Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 523

Search results for: multimodal bio metrics

523 A Multimodal Approach to Improve the Performance of Biometric System

Authors: Chander Kant, Arun Kumar

Abstract:

Biometric systems automatically recognize an individual based on his/her physiological and behavioral characteristics. There are also some traits like weight, age, height etc. that may not provide reliable user recognition because of there common and temporary nature. These traits are called soft bio metric traits. Although soft bio metric traits are lack of permanence to uniquely and reliably identify an individual, yet they provide some beneficial evidence about the user identity and may improve the system performance. Here in this paper, we have proposed an approach for integrating the soft bio metrics with fingerprint and face to improve the performance of personal authentication system. In our approach we have proposed a combined architecture of three different sensors to elevate the system performance. The approach includes, soft bio metrics, fingerprint and face traits. We have also proven the efficiency of proposed system regarding FAR (False Acceptance Ratio) and total response time, with the help of MUBI (Multimodal Bio metrics Integration) software.

Keywords: FAR, minutiae point, multimodal bio metrics, primary bio metric, soft bio metric

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
522 A Comparative Study on Multimodal Metaphors in Public Service Advertising of China and Germany

Authors: Xing Lyu

Abstract:

Multimodal metaphor promotes the further development and refinement of multimodal discourse study. Cultural aspects matter a lot not only in creating but also in comprehending multimodal metaphor. By analyzing the target domain and the source domain in 10 public service advertisements of China and Germany about environmental protection, this paper compares the source when the target is alike in each multimodal metaphor in order to seek similarities and differences across cultures. The findings are as follows: first, the multimodal metaphors center around three major topics: the earth crisis, consequences of environmental damage, and appeal for environmental protection; second, the multimodal metaphors mainly grounded in three universal conceptual metaphors which focused on high level is up; earth is mother and all lives are precious. However, there are five Chinese culture-specific multimodal metaphors which are not discovered in Germany ads: east is high leve; a purposeful life is a journey; a nation is a person; good is clean, and water is mother. Since metaphors are excellent instruments on studying ideology, this study can be helpful on intercultural/cross-cultural communication.

Keywords: multimodal metaphor, cultural aspects, public service advertising, cross-cultural communication

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521 The Optimization of Decision Rules in Multimodal Decision-Level Fusion Scheme

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Dmitry V. Egorov

Abstract:

This paper introduces an original method of parametric optimization of the structure for multimodal decision-level fusion scheme which combines the results of the partial solution of the classification task obtained from assembly of the mono-modal classifiers. As a result, a multimodal fusion classifier which has the minimum value of the total error rate has been obtained.

Keywords: classification accuracy, fusion solution, total error rate, multimodal fusion classifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
520 Reasons for Non-Applicability of Software Entropy Metrics for Bug Prediction in Android

Authors: Arvinder Kaur, Deepti Chopra

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Software Entropy Metrics for bug prediction have been validated on various software systems by different researchers. In our previous research, we have validated that Software Entropy Metrics calculated for Mozilla subsystem’s predict the future bugs reasonably well. In this study, the Software Entropy metrics are calculated for a subsystem of Android and it is noticed that these metrics are not suitable for bug prediction. The results are compared with a subsystem of Mozilla and a comparison is made between the two software systems to determine the reasons why Software Entropy metrics are not applicable for Android.

Keywords: android, bug prediction, mining software repositories, software entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
519 Modeling Metrics for Monitoring Software Project Performance Based on the GQM Model

Authors: Mariayee Doraisamy, Suhaimi bin Ibrahim, Mohd Naz’ri Mahrin

Abstract:

There are several methods to monitor software projects and the objective for monitoring is to ensure that the software projects are developed and delivered successfully. A performance measurement is a method that is closely associated with monitoring and it can be scrutinized by looking at two important attributes which are efficiency and effectiveness both of which are factors that are important for the success of a software project. Consequently, a successful steering is achieved by monitoring and controlling a software project via the performance measurement criteria and metrics. Hence, this paper is aimed at identifying the performance measurement criteria and the metrics for monitoring the performance of a software project by using the Goal Question Metrics (GQM) approach. The GQM approach is utilized to ensure that the identified metrics are reliable and useful. These identified metrics are useful guidelines for project managers to monitor the performance of their software projects.

