Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5165

Search results for: public spaces

5165 Friendly Public Spaces in Iran

Authors: Bibi Somayeh Aliakbari, Niknaz Kachooei, Fatemeh Amiri Najafabadi

Abstract:

According to the results of contemporary urbanism, social living moved into buildings and the quality of urban space has been declining. But still, there are life in open public space and it is one of reason attendance and activities of people in open public spaces.The purpose of this research is finding reason creation friendly public space in urban spaces and also use these in new urban spaces.The research methodology consisted of a qualitative model based on observation and graphical analysis. In this paper case study is public space historical, moderns in urban scales and local scales in Iran.This paper shows that Existence of friendly public space in cities cause is attendance and activities of people in open public spaces that it is reason the revitalization of public open spaces in cities.

Keywords: public space, public open space, friendly public space, Iran

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5164 The Effects of Semi-Public Spaces with Distinctive Functions on the Urban Space Quality

Authors: Melike Orhan

Abstract:

Along with impetuous physical change, configuration and increase in the density of cities, urban public spaces have started to become a transition area rather than spaces to inhabit. The insufficiency of public spaces, one of the most significant components of a city, where communal life is maintained and the decrease in the quality of urban spaces have led to an increase in the use of semi-public spaces as urban space. Semi-public spaces are those that ensure transition between private and public spaces and can be seen, observed, reached and used by urban-dwellers. Humans are in a constant relation to their surroundings and care for integration as part of their surroundings. Semi-public spaces providing balance for the individual between private spaces (structures) and urban-public spaces make this integration easier. Spaces with a semi-public characteristic serve for a particular neighboring unit and the user (i.e. common use areas in residential spaces and dwellings, common outdoor areas situated between office buildings, and etc.) These spaces, whose density of usage is increased with distinctive functions and activities, gain different attributions according to the characteristics of the urban space they are located in (commercial, residential, touristic, and etc.) and to the functions of the structures with which they are in relation. At the same time, they begin to serve other neighboring units along with an increase in public usage. As a result, the interaction between environment-space-structure-humans changes, which directly affects the urban space quality. The aim of this study is to determine how and depending on what characteristics the public usage density of semi-public spaces change and to put forth the effects of this change on the urban environment it is located in and to designate its role in terms of 'urban space quality'. In conclusion, within the scope of this study, semi-public spaces located in urban spaces with distinctive functions will be explored through examples, and the effects of these spaces with altered public usage and density on urban space and quality of life will be put forward. Accordingly, applicable criteria will be determined by means of semi-public spaces oriented at increasing and sustaining the quality of urban space.

Keywords: semi-public spaces, urban public spaces, urban space quality, public usage

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5163 Inclusivity in Public Spaces through Architecture: A Case of Transgender Community in India

Authors: Sakshi Dhruve, Ar. Sarang Barbarwar

Abstract:

Public spaces are the locus of activity and interaction in any urban area. Such spaces provide identity to cities, towns or neighborhoods and define the people and culture over there. Inclusiveness is one of the core aspects of public or community spaces. With its humongous population and rapidly expanding urban areas, India needs more inclusivity in public spaces to attain true equitable development. The aim of the paper is to discuss the sensitivity of public spaces in India to the transgender community. The study shows how this community was legally included as ‘Third Gender’ in country’s legislation yet lacks social acceptance and security. It shows the challenges and issues faced by them at public spaces. The community was studied on ethnographic basis to understand their culture, lifestyle, requirements, etc. The findings have indicated towards a social stigma from people and insensitivity in designing of civic spaces. The larger objective of the study is also to provide recommendations on the design aspects and interventions in public places to increase their inclusiveness towards the transgender society.

Keywords: community spaces, ethnographic, stigma, Third Gender community

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5162 Evaluation of Planned and Organically Transformed Public Spaces in Urban Indian Market Places: A Case of Bhopal City, India

Authors: Piyush Hajela

Abstract:

Public spaces within Indian markets are vibrant, colorful and contain dimensions that make them attractive and therefore act as popular gathering spaces. Most of these public spaces emerge as squares, plazas of varied shapes and sizes spread at different locations within the market. These public spaces grow organically and are discovered by the people themselves as they respond positively to the collective human senses. On the other hand, there are the planned and designed public spaces as well that are less active. This research evaluates both the planned and the organically transformed public spaces in Indian markets from an Urban Design point of view. The purpose of such research is to provide a basis for design solutions to ensure the success of designed public spaces. The evaluation is done for identified Attributes, namely Comfort, Protection, Familiarity, Activities, Form, Legibility, Engagement, Safety, Accessibility, Environment and Transformations by which a Public Space attains its recognition. The evaluation is based on a rating done for forty-four parameters falling under eleven attributes of public space. An opinion survey of professionals is conducted for their priorities of attributes while designing Public spaces. A comparison is made to rank these attributes between Planned and Organically transformed Public spaces and, opinion of the professionals. After dues analysis, the research suggests the learning from the organically transformed Public spaces for ensuring the success of designed public spaces. The suggestions may be in the form of Design decisions or administrative regulations, or both for achieving the desirables.

