Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: stupa

4 Discovery the Relics of Buddhist Stupa at Thanesar, Kurukshetra

Authors: Chander Shekhar, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

Present paper deal with the discovery of the stupa’s relics which belongs to the Kushana period. These remains were found during the scientific clearance work at a mound near Brahma-SarovarThanesar, Kurukshetra. This archaeological work was done by Department of Archaeology & Museums Haryana Government. The relics of stupa show that it would have been similar to Assandh and Damekhstupa. As per-Buddhist literature, GoutamBudhha reached Thanesar. In memory of Buddh’s Journey, King Ashoka built a big Stupa at Thanesar on the bank of Sarasvati River. Chinese pilgrim Yuan Chuang also referred a Monastery and stupa near Aujas-ghatof Brahma-sarovar. It may be part of that settlement which was mentioned by Yuan Chuang.

Keywords: archaeology, stupa, buddhism, excavtoin

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3 Introduction to Buddhist Archaeology of Haryana, India

Authors: Chander Shekhar, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

The present research paper is based on the explorations and excavations of Buddhist sites of the Indian state Haryana. It is a small state in north India. Earlier it was part of greater Punjab. Haryana has a very rich ancient history right from the Stone Age. It is known as the cradle of civilization. During the Buddha period, Haryana was very prosperous. Buddha also visited this region during the travel of the northwest province of British India. In this research work, the authors describe the Buddhist trail in Haryana and the tangible heritage of Buddhism, which were built in the respect and memory of the Buddha's journey like Stupa, Monasteries, Pillar, sculptures, etc. Several stupas like Chaneti Stupa, Thanesar Stupa, Agroha stupa, Adibadri, Katrawali, Assandh Stupa, and many monasteries were come into light during the excavation and exploration in Haryana as well as a lot of Buddhist sculptures also found.

Keywords: archaeology, Buddhism, exploration, excavations, stupa

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2 Analysis of Buddhist Rock Carvings in Diamer Basha Dam Reservoir Area, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Authors: Abdul Ghani Khan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the Buddhist rock carvings in the Diamer-Basha reservoir area, Gilgit-Baltistan, which is perhaps the largest rock art province of the world. The study region has thousands of rock carvings, particularly of the stupa carvings, engraved by artists, devotees or pilgrims, merchants have left their marks in the landscape or for the propagation of Buddhism. The Pak-German Archaeological Mission prepared, documented, and published the extensive catalogues of these carvings. Though, to date, very little systematic or statistically driven analysis was undertaken for in-depth understandings of the Buddhist rock carving tradition of the study region. This paper had made an attempt to examine stupa carvings and their constituent parts from the five selected sites, namely Oshibat, Shing Nala, Gichi Nala, Dadam Das, and Chilas Bridge. The statistical analyses and classification of the stupa carvings and their chronological contexts were carried out with the help of modern scientific tools such as STATA, FileMaker Pro, and MapSource softwares. The study had found that the tradition of stupa carvings on the surfaces of the rocks at the five selected sites continued for around 900 years, from the 1st century BCE to 8th century CE. There is a variation within the chronological settings of each of selected sites, possibly impacted by their utilization within particular landscapes, such as political (for example, change in political administrations or warfare) landscapes and geographical (for example, shifting of routes). The longer existence of the stupa carvings' tradition at these specific locations also indicates their central position on the trade and communication routes, and these were possibly also linked with religious ideologies within their particular times. The analyses of the different architectural elements of stupa carvings in the study area show that this tradition had structural similarities and differences in temporal and spatial contexts.

Keywords: rock carvings, stupa, stupa carvings, Buddhism, Pak-German archaeological mission

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1 Analysis of Ancient and Present Lightning Protection Systems of Large Heritage Stupas in Sri Lanka

Authors: J.R.S.S. Kumara, M.A.R.M. Fernando, S.Venkatesh, D.K. Jayaratne

Abstract:

Protection of heritage monuments against lightning has become extremely important as far as their historical values are concerned. When such structures are large and tall, the risk of lightning initiated from both cloud and ground can be high. This paper presents a lightning risk analysis of three giant stupas in Anuradhapura era (fourth century BC onwards) in Sri Lanka. The three stupas are Jethawaaramaya (269-296 AD), Abayagiriya (88-76 BC) and Ruwanweliseya (161-137 BC), the third, fifth and seventh largest ancient structures in the world. These stupas are solid brick structures consisting of a base, a near hemispherical dome and a conical spire on the top. The ancient stupas constructed with a dielectric crystal on the top and connected to the ground through a conducting material, was considered as the hypothesis for their original lightning protection technique. However, at present, all three stupas are protected with Franklin rod type air termination systems located on top of the spire. First, a risk analysis was carried out according to IEC 62305 by considering the isokeraunic level of the area and the height of the stupas. Then the standard protective angle method and rolling sphere method were used to locate the possible touching points on the surface of the stupas. The study was extended to estimate the critical current which could strike on the unprotected areas of the stupas. The equations proposed by (Uman 2001) and (Cooray2007) were used to find the striking distances. A modified version of rolling sphere method was also applied to see the effects of upward leaders. All these studies were carried out for two scenarios: with original (i.e. ancient) lightning protection system and with present (i.e. new) air termination system. The field distribution on the surface of the stupa in the presence of a downward leader was obtained using finite element based commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics for further investigations of lightning risks. The obtained results were analyzed and compared each other to evaluate the performance of ancient and new lightning protection methods and identify suitable methods to design lightning protection systems for stupas. According to IEC standards, all three stupas with new and ancient lightning protection system has Level IV protection as per protection angle method. However according to rolling sphere method applied with Uman’s equation protection level is III. The same method applied with Cooray’s equation always shows a high risk with respect to Uman’s equation. It was found that there is a risk of lightning strikes on the dome and square chamber of the stupa, and the corresponding critical current values were different with respect to the equations used in the rolling sphere method and modified rolling sphere method.

Keywords: Stupa, heritage, lightning protection, rolling sphere method, protection level

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