Keywords: component, software project performance, goal question metrics, performance measurement criteria, metrics

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518 Routing Metrics and Protocols for Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Samira Kalantary, Zohre Saatzade

Abstract:

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are low-cost access networks built on cooperative routing over a backbone composed of stationary wireless routers. WMNs must deal with the highly unstable wireless medium. Thus, routing metrics and protocols are evolving by designing algorithms that consider link quality to choose the best routes. In this work, we analyse the state of the art in WMN metrics and propose taxonomy for WMN routing protocols. Performance measurements of a wireless mesh network deployed using various routing metrics are presented and corroborate our analysis.

Keywords: wireless mesh networks, routing protocols, routing metrics, bioinformatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
517 On Projective Invariants of Spherically Symmetric Finsler Spaces in Rn

Authors: Nasrin Sadeghzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper we study projective invariants of spherically symmetric Finsler metrics in Rn. We find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the metrics to be Douglas and Generalized Douglas-Weyl (GDW) types. Also we show that two classes of GDW and Douglas spherically symmetric Finsler metrics coincide.

Keywords: spherically symmetric finsler metrics in Rn, finsler metrics, douglas metric, generalized Douglas-Weyl (GDW) metric

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516 Developing Fault Tolerance Metrics of Web and Mobile Applications

Authors: Ahmad Mohsin, Irfan Raza Naqvi, Syda Fatima Usamn

Abstract:

Applications with higher fault tolerance index are considered more reliable and trustworthy to drive quality. In recent years application development has been shifted from traditional desktop and web to native and hybrid application(s) for the web and mobile platforms. With the emergence of Internet of things IOTs, cloud and big data trends, the need for measuring Fault Tolerance for these complex nature applications has increased to evaluate their performance. There is a phenomenal gap between fault tolerance metrics development and measurement. Classic quality metric models focused on metrics for traditional systems ignoring the essence of today’s applications software, hardware & deployment characteristics. In this paper, we have proposed simple metrics to measure fault tolerance considering general requirements for Web and Mobile Applications. We have aligned factors – subfactors, using GQM for metrics development considering the nature of mobile we apps. Systematic Mathematical formulation is done to measure metrics quantitatively. Three web mobile applications are selected to measure Fault Tolerance factors using formulated metrics. Applications are then analysed on the basis of results from observations in a controlled environment on different mobile devices. Quantitative results are presented depicting Fault tolerance in respective applications.

Keywords: web and mobile applications, reliability, fault tolerance metric, quality metrics, GQM based metrics

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515 OPEN-EmoRec-II-A Multimodal Corpus of Human-Computer Interaction

Authors: Stefanie Rukavina, Sascha Gruss, Steffen Walter, Holger Hoffmann, Harald C. Traue

Abstract:

OPEN-EmoRecII is an open multimodal corpus with experimentally induced emotions. In the first half of the experiment, emotions were induced with standardized picture material and in the second half during a human-computer interaction (HCI), realized with a wizard-of-oz design. The induced emotions are based on the dimensional theory of emotions (valence, arousal and dominance). These emotional sequences - recorded with multimodal data (mimic reactions, speech, audio and physiological reactions) during a naturalistic-like HCI-environment one can improve classification methods on a multimodal level. This database is the result of an HCI-experiment, for which 30 subjects in total agreed to a publication of their data including the video material for research purposes. The now available open corpus contains sensory signal of: video, audio, physiology (SCL, respiration, BVP, EMG Corrugator supercilii, EMG Zygomaticus Major) and mimic annotations.

Keywords: open multimodal emotion corpus, annotated labels, intelligent interaction

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514 New Approach for Constructing a Secure Biometric Database

Authors: A. Kebbeb, M. Mostefai, F. Benmerzoug, Y. Chahir

Abstract:

The multimodal biometric identification is the combination of several biometric systems. The challenge of this combination is to reduce some limitations of systems based on a single modality while significantly improving performance. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the construction and the protection of a multimodal biometric database dedicated to an identification system. We use a topological watermarking to hide the relation between face image and the registered descriptors extracted from other modalities of the same person for more secure user identification.

