Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 748

Search results for: exploration

748 Development of a Web Exploration Support System Focusing on Accumulation of Search Contexts

Authors: T. Yamazaki, R. Onuma, H. Kaminaga, Y. Miyadera, S. Nakamura


Web exploration has increasingly diversified in accordance with the development of browsing environments on the Internet. Moreover, advanced exploration often conducted in intellectual activities such as surveys in research activities. This kind of exploration is conducted for a long period with trials and errors. In such a case, it is extremely important for a user to accumulate the search contexts and understand them. However, existing support systems were not effective enough since most systems could not handle the various factors involved in the exploration. This research aims to develop a novel system to support web exploration focusing on the accumulation of the search contexts. This paper mainly describes the outline of the system. An experiment using the system is also described. Finally, features of the system are discussed based on the results.

Keywords: web exploration context, refinement of search intention, accumulation of context, exploration support, information visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
747 Exploration and Exploitation within Operations

Authors: D. Gåsvaer, L. Stålberg, A. Fundin, M. Jackson, P. Johansson


Exploration and exploitation capabilities are both important within Operations as means for improvement when managed separately, and for establishing dynamic improvement capabilities when combined in balance. However, it is unclear what exploration and exploitation capabilities imply in improvement and development work within an operations context. So in order to better understand how to develop exploration and exploitation capabilities within operations, the main characteristics of these constructs needs to be identified and further understood. Thus, the objective of this research is to increase the understanding about exploitation and exploration characteristics, to concretize what they translates to within the context of improvement and development work in an operations unit, and to identify practical challenges. A literature review and a case study are presented. In the literature review, different interpretations of exploration and exploitation are portrayed, key characteristics have been identified, and a deepened understanding of exploration and exploitation characteristics is described. The case in the study is an operations unit, and the aim is to explore to what extent and in what ways exploration and exploitation activities are part of the improvement structures and processes. The contribution includes an identification of key characteristics of exploitation and exploration, as well as an interpretation of the constructs. Further, some practical challenges are identified. For instance, exploration activities tend to be given low priority, both in daily work as in the manufacturing strategy. Also, the overall understanding about the concepts of exploitation and exploration (or any similar aspect of dynamic improvement capabilities) is very low.

Keywords: exploitation, exploration, improvement, lean production, manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
746 Linking Market Performance to Exploration and Exploitation in The Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Johann Valentowitsch, Wolfgang Burr


In organizational research, strategies of exploration and exploitation are often considered to be contradictory. Building on the tradeoff argument, many authors have assumed that a company's market performance should be positively dependent on its strategic balance between exploration and exploitation over time. In this study, we apply this reasoning to the pharmaceutical industry. Using exploratory regression analysis we show that the long-term market performance of a pharmaceutical company is linked to both its ability to carry out exploratory projects and its ability to develop exploitative competencies. In particular, our findings demonstrate that, on average, the company's annual sales performance is higher the better the strategic alignment between exploration and exploitation is balanced. The contribution of our research is twofold. On the one hand, we provide empirical evidence for the initial tradeoff hypothesis and thus support the theoretical position of those who understand exploration and exploitation as strategic substitutes. On the other hand, our findings show that a balanced relationship between exploration and exploitation is also important in research-intensive industries, which naturally tend to place more emphasis on exploration.

Keywords: exploitation, exploration, market performance, pharmaceutical industry, strategy

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745 3D High-Precision Tunnel Gravity Exploration Method for Concealed High-Density Ore-Bodies: A Case Study on the Zhaotong Maoping Carbonate-Hosted Zn-Pb-(Ag-Ge) Deposit in Northeastern Yunnan, China

Authors: Han Run-Sheng, Li Wen-Yao, Wang Feng, Liu Fei, Qiu Wen-Long, Lei Li


Accurately positioning detection of concealed deposits or ore-bodies is one of the difficult problems in mineral exploration field. Theory calculation and exploration practices for tunnel gravity indicate that 3D high-precision Tunnel Gravity Exploration Method (TGEM) can find concealed high-density three-dimensional ore-bodies in the depth. The ore-finding breakthroughs at the depth of the Zhaotong Maoping carbonate-hosted Zn–Pb–(Ag–Ge) deposit in Northeastern Yunnan have proved that the exploration method in combination with MEAHFZ method is effective to detect concealed high-density ore-bodies. TGEM may overcome anomalous ambiguity of other geophysical methods for 3D positioning of concealed ore-bodies.

