Search results for: alcohol
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 583

Search results for: alcohol

583 About Some Results of the Determination of Alcohol in Moroccan Gasoline-Alcohol Mixtures

Authors: Mahacine Amrani


A simple and rapid method for the determination of alcohol in gasoline-alcohol mixtures using density measurements is described. The method can determine a minimum of 1% of alcohol by volume. The precision of the method is ± 3%.The method is more useful for field test in the quality assessment of alcohol blended fuels.

Keywords: gasoline-alcohol, mixture, alcohol determination, density, measurement, Morocco

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582 Divulging Discursive Constructions On Alcohol Consumption Among Filipino Men Who Are Recovering From Alcoholism: A Foucauldian Approach

Authors: Quervin Zacary M. Roldan, Gwyneth Gabrielle M. Fajardo, Carmela M. Maciar


Alcohol in the Philippines is regarded as a part of their culture however, it is also stigmatized, as alcohol addiction is prevalent among Filipino Males leading them to develop Alcohol Use Disorder. With this, Discourses of alcohol consumption from Individuals recovering from AUD from different rehabilitation centers in the Philippines were analyzed in the study to explore how they ‘talk’ about their alcohol consumption. By utilizing the Foucauldian Discourse Analysis following the six steps by Carla Willig, four (4) major discourses were major construed by the recovering individuals of AUD which are: (1) Being alcohol-free was a dream, (2) Drinking alcohol turns you into a demon that will destroy your life, (3) Drinking alcohol as ‘doing’ drugs and (4) Alcohol is a temporary solution. These discourses construct alcohol consumption as something that is being referred to as a 'bad' substance which is both normalized and stigmatized in Philippine society.

Keywords: alcohol, alcohol consumption, alcohol-based beverages, psychological effects, discourse, alcohol use disorder, stigma

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581 Religiosity and Social Factors on Alcohol Use among South African University Students

Authors: Godswill Nwabuisi Osuafor, Sonto Maria Maputle


Background: Abounding studies found that religiosity and social factors modulate alcohol use among university students. However, there is a scarcity of empirical studies examining the protective effects of religiosity and other social factors on alcohol use and abuse in South African universities. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the protective effects of religiosity and roles of social factors on alcohol use among university students. Methodology: A survey on the use of alcohol among 416 university students was conducted using structured questionnaire in 2014. Data were sourced on religiosity and contextual variables. Students were classified as practicing intrinsic religiosity or extrinsic religiosity based on the response to the measures of religiosity. Descriptive, chi square and binary logistic analyses were used in processing the data. Result: Results revealed that alcohol use was associated with religiosity, religion, sex, family history of alcohol use and experimenting with alcohol. Reporting alcohol abuse was significantly predicted by sex, family history of alcohol use and experimenting with alcohol. Religiosity mediated lower alcohol use whereas family history of alcohol use and experimenting with alcohol promoted alcohol use and abuse. Conclusion: Families, religious groups and societal factors may be the specific niches for intervention on alcohol use among university students.

Keywords: religiosity, alcohol use, protective factors, university students

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580 Production of Alcohol from Sweet Potato

Authors: Abhishek S. Shete


There is nothing new in the use of alcohol made from root crops as a motor fuel. Alcohol is an excellent alternative motor fuel for petrol engines. The reason alcohol fuel has not been fully exploited is that, up until now; gasoline has been cheap, available, and easy to produce. However, nowadays, crude oil is getting scarce, and the historic price difference between alcohol and gasoline is getting narrower. Alcohol fuel can be an important part of the solution for Rwanda because there is tremendous scope to use bulk production of sweet potato into alcohol. The total sweet potato production in both seasons is found to be 1.607.296 tones/year. The average productivity of sweet potato in the country irrespective of seasons is found to be 8.9 tones/ha. If all of the available agricultural surplus were converted to ethanol, alcohol would supply less than 5% of motor fuel needs.

Keywords: root crops, sweet potato, surplus, alcohol

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579 Gendered Violence Against Female Students Who Drink Alcohol: Perspectives Of South African Male University Students

Authors: Shakila Singh


Research on gender, sexual risk, and gender violence at universities has found alcohol to be a significant contributor. Studies from universities around the world suggest that drinking at universities is characterised by excess. However, not much attention has been given to the connections that students make between alcohol and violence. In this qualitative study, alcohol-fuelled violence against female students from the perspectives of male students themselves is analysed. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with ten volunteer undergraduate male students who reside in university residences. The findings reveal that alcohol continues to be seen as a masculine privilege. Male students explain that they use alcohol to give them the courage to perform hegemonic heterosexual masculinities. They use alcohol to enhance their capacity to control women. At the same time, they hold alcohol responsible for their loss of control when drunk. Male students also exploit alcohol as currency to coerce women into submission of sexual favours. By blaming alcohol for any deviant behaviour, they relinquish themselves from the responsibility of violating female students. The paper argues that violence prevention efforts in educational contexts must address the ways in which alcohol shapes the experience of gender, sexuality, and violence.