Keywords: biometric databases, multimodal biometrics, security authentication, digital watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
513 Cross Project Software Fault Prediction at Design Phase

Authors: Pradeep Singh, Shrish Verma

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Software fault prediction models are created by using the source code, processed metrics from the same or previous version of code and related fault data. Some company do not store and keep track of all artifacts which are required for software fault prediction. To construct fault prediction model for such company, the training data from the other projects can be one potential solution. The earlier we predict the fault the less cost it requires to correct. The training data consists of metrics data and related fault data at function/module level. This paper investigates fault predictions at early stage using the cross-project data focusing on the design metrics. In this study, empirical analysis is carried out to validate design metrics for cross project fault prediction. The machine learning techniques used for evaluation is Naïve Bayes. The design phase metrics of other projects can be used as initial guideline for the projects where no previous fault data is available. We analyze seven data sets from NASA Metrics Data Program which offer design as well as code metrics. Overall, the results of cross project is comparable to the within company data learning.

Keywords: software metrics, fault prediction, cross project, within project.

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
512 Multimodal Content: Fostering Students’ Language and Communication Competences

Authors: Victoria L. Malakhova

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The research is devoted to multimodal content and its effectiveness in developing students’ linguistic and intercultural communicative competences as an indefeasible constituent of their future professional activity. Description of multimodal content both as a linguistic and didactic phenomenon makes the study relevant. The objective of the article is the analysis of creolized texts and the effect they have on fostering higher education students’ skills and their productivity. The main methods used are linguistic text analysis, qualitative and quantitative methods, deduction, generalization. The author studies texts with full and partial creolization, their features and role in composing multimodal textual space. The main verbal and non-verbal markers and paralinguistic means that enhance the linguo-pragmatic potential of creolized texts are covered. To reveal the efficiency of multimodal content application in English teaching, the author conducts an experiment among both undergraduate students and teachers. This allows specifying main functions of creolized texts in the process of language learning, detecting ways of enhancing students’ competences, and increasing their motivation. The described stages of using creolized texts can serve as an algorithm for work with multimodal content in teaching English as a foreign language. The findings contribute to improving the efficiency of the academic process.

Keywords: creolized text, English language learning, higher education, language and communication competences, multimodal content

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511 A New Categorization of Image Quality Metrics Based on a Model of Human Quality Perception

Authors: Maria Grazia Albanesi, Riccardo Amadeo

Abstract:

This study presents a new model of the human image quality assessment process: the aim is to highlight the foundations of the image quality metrics proposed in literature, by identifying the cognitive/physiological or mathematical principles of their development and the relation with the actual human quality assessment process. The model allows to create a novel categorization of objective and subjective image quality metrics. Our work includes an overview of the most used or effective objective metrics in literature, and, for each of them, we underline its main characteristics, with reference to the rationale of the proposed model and categorization. From the results of this operation, we underline a problem that affects all the presented metrics: the fact that many aspects of human biases are not taken in account at all. We then propose a possible methodology to address this issue.

Keywords: eye-tracking, image quality assessment metric, MOS, quality of user experience, visual perception

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510 A Comparative Assessment of Daylighting Metrics Assessing the Daylighting Performance of Three Shading Devices under Four Different Orientations

Authors: Mohamed Boubekri, Jaewook Lee

Abstract:

The assessment of the daylighting performance of a design solution is a complex task due to the changing nature of daylight. A few quantitative metrics are available to designers to assess such a performance, among them are the mean hourly illuminance (MHI), the daylight factor (DF), the daylight autonomy (DA) and the useful daylight illuminance (UDI). Each of these metrics has criteria and limitations that affect the outcome of the evaluation. When to use one metric instead of another depends largely on the design goals to be achieved. Using Design Iterate Validate Adapt (DIVA) daylighting simulation program we set out to examine the performance behavior of these four metrics with the changing dimensions of three shading devices: a horizontal overhang, a horizontal louver system, and a vertical louver system, and compare their performance behavior as the orientation of the window changes. The context is a classroom of a prototypical elementary school in South Korea. Our results indicate that not all four metrics behave similarly as we vary the size of each shading device and as orientations changes. The UDI is the metric that leads to outcome most different than the other three metrics. Our conclusion is that not all daylighting metrics lead to the same conclusions and that it is important to use the metric that corresponds to the specific goals and objectives of the daylighting solution.