Keywords: assessment, attributes, engagement, interaction

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5161 The Quality of Public Space in Mexico City: Current State and Trends

Authors: Mildred Moreno Villanueva

Abstract:

Public space is essential to strengthen the social and urban fabric and the social cohesion; there lies the importance of its study. Hence, the aim of this paper is to analyze the quality of public space in the XXI century in both quantitative and qualitative terms. In this article, the concept of public space includes open spaces such as parks, public squares and walking areas. To make this analysis we take Mexico City as the case study. It has a population of nearly 9 million inhabitants and it is composed of sixteen boroughs. For this analysis, we consider both, existing public spaces and the government intervention for building and improvement of new and existent public spaces. Results show that on the one hand, quantitatively there is not an equitable distribution of public spaces because of both, the growth of the city itself, as well as for the absence of political will to create public spaces. Another factor is the evolution of this city, which has been growing merely in a 'patched pattern', where public space has played no role at all with a total absence of urban design. On the other hand, qualitatively, even the boroughs with the most public spaces have not shown interest in making these spaces qualitatively inclusive and open to the general population aiming for integration. Therefore, urban projects that privatize public space seem to be the rule, rather than a rehabilitation effort of the existent public spaces. Hence, state intervention should reinforce its role as an agent of social change acting in the benefit of the majority of the inhabitants with the promotion of more inclusive public spaces.

Keywords: exclusion, inclusion, Mexico City, public space

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5160 The Role of Urban Design in Creating Cohesive and People’s Public Spaces

Authors: Hazem Abuorf

Abstract:

From the perspective of viewing urban design as the architecture of public spaces, the latter has many advantages; for example, in achieving attractive and vibrant public spaces, ensuring safety and amenity, supporting a strong sense of place and local character. Besides all advantages, such spaces nevertheless trigger numerous dilemmas, how to design urban spaces preserving the quality of life in the long term while equally achieving cohesion between new urban developments and the already existing urban structure without causing a split in history through the cause of functional and aesthetic degradation. Analysis of this article seeks to propose a methodology deemed essential for assessing and stimulating design criteria of the public spaces when rehabilitating urban sites. The method’s utility is shown by analyzing rehabilitation projects in Gaza Strip, whose design of the public spaces has mainly focused on the physical aspect ignoring the place’s local identity, users’ needs, and history. The proposed methodology serves as a guide for municipal authorities and technical teams to deal with interventions that would rework the role of urban design towards making sense of place.

Keywords: urban design, public realm, rehabilitation projects, quality of life

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5159 Public and Private Spaces Producing Social Connectedness in Traditional Environment: A Study on Old Medina District of Casablanca

Authors: Asmaa Sokrat, Aykut Karaman

Abstract:

Public and private spaces are major components of the morphology of the city. This research aims to study the interactions between public and private domains in terms of urban space in Casablanca. The research focuses on a general vision of a socio-spatial issue. It plans to identify the public, private, and transition (semi-public, semi-private) spaces as the constituent of the urban space. Moreover, the study investigates the link between public and private spaces with the social dimensions. Additionally, the research argues that the public space is a place of social interaction; as a reflection, this interaction is the intersection between urban space and social connectedness. Besides, social interaction can be the key to distinguishing between the public and private spheres. The methodological approach of the research is based on the literature review and field study. The article is targeting a case study on the old Medina of Casablanca, from daily use of the public and private spaces, the urban tissue, and the urban space types. In conclusion, the research exhibits that a public space could influence the privacy of the residents of a local urban area; thus, this privacy is inverted on the social interaction. This social interaction is the link between the urban space and social connectedness. Hence, this equation affects the typology of the private space.

