Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: pefloxacin

4 Pefloxacin as a Surrogate Marker for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella: Study from North India

Authors: Varsha Gupta, Priya Datta, Gursimran Mohi, Jagdish Chander

Abstract:

Fluoroquinolones form the mainstay of therapy for the treatment of infections due to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. There is a complex interplay between several resistance mechanisms for quinolones and various fluoroquinolones discs, giving varying results, making detection and interpretation of fluoroquinolone resistance difficult. For detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella ssp., we compared the use of pefloxacin and nalidixic acid discs as surrogate marker. Using MIC for ciprofloxacin as the gold standard, 43.5% of strains showed MIC as ≥1 μg/ml and were thus resistant to fluoroquinoloes. Based on the performance of nalidixic acid and pefloxacin discs as surrogate marker for ciprofloxacin resistance, both the discs could correctly detect all the resistant phenotypes; however, use of nalidixic acid disc showed false resistance in the majority of the sensitive phenotypes. We have also tested newer antimicrobial agents like cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin against Salmonella spp. Moreover, there was a comeback of susceptibility to older antimicrobials like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. We can also use cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin in the treatment of multidrug resistant S. typhi due to their high susceptibility.

Keywords: salmonella, pefloxacin, surrogate marker, chloramphenicol

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
3 Carrot: A Possible Source of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Transmission

Authors: M. Dahiru, O. I. Enabulele

Abstract:

The research wish to investigate the occurrence of multidrug- resistant Acinetobacter, in carrot and estimate the role of carrot in its transmission, in a rapidly growing urban population. Thus, 50 carrot samples were collected from Jakara wastewater irrigation farms and analyzed on MacConkey agar and screened by Microbact 24E (Oxoid) and susceptibility of isolates tested against 10 commonly used antibiotics. Acinetobacter baumannii and A. lwoffii were isolated in 22.00% and 16% of samples respectively. Resistance to ceporex and penicillin of 36.36% and 27.27% in A. baumannii, and sensitivity to ofloxacin, pefloxacin, gentimycin and co-trimoxazole, were observed. However, for A. lwoffii apart from 37.50% resistance to ceporex, it was also resistant to all other drugs tested. There was a similarity in the resistant shown by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii to fluoroquinolones drugs and β- lactame drugs families in addition to between sulfonamide and animoglycoside demonstrated by A. lwoffii. Interestingly, when resistant similarities to different antibiotics were compared for A. baumannii and A. lwoffii as a whole, significant correlation was observed at P < 0.05 to CPX to NA (46.2%), and SXT to AU (52.6%) respectively, and high multi drug resistance (MDR) of 27.27% and 62.50% by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii respectively and overall MDR of 42.11% in all isolates. The occurrence of multidrug-resistance pathogen in carrot is a serious challenge to public health care, especially in a rapidly growing urban population where subsistence agriculture contributes greatly to urban livelihood and source of vegetables.

Keywords: urban agriculture, public health, fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, multidrug-resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
2 Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections and Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Ante Natal Clinics in Government Primary Health Care Centres in Akure

Authors: Adepeju Simon-Oke, Olatunji Odeyemi, Mobolanle Oniya

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection has become the most common bacterial infections in humans, both at the community and hospital settings; it has been reported in all age groups and in both sexes. This study was carried out in order to determine and evaluate the prevalence, current drug susceptibility pattern of the isolated organisms and identify the associated risk factors of UTIs among the pregnant women in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the urine of pregnant women, and socio-demographic information of the women was collected. A total of 300 clean midstream urine samples were collected, and a general urine microscopic examination and culture were carried out, the Microbact identification system was used to identify gram-negative bacteria. Out of the 300 urine samples cultured, 183(61.0%) yielded significant growth of urinary pathogens while 117(39.0%) yielded either insignificant growth or no growth of any urinary pathogen. Prevalence of UTI was significantly associated with the type of toilet used, symptoms of UTI, and previous history of urinary tract infection (p<0.05). Escherichia coli 58(31.7%) was the dominant pathogen isolated, and the least isolated uropathogens were Citrobacter freudii and Providencia retgerri 2(1.1%) respectively. Gram-negative bacteria showed 77.6%, 67.9%, and 61.2% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, augmentin, and chloramphenicol, respectively. Resistance against septrin, chloramphenicol, sparfloxacin, amoxicillin, augmentin, gentamycin, pefloxacin, trivid, and streptomycin was observed in the range of 23.1 to 70.1%. Gram-positive uropathogens isolated showed high resistance to amoxicillin (68.4%) and high susceptibility to the remaining nine antibiotics in the range 65.8% to 89.5%. This study justifies that pregnant women are at high risk of UTI. Therefore screening of pregnant women during antenatal clinics should be considered very important to avoid complications. Health education with regular antenatal and personal hygiene is recommended as precautionary measures to UTI.

Keywords: pregnant women, prevalence, risk factor, UTIs

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
1 Microbiological Examination and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microorganisms Isolated from Salt Mining Site in Ebonyi State

Authors: Anyimc, C. J. Aneke, J. O. Orji, O. Nworie, U. C. C. Egbule

Abstract:

The microbial examination and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of microorganism isolated from the salt mining site in Ebonyi state were evaluated in the present study using a standard microbiological technique. A total of 300 samples were randomly collected in three sample groups (A, B, and C) of 100 each. Isolation, Identification and characterization of organization present on the soil samples were determined by culturing, gram-staining and biochemical technique. The result showed the following organisms were isolated with their frequency as follow: Bacillus species (37.3%) and Staphylococcus species(23.5%) had the highest frequency in the whole Sample group A and B while Klebsiella specie (15.7%), Pseudomonas species(13.7%), and Erwinia species (9.8%) had the least. Rhizopus species (42.0%) and Aspergillus species (26.0%) were the highest fungi isolated, followed by Penicillum species (20.0%) while Mucor species (4.0%), and Fusarium species (8.0%) recorded the least. Sample group C showed high microbial population of all the microbial isolates when compared to sample group A and B. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of isolated bacteria to various antibiotics (oxfloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprorex, augumentin, gentamycin, ciproflox, septrin, ampicillin), while agar well diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of isolated fungi to some antifungal drugs (metronidazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole fluconazole). The antibacterial activity of the antibiotics used showed that ciproflux has the best inhibitory effect on all the test bacteria. Ketoconazole showed the highest inhibitory effect on the fungal isolates, followed by itraconazole, while metronidazole and fluconazole showed the least inhibitory effect on the entire test fungal isolates. Hence, the multiple drug resistance of most isolates to appropriate drugs of choice are of great public health concern and cells for periodic monitoring of antibiograms to detect possible changing patterns. Microbes isolated in the salt mining site can also be used as a source of gene(s) that can increase salt tolerance in different crop species through genetic engineering.

Keywords: microorganisms, antibacterial, antifungal, resistance, salt mining site, Ebonyi State

Procedia PDF Downloads 188