Keywords: daylight factor, hourly daylight illuminance, daylight autonomy, useful daylight illuminance

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509 Evaluating the Performance of Existing Full-Reference Quality Metrics on High Dynamic Range (HDR) Video Content

Authors: Maryam Azimi, Amin Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Yuanyuan Dong, Mahsa T. Pourazad, Panos Nasiopoulos

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While there exists a wide variety of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) quality metrics, only a limited number of metrics are designed specifically for the High Dynamic Range (HDR) content. With the introduction of HDR video compression standardization effort by international standardization bodies, the need for an efficient video quality metric for HDR applications has become more pronounced. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of the existing full-reference LDR and HDR video quality metrics on HDR content and identify the most effective one for HDR applications. To this end, a new HDR video data set is created, which consists of representative indoor and outdoor video sequences with different brightness, motion levels and different representing types of distortions. The quality of each distorted video in this data set is evaluated both subjectively and objectively. The correlation between the subjective and objective results confirm that VIF quality metric outperforms all to their tested metrics in the presence of the tested types of distortions.

Keywords: HDR, dynamic range, LDR, subjective evaluation, video compression, HEVC, video quality metrics

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508 Evaluation of Video Quality Metrics and Performance Comparison on Contents Taken from Most Commonly Used Devices

Authors: Pratik Dhabal Deo, Manoj P.

Abstract:

With the increasing number of social media users, the amount of video content available has also significantly increased. Currently, the number of smartphone users is at its peak, and many are increasingly using their smartphones as their main photography and recording devices. There have been a lot of developments in the field of Video Quality Assessment (VQA) and metrics like VMAF, SSIM etc. are said to be some of the best performing metrics, but the evaluation of these metrics is dominantly done on professionally taken video contents using professional tools, lighting conditions etc. No study particularly pinpointing the performance of the metrics on the contents taken by users on very commonly available devices has been done. Datasets that contain a huge number of videos from different high-end devices make it difficult to analyze the performance of the metrics on the content from most used devices even if they contain contents taken in poor lighting conditions using lower-end devices. These devices face a lot of distortions due to various factors since the spectrum of contents recorded on these devices is huge. In this paper, we have presented an analysis of the objective VQA metrics on contents taken only from most used devices and their performance on them, focusing on full-reference metrics. To carry out this research, we created a custom dataset containing a total of 90 videos that have been taken from three most commonly used devices, and android smartphone, an IOS smartphone and a DSLR. On the videos taken on each of these devices, the six most common types of distortions that users face have been applied on addition to already existing H.264 compression based on four reference videos. These six applied distortions have three levels of degradation each. A total of the five most popular VQA metrics have been evaluated on this dataset and the highest values and the lowest values of each of the metrics on the distortions have been recorded. Finally, it is found that blur is the artifact on which most of the metrics didn’t perform well. Thus, in order to understand the results better the amount of blur in the data set has been calculated and an additional evaluation of the metrics was done using HEVC codec, which is the next version of H.264 compression, on the camera that proved to be the sharpest among the devices. The results have shown that as the resolution increases, the performance of the metrics tends to become more accurate and the best performing metric among them is VQM with very few inconsistencies and inaccurate results when the compression applied is H.264, but when the compression is applied is HEVC, SSIM and VMAF have performed significantly better.