Keywords: 3D tunnel gravity exploration method, concealed high-density Ore-bodies, Zn–Pb–(Ag–Ge) deposit, Zaotong mapping, Northeastern Yunnan

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744 Development of Ceramic Spheres Buoyancy Modules for Deep-Sea Oil Exploration

Authors: G. Blugan, B. Jiang, J. Thornberry, P. Sturzenegger, U. Gonzenbach, M. Misson, D. Cartlidge, R. Stenerud, J. Kuebler


Low-cost ceramic spheres were developed and manufactured from the engineering ceramic aluminium oxide. Hollow spheres of 50 mm diameter with a wall thickness of 0.5-1.0 mm were produced via an adapted slip casting technique. It was possible to produce the spheres with good repeatability and with no defects or failures in the spheres due to the manufacturing process. The spheres were developed specifically for use in buoyancy devices for deep-sea exploration conditions at depths of 3000 m below sea level. The spheres with a 1.0 mm wall thickness exhibit a buoyancy of over 54% while the spheres with a 0.5 mm wall thickness exhibit a buoyancy of over 73%. The mechanical performance of the spheres was confirmed by performing a hydraulic burst pressure test on individual spheres. With a safety factor of 3, all spheres with 1.0 mm wall thickness survived a hydraulic pressure of greater than 150 MPa which is equivalent to a depth of more than 5000 m below sea level. The spheres were then incorporated into a buoyancy module. These hollow aluminium oxide ceramic spheres offer an excellent possibility of deep-sea exploration to depths greater than the currently used technology.

Keywords: buoyancy, ceramic spheres, deep-sea, oil exploration

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743 Conception of a Reliable Low Cost, Autonomous Explorative Hovercraft 1

Authors: A. Brand, S. Burgalat, E. Chastel, M. Jumeline, L. Teilhac


The paper presents actual benefits and drawbacks of a multidirectional Hovercraft conceived with limited resources and designed for indoor exploration. Recent developments in the field have led to apparition of very powerful automotive systems capable of very high calculation and exploration in complex unknown environments. They usually propose very complex algorithms, high precision/cost sensors and sometimes have heavy calculation consumption with complex data fusion. Those systems are usually powerful but have a certain price and the benefits may not be worth the cost, especially considering their hardware limitations and their power consumption. Present approach is to build a compromise between cost, power consumption and results preciseness.

Keywords: Hovercraft, indoor exploration, autonomous, multidirectional, wireless control

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
742 A Novel Exploration/Exploitation Policy Accelerating Learning In Both Stationary And Non Stationary Environment Navigation Tasks

Authors: Wiem Zemzem, Moncef Tagina


In this work, we are addressing the problem of an autonomous mobile robot navigating in a large, unknown and dynamic environment using reinforcement learning abilities. This problem is principally related to the exploration/exploitation dilemma, especially the need to find a solution letting the robot detect the environmental change and also learn in order to adapt to the new environmental form without ignoring knowledge already acquired. Firstly, a new action selection strategy, called ε-greedy-MPA (the ε-greedy policy favoring the most promising actions) is proposed. Unlike existing exploration/exploitation policies (EEPs) such as ε-greedy and Boltzmann, the new EEP doesn’t only rely on the information of the actual state but also uses those of the eventual next states. Secondly, as the environment is large, an exploration favoring least recently visited states is added to the proposed EEP in order to accelerate learning. Finally, various simulations with ball-catching problem have been conducted to evaluate the ε-greedy-MPA policy. The results of simulated experiments show that combining this policy with the Qlearning method is more effective and efficient compared with the ε-greedy policy in stationary environments and the utility-based reinforcement learning approach in non stationary environments.

Keywords: autonomous mobile robot, exploration/ exploitation policy, large, dynamic environment, reinforcement learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
741 Conception of a Reliable Low Cost and Autonomous Explorative Hovercraft

Authors: S. Burgalat, L. Teilhac, A. Brand, E. Chastel, M. Jumeline


The paper presents actual benefits and drawbacks of a multidirectional autonomous hovercraft conceived with limited resources and designed for indoor exploration. Recent developments in the field have led to the apparition of very powerful automotive systems capable of very high calculation and exploration in complex unknown environments. They usually propose very complex algorithms, high precision/cost sensors and sometimes have heavy calculation consumption with complex data fusion. These systems are usually powerful but have a certain price, and the benefits may not be worth the cost, especially considering their hardware limitations and their power consumption. The present approach is to build a compromise between cost, power consumption and results preciseness.

Keywords: hovercraft, indoor exploration, autonomous, multidirectional, wireless control

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
740 Spatial Integrity of Seismic Data for Oil and Gas Exploration

Authors: Afiq Juazer Rizal, Siti Zaleha Misnan, M. Zairi M. Yusof


Seismic data is the fundamental tool utilized by exploration companies to determine potential hydrocarbon. However, the importance of seismic trace data will be undermined unless the geo-spatial component of the data is understood. Deriving a proposed well to be drilled from data that has positional ambiguity will jeopardize business decision and millions of dollars’ investment that every oil and gas company would like to avoid. Spatial integrity QC workflow has been introduced in PETRONAS to ensure positional errors within the seismic data are recognized throughout the exploration’s lifecycle from acquisition, processing, and seismic interpretation. This includes, amongst other tests, quantifying that the data is referenced to the appropriate coordinate reference system, survey configuration validation, and geometry loading verification. The direct outcome of the workflow implementation helps improve reliability and integrity of sub-surface geological model produced by geoscientist and provide important input to potential hazard assessment where positional accuracy is crucial. This workflow’s development initiative is part of a bigger geospatial integrity management effort, whereby nearly eighty percent of the oil and gas data are location-dependent.