Keywords: alcohol-related violence, gender, and alcohol, hegemonic masculinities, university students

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578 A Phenomenological Exploration of Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Problems Among Male Students at the University of Kwazulu-Natal

Authors: Isaiah Phillip Smith


It is reported that alcohol consumption accounts for 3 million annual deaths globally, thus, it is a significant public health challenge internationally. The excessive consumption of alcohol is argued in literature to be related to problematic behaviors like crime, accident, fighting, violence, and unprotected sex, among others. Alcohol consumption among university students in South Africa particularly is considered endemic – with a prevalence rate of 25.27%, 32.34%, and 23.34% across universities, colleges, and high schools. Adopting the tenets of social learning and ecological theories, the culture of drinking amongst male university students is critically explored. This study found that age, gender, early exposure to alcohol, and peer pressure are significant factors contributing to alcohol consumption amongst university students. While participants acknowledged that moderate and responsible consumption of alcohol is necessary, they agree that it does not translate to responsible drinking behaviours.

Keywords: alcohol, drinking, university, students

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577 The Influence of Gender and Harmful Alcohol Consumption on Academic Performance in Spanish University Students

Authors: M. S. Rodríguez, F. Cadaveira, M. F. Páramo


First year university students comprise one of the groups most likely to indulge in hazardous alcohol consumption. The transition from secondary school to university presents a range of academic, social and developmental challenges requiring new responses that will meet the demands of this highly competitive environment. The main purpose of this research was to analyze the influence of gender and hazardous alcohol consumption on academic performance of 300 university students in Spain in a three-year follow-up study. Alcohol consumption was measured using the Alcohol Use Identification Test (AUDIT), and the average university grades were provided by the Academic Management Services of the University. Analysis of variance showed that the level of alcohol consumption significantly affected academic performance. Students undertaking hazardous alcohol consumption obtained the lowest grades during the first three years at university. These effects were particularly marked in the sample of women with a hazardous pattern of alcohol consumption, although the interaction between gender and this type of consumption was not significant. The study highlights the impact of hazardous alcohol consumption on the academic trajectory of university students. The findings confirm that alcohol consumption predicts poor academic performance in first year students and that the low level of performance is maintained throughout the university career.

Keywords: academic performance, alcohol consumption, gender, university students

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576 Study of Factors Linked to Alcohol Consumption among Young People from the Lycée De La Convivialité De Kanyosha in Burundi

Authors: Niyiragira Sixte, Jules Verne Nakimana


Introduction: Alcoholism is gradually becoming a public health issue due to its frequency, which continues to increase, especially in schools and at young ages. The general objective of the study was to contribute to the determination of the factors associated with alcohol consumption among young people. Methodology: This descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study entitled “Study of factors associated with alcohol consumption among young people aged 15 to 24. The study was conducted using a non-probability method, and the sampling technique was for convenience. The data collection technique used was the survey by questionnaire and the exploitation of the documentary. Microsoft Word 2013, Microsoft Excel 2.13 and EPI INFO7 software were used for this purpose. Results: The results of in study showed that 43.36% of the students surveyed took alcohol, and the factors associated with alcohol consumption are: religion, smoking and influence from friends. Conclusion: The prevalence of alcohol consumption among young people is very high, and awareness is more than necessary to prevent alcohol-related harm among young people.

Keywords: consumption, alcohol, young people, factors

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575 Efficacy of Nasya in Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

Authors: Sandip Tambare, Revati Ghadge


Alcohol withdrawal syndrome continue to be concerning health issue worldwide in alcoholics. Many current option for treating alcohol withdrawal signs are habit forming causing dependency of sedatives. The divine science of Ayurveda recommends Nasya for improvement of alcohol withdrawal signs. As per the latest reports 1/3 of the Indian population is using alcohol in an unhealthy manner, the complication being wide and varied among which, the Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome is the dominant one. The presentation varies from mild sleep loss or anxiety to delirium. Ayurveda has given utmost in the context of Madatyaya(Alcoholism). Various protocols based on the identification of the status of tridoshas are explained which includes sodhana, samana and satwavachaya chikitsa. Various medications are being used, with appreciated effects in the clinical practice. As per reports, the panchakarma procedure nasya seems highly effective, in managing of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Nasya with Ksheerabala Taila is given for 7 days in the condition of Alcohol Withdrawal syndrome and it was the non Randomized trial with 30 subjects satisfying the DSM V criteria for alcohol withdrawl and the assessment was done using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol Scale revised (CIWA-Ar). Conclusion: Among the symptoms which were studied after the interventions, it was found that there was high significant response in almost all the symptoms in the given subjects. The eternal science of Ayurveda is able to answer the existing problem of alcohol and its abuse in the society.

Keywords: nasya, alcohol withdrawal, madatyaya, ksheerabala taila

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574 Association of Alcohol Consumption with Active Tuberculosis in Taiwanese Adults: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

Authors: Yung-Feng Yen, Yun-Ju Lai


Background: Animal studies have shown that alcohol exposure may cause immunosuppression and increase the susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) infection. However, the temporality of alcohol consumption with subsequent TB development remains unclear. This nationwide population-based cohort study aimed to investigate the impact of alcohol exposure on TB development in Taiwanese adults. Methods: We included 46 196 adult participants from three rounds (2001, 2005, 2009) of the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Alcohol consumption was classified into heavy, regular, social, or never alcohol use. Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as intoxication at least once/week. Alcohol consumption and other covariates were collected by in-person interviews at baseline. Incident cases of active TB were identified from the National Health Insurance database. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between alcohol consumption and active TB, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, and other covariates. Results: A total of 279 new cases of active TB occurred during the study follow-up period. Heavy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.21; 95% confident interval [CI], 2.41-11.26) and regular alcohol use (AOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.26-2.38) were associated with higher risks of incident TB after adjusting for the subject demographics and comorbidities. Moreover, a strong dose-response effect was observed between increasing alcohol consumption and incident TB (AOR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.59-3.21; P <.001). Conclusion: Heavy and regular alcohol consumption were associated with higher risks of active TB. Future TB control programs should consider strategies to lower the overall level of alcohol consumption to reduce the TB disease burden.