Keywords: public sphere, private sphere, social connectedness, old Medina of Casablanca

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5158 Public Art and Public Space in an Emerging Knowledge Economy: The Case of Doha

Authors: Grichting Anna, Al Sada Sara, Caccayam Angelica, Khan Urshi

Abstract:

The Qatar Museums Authority recently announced a series of public art initiatives in Doha with the purpose of 'bringing art out of the walls of the museum' to make it accessible to the public on a daily basis and to encourage discussion and debate. While the installation of sculptures in public spaces is not new in Doha, the practice of integrating art in public spaces and architectural projects is reaching a new dimension as internationally renowned artists – such as Damien Hirst and Richard Serra - are being commissioned to install their works in the public spaces and buildings of the city of Doha as well as in more remote desert locations. This research discusses the changing presence, role and context of public art in Doha, both from a historical and cultural overview, and the different forms and media as well as the typologies of urban and public spaces in which the art is installed. It examines the process of implementing site-specific artworks, looking at questions of scale, history, social meaning and formal aesthetics. The methodologies combine theoretical research on the understanding of public art and its role and placement in public space, as well as empirical research on contemporary public art projects in Doha, based on documentation and interviews and as well as site and context analysis of the urban or architectural spaces within which the art is situated. Surveys and interviews – using social media - in different segments of the contemporary Qatari society, including all nationalities and social groups, are used to measure and qualify the impacts and effects on the population.

Keywords: public space, public art, urban design, knowledge economy

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5157 The Tramway in French Cities: Complication of Public Spaces and Complexity of the Design Process

Authors: Elisa Maître

Abstract:

The redeployment of tram networks in French cities has considerably modified public spaces and the way citizens use them. Above and beyond the image that trams have of contributing to the sustainable urban development, the question of safety for users in these spaces has not been studied much. This study is based on an analysis of use of public spaces laid out for trams, from the standpoint of legibility and safety concerns. The study also examines to what extent the complexity of the design process, with many interactions between numerous and varied players in this process has a role in the genesis of these problems. This work is mainly based on the analysis of links between the uses of these re-designed public spaces (through observations, interviews of users and accident studies) and the analysis of the design conditions and processes of the projects studied (mainly based on interviews with the actors of these projects). Practical analyses were based three points of view: that of the planner, that of the user (based on observations and interviews) and that of the road safety expert. The cities of Montpellier, Marseille and Nice are the three fields of study on which the demonstration of this thesis is based. On part, the results of this study allow showing that the insertion of tram poses some problems complication of public areas of French cities. These complications related to the restructuring of public spaces for the tram, create difficulties of use and safety concerns. On the other hand, interviews depth analyses, fully transcribed, have led us to develop particular dysfunction scenarios in the design process. These elements lead to question the way the legibility and safety of these new forms of public spaces are taken into account. Then, an in-depth analysis of the design processes of public spaces with trams systems would also be a way of better understanding the choices made, the compromises accepted, and the conflicts and constraints at work, weighing on the layout of these spaces. The results presented concerning the impact that spaces laid out for trams have on the difficulty of use, suggest different possibilities for improving the way in which safety for all users is taken into account in designing public spaces.

Keywords: public spaces, road layout, users, design process of urban projects

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5156 Shaheen Bagh Protests: Women, Public Spaces, Citizenship and Dissent

Authors: Priyanka Joshi

Abstract:

The paper traces the evolving relationship between women, public spaces, and citizenship and dissent by analyzing acts of dissent led by women. The paper outlines this relationship in the context of the protests held in Shaheen Bagh, Delhi against the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), National Registry of Citizens (NRC), and National Population Register (NPR) in 2019. Additionally, the paper aims to explore how the multiple identities of the protestors in Shaheen Bagh affected the nature, implications, and responses to the protests. To do so, the paper will analyze three key areas in relationship with women, namely, public spaces, citizenship, and dissent. In doing so, it will examine the gendered access to public spaces and its implications on the realization of one’s citizenship rights. Moreover, it will explore the historical notions of citizenship, its contemporary understanding, the exclusionary nature of citizenship, and the conflict between community rights and individual rights with respect to women’s rights. In context of dissent, it will evaluate the understanding of dissent and trace the difference in the experience of dissent based on gender by reviewing social movements led and maintained by women. This paper will utilize secondary data to explore the questions it poses. This includes a study of books and journal articles in conjunction with media reports concerning gender, public spaces, citizenship, and dissent. It will apply an intersectional lens in its analysis.