Keywords: oil and gas exploration, PETRONAS, seismic data, spatial integrity QC workflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
739 Refining Scheme Using Amphibious Epistemologies

Authors: David Blaine, George Raschbaum


The evaluation of DHCP has synthesized SCSI disks, and current trends suggest that the exploration of e-business that would allow for further study into robots will soon emerge. Given the current status of embedded algorithms, hackers worldwide obviously desire the exploration of replication, which embodies the confusing principles of programming languages. In our research we concentrate our efforts on arguing that erasure coding can be made "fuzzy", encrypted, and game-theoretic.

Keywords: SCHI disks, robot, algorithm, hacking, programming language

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
738 Simulation Data Summarization Based on Spatial Histograms

Authors: Jing Zhao, Yoshiharu Ishikawa, Chuan Xiao, Kento Sugiura


In order to analyze large-scale scientific data, research on data exploration and visualization has gained popularity. In this paper, we focus on the exploration and visualization of scientific simulation data, and define a spatial V-Optimal histogram for data summarization. We propose histogram construction algorithms based on a general binary hierarchical partitioning as well as a more specific one, the l-grid partitioning. For effective data summarization and efficient data visualization in scientific data analysis, we propose an optimal algorithm as well as a heuristic algorithm for histogram construction. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods, we conduct experiments on the massive evacuation simulation data.

Keywords: simulation data, data summarization, spatial histograms, exploration, visualization

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737 Student Authenticity: A Foundation for First-Year Experience Courses

Authors: Amy L. Smith


This study investigates the impact of student authenticity while engaging in academic exploration of students' sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence. Research questions include: How does incorporating authenticity in first-year academic exploration courses impact; 1) first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence? 2) first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence during the first and last halves of the fall semester? 3) first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence among various student demographics? First-year students completed a Likert-like survey at the conclusion of eight weeks (first and last eight weeks/fall semester) academic exploration courses. Course redesign included grounding the curriculum and instruction with student authenticity and creating opportunities for students to explore, define, and reflect upon their authenticity during academic exploration. Surveys were administered at the conclusion of these eight week courses (first and last eight weeks/fall semester). Data analysis included an entropy balancing matching method and t-tests. Research findings indicate integrating authenticity into academic exploration courses for first-year students has a positive impact on students' autonomy and persistence. There is a significant difference between authenticity and first-year students' autonomy (p = 0.00) and persistence (p = 0.01). Academic exploration courses with the underpinnings of authenticity are more effective in the second half of the fall semester. There is a significant difference between an academic exploration course grounding the curriculum and instruction in authenticity offered M8A (first half, fall semester) and M8B (second half, fall semester) (p = 0); M8B courses illustrate an increase of students' sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence. Integrating authenticity into academic exploration courses for first-year students has a positive impact on varying student demographics (p = 0.00). There is a significant difference between authenticity and low-income (p = 0.04), first-generation (p = 0.00), Caucasian (p = 0.02), and American Indian/Alaskan Native (p = 0.05) first-year students' sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence. Academic exploration courses embedded in authenticity helps develop first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence, which are effective traits of college students. As first-year students engage in content courses, professors can empower students to have greater engagement in their learning process by relating content to students' authenticity and helping students think critically about how content is authentic to them — how students' authenticity relates to the content, how students can take their content expertise into the future in ways that, to the student, authentically contribute to the greater good. A broader conversation within higher education needs to include 1) designing courses that allow students to develop and reflect upon their authenticity/to formulate answers to the questions: who am I, who am I becoming, and how will I move my authentic self forward; and 2) a discussion of how to shift from the university shaping students to the university facilitating the process of students shaping themselves.

Keywords: authenticity, first-year experience, sense of belonging, autonomy, persistence

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736 Cuban Shelf Results of Exploration and Petroleum Potential

Authors: Vasilii V. Ananev


Oil-and-gas potential of Cuba is found through the discoveries among which there are the most large-scale deposits, such as the Boca de Jaruco and Varadero fields of heavy oils. Currently, the petroleum and petroleum products needs of the island state are satisfied by own sources by less than a half. The prospects of the hydrocarbon resource base development are connected with the adjacent water area of the Gulf of Mexico where foreign companies had been granted license blocks for geological study and further development since 2001. Two Russian companies - JSC Gazprom Neft and OJSC Zarubezhneft, among others, took part in the development of the Cuban part of the Gulf of Mexico. Since 2004, five oil wells have been drilled by various companies in the deep waters of the exclusive economic zone of Cuba. Commercial oil-and-gas bearing prospects have been established in neither of them for both geological and technological reasons. However, only a small part of the water area has been covered by drilling and the productivity of the drill core has been tested at the depth of Cretaceous sediments only. In our opinion, oil-and-gas bearing prospects of the exclusive economic zone of the Republic of Cuba in the Gulf of Mexico remain undervalued and the mentioned water area needs additional geological exploration. The planning of exploration work in this poorly explored region shall be carried out systematically and it shall be based on the results of the regional scientific research.