Keywords: alcohol consumption, tuberculosis, risk factor, cohort study

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573 Current Judicial Discourse Regarding the Impact of Alcohol Use Disorders on Crime in Canada

Authors: Ellen McClure


It is generally well-known that a number of inmates suffer from some form of substance or alcohol use disorder. This study identifies, analyses, classifies and codifies the most recent Canadian criminal judgments involving an accused diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder specifically. From this research, patterns in judicial discourse and sentencing norms can be established, and these findings can be juxtaposed with existing relevant academic literature, particular attention will be given to this discussion at the sentencing stage, and the subsequent incarceration of those with alcohol use disorders. This topic will be explored with an overarching emphasis on the effects that a lack of conversation regarding a possible correlation between alcohol consumption and crime may have. Although comparisons may be made in order to clarify or highlight certain issues, particular attention will be paid to jurisdictions within Canada. This paper explores the existing judicial discourse in sentencing regarding the relationship between alcohol and crime, and how this might explain the higher incarceration rates of those suffering from alcohol use disorders in Canada. The research questions are as follows: (1) What are the existing judicial discourses in sentencing around the relationship between alcohol and crime? (2) To what extent has the current discourse on alcohol addiction among judges and legal academics contributed to the incarceration of alcoholics?The major findings of this research indicate a strong correlation between a lack of judicial discussion regarding the accused’s alcohol use disorder and an increased tendency to consider an alcohol use disorder as an aggravating factor. Furthermore, it was found that an 82% of judges who discussed the alcohol use disorder meaningfully referred to the disorder as a mitigating factor. This can be compared with 6.7% of judges who referred to the alcohol use disorder as a mitigating factor in cases where the disorder was not meaningfully discussed.

Keywords: alcohol use disorder, addiction, criminal justice, judicial discourse

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572 Effects of Harmful Alcohol Consumption and Gender on Academic and Personal-Emotional Adjustment in First Year University Students in Spain

Authors: M. F. Páramo, F. Cadaveira, M. S. Rodríguez


The first year at university is a critical period for personal-emotional and academic adjustment in emerging adults. Moreover, some studies show that alcohol consumption increases in young adults on transition to university. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of hazardous alcohol consumption and gender on adjustment to university, understood as a multidimensional construct involving an array of demands. A sample of 300 first year students in Spain completed the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Examination of the data by analysis of variance revealed that adjustment to university was lower in the students undertaking hazardous alcohol consumption than in the other students. Surprisingly, the personal-emotional adjustment of students with hazardous alcohol consumption was not lower than in the other students. Analysis of the gender effect revealed that levels of personal-emotional adjustment were higher in males than in females. This is our first study examining the influence of alcohol consumption on university adjustment. Future research should examine this relationship more closely, with the aim of designing public health strategies focused on limiting abusive consumption of alcohol in university students.

Keywords: alcohol consumption, first year university students, gender, SACQ

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571 Predicting Intention and Readiness to Alcohol Consumption Reduction and Cessation among Thai Teenagers Using Scales Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

Authors: Rewadee Watakakosol, Arunya Tuicomepee, Panrapee Suttiwan, Sakkaphat T. Ngamake


Health problems caused by alcohol consumption not only have short-term effects at the time of drinking but also leave long-lasting health conditions. Teenagers who start drinking in their middle-high or high school years or before entering college have higher likelihood to increase their alcohol use and abuse, and they were found to be less healthy compared with their non-drinking peers when entering adulthood. This study aimed to examine factors that predict intention and readiness to reduce and quit alcohol consumption among Thai teenagers. Participants were 826 high-school and vocational school students, most of whom were females (64.4%) with the average age of 16.4 (SD = 0.9) and the average age of first drinking at 13.7 (SD = 2.2). Instruments included the scales that developed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour theoretical framework. They were the Attitude toward Alcohol Reduction and Cessation Scale, Normative Group and Influence Scale, Perceived Behavioral Control toward Alcohol Reduction and Cessation Scale, Behavioral Intent toward Alcohol Reduction and Cessation Scale, and Readiness to Reduce and Quit Alcohol Consumption Scale. Findings revealed that readiness to reduce / quit alcohol was the most powerful predictive factor (β=. 53, p < .01), followed by attitude of easiness in alcohol reduction and cessation (β=.46, p < .01), perceived behavioral control toward alcohol reduction and cessation (β =.41, p < .01), normative group and influence (β=.15, p < .01), and attitude of being accepted from alcohol reduction and cessation (β = -.12, p < .01), respectively. Attitude of improved health after alcohol reduction and cessation did not show statistically significantly predictive power. All factors significantly predict teenagers’ alcohol reduction and cessation behavior and accounted for 59 percent of total variance of alcohol consumption reduction and cessation.