Keywords: distortion, metrics, performance, resolution, video quality assessment

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507 Multimodal Sentiment Analysis With Web Based Application

Authors: Shreyansh Singh, Afroz Ahmed

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Sentiment Analysis intends to naturally reveal the hidden mentality that we hold towards an entity. The total of this assumption over a populace addresses sentiment surveying and has various applications. Current text-based sentiment analysis depends on the development of word embeddings and Machine Learning models that take in conclusion from enormous text corpora. Sentiment Analysis from text is presently generally utilized for consumer loyalty appraisal and brand insight investigation. With the expansion of online media, multimodal assessment investigation is set to carry new freedoms with the appearance of integral information streams for improving and going past text-based feeling examination using the new transforms methods. Since supposition can be distinguished through compelling follows it leaves, like facial and vocal presentations, multimodal opinion investigation offers good roads for examining facial and vocal articulations notwithstanding the record or printed content. These methodologies use the Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) with the LSTM modes to increase their performance. In this study, we characterize feeling and the issue of multimodal assessment investigation and audit ongoing advancements in multimodal notion examination in various spaces, including spoken surveys, pictures, video websites, human-machine, and human-human connections. Difficulties and chances of this arising field are additionally examined, promoting our theory that multimodal feeling investigation holds critical undiscovered potential.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, RNN, LSTM, word embeddings

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506 Software Component Identification from Its Object-Oriented Code: Graph Metrics Based Approach

Authors: Manel Brichni, Abdelhak-Djamel Seriai

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Systems are increasingly complex. To reduce their complexity, an abstract view of the system can simplify its development. To overcome this problem, we propose a method to decompose systems into subsystems while reducing their coupling. These subsystems represent components. Consisting of an existing object-oriented systems, the main idea of our approach is based on modelling as graphs all entities of an oriented object source code. Such modelling is easy to handle, so we can apply restructuring algorithms based on graph metrics. The particularity of our approach consists in integrating in addition to standard metrics, such as coupling and cohesion, some graph metrics giving more precision during the components identi cation. To treat this problem, we relied on the ROMANTIC approach that proposed a component-based software architecture recovery from an object oriented system.

Keywords: software reengineering, software component and interfaces, metrics, graphs

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505 Integrating Critical Stylistics and Visual Grammar: A Multimodal Stylistic Approach to the Analysis of Non-Literary Texts

Authors: Shatha Khuzaee

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The study develops multimodal stylistic approach to analyse a number of BBC online news articles reporting some key events from the so called ‘Arab Uprisings’. Critical stylistics (CS) and visual grammar (VG) provide insightful arguments to the ways ideology is projected through different verbal and visual modes, yet they are mode specific because they examine how each mode projects its meaning separately and do not attempt to clarify what happens intersemiotically when the two modes co-occur. Therefore, it is the task undertaken in this research to propose multimodal stylistic approach that addresses the issue of ideology construction when the two modes co-occur. Informed by functional grammar and social semiotics, the analysis attempts to integrate three linguistic models developed in critical stylistics, namely, transitivity choices, prioritizing and hypothesizing along with their visual equivalents adopted from visual grammar to investigate the way ideology is constructed, in multimodal text, when text/image participate and interrelate in the process of meaning making on the textual level of analysis. The analysis provides comprehensive theoretical and analytical elaborations on the different points of integration between CS linguistic models and VG equivalents which operate on the textual level of analysis to better account for ideology construction in news as non-literary multimodal texts. It is argued that the analysis well thought out a plan that would remark the first step towards the integration between the well-established linguistic models of critical stylistics and that of visual analysis to analyse multimodal texts on the textual level. Both approaches are compatible to produce multimodal stylistic approach because they intend to analyse text and image depending on whatever textual evidence is available. This supports the analysis maintain the rigor and replicability needed for a stylistic analysis like the one undertaken in this study.

Keywords: multimodality, stylistics, visual grammar, social semiotics, functional grammar

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504 Map Matching Performance under Various Similarity Metrics for Heterogeneous Robot Teams

Authors: M. C. Akay, A. Aybakan, H. Temeltas

Abstract:

Aerial and ground robots have various advantages of usage in different missions. Aerial robots can move quickly and get a different sight of view of the area, but those vehicles cannot carry heavy payloads. On the other hand, unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are slow moving vehicles, since those can carry heavier payloads than unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In this context, we investigate the performances of various Similarity Metrics to provide a common map for Heterogeneous Robot Team (HRT) in complex environments. Within the usage of Lidar Odometry and Octree Mapping technique, the local 3D maps of the environment are gathered.  In order to obtain a common map for HRT, informative theoretic similarity metrics are exploited. All types of these similarity metrics gave adequate as allowable simulation time and accurate results that can be used in different types of applications. For the heterogeneous multi robot team, those methods can be used to match different types of maps.