Keywords: Cuba, catoche, geology, exploration

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
735 Configuration Design and Optimization of the Movable Leg-Foot Lunar Soft-Landing Device

Authors: Shan Jia, Jinbao Chen, Jinhua Zhou, Jiacheng Qian


Lunar exploration is a necessary foundation for deep-space exploration. For the functional limitations of the fixed landers which are widely used currently and are to expand the detection range by the use of wheeled rovers with unavoidable path-repeatability, a movable lunar soft-landing device based on cantilever type buffer mechanism and leg-foot type walking mechanism is presented. Firstly, a 20 DoFs quadruped configuration based on pushrod is proposed. The configuration is of the bionic characteristics such as hip, knee and ankle joints, and can make the kinematics of the whole mechanism unchanged before and after buffering. Secondly, the multi-function main/auxiliary buffers based on crumple-energy absorption and screw-nut mechanism, as well as the telescopic device which could be used to protect the plantar force sensors during the buffer process are designed. Finally, the kinematic model of the whole mechanism is established, and the configuration optimization of the whole mechanism is completed based on the performance requirements of slope adaptation and obstacle crossing. This research can provide a technical solution integrating soft-landing, large-scale inspection and material-transfer for future lunar exploration and even mars exploration, and can also serve as the technical basis for developing the reusable landers.

Keywords: configuration design, lunar soft-landing device, movable, optimization

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734 Application of Advanced Remote Sensing Data in Mineral Exploration in the Vicinity of Heavy Dense Forest Cover Area of Jharkhand and Odisha State Mining Area

Authors: Hemant Kumar, R. N. K. Sharma, A. P. Krishna


The study has been carried out on the Saranda in Jharkhand and a part of Odisha state. Geospatial data of Hyperion, a remote sensing satellite, have been used. This study has used a wide variety of patterns related to image processing to enhance and extract the mining class of Fe and Mn ores.Landsat-8, OLI sensor data have also been used to correctly explore related minerals. In this way, various processes have been applied to increase the mineralogy class and comparative evaluation with related frequency done. The Hyperion dataset for hyperspectral remote sensing has been specifically verified as an effective tool for mineral or rock information extraction within the band range of shortwave infrared used. The abundant spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images enables the differentiation of different objects of any object into targeted applications for exploration such as exploration detection, mining.

Keywords: Hyperion, hyperspectral, sensor, Landsat-8

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733 Comparison of Salt-Water Intrusion into Eastern and Western Coastal Aquifers of Urmia Lake thru Over-Exploration of Groundwater Resources

Authors: Saman Javadi, Mohammad Hassan Mahmoudi, Fatemeh Jafari, Aminreza Neshat


Urmia Lake’s water level has been dropped during the past decade. Although the most common reason in studies was declared climate change, but observation of adjacent lake (like Van in Turkey) is not the same as the common reason. Most of studies were focused on climate and land use change, but groundwater resource as one of the most important element is negligible. Due to population and agriculture activities growth, exploration of groundwater resource has been increased. In as much as continued decline of water levels can lead to saltwater intrusion, reduce stream discharge near outcrop regions and threaten groundwater quality, aquifers of this region were affected by saltwater intrusion of Urmia Lake. In this research comparison of saltwater intrusion into eastern and western coastal aquifer was studied. In conclusion eastern aquifers are in a critical situation; vice versa the western ones are in a better situation. Thus applying management of groundwater operation would be necessary for eastern aquifers.

Keywords: coastal aquifer, groundwater over-exploration, saltwater intrusion, Urmia Lake

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732 Geophysical Exploration of Aquifer Zones by (Ves) Method at Ayma-Kharagpur, District Paschim Midnapore, West Bengal

Authors: Mayank Sharma


Groundwater has been a matter of great concern in the past years due to the depletion in the water table. This has resulted from the over-exploitation of groundwater resources. Sub-surface exploration of groundwater is a great way to identify the groundwater potential of an area. Thus, in order to meet the water needs for irrigation in the study area, there was a need for a tube well to be installed. Therefore, a Geophysical investigation was carried out to find the most suitable point of drilling and sinking of tube well that encounters an aquifer. Hence, an electrical resistivity survey of geophysical exploration was used to know the aquifer zones of the area. The Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method was employed to know the subsurface geology of the area. Seven vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array were carried out, having the maximum AB electrode separation of 700m at selected points in Ayma, Kharagpur-1 block of Paschim Midnapore district, West Bengal. The VES was done using an IGIS DDR3 Resistivity meter up to an approximate depth of 160-180m. The data was interpreted, processed and analyzed. Based on all the interpretations using the direct method, the geology of the area at the points of sounding was interpreted. It was established that two deeper clay-sand sections exist in the area at a depth of 50-70m (having resistivity range of 40-60ohm-m) and 70-160m (having resistivity range of 25-35ohm-m). These aquifers will provide a high yield of water which would be sufficient for the desired irrigation in the study area.