Keywords: alcohol consumption reduction and cessation, intention, readiness to change, Thai teenagers

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570 Injury Patterns and Outcomes in Alcohol Intoxicated Trauma Patients Admitted at Level I Apex Trauma Centre of a Developing Nation

Authors: G. Kaushik, A. Gupta, S. Lalwani, K. D. Soni, S. Kumar, S. Sagar


Objective: Alcohol is a leading risk factor associated with the disability and death due to RTI. Present study aims to demonstrate the demographic profile, injury pattern, physiological parameters of victims of trauma following alcohol consumption arriving in the emergency department (ED) and mortality in alcohol intoxicated trauma patients admitted to Apex Trauma Center in Delhi. Design and Methods: Present study was performed in randomly selected 182 alcohol breath analyzer tested RTI patients from the emergency department of Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi for over a period of 3 months started from September 2013 to November 2013. Results: A total 182 RTI patients with blunt injury were selected between 30-40 years of age and equally distributed to male and female group. Of these, 93 (51%) were alcohol negative and 89 (49%) were alcohol positive. In 89 alcohol positive patients, 47 (53%) had Artificial Airway as compared to 17 (18%), (p < 0.001) in the other group. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was lower (p < 0.001) and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) was observed in alcohol positive group as compared to other group (p < 0.03). Increased number of patients (58%) were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), in alcohol positive group (p < 0.001) and they were in ICU for longer time compare to other group (p < 0.001). The alcohol positive patients were on ventilator support for longer duration as compared to non-alcoholic group (p < 0.001). Mortality rate was higher in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic RTI patients, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study revealed that GCS, mean ISS, ICU stay, ventilation time etc. might have considerable impact on mortality in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic group.

Keywords: road traffic injuries, alcohol, trauma, emergency department

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569 Web-Based Alcohol Prevention among Iranian Medical University Students: A Randomized Control Trail

Authors: Farzad Jalilian, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh


Background: E-interventions as a universal approach to prevent a high-risk behavior, such as alcohol drinking. This study was conducted to evaluate web-based alcohol drinking preventative intervention efficiency among medical university students in Iran. Methods: Overall, 150 freshman and sophomore male student’s college students participated in this study as intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pre- and post-test series control group design panel study to implement a behavior modification based intervention to alcohol drinking prevention among college students. Cross-tabulation, t-test, repeated measures, and GEE by using SPSS statistical package, version 21 was used for the statistical analysis. The participants were followed up for 6 months with data collection scheduled at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcomes are attitude, self-control, and sensation seeking. Furthermore, the secondary outcome is comparing alcohol drinking among the study groups. Results: It was found significant reduce in average response for an attitude towards alcohol drinking and sensation seeking among intervention group (P < 0.05). But after intervention not significant difference between intervention and control group of improve self-control and reduce alcohol drinking (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our intervention has been accompanied with reducing alcohol use rate. These findings indicate that e-intervention may be effectiveness approach to address the alcohol prevention among college students.

Keywords: e-interventions, alcohol drinking, students, Iran

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568 Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Mauritian Adolescents: Analysis of 2017 WHO Global School-Based Student Health Survey

Authors: Iyanujesu Adereti, Tajudeen Basiru, Ayodamola Olanipekun


Background: Substance abuse among adolescents is of public health concern globally. Despite being the most abused by adolescents, there are limited studies on the prevalence of alcohol use and cigarette smoking among adolescents in Mauritius. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol use and associated correlates among school-going adolescents in Mauritius. Methodology: Data obtained from 2017 WHO Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) survey of 3,012 school-going adolescents in Mauritius was analyzed using STATA. Descriptive statistics were used to obtain prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate predictors of cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Results: Prevalence of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were 26.0% and 17.1%, respectively. Smoking and alcohol use was more prevalent among males, younger adolescents, and those in higher school grades (p-value <.000). In multivariable logistic regression, male gender was associated with a higher risk of cigarette smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) [95%Confidence Interval (CI)]= 1.51[1.06-2.14]) but lower risk of alcohol use (aOR[95%CI]= 0.69[0.53-0.90]) while older age (mid and late adolescence) and parental smoking were found to be associated with increased risk of alcohol use (aOR[95%CI]= 1.94[1.34-2.99] and 1.36[1.05-1.78] respectively). Marijuana use, truancy, being in a fight and suicide ideation were associated with increased odds of alcohol use (aOR[95%CI]= 3.82[3.39-6.09]; 2.15[1.62-2.87]; 1.83[1.34-2.49] and 1.93[1.38-2.69] respectively) and cigarette smoking (aOR[95%CI]= 17.28[10.4 - 28.51]; 1.73[1.21-2. 49]; 1.67[1.14-2.45] and 2.17[1.43-3.28] respectively) while involvement in sexual activity was associated with reduced risk of alcohol use (aOR[95%CI]= 0.50[0.37-0.68]) and cigarette smoking (aOR[95%CI]= 0.47[0.33-0.69]). Parental support and parental monitoring were uniquely associated with lower risk of cigarette smoking (aOR[95%CI]= 0.69[0.47-0.99] and 0.62[0.43-0.91] respectively). Conclusion: The high prevalence of alcohol use and cigarette smoking in this study shows the need for the government of Mauritius to enhance policies that will help address this issue putting into accounts the various risk and protective factors.