Keywords: common maps, heterogeneous robot team, map matching, informative theoretic similarity metrics

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503 Exploration of Various Metrics for Partitioning of Cellular Automata Units for Efficient Reconfiguration of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)

Authors: Peter Tabatt, Christian Siemers

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Using FPGA devices to improve the behavior of time-critical parts of embedded systems is a proven concept for years. With reconfigurable FPGA devices, the logical blocks can be partitioned and grouped into static and dynamic parts. The dynamic parts can be reloaded 'on demand' at runtime. This work uses cellular automata, which are constructed through compilation from (partially restricted) ANSI-C sources, to determine the suitability of various metrics for optimal partitioning. Significant metrics, in this case, are for example the area on the FPGA device for the partition, the pass count for loop constructs and communication characteristics to other partitions. With successful partitioning, it is possible to use smaller FPGA devices for the same requirements as with not reconfigurable FPGA devices or – vice versa – to use the same FPGAs for larger programs.

Keywords: reconfigurable FPGA, cellular automata, partitioning, metrics, parallel computing

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502 Two Weeks of Multi-Modal Inpatient Treatment: Patients Suffering from Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain for over 12 Months

Authors: D. Schafer, H. Booke, R. Nordmeier

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Patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain ( > 12 months) are a challenging clientele for pain specialists. A multimodal approach, characterized by a two weeks inpatient treatment, often is the ultimate therapeutic attempt. The lasting effects of such a multimodal approach were analyzed, especially since two weeks of inpatient therapy, although very intense, often seem too short to make a difference in patients suffering from chronic pain for years. The study includes 32 consecutive patients suffering from chronic pain over years who underwent a two weeks multimodal inpatient treatment of pain. Twelve months after discharge, each patient was interviewed to objectify any lasting effects. Pain was measured on admission and 12 months after discharge using the numeric rating scale (NRS). For statistics, a paired students' t-test was used. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. The average intensity of pain on admission was 8,6 on the NRS. Twelve months after discharge, the intensity of pain was still reduced by an average of 48% (average NRS 4,4), p < 0.05. Despite this significant improvement in pain severity, two thirds (66%) of the patients still judge their treatment as not sufficient. In conclusion, inpatient treatment of chronic pain has a long-lasting effect on the intensity of pain in patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain for more than 12 months.

Keywords: chronic pain, inpatient treatment, multimodal pain treatment, musculoskeletal pain

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501 Back to Basics: Redefining Quality Measurement for Hybrid Software Development Organizations

Authors: Satya Pradhan, Venky Nanniyur

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As the software industry transitions from a license-based model to a subscription-based Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) model, many software development groups are using a hybrid development model that incorporates Agile and Waterfall methodologies in different parts of the organization. The traditional metrics used for measuring software quality in Waterfall or Agile paradigms do not apply to this new hybrid methodology. In addition, to respond to higher quality demands from customers and to gain a competitive advantage in the market, many companies are starting to prioritize quality as a strategic differentiator. As a result, quality metrics are included in the decision-making activities all the way up to the executive level, including board of director reviews. This paper presents key challenges associated with measuring software quality in organizations using the hybrid development model. We introduce a framework called Prevention-Inspection-Evaluation-Removal (PIER) to provide a comprehensive metric definition for hybrid organizations. The framework includes quality measurements, quality enforcement, and quality decision points at different organizational levels and project milestones. The metrics framework defined in this paper is being used for all Cisco systems products used in customer premises. We present several field metrics for one product portfolio (enterprise networking) to show the effectiveness of the proposed measurement system. As the results show, this metrics framework has significantly improved in-process defect management as well as field quality.