Keywords: VES method, Schlumberger method, electrical resistivity survey, geophysical exploration

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731 Social Processes and Organizational Structures for the Management of Exploration and Exploration within and across Organization Boundaries

Authors: Linda O. N. Nwabunike


The role of internal and external efforts in the management of exploration and exploitation has been highlighted in literature. External ties support ambidexterity at different levels with, for instance: business unit ambidexterity, individual ambidexterity, organizational ambidexterity, and alliance ambidexterity. Recently studies have highlighted the combination of organization, alliance, and acquisition strategies for ambidexterity by conceptualizing ambidexterity across modes of operation. Literature still lacks detailed understanding of how these different processes are combined in the management of ambidexterity across modes of operation. This study plans to propose a conceptual model that illustrates the social processes involved in the management of ambidexterity across modes of operation. Main arguments are integrated from social structures, organizational design, and ambidexterity literature. The framework illustrates that how social capital is promoted by hierarchical relations within the organization and business relations across the boundaries of the organization. Whereby such social relations within and outside the organization are supported by the dual structures of the organization in the coordination of multiple efforts. This paper has potential to contribute to the understanding about how ambidexterity is attained.

Keywords: ambidexterity, coordination, external-ties, social-capital

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730 Flow Links Curiosity and Creativity: The Mediating Role of Flow

Authors: Nicola S. Schutte, John M. Malouff


Introduction: Curiosity is a positive emotion and motivational state that consists of the desire to know. Curiosity consists of several related dimensions, including a desire for exploration, deprivation sensitivity, and stress tolerance. Creativity involves generating novel and valuable ideas or products. How curiosity may prompt greater creativity remains to be investigated. The phenomena of flow may link curiosity and creativity. Flow is characterized by intense concentration and absorption and gives rise to optimal performance. Objective of Study: The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the phenomenon of flow may link curiosity with creativity. Methods and Design: Fifty-seven individuals from Australia (45 women and 12 men, mean age of 35.33, SD=9.4) participated. Participants were asked to design a program encouraging residents in a local community to conserve water and to record the elements of their program in writing. Participants were then asked to rate their experience as they developed and wrote about their program. Participants rated their experience on the Dimensional Curiosity Measure sub-scales assessing the exploration, deprivation sensitivity, and stress tolerance facets of curiosity, and the Flow Short Scale. Reliability of the measures as assessed by Cronbach's alpha was as follows: Exploration Curiosity =.92, Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity =.66, Stress Tolerance Curiosity =.93, and Flow=.96. Two raters independently coded each participant’s water conservation program description on creativity. The mixed-model intraclass correlation coefficient for the two sets of ratings was .73. The mean of the two ratings produced the final creativity score for each participant. Results: During the experience of designing the program, all three types of curiosity were significantly associated with the flow. Pearson r correlations were as follows: Exploration Curiosity and flow, r =.68 (higher Exploration Curiosity was associated with more flow); Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity and flow, r =.39 (higher Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity was associated with more flow); and Stress Tolerance Curiosity and flow, r = .44 (more stress tolerance in relation to novelty and exploration was associated with more flow). Greater experience of flow was significantly associated with greater creativity in designing the water conservation program, r =.39. The associations between dimensions of curiosity and creativity did not reach significance. Even though the direct relationships between dimensions of curiosity and creativity were not significant, indirect relationships through the mediating effect of the experience of flow between dimensions of curiosity and creativity were significant. Mediation analysis using PROCESS showed that flow linked Exploration Curiosity with creativity, standardized beta=.23, 95%CI [.02,.25] for the indirect effect; Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity with creativity, standardized beta=.14, 95%CI [.04,.29] for the indirect effect; and Stress Tolerance Curiosity with creativity, standardized beta=.13, 95%CI [.02,.27] for the indirect effect. Conclusions: When engaging in an activity, higher levels of curiosity are associated with greater flow. More flow is associated with higher levels of creativity. Programs intended to increase flow or creativity might build on these findings and also explore causal relationships.

Keywords: creativity, curiosity, flow, motivation

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729 Chromite Exploration Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography in Ingessana Hill, Blue Nile State, Sudan

Authors: Mohamed A. Mohamed-Ali, Jannis Simos, Khalid M. Kheiralla


The Ingessana hills in the southern Blue Nile of Sudan are part of the southern sector of the NE-SW trending ophiolithic belt of the Arab-Nubian Shield with mid-neoproterozoic age. The rocks are mainly serpentinized and in parts highly silicified dunites especially towards the contact with the intruding Bau granite. A promising chromite mineralization zones in the area tend to be generally associated with NE-SW trending shear-zones. A detailed geophysical survey employing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) at 34 lines were carried out over a zone of a known chromite mineralization to test feasibility of detecting and delineating the ore (if exist) and accordingly facilitate the positioning of exploratory drill holes. ERT sections were inverted with smooth constraints inversion code where the contacts between the granite and the ultramafics are showing up clearly. The continuity of mineralization along the contact is not well confirmed. However, the low-resistivity anomalies are probably recognized as potential chromite mineralization zones. These anomalies represent prime targets for further exploration by drilling, trenching or shallow pits. If the results of the drilling or excavations are positive, small open pit exploitations may produce important tonnages of chromite.