Keywords: adolescent health, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, global school-based student health survey

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567 Influence of Alcohol Consumption on Attention in Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Adekunle Adesina, Dorcas Adesina


This Research investigated the influence of alcohol consumption on attention in Wister albino rats. It was designed to test whether or not alcohol consumption affected visual and auditory attention. The sample of this study comprise of 3males albino rats and 3 females albino rats which were randomly assigned to 3 (male/female each) groups, 1, 2 and 3. The first group which was experimental Group 1 received 4ml of alcohol ingestion with cannula twice daily (morning and evening). The second group which was experimental group 2 received 2ml of alcohol ingestion with cannula twice daily (morning and evening). Third group which was the control group only received water (placebo), all these happened within a period of 2 days. Three hypotheses were advanced and testedf in the study. Hypothesis 1 stated that there will be no significant difference between the response speed of albino rats that consume alcohol and those that consume water on visual attention using 5-CSRTT. This was confirmed (DF (2, 9) = 0.72, P <.05). Hypothesis 2 stated that albino rats who consumed alcohol will perform better than those who consume water on auditory accuracy using 5-CSRTT. This was also tested but not confirmed (DF (2, 9) = 2.10, P< .05). The third hypothesis which stated that female albino rats who consumed alcohol would not perform better than male albino rats who consumed alcohol on auditory accuracy using 5-CSRTT was tested and not confirmed. (DF (4) = 0.17, P < .05). Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and T-test for independent measures. It was therefore recommended that government policies and programs should be directed at reducing to the barest minimum the rate of alcohol consumption especially among males as it is detrimental to the human auditory attentional organ.

Keywords: alcohol, attention, influence, rats, Wistar

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566 Women Students’ Management of Alcohol- Related Sexual Risk at a South African University

Authors: Shakila Singh


This research was conducted at a selected South African university campus with women students who drink alcohol. The purpose of the study was to examine their perspectives on the role of alcohol in their lives, their understandings about women’s vulnerability to alcohol-related sexual risk and their strategies against these. The study draws on feminist principles and practices to challenge gendered inequalities that legitimate and facilitate violence against women. Recognising the danger of focusing on risk management in ways that place the burden of responsibility entirely on young women to prevent their violation, this article focuses on women students’ agency in managing risk while taking up opportunities for self-discovery. Participation was voluntary, and a student-researcher administered an open-ended questionnaire to 55 participants. The findings suggest that young women position alcohol- use as a common activity at university, and that it gives them much pleasure. They recognise that it is riskier for women and articulate valuable strategies to manage the risk to their sexual safety when drinking. These include drinking within supportive networks, avoiding financial dependence, and managing their alcohol intake. This article argues that alcohol at university is an integral part of expressions of gender and sexuality and that risk-taking is a normal part of university students’ lives. Consequently, arguments about equality need to consider risk-taking as part of young people’s lives and promote ways of managing alcohol-related risks, rather than imagining that alcohol can be avoided entirely.

Keywords: alcohol-related sexual risk, drinking at university, managing risk, women students

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565 Alcohol Detection with Engine Locking System Using Arduino and ESP8266

Authors: Sukhpreet Singh, Kishan Bhojrath, Vijay, Avinash Kumar, Mandlesh Mishra


The project uses an Arduino and ESP8266 to construct an alcohol detection system with an engine locking mechanism, offering a distinct way to fight drunk driving. An alcohol sensor module is used by the system to determine the amount of alcohol present in the ambient air. When the system detects alcohol levels beyond a certain threshold that is deemed hazardous for driving, it activates a relay module that is linked to the engine of the car, so rendering it inoperable. By preventing people from operating a vehicle while intoxicated, this preventive measure seeks to improve road safety. Adding an ESP8266 module also allows for remote monitoring and notifications, giving users access to real-time status updates on their system. By using an integrated strategy, the initiative provides a workable and efficient way to lessen the dangers related to driving while intoxicated.

Keywords: MQ3 sensor, ESP 8266, arduino, IoT

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564 Breath Ethanol Imaging System Using Real Time Biochemical Luminescence for Evaluation of Alcohol Metabolic Capacity

Authors: Xin Wang, Munkbayar Munkhjargal, Kumiko Miyajima, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi


The measurement of gaseous ethanol plays an important role of evaluation of alcohol metabolic capacity in clinical and forensic analysis. A 2-dimensional visualization system for gaseous ethanol was constructed and tested in visualization of breath and transdermal alcohol. We demonstrated breath ethanol measurement using developed high-sensitive visualization system. The concentration of breath ethanol calculated with the imaging signal was significantly different between the volunteer subjects of ALDH2 (+) and (-).