Keywords: quality management system, quality metrics framework, quality metrics, agile, waterfall, hybrid development system

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500 Navigating the Case-Based Learning Multimodal Learning Environment: A Qualitative Study Across the First-Year Medical Students

Authors: Bhavani Veasuvalingam

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Case-based learning (CBL) is a popular instructional method aimed to bridge theory to clinical practice. This study aims to explore CBL mixed modality curriculum in influencing students’ learning styles and strategies that support learning. An explanatory sequential mixed method study was employed with initial phase, 44-itemed Felderman’s Index of Learning Style (ILS) questionnaire employed across year one medical students (n=142) using convenience sampling to describe the preferred learning styles. The qualitative phase utilised three focus group discussions (FGD) to explore in depth on the multimodal learning style exhibited by the students. Most students preferred combination of learning stylesthat is reflective, sensing, visual and sequential i.e.: RSVISeq style (24.64%) from the ILS analysis. The frequency of learning preference from processing to understanding were well balanced, with sequential-global domain (66.2%); sensing-intuitive (59.86%), active- reflective (57%), and visual-verbal (51.41%). The qualitative data reported three major themes, namely Theme 1: CBL mixed modalities navigates learners’ learning style; Theme 2: Multimodal learners active learning strategies supports learning. Theme 3: CBL modalities facilitating theory into clinical knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative study strongly reports the multimodal learning style of the year one medical students. Medical students utilise multimodal learning styles to attain the clinical knowledge when learning with CBL mixed modalities. Educators’ awareness of the multimodal learning style is crucial in delivering the CBL mixed modalities effectively, considering strategic pedagogical support students to engage and learn CBL in bridging the theoretical knowledge into clinical practice.

Keywords: case-based learning, learnign style, medical students, learning

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499 Dual Biometrics Fusion Based Recognition System

Authors: Prakash, Vikash Kumar, Vinay Bansal, L. N. Das

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Dual biometrics is a subpart of multimodal biometrics, which refers to the use of a variety of modalities to identify and authenticate persons rather than just one. We limit the risks of mistakes by mixing several modals, and hackers have a tiny possibility of collecting information. Our goal is to collect the precise characteristics of iris and palmprint, produce a fusion of both methodologies, and ensure that authentication is only successful when the biometrics match a particular user. After combining different modalities, we created an effective strategy with a mean DI and EER of 2.41 and 5.21, respectively. A biometric system has been proposed.

Keywords: multimodal, fusion, palmprint, Iris, EER, DI

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498 Quantifying Spatiotemporal Patterns of Past and Future Urbanization Trends in El Paso, Texas and Their Impact on Electricity Consumption

Authors: Joanne Moyer

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El Paso, Texas is a southwest border city that has experienced continuous growth within the last 15-years. Understanding the urban growth trends and patterns using data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and landscape metrics, provides a quantitative description of growth. Past urban growth provided a basis to predict 2031 future land-use for El Paso using the CA-Markov model. As a consequence of growth, an increase in demand of resources follows. Using panel data analysis, an understanding of the relation between landscape metrics and electricity consumption is further analyzed. The studies’ findings indicate that past growth focused within three districts within the City of El Paso. The landscape metrics suggest as the city has grown, fragmentation has decreased. Alternatively, the landscape metrics for the projected 2031 land-use indicates possible fragmentation within one of these districts. Panel data suggests electricity consumption and mean patch area landscape metric are positively correlated. The study provides local decision makers to make informed decisions for policies and urban planning to ensure a future sustainable community.

Keywords: landscape metrics, CA-Markov, El Paso, Texas, panel data

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497 Achieving Success in NPD Projects

Authors: Ankush Agrawal, Nadia Bhuiyan

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The new product development (NPD) literature emphasizes the importance of introducing new products on the market for continuing business success. New products are responsible for employment, economic growth, technological progress, and high standards of living. Therefore, the study of NPD and the processes through which they emerge is important. The goal of our research is to propose a framework of critical success factors, metrics, and tools and techniques for implementing metrics for each stage of the new product development (NPD) process. An extensive literature review was undertaken to investigate decades of studies on NPD success and how it can be achieved. These studies were scanned for common factors for firms that enjoyed success of new products on the market. The paper summarizes NPD success factors, suggests metrics that should be used to measure these factors, and proposes tools and techniques to make use of these metrics. This was done for each stage of the NPD process, and brought together in a framework that the authors propose should be followed for complex NPD projects. While many studies have been conducted on critical success factors for NPD, these studies tend to be fragmented and focus on one or a few phases of the NPD process.