Keywords: chromite exploration, ERT, Ingessana Hills, inversion

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728 To Design an Architectural Model for On-Shore Oil Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Network System

Authors: Saurabh Shukla, G. N. Pandey


In recent times, oil exploration and monitoring in on-shore areas have gained much importance considering the fact that in India the oil import is 62 percent of the total imports. Thus, architectural model like wireless sensor network to monitor on-shore deep sea oil well is being developed to get better estimate of the oil prospects. The problem we are facing nowadays that we have very few restricted areas of oil left today. Countries like India don’t have much large areas and resources for oil and this problem with most of the countries that’s why it has become a major problem when we are talking about oil exploration in on-shore areas also the increase of oil prices has further ignited the problem. For this the use of wireless network system having relative simplicity, smallness in size and affordable cost of wireless sensor nodes permit heavy deployment in on-shore places for monitoring oil wells. Deployment of wireless sensor network in large areas will surely reduce the cost it will be very much cost effective. The objective of this system is to send real time information of oil monitoring to the regulatory and welfare authorities so that suitable action could be taken. This system architecture is composed of sensor network, processing/transmission unit and a server. This wireless sensor network system could remotely monitor the real time data of oil exploration and monitoring condition in the identified areas. For wireless sensor networks, the systems are wireless, have scarce power, are real-time, utilize sensors and actuators as interfaces, have dynamically changing sets of resources, aggregate behaviour is important and location is critical. In this system a communication is done between the server and remotely placed sensors. The server gives the real time oil exploration and monitoring conditions to the welfare authorities.

Keywords: sensor, wireless sensor network, oil, sensor, on-shore level

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727 Improvement of Analysis Vertical Oil Exploration Wells (Case Study)

Authors: Azza Hashim Abbas, Wan Rosli Wan Suliman


The old school of study, well testing reservoir engineers used the transient pressure analyses to get certain parameters and variable factors on the reservoir's physical properties, such as, (permeability-thickness). Recently, the difficulties facing the newly discovered areas are the convincing fact that the exploration and production (E&p) team should have sufficiently accurate and appropriate data to work with due to different sources of errors. The well-test analyst does the work without going through well-informed and reliable data from colleagues which may consequently cause immense environmental damage and unnecessary financial losses as well as opportunity losses to the project. In 2003, new potential oil field (Moga) face circulation problem well-22 was safely completed. However the high mud density had caused an extensive damage to the nearer well area which also distracted the hypothetical oil rate of flow that was not representive of the real reservoir characteristics This paper presents methods to analyze and interpret the production rate and pressure data of an oil field. Specifically for Well- 22 using the Deconvolution technique to enhance the transient pressure .Applying deconvolution to get the best range of certainty of results needed for the next subsequent operation. The range determined and analysis of skin factor range was reasonable.

Keywords: well testing, exploration, deconvolution, skin factor, un certainity

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726 The Impact of Training Method on Programming Learning Performance

Authors: Chechen Liao, Chin Yi Yang


Although several factors that affect learning to program have been identified over the years, there continues to be no indication of any consensus in understanding why some students learn to program easily and quickly while others have difficulty. Seldom have researchers considered the problem of how to help the students enhance the programming learning outcome. The research had been conducted at a high school in Taiwan. Students participating in the study consist of 330 tenth grade students enrolled in the Basic Computer Concepts course with the same instructor. Two types of training methods-instruction-oriented and exploration-oriented were conducted. The result of this research shows that the instruction-oriented training method has better learning performance than exploration-oriented training method.

Keywords: learning performance, programming learning, TDD, training method

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725 The Development of a Miniaturized Raman Instrument Optimized for the Detection of Biosignatures on Europa

Authors: Aria Vitkova, Hanna Sykulska-Lawrence


In recent years, Europa has been one of the major focus points in astrobiology due to its high potential of harbouring life in the vast ocean underneath its icy crust. However, the detection of life on Europa faces many challenges due to the harsh environmental conditions and mission constraints. Raman spectroscopy is a highly capable and versatile in-situ characterisation technique that does not require any sample preparation. It has only been used on Earth to date; however, recent advances in optical and laser technology have also allowed it to be considered for extraterrestrial exploration. So far, most efforts have been focused on the exploration of Mars, the most imminent planetary target. However, as an emerging technology with high miniaturization potential, Raman spectroscopy also represents a promising tool for the exploration of Europa. In this study, the capabilities of Raman technology in terms of life detection on Europa are explored and assessed. Spectra of biosignatures identified as high priority molecular targets for life detection on Europa were acquired at various excitation wavelengths and conditions analogous to Europa. The effects of extremely low temperatures and low concentrations in water ice were explored and evaluated in terms of the effectiveness of various configurations of Raman instruments. Based on the findings, a design of a miniaturized Raman instrument optimized for in-situ detection of life on Europa is proposed.

Keywords: astrobiology, biosignatures, Europa, life detection, Raman Spectroscopy

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724 Behind Fuzzy Regression Approach: An Exploration Study

Authors: Lavinia B. Dulla


The exploration study of the fuzzy regression approach attempts to present that fuzzy regression can be used as a possible alternative to classical regression. It likewise seeks to assess the differences and characteristics of simple linear regression and fuzzy regression using the width of prediction interval, mean absolute deviation, and variance of residuals. Based on the simple linear regression model, the fuzzy regression approach is worth considering as an alternative to simple linear regression when the sample size is between 10 and 20. As the sample size increases, the fuzzy regression approach is not applicable to use since the assumption regarding large sample size is already operating within the framework of simple linear regression. Nonetheless, it can be suggested for a practical alternative when decisions often have to be made on the basis of small data.