Keywords: breath ethanol, ethnaol imaging, biochemical luminescence, alcohol metabolism

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563 The Compositional Effects on Electrospinning of Gelatin and Polyvinyl-alcohol Mixed Nanofibers

Authors: Yi-Chun Wu, Nai-Yun Chang, Chuan LI


This study investigates a feasible range of composition for the mixture of gelatin and polyvinyl alcohol to form nanofibers by electrospinning. Gelatin, one of the most available naturally derived hydrogels of amino acids, is a popular choice for food additives, cosmetic ingredients, biomedical implants, or dressing of its non-toxic and biodegradable nature. Nevertheless, synthetic hydrogel polyvinyl alcohol has long been used as a thickening agent for adhesion purposes. Many biomedical devices are also containing polyvinyl-alcohol as a major content, such as eye drops and contact lenses. To discover appropriate compositions of gelatin and polyvinyl-alcohol for electrospun nanofibers, polymer solutions of different volumetric ratios between gelatin and polyvinyl alcohol were prepared for electrospinning. The viscosity, surface tension, pH value, and electrical conductance of polymer solutions were measured. On the nanofibers, the vibrational modes of molecular structures in nanofibers were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphologies and surface chemical elements of fibers were examined by the scanning electron microscope and the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The hydrophilicity of nanofiberswas evaluated by the water contact angles on the surface of the fibers. To further test the biotoxicity of nanofibers, an in-vitro 3T3 fibroblasts culture further tested the biotoxicity of the electrospun nanofibers. Throughstatistical analyses of the experimental data, it is found that the polyvinyl-alcohol rich composition (the volumetric ratio of gelatin/polyvinyl-alcohol < 1) would be a preferable choice for the formation of nanofibers by the current setup of electrospinning. These electrospun nanofibers tend to be hydrophilic with no biotoxicity threat to the 3T3 fibroblasts.

Keywords: gelatin, polyvinyl-alcohol, nanofibers, electrospinning, spin coating

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562 Salient Beliefs regarding Alcohol Reduction and Cessation among Thai Teenagers

Authors: Panrapee Suttiwan, Rewadee Watakakosol Arunya Tuicomepee, Sakkaphat T. Ngamake


Alcohol consumption ranks among the top six of health-risk behaviors that lead to disability and death among Thai teenagers. Underage drinkers have higher health risks than their non-drinking peers do. This study, therefore, aimed to explore salient beliefs of Thai teenagers with alcohol reduction and cessation based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour theoretical framework. Participants were 225 high-school and vocational school students, most of whom (60.9%) consumed alcohol almost daily (5-6 times / week), and one-third of whom (33.8%) reported habitual moderate drink. The average age was 16.5 (SD = 0.9), and the average age of the first use of alcohol was 13.7 (SD = 2.2). Instrument was an open-ended questionnaire that elicited beliefs about having alcohol reduction / cessation in the past 12 months. Findings revealed salient benefit beliefs of alcohol reduction / cessation among the teens such as improved physical and mental health, accident and violence avoidance, less sexual risks, money and time saving, better academic performance, and improved relationships. In contrast, the teens identified several disadvantage beliefs such as deteriorating health, social awkwardness, lack of little fun, excitement, and experience, physical uneasiness, stress, and lack of self-confidence. Salient normative groups for alcohol reduction / cessation included parents, elder relatives, siblings, close friends, teachers, boy / girlfriends, and seniors / juniors at school. Situations influencing alcohol reduction / cessation included quarrels with boy / girlfriends, family conflicts, peer pressure, partying and socializing, festive holidays and anniversary celebration, and visiting entertainment places, etc. This study provides empirical evidence that help to identify normative attitudes towards alcohol reduction / cessation and may thus be an important knowledge for public health campaigns seeking to reduce alcohol consumption in this population.

Keywords: alcohol consumption reduction, cessation, salient belief, Thai teenagers

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561 Frequency of Problem Drinking and Depression in Males with a History of Alcohol Consumption Admitted to a Tertiary Care Setting in Southern Sri Lanka

Authors: N. H. D. P. Fonseka, I. H. Rajapakse, A. S. Dissanayake


Background: Problem drinking, namely alcohol dependence (AD) and alcohol abuse (AA) are associated with major medical, social and economic adverse consequences. Problem drinking behavior is noted among those admitted to hospitals due to alcohol-related medical/surgical complaints as well as those with unrelated complaints. Literature shows an association between alcohol consumption and depression. Aims of this study were to determine the frequency of problem drinking and depression among males with a history of alcohol consumption tertiary care setting in Southern Sri Lanka. Method: Two-hundred male patients who consumed alcohol, receiving care in medical and surgical wards in Teaching Hospital Galle, were assessed. A validated J12 questionnaire of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was administered to determine frequency AA and AD. A validated PHQ 9 questionnaire to determine the prevalence and severity of depression. Results: Sixty-three participants (31%) had problem drinking. Of them, 61% had AD, and 39% had AA. Depression was noted in 39 (19%) subjects. In those who reported alcohol consumption not amounting to problem drinking, depression was noted in 23 (16%) participants. Mild depression was seen in 17, moderate in five and moderately severe in one. Among those who had problem drinking, 16 (25%) had depression. Mild depression was seen in four, moderate in seven, moderately severe in three and severe in two. Conclusions: A high proportion alcohol users had problem drinking. Adverse consequences associated with problem drinking places a major strain on the health system especially in a low resource setting where healthcare spending is limited and alcohol cessation support services are not well organised. Thus alcohol consumption and problem drinking behaviour need to be inquired into all medical consultations. Community prevalence of depression in Sri Lanka is approximately 10%. Depression among those consuming alcohol was two times higher compared to the general population. The rates of depression among those with problem drinking were especially high being 2.5 times more common than in the general population. A substantial proportion of these patients with depression had moderately severe or severe depression. When depression coexists with problem drinking, it may increase the tendency to consume alcohol as well as act as a barrier to the success of alcohol cessation interventions. Thus screening all patients who consume alcohol for depression, especially those who are problem drinkers becomes an important step in their clinical evaluation. In addition, in view of the high prevalence of problem drinking and coexistent depression, the need to organize a structured alcohol cessation support service in Sri Lanka as well as the need for increasing access to psychological evaluation and treatment of those with problem drinking are highlighted.