Keywords: citizenship, dissent, public spaces, Shaheen Bagh, women

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5155 Dimensions of Public Spaces in Indian Market Places Feelings through Human Senses

Authors: Piyush Hajela

Abstract:

Public spaces in Indian market places are vibrant, colorful and carry latent dimensions that make them attractive and popular gathering spaces. These markets satisfy the household needs of the people and also their social, cultural and traditional aspirations. Going to a market place for shopping in India is a great source of entertainment for the people. They would love to spend as much time as possible and stay for longer durations than otherwise required. It is this desire of the people that generates public spaces. Much of these public spaces emerge as squares, plazas, corners of varied shapes and sizes at different locations, and yet provide a conducive environment. Such public spaces grow organically and are discovered by the people themselves. Indian markets serve people of different culture, religion, caste, age, gender which keeps them alive all the year round. Indian is a diverse country and this diversity is reflected clearly in the market places. They hold the people together and promote harmony across cultures. Free access to these market places makes them magnets for social interaction. Public spaces are spread across a city and more or less have established their existence and prominence in a social set up. While few of them are created, others are discovered by the people themselves in their constant search for desirable interactive public spaces. These are the most sought after gathering spaces that have the quality of promoting social interaction, providing free accessibility, provide desirable scale etc. The paper aims at identifying these freely accessible public spaces and the dimensions within it that make these public spaces hold the people for significant duration of time. The dimensions present shall be judged through collective response of human senses in form of safety, comfort and so on through the expressions of the participants. The aim therefore would be to trace the freely accessible public spaces emerged in Indian markets and evaluate them for human response and behavior. The hierarchy of market places in the city of Bhopal is well established as, city center level, sub city-center level, community level, local and convenient level market places. While many city-centers are still referred to as the old or traditional or the core area of the city, the others are part of the planned city. These different levels of market places are studied for emerged public spaces. These emerged public spaces are then documented in detail for unveiling the dimensions they offer through, photographs, visual observations, questionnaires and response of the participants of these public spaces.

Keywords: human comfort, enclosure, safety, social interaction

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5154 Methodology of Personalizing Interior Spaces in Public Libraries

Authors: Baharak Mousapour

Abstract:

Creating public spaces which are tailored for the specific demands of the individuals is one of the challenges for the contemporary interior designers. Improving the general knowledge as well as providing a forum for all walks of life to exploit is one of the objectives of a public library. In this regard, interior design in consistent with the demands of the individuals is of paramount importance. Seemingly, study spaces, in particular, those in close relation to the personalized sector, have proven to be challenging, according to the literature. To address this challenge, attributes of individuals, namely, perception of people from public spaces and their interactions with the so-called spaces, should be analyzed to provide interior designers with something to work on. This paper follows the analytic-descriptive research methodology by outlining case study libraries which have personalized public libraries with the investigation of the type of personalization as its primary objective and (I) recognition of physical schedule and the know-how of the spatial connection in indoor design of a library and (II) analysis of each personalized space in relation to other spaces of the library as its secondary objectives. The significance of the current research lies in the concept of personalization as one of the most recent methods of attracting people to libraries. Previous research exists in this regard, but the lack of data concerning personalization makes this topic worth investigating. Hence, this study aims to put forward approaches through real-case studies for the designers to deal with this concept.

Keywords: interior design, library, library design, personalization

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5153 On the Path of the Ottoman Modernization Period Mesire: As a Women Place in 19th Century

Authors: Merve Kurt

Abstract:

How women should behave in public spaces and how they should be dressed was a loaded issues in the Ottoman Empire. They pointed to what kind of state the Ottoman State was. One of such public space was Mesires, promenades. Women's visibility and invisibility, their morals were reflected and linked to the society as a whole. How the public space and private space is defined, what were the lines that separates them, how much blurred these lines were discussed in this paper. Moreover, all these points were strengthened by the primary sources from archives dating to the end of the 19th century.

Keywords: Mesire, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman women, public spaces

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5152 Transforming Space to Place: Best-Practice Approaches and Initiatives

Authors: Juanee Cilliers

Abstract:

Urban citizens have come to expect more from their cities, demanding optimal conditions for business creativity and professional development, along with efficient, sustainable transportation and energy systems that feed robust economic development and healthy job markets. Urban public spaces are an important part of the urban environment, creating the framework for public life and quality thereof. The transformation of space into successful public places are crucial in this regard as planning must safeguard flexibility towards future changes, whilst simultaneously be capable of acting on short-term demands in order to address the complexity of public spaces within urban areas. This research evaluated two case studies of different cities in Belgium which successfully transformed spaces into lively public places. The transformation was illustrated and evaluated by means of visual analyses and space usage analyses of the original and redesigned space, along with the experience and value that the redesign brought to the area. Selected design elements were identified and evaluated based on the role in the transformation process, in an attempt to draw conclusions with regards to theory-practice relevance and to guide the transformation of space to place of (similar) public spaces.