Keywords: fuzzy regression approach, minimum fuzziness criterion, interval regression, prediction interval

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723 Facilitating Knowledge Transfer for New Product Development in Portfolio Entrepreneurship: A Case Study of a Sodium-Ion Battery Start-up in China

Authors: Guohong Wang, Hao Huang, Rui Xing, Liyan Tang, Yu Wang


Start-ups are consistently under pressure to overcome liabilities of newness and smallness. They must focus on assembling resource and engaging constant renewal and repeated entrepreneurial activities to survive and grow. As an important form of resource, knowledge is constantly vital to start-ups, which will help start-ups with developing new product in hence forming competitive advantage. However, significant knowledge is usually needed to be identified and exploited from external entities, which makes it difficult to achieve knowledge transfer; with limited resources, it can be quite challenging for start-ups balancing the exploration and exploitation of knowledge. The research on knowledge transfer has become a relatively well-developed domain by indicating that knowledge transfer can be achieved through plenty of patterns, yet it is still under-explored that what processes and organizational practices help start-ups facilitating knowledge transfer for new product in the context portfolio entrepreneurship. Resource orchestration theory emphasizes the initiative and active management of company or the manager to explain the fulfillment of resource utility, which will help understand the process of managing knowledge as a certain kind of resource in start-ups. Drawing on the resource orchestration theory, this research aims to explore how knowledge transfer can be facilitated through resource orchestration. A qualitative single-case study of a sodium-ion battery new venture was conducted. The case company is sampled deliberately from representative industrial agglomeration areas in Liaoning Province, China. It is found that distinctive resource orchestration sub-processes are leveraged to facilitate knowledge transfer: (i) resource structuring makes knowledge available across the portfolio; (ii) resource bundling makes combines internal and external knowledge to form new knowledge; and (iii) resource harmonizing balances specific knowledge configurations across the portfolio. Meanwhile, by purposefully reallocating knowledge configurations to new product development in a certain new venture (exploration) and gradually adjusting knowledge configurations to being applied to existing products across the portfolio (exploitation), resource orchestration processes as a whole make exploration and exploitation of knowledge balanced. This study contributes to the knowledge management literature through proposing a resource orchestration view and depicting how knowledge transfer can be facilitated through different resource orchestration processes and mechanisms. In addition, by revealing the balancing process of exploration and exploitation of knowledge, and laying stress on the significance of the idea of making exploration and exploitation of knowledge balanced in the context of portfolio entrepreneurship, this study also adds specific efforts to entrepreneurship and strategy management literature.

Keywords: exploration and exploitation, knowledge transfer, new product development, portfolio entrepreneur, resource orchestration

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722 A Literature Review and a Proposed Conceptual Framework for Learning Activities in Business Process Management

Authors: Carin Lindskog


Introduction: Long-term success requires an organizational balance between continuity (exploitation) and change (exploration). The problem of balancing exploitation and exploration is a common issue in studies of organizational learning. In order to better face the tough competition in the face of changes, organizations need to exploit their current business and explore new business fields by developing new capabilities. The purpose of this work in progress is to develop a conceptual framework to shed light on the relevance of 'learning activities', i.e., exploitation and exploration, on different levels. The research questions that will be addressed are as follows: What sort of learning activities are found in the Business Process Management (BPM) field? How can these activities be linked to the individual level, group, level, and organizational level? In the work, a literature review will first be conducted. This review will explore the status of learning activities in the BPM field. An outcome from the literature review will be a conceptual framework of learning activities based on the included publications. The learning activities will be categorized to focus on the categories exploitation, exploration or both and into the levels of individual, group, and organization. The proposed conceptual framework will be a valuable tool for analyzing the research field as well as identification of future research directions. Related Work: BPM has increased in popularity as a way of working to strengthen the quality of the work and meet the demands of efficiency. Due to the increase in BPM popularity, more and more organizations reporting on BPM failure. One reason for this is the lack of knowledge about the extended scope of BPM to other business contexts that include, for example, more creative business fields. Yet another reason for the failures are the fact of the employees’ are resistant to changes. The learning process in an organization is an ongoing cycle of reflection and action and is a process that can be initiated, developed and practiced. Furthermore, organizational learning is multilevel; therefore the theory of organizational learning needs to consider the individual, the group, and the organization level. Learning happens over time and across levels, but it also creates a tension between incorporating new learning (feed-forward) and exploiting or using what has already been learned (feedback). Through feed-forward processes, new ideas and actions move from the individual to the group to the organization level. At the same time, what has already been learned feeds back from the organization to a group to an individual and has an impact on how people act and think.