Keywords: new product development, performance, critical success factors, framework

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496 Filmic and Verbal Metafphors

Authors: Manana Rusieshvili, Rusudan Dolidze

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This paper aims at 1) investigating the ways in which a traditional, monomodal written verbal metaphor can be transposed as a monomodal non-verbal (visual) or multimodal (aural and -visual) filmic metaphor ; 2) exploring similarities and differences in the process of encoding and decoding of monomodal and multimodal metaphors. The empiric data, on which the research is based, embrace three sources: the novel by Harry Gray ‘The Hoods’, the script of the film ‘Once Upon a Time in America’ (English version by David Mills) and the resultant film by Sergio Leone. In order to achieve the above mentioned goals, the research focuses on the following issues: 1) identification of verbal and non-verbal monomodal and multimodal metaphors in the above-mentioned sources and 2) investigation of the ways and modes the specific written monomodal metaphors appearing in the novel and the script are enacted in the film and become visual, aural or visual-aural filmic metaphors ; 3) study of the factors which play an important role in contributing to the encoding and decoding of the filmic metaphor. The collection and analysis of the data were carried out in two stages: firstly, the relevant data, i.e. the monomodal metaphors from the novel, the script and the film were identified and collected. In the second, final stage the metaphors taken from all of the three sources were analysed, compared and two types of phenomena were selected for discussion: (1) the monomodal written metaphors found in the novel and/or in the script which become monomodal visual/aural metaphors in the film; (2) the monomodal written metaphors found in the novel and/or in the script which become multimodal, filmic (visual-aural) metaphors in the film.

Keywords: encoding, decoding, filmic metaphor, multimodality

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495 The Influence of Audio on Perceived Quality of Segmentation

Authors: Silvio Ricardo Rodrigues Sanches, Bianca Cogo Barbosa, Beatriz Regina Brum, Cléber Gimenez Corrêa

Abstract:

To evaluate the quality of a segmentation algorithm the authors use subjective or objective metrics. Although subjective metrics are more accurate, objective metrics do not require user feedback to test an algorithm. Objective metrics require subjective experiments only during their development. Subjective experiments typically display to users some videos (generated from frames with segmentation errors) that simulate the environment of an application domain. This user feedback is the key information for metric definition. In the subjective experiments applied to develop some state-of-the-art metrics used to test segmentation algorithms, the videos displayed during the experiments did not contain audio. In applications such as videoconference and augmented reality, audio is an important component. If the audio influences the user’s perception, using only videos without audio in subjective experiments can compromise the efficiency of an objective metric generated using data from these experiments. The aim of this work is to identify if the audio influences the user’s perception of segmentation quality in background substitution applications with audio. For this, a subjective method based on formal methods of video quality assessment was applied. The results showed audio influences the quality of segmentation perceived by user.

Keywords: background substitution, influence of audio, segmentation evaluation, segmentation quality

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494 Efficient Layout-Aware Pretraining for Multimodal Form Understanding

Authors: Armineh Nourbakhsh, Sameena Shah, Carolyn Rose

Abstract:

Layout-aware language models have been used to create multimodal representations for documents that are in image form, achieving relatively high accuracy in document understanding tasks. However, the large number of parameters in the resulting models makes building and using them prohibitive without access to high-performing processing units with large memory capacity. We propose an alternative approach that can create efficient representations without the need for a neural visual backbone. This leads to an 80% reduction in the number of parameters compared to the smallest SOTA model, widely expanding applicability. In addition, our layout embeddings are pre-trained on spatial and visual cues alone and only fused with text embeddings in downstream tasks, which can facilitate applicability to low-resource of multi-lingual domains. Despite using 2.5% of training data, we show competitive performance on two form understanding tasks: semantic labeling and link prediction.

Keywords: layout understanding, form understanding, multimodal document understanding, bias-augmented attention

Procedia PDF Downloads 40