo insulator, samarium hexaboride, topological insulator

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5 The Extent of Proliferation, Apoptosis and Angiogenesis at the Site of Injury Determine the Course of Healing Either as Scar Free or as Scarred One in the Appendages of Lizard

Authors: Isha Ranadive, Sonam Patel, Suresh Balakrishnan

Abstract:

It has been observed that in lizards wound can be healed by either a scar free mechanism or by scarring. The animal model used to study both these healing processes was Northern House Gecko. In lizard, the tail when amputated heals by scar free mechanism which allows it to regenerate, the same is not seen when the limb is amputated. Proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis are the main events which succeed an injury. We observed that proliferation of the cells beneath the wound epidermis was much higher in case of wound healing in tail. This could be because after the wound gets covered by the epithelium, it enters in to a cross-talk with the underlying mesenchyme to recruit a pool of blastemal cells which proliferate and later differentiate to form the lost part through epimorphic regeneration. This was substantiated by mRNA expression levels of various FGFs which facilitate the cross-talk and also by PCNA which is a marker for proliferation. Western blot result reaffirms the same notion. However, in case of the limb, the rate of apoptosis was more than proliferation as there are a lot of debris that needs to be removed. We came to this conclusion as we observed that p53 the apoptotic gene was highly upregulated in case of the scarred tissue. Further, we confirmed this result by checking the anti-apoptotic gene bcl2 and found it to be significantly down-regulated. As we noticed heightened proliferation in the case of scar-free wound healing in tail, angiogenesis was targeted for the study. This is because, when the cells are proliferating they require constant supply of blood and hence neo-vascularization is inevitable. It was observed that the marker of angiogenesis, VEGF, was expressed more during wound healing as compared to the resting stage of tail. Moreover, a high up-regulation was seen in KDR, a receptor of VEGF. Thus, this study reveals how proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis play a key role in the scar-free as well as scarred wound healing.

Keywords: epimorphic regeneration, injury, northern house gecko, wound healing

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4 Studies on Virulence Factors Analysis in Streptococcus agalactiae from the Clinical Isolates

Authors: Natesan Balasubramanian, Palpandi Pounpandi, Venkatraman Thamil Priya, Vellasamy Shanmugaiah, Karubbiah Balakrishnan, Mandayam Anandam Thirunarayan

Abstract:

Streptococcus agalactiae is commonly known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and it is the most common cause of life-threatening bacterial infection. GBS first considered as a veterinary pathogen causing mastitis in cattle later becomes a human pathogen for severe neonatal infections. In this present study, a total of 20 new clinical isolates of S. agalactiae were collected from male (6) and female patient (14) with different age group. The isolates were from Urinary tract infection (UTI), blood, pus and eye ulcer. All the 20 S. agalactiae isolates has clear hemolysis properties on blood agar medium and were identified by serogrouping and MALTI-TOF-MS analysis. Antibiotic susceptibility/resistance test was performed for 20 S. agalactiae isolates, further phenotypic resistance pattern was observed for tetracycline, vancomycin, ampicillin and penicillin. Genotypically we found two antibiotic resistance genes such as Betalactem antibiotic resistance gene (Tem) (70%) and tetracycline resistance gene Tet(O) 15% in our isolates. Six virulence factors encoding genes were performed by PCR in twenty GBS isolates, cfb gene (100%), followed by, cylE(90.47%), lmp(85.7%), bca(71.42%), rib (38%) and low frequency in bac gene (4.76%) were determined. Most of the S. agalactiae isolates produced strong biofilm in the polystyrene surface (hydrophobic), and low-level biofilm formation was found in glass tube (hydrophilic) surface. lytR is secreted protein and localized in bacterial cell wall, extra cellular membrane, and cytoplasm. In silico docking studies were performed for lytR protein with four antibiofilm compounds, including a peptide (PR39) with the docking study showed peptide has strong interaction followed by ellagic acid and interaction length is 2.95, 2.97 and 2.95 A°. In ligand EGCGO10 and O11 two atoms intract with lytR (Leu271), with binding bond affinity length is 3.24 and 3.14. The aminoacid Leu 271 is act as an impartant aminoacid, since ellagic acid and EGCG interact with same aminoacid.