Keywords: business process management, exploitation, exploration, learning activities

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721 Spectral Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals for Geothermal Exploration Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Short Wave Infrared Data

Authors: Aliyu J. Abubakar, Mazlan Hashim, Amin B. Pour


Exploiting geothermal resources for either power, home heating, Spa, greenhouses, industrial or tourism requires an initial identification of suitable areas. This can be done cost-effectively using remote sensing satellite imagery which has synoptic capabilities of covering large areas in real time and by identifying possible areas of hydrothermal alteration and minerals related to Geothermal systems. Earth features and minerals are known to have unique diagnostic spectral reflectance characteristics that can be used to discriminate them. The focus of this paper is to investigate the applicability of mapping hydrothermal alteration in relation to geothermal systems (thermal springs) at Yankari Park Northeastern Nigeria, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data for resource exploration. The ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands are used to highlight and discriminate alteration areas by employing sophisticated digital image processing techniques including image transformations and spectral mapping methods. Field verifications are conducted at the Yankari Park using hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) monterra to identify locations of hydrothermal alteration and rock samples obtained at the vicinity and surrounding areas of the ‘Mawulgo’ and ‘Wikki’ thermal springs. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results of rock samples obtained from the field validated hydrothermal alteration by the presence of indicator minerals including; Dickite, Kaolinite, Hematite and Quart. The study indicated the applicability of mapping geothermal anomalies for resource exploration in unmapped sparsely vegetated savanna environment characterized by subtle surface manifestations such as thermal springs. The results could have implication for geothermal resource exploration especially at the prefeasibility stages by narrowing targets for comprehensive surveys and in unexplored savanna regions where expensive airborne surveys are unaffordable.

Keywords: geothermal exploration, image enhancement, minerals, spectral mapping

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720 Oil Exploration in the Niger Delta and the Right to a Healthy Environment

Authors: Olufunke Ayilara Aje-Famuyide


The centrality of the Petroleum Industry in the world energy is undoubted. The world economy almost runs and depends on petroleum. Petroleum industry is a multi-trillion industry; it turns otherwise poor and underdeveloped countries into wealthy nations and thrusts them at the center of international diplomacy. Although these developing nations lack the necessary technology to explore and exploit petroleum resources they are not without help as developed nations, represented by their multinational corporations are ready and willing to provide both the technical and managerial expertise necessary for the development of this natural resource. However, the exploration of these petroleum resources comes with, sometimes, grave, concomitant consequences. These consequences are especially pronounced with respect to the environment. From the British Petroleum Oil rig explosion and the resultant oil spillage and pollution in New Mexico, United States to the Mobil Oil spillage along Nigerian coast, the story and consequence is virtually the same. Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region produces Nigeria’s petroleum which accounts for more than ninety-five percent of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings. Between 1999 and 2007, Nigeria earned more than $400 billion from petroleum exports. Nevertheless, petroleum exploration and exploitation has devastated the Niger Delta environment. From oil spillage which pollutes the rivers, farms and wetlands to gas flaring by the multi-national corporations; the consequences is similar-a region that has been devastated by petroleum exploitation. This paper thus seeks to examine the consequences and impact of petroleum pollution in the Niger Delta of Nigeria with particular reference on the right of the people of Niger Delta to a healthy environment. The paper further seeks to examine the relevant international, regional instrument and Nigeria’s municipal laws that are meant to protect the result of the people of the Niger Delta and their enforcement by the Nigerian State. It is quite worrisome that the Niger Delta Region and its people have suffered and are still suffering grave violations of their right to a healthy environment as a result of petroleum exploitation in their region. The Nigerian effort at best is half-hearted in its protection of the people’s right.

Keywords: environment, exploration, petroleum, pollution

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719 A Radiofrequency Based Navigation Method for Cooperative Robotic Communities in Surface Exploration Missions

Authors: Francisco J. García-de-Quirós, Gianmarco Radice


When considering small robots working in a cooperative community for Moon surface exploration, navigation and inter-nodes communication aspects become a critical issue for the mission success. For this approach to succeed, it is necessary however to deploy the required infrastructure for the robotic community to achieve efficient self-localization as well as relative positioning and communications between nodes. In this paper, an exploration mission concept in which two cooperative robotic systems co-exist is presented. This paradigm hinges on a community of reference agents that provide support in terms of communication and navigation to a second agent community tasked with exploration goals. The work focuses on the role of the agent community in charge of the overall support and, more specifically, will focus on the positioning and navigation methods implemented in RF microwave bands, which are combined with the communication services. An analysis of the different methods for range and position calculation are presented, as well as the main limiting factors for precision and resolution, such as phase and frequency noise in RF reference carriers and drift mechanisms such as thermal drift and random walk. The effects of carrier frequency instability due to phase noise are categorized in different contributing bands, and the impact of these spectrum regions are considered both in terms of the absolute position and the relative speed. A mission scenario is finally proposed, and key metrics in terms of mass and power consumption for the required payload hardware are also assessed. For this purpose, an application case involving an RF communication network in UHF Band is described, in coexistence with a communications network used for the single agents to communicate within the both the exploring agents as well as the community and with the mission support agents. The proposed approach implements a substantial improvement in planetary navigation since it provides self-localization capabilities for robotic agents characterized by very low mass, volume and power budgets, thus enabling precise navigation capabilities to agents of reduced dimensions. Furthermore, a common and shared localization radiofrequency infrastructure enables new interaction mechanisms such as spatial arrangement of agents over the area of interest for distributed sensing.

Keywords: cooperative robotics, localization, robot navigation, surface exploration

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