Keywords: alcohol abuse, alcohol, depression, problem drinking

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560 Alcohol Rituals and Active Ageing: A Thematic Analysis of Semi-Structured Interviews with Retirees in the West of Scotland

Authors: Deborah Nicholson, Fiona McCormack, Pete Seaman, Karen Bell


This paper explores alcohol consumption amongst retirees in the West of Scotland in the context of active and healthy ageing discourses. The public health consequences of alcohol use are well documented and of growing concern to policy makers in Scotland and elsewhere. However, alcohol occupies a prominent position in a range of cultural and social practices and has associated meanings for users related to conviviality, leisure, sociability, and inclusion- features closely tied to active and healthy ageing. These perceived positive and negative meanings place alcohol in an ambiguous and contradictory position in relation to the Scottish Government’s key health policy initiatives aimed at healthy ageing and the reduction of alcohol-related ill-health. This paper explores these positive and negative associations through an examination of the meanings which retirees attach to alcohol and the routines and rituals they develop to navigate wider health concerns. Methods: participants were recruited from the West of Scotland area using a quota sampling design based around gender, age, and socioeconomic position. Forty participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and qualitative techniques. The interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Results: Alcohol use amongst retirees in Scotland was widely varied with marked differences noted in terms of gender and age group, but with less clear variance by socioeconomic position. A range of strategies was employed to limit alcohol use by time, context, location and/or volume and these strategies clearly drew on a perception of alcohol use in retirement as potentially more problematic than at earlier stage of life. Thus, the retirees in the sample used these limiting strategies to navigate the positive and negative meanings they attached to alcohol use.

Keywords: alcohol, health, retirement, routines

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559 A Study of Blood Alcohol Concentration in People Arrested for Various Offences and Its Demographic Pattern

Authors: Tabin Millo, Khoob Chand, Ashok Kumar Jaiswal


Introduction: Various kinds of violence and offences are related to alcohol consumption by the offenders. The relationship between alcohol and violence is complex. But its study is important to achieve understanding of violence as well as alcohol related behavior. This study was done to know the blood alcohol concentration in people involved in various offences and its demographic pattern. The study was carried out in the forensic toxicology laboratory, department of Forensic Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Material and methods: The blood samples were collected from the arrested people shortly after the commission of the offence by the emergency medical officers in the emergency department and forwarded to the forensic toxicology laboratory through the investigating officer. The blood samples were collected in EDTA vial with sodium fluoride preservative. The samples were analyzed by using gas chromatography with head space (GC-HS), which is ideal for alcohol estimation. The toxicology reports were given within a week. The data of seven years (2011-17) were analyzed for its alcohol concentration, associated crimes and its demographic pattern. Analysis and conclusion: Total 280 samples were analyzed in the period of 2011-2017. All were males except one female who was a bar dancer. The maximum cases were in the age group of 21-30 years (124 cases). The type of offences involved were road traffic accidents (RTA), assault cases, drunken driving, drinking in public place, drunk on duty, sexual offence, bestiality, eve teasing, fall etc. The maximum cases were of assault (75 cases) followed by RTA (64 cases). The maximum cases were in the alcohol concentration range of 101-150mg% (58 cases) followed by 51-100mg% (52 cases). The maximum blood alcohol level detected was 391.51 mg%, belonging to a security guard found unconscious. This study shows that alcohol consumption is associated with various kinds of violence and offences in society.

Keywords: alcohol, crime, toxicology, violence

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558 Husband Alcohol Drinking Behavior and Sexual Violence during Pregnancy in Nepalese Women of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

Authors: Narayan Bhatta, Rodhana Pokhel


Introduction: The link between alcohol and violence is well documented, but there is a paucity of research on alcohol use by husbands and sexual violence during pregnancy in Nepal. The aim of the study is to describe the relationship between alcohol use by the husband and sexual violence during pregnancy in Nepalese women from the Kathmandu valley. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a consecutive sampling design in one government hospital. Pregnant women (N = 495) attending the antenatal clinic of Paropakar Maternity and Women’s Hospital (PMWH) were recruited. Results: Approximately one-fifth (19%) of pregnant women had experienced sexual violence. Women in the first trimester of pregnancy were more likely to suffer sexual violence (35.2%) than in the second (30.7%) and third trimester of pregnancy (34%). The most common type of sexual violence against women was a physical force for sexual intercourse (91.5%), followed by sexual intercourse without the women’s consent (26.6%) and forcing them to engage in humiliating sexual activities (10.6%). Women who belong to other ethnicities like Janajatis, Dalits, and religious minorities (AOR = 0.3), women who live outside Kathmandu (AOR = 3.73), women who are illiterate (AOR = 4.67), and women whose husband has alcohol-drinking behavior (AOR = 1.68) increased the odds of experiencing sexual violence during pregnancy. Conclusion: The study concludes that a husband’s drinking behavior is an important risk factor for sexual violence against pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. It indicates a need for routine screening during the antenatal visit to identify the violence and alcohol use of both the husband and wife.