Keywords: antibiotics, biofilms, clinical isolates, S. agalactiae, virulence

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3 Anaesthesia with THRIVE in Microlaryngeal Surgery is a Game Changer

Authors: Malathi Jabanathan, Kavya Mittimanj, Shishir Chandrasekar

Abstract:

Background: Microlaryngeal surgeries (MLS) are typically performed under general anaesthesia either by employing a microlaryngeal tube or by providing apnoeic oxygenation without endotracheal intubation using high-frequency jet ventilation. Though the micro laryngeal tube impedes surgical access less than conventional endotracheal tubes (ETT), it does not provide an unobstructed view of the larynx. Jet ventilation is used as an alternative to endotracheal anesthesia, but it may cause movement of the vocal cords, barotrauma and tumor implantation in the trachea. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE) is a technique that uses rapidly insufflated, heated, humidified gases administered via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) to achieve apnoeic oxygenation. There is an emerging literature that has demonstrated the safety and feasibility of using THRIVE as the sole mode of oxygenation for such procedures. In the present study, we aimed to assess the feasibility and safety of tubeless micro laryngeal surgery using THRIVE under TIVA with BIS and muscle relaxation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After approval from the institutional ethics committee, a case note review was conducted of 21 patients who underwent elective micro laryngeal surgery over a period of one year (Dec 2019-Dec 2020) using total intravenous anesthesia and THRIVE. Pertaining to THRIVE, the following parameters were collected - Duration of safe apnoea (defined as sp02 >90%), need for rescue ventilation, and build-up of CO2. ETCO2 values were recorded following the normal ventilation using I-Gel. Also, in this study, the surgeon was asked to rate the following using a 5-point Likert scale: Ease of introduction of DL scope, Ease of reaching the lesion, Field quality, Overall impressions. Results: The mean apnoea time observed in our study was 27.85 (±5.87) minutes. Total theatre time (time in – time out of theatre) was 56.6 minutes (±11.8 minutes) which is shorter than the routine method with the same surgeon. No major complication noted apart from desaturation to 85% in 3 patients with a mean apnoea time of 30 mins ETCO2 was measured immediately after resuming normal mechanical ventilation with the help of supraglottic airway at the end of surgery. Mean ETCO2 at 0 minutes- 66 mmHg , at 2 minutes - 53 mmHg, at 5 minutes - 45mmHg Surgeon’s satisfaction was rated as either excellent (70 %) or good (30 %) in all patients. Conclusion: The authors propose that, in carefully selected patients, a combination of THRIVE and TIVA offers a good alternative to conventional anesthesia with micro laryngeal tubes. Our study demonstrated a safe apnea time of 27 mins with an acceptable CO2 build-up. Also, compared to historical controls in our institution, theatre time was greatly reduced in these patients. Finally, surgeon acceptance of the technique was extremely promising and the operating conditions were highly rated by them. We propose that a formal prospective case-control study might add further credence to the safety and efficacy of this NOVEL technique.

Keywords: apnoeic oxygenation, micro-laryngeal surgery, TIVA, trans-nasal rapid insufflation, ventilatory exchange

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2 The Burmese Exodus of 1942: Towards Evolving Policy Protocols for a Refugee Archive

Authors: Vinod Balakrishnan, Chrisalice Ela Joseph

Abstract:

The Burmese Exodus of 1942, which left more than 4 lakh as refugees and thousands dead, is one of the worst forced migrations in recorded history. Adding to the woes of the refugees is the lack of credible documentation of their lived experiences, trauma, and stories and their erasure from recorded history. Media reports, national records, and mainstream narratives that have registered the exodus provide sanitized versions which have reduced the refugees to a nameless, faceless mass of travelers and obliterated their lived experiences, trauma, and sufferings. This attitudinal problem compels the need to stem the insensitivity that accompanies institutional memory by making a case for a more humanistically evolved policy that puts in place protocols for the way the humanities would voice the concern for the refugee. A definite step in this direction and a far more relevant project in our times is the need to build a comprehensive refugee archive that can be a repository of the refugee experiences and perspectives. The paper draws on Hannah Arendt’s position on the Jewish refugee crisis, Agamben’s work on statelessness and citizenship, Foucault’s notion of governmentality and biopolitics, Edward Said’s concepts on Exile, Fanon’s work on the dispossessed, Derrida’s work on ‘the foreigner and hospitality’ in order to conceptualize the refugee condition which will form the theoretical framework for the paper. It also refers to the existing scholarship in the field of refugee studies such as Roger Zetter’s work on the ‘refugee label’, Philip Marfleet’s work on ‘refugees and history’, Lisa Malkki’s research on the anthropological discourse of the refugee and refugee studies. The paper is also informed by the work that has been done by the international organizations to address the refugee crisis. The emphasis is on building a strong argument for the establishment of the refugee archive that finds but a passing and a none too convincing reference in refugee studies in order to enable a multi-dimensional understanding of the refugee crisis. Some of the old questions cannot be dismissed as outdated as the continuing travails of the refugees in different parts of the world only remind us that they are still, largely, unanswered. The questions are -What is the nature of a Refugee Archive? How is it different from the existing historical and political archives? What are the implications of the refugee archive? What is its contribution to refugee studies? The paper draws on Diana Taylor’s concept of the archive and the repertoire to theorize the refugee archive as a repository that has the documentary function of the ‘archive’ and the ‘agency’ function of the repertoire. It then reads Ayya’s Accounts- a memoir by Anand Pandian -in the light of Hannah Arendt’s concepts of the ‘refugee as vanguard’ and ‘story telling as political action’- to illustrate how the memoir contributes to the refugee archive that provides the refugee a place and agency in history. The paper argues for a refugee archive that has implications for the formulation of inclusive refugee policies.

Keywords: Ayya’s Accounts, Burmese Exodus, policy protocol, refugee archive

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1 Functional Plasma-Spray Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of RAFM Steels in Fusion Energy Systems

Authors: Chen Jiang, Eric Jordan, Maurice Gell, Balakrishnan Nair

Abstract:

Nuclear fusion, one of the most promising options for reliably generating large amounts of carbon-free energy in the future, has seen a plethora of ground-breaking technological advances in recent years. An efficient and durable “breeding blanket”, needed to ensure a reactor’s self-sufficiency by maintaining the optimal coolant temperature as well as by minimizing radiation dosage behind the blanket, still remains a technological challenge for the various reactor designs for commercial fusion power plants. A relatively new dual-coolant lead-lithium (DCLL) breeder design has exhibited great potential for high-temperature (>700oC), high-thermal-efficiency (>40%) fusion reactor operation. However, the structural material, namely reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel, is not chemically stable in contact with molten Pb-17%Li coolant. Thus, to utilize this new promising reactor design, the demand for effective corrosion-resistant coatings on RAFM steels represents a pressing need. Solution Spray Technologies LLC (SST) is developing a double-layer ceramic coating design to address the corrosion protection of RAFM steels, using a novel solution and solution/suspension plasma spray technology through a US Department of Energy-funded project. Plasma spray is a coating deposition method widely used in many energy applications. Novel derivatives of the conventional powder plasma spray process, known as the solution-precursor and solution/suspension-hybrid plasma spray process, are powerful methods to fabricate thin, dense ceramic coatings with complex compositions necessary for the corrosion protection in DCLL breeders. These processes can be used to produce ultra-fine molten splats and to allow fine adjustment of coating chemistry. Thin, dense ceramic coatings with chosen chemistry for superior chemical stability in molten Pb-Li, low activation properties, and good radiation tolerance, is ideal for corrosion-protection of RAFM steels. A key challenge is to accommodate its CTE mismatch with the RAFM substrate through the selection and incorporation of appropriate bond layers, thus allowing for enhanced coating durability and robustness. Systematic process optimization is being used to define the optimal plasma spray conditions for both the topcoat and bond-layer, and X-ray diffraction and SEM-EDS are applied to successfully validate the chemistry and phase composition of the coatings. The plasma-sprayed double-layer corrosion resistant coatings were also deposited onto simulated RAFM steel substrates, which are being tested separately under thermal cycling, high-temperature moist air oxidation as well as molten Pb-Li capsule corrosion conditions. Results from this testing on coated samples, and comparisons with bare RAFM reference samples will be presented and conclusions will be presented assessing the viability of the new ceramic coatings to be viable corrosion prevention systems for DCLL breeders in commercial nuclear fusion reactors.

Keywords: breeding blanket, corrosion protection, coating, plasma spray

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