Keywords: husband alcohol drinking behavior, Kathmandu, pregnency, sexual violence

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557 Combustion Improvements by C4/C5 Bio-Alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine

Authors: Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Enkhjargal Tserenochir, Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka


Next generation bio-alcohols produced from non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass are promising renewable energy sources. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of next generation bio-alcohol isomer and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C4 alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C5 alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOx and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a roots blower type supercharger. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended diesel fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOx and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance, when compared with diesel fuel operation. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that, except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small.

Keywords: alternative fuel, butanol, diesel engine, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), next generation bio-alcohol isomer blended fuel, pentanol, supercharging

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556 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Problem Alcohol Use in Women: Systematic Analysis

Authors: Neringa Bagdonaite


Study Aims: The current study aimed to systematically analyse various research done in the area of female post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse, and to critically review these results on the basis of theoretical models as well as answer following questions: (I) What is the reciprocal relationship between PTSD and problem alcohol use among females; (II) What are the moderating/mediating factors of this relationship? Methods: The computer bibliographic databases Ebsco, Scopus, Springer, Web of Science, Medline, Science Direct were used to search for scientific articles. Systematic analyses sample consisted of peer-reviewed, English written articles addressing mixed gender and female PTSD and alcohol abuse issues from Jan 2012 to May 2017. Results: Total of 1011 articles were found in scientific databases related to searched keywords of which 29 met the selection criteria and were analysed. The results of longitudinal studies indicate that (I) various trauma, especially interpersonal trauma exposure in childhood is linked with increased risk of revictimization in later life and problem alcohol use; (II) revictimization in adolescence or adulthood, rather than victimization in childhood has a greater impact on the onset and progression of problematic alcohol use in adulthood. Cross-sectional and epidemiological studies also support significant relationships between female PTSD and problem alcohol use. Regards to the negative impact of alcohol use on PTSD symptoms results are yet controversial; some evidence suggests that alcohol does not exacerbate symptoms of PTSD over time, while others argue that problem alcohol use worsens PTSD symptoms and is linked to chronicity of both disorders, especially among women with previous alcohol use problems. Analysis of moderating/mediating factors of PTSD and problem alcohol use revealed, that higher motives/expectancies, specifically distress coping motives for alcohol use significantly moderates the relationship between PTSD and problematic alcohol use. Whereas negative affective states mediate relationship between symptoms of PTSD and alcohol use, but only among woman with alcohol use problems already developed. Conclusions: Interpersonal trauma experience, especially in childhood and its reappearance in lifetime is linked with PTSD symptoms and problem drinking among women. Moreover, problem alcohol use can be both a cause and a consequence of trauma and PTSD, and if used for coping it, increases the likelihood of chronicity of both disorders. In order to effectively treat both disorders, it’s worthwhile taking into account this dynamic interplay of women's PTSD symptoms and problem drinking.

Keywords: female, trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, problem alcohol use, systemic analysis

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555 Mode of Suicide and Alcohol Use Pattern among Female Commercial Sex Workers

Authors: G. V. Vaniprabha, S. Madhusudhan, S. G. Jadhav


The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of alcohol use, mode of suicide and extent of depression among 150 female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Bangalore, India. After going through a short detoxification programme of two weeks, Karma yoga principles of Shrimad Bhagavad Gita were used as a tool for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for a period of four weeks to maintain abstinence and help with their depression. A six month follow up indicated that they had maintained abstinence over that period and had not attempted suicide, either.

Keywords: alcohol dependence, depression, commercial sex workers, suicide

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554 Perceived Effects of Alcohol Abuse on Ordinary Level Students at Gatsi Secondary School

Authors: Chimeri Muzano Leonard


The study was carried out to investigate the perceptions of male and female Ordinary Level students on the effects of alcohol abuse at Gatsi Secondary School. The study showed that alcohol abuse has academic, social, psychological and health effects on Ordinary Level students. The negative effects comprises of death, dropping out, poor grades, poor concentration, risky behaviors, impairment of the brain and central nervous system , risky behaviors and Impairment of reproductive functioning Only students who enrolled for Ordinary Level in the 2014 academic year participated in this study. Fifty students (25 males and 25 females) were randomly selected to participate in the study. A formal survey questionnaire was used to collect data. The respondents were asked to use a scale of 0 (totally disagree) to 10 (completely agree) to indicate the extent to which they agreed with each perception. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 was used for data analysis. The Mann Whitney U test was used to test for the significance of differences in the perceptions of male and female students. No statistically significant differences were detected between males and females in most of their perceptions regarding the effects of alcohol abuse on Ordinary Level students. However, there were three perceptions found to be significantly different between male and female. They comprises of “Peers influence one to drink alcohol”, “Alcohol abuse is a major problem among male students compared to their female peers” and “ Female students should not drink beer”.It was evident from this study that Gatsi Secondary School needs to implement more effective interventions that combat alcohol abuse. A deeper analysis of the issues that predispose Ordinary Level students to alcohol abuse should inform the interventions. Consequently, unravelling the problem of negative effects of alcohol abuse was desirable because of its potential usefulness in developing strategies that might help curb the problem and presumably improve the performance of Ordinary Level students and above all the quality of education at Gatsi Secondary School.

Keywords: perceived effects, alcohol, Gatsi Secondary School, alcohol abuse

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