Keywords: space, place, transformation, case studies

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5151 Achieving Conviviality in Terms of Collective Experience through Creative Public Spaces in Namik Kemal Square, Famagusta, North Cyprus

Authors: Shirin Shaideh, Nina Shirkhanloo

Abstract:

Creative public spaces were needed to foster conviviality in an urban form. The conviviality could be enhanced by facilitating variety of opportunities to participate in communal activities and promoting collective experiences. In this regard, The Namik Kemal Square as a major public space of Walled City of Famagusta in North Cyprus was found as the creative public space because it supports collective practices by leisure activities which enclosed the space. The square also utilized creative collaboration such as festivals and outdoor exhibition. Accordingly this paper focuses on the issue of conviviality in urban public space, in the perspective of square, as a major indicator of their success. The survey firstly provides a theoretical framework for understanding conviviality in creative public space to empower collective experience. Secondly it discusses the essential components of conviviality in form of square and finally investigating conviviality and also its determinants in Namik Kemal square. Hence, the main challenges of this study are going to focus on how convivial public spaces impact collective experience, what people expect from a kind of public space, or what they perceive as a good place to be in. Since it seems essential to respond positively, inclusively to the needs of people to socialize in public spaces by involving them in collective and common practices, this article aims to tease out what gives some places personality and conviviality so that we can learn to design, maintain and manage better quality built environment in future.

Keywords: conviviality, creative public space, collective experience, Namik Kemal square

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5150 The Planning and Development of Green Public Places in Urban South Africa: A Child-Friendly Approach

Authors: E. J. Cilliers, Z. Goosen

Abstract:

The impact that urban green spaces have on sustainability and quality of life is phenomenal. This is also true for the local South African environment. However, in reality green spaces in urban environments are decreasing due to growing populations, increasing urbanization and development pressure. This further impacts on the provision of child-friendly spaces, a concept that is already limited in local context. Child-friendly spaces are described as environments in which people (children) feel intimately connected to, influencing the physical, social, emotional, and ecological health of individuals and communities. The benefits of providing such spaces for the youth are well documented in literature. This research therefore aimed to investigate the concept of child-friendly spaces and its applicability to the South African planning context, in order to guide the planning of such spaces for future communities and use. Child-friendly spaces in the urban environment of the city of Durban, was used as local case study, along with two international case studies namely Mullerpier public playground in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and Kadidjiny Park in Melville, Australia. The aim was to determine how these spaces were planned and developed and to identify tools that were used to accomplish the goal of providing successful child-friendly green spaces within urban areas. The need and significance of planning for such spaces was portrayed within the international case studies. It is confirmed that minimal provision is made for green space planning within the South African context, when there is reflected on the international examples. As a result international examples and disciples of providing child-friendly green spaces should direct planning guidelines within local context. The research concluded that child-friendly green spaces have a positive impact on the urban environment and assist in a child’s development and interaction with the natural environment. Regrettably, the planning of these child-friendly spaces is not given priority within current spatial plans, despite the proven benefits of such.

Keywords: built environment, child-friendly spaces, green spaces, public places, urban area

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5149 Dimensions of Public Spaces: Feelings through Human Senses

Authors: Piyush Hajela

Abstract:

The significance of public spaces is on a rise in Indian cities as a strong interaction space across cultures and community. It is a pertinent gathering space for people across age and gender, where the face keeps changing with time. A public space is directly related to the social dimension, people, comfort, safety, and security, that, it proposes to provide, as inherent qualities. The presence of these and other dimensions of space, together with related equitable environments, impart certain quality to a public space. The higher the optimum contents of these dimensions, the better the quality of public space. Public is represented by PEOPLE through society and community, and space is created by dimensions. Society contains children, women and the elderly, community is composed of social, and religious groups. These behave differently in a different setting and call for varied quality of spaces, created and generated. Public spaces are spread across a city and have more or less established their existence and prominence in a social set up. While few of them are created others are discovered by the people themselves in their constant search for desirable interactive public spaces. These are the most sought after gathering spaces that have the quality of promoting social interaction, providing free accessibility, provide desirable scale etc. The emergence of public space dates back to the times when people started forming communities, display cultures and traditions publicly, gathered for religious observations and celebrations, and address the society. Traditional cities and societies in India were feudal and orthodox in their nature and yet had public spaces. When the gathering of people at one point in a city became more frequent the point became more accessible and occupied. Baras (large courts, Chowks (public squares) and Maidans (large grounds) became well-known gathering spaces in the towns and cities. As the population grew such points grew in number, each becoming a public space in itself and with a different and definite social character. The author aims at studying the various dimensions of public spaces with which a public space has power to hold people for a significant period of time. The human senses here are note referred to as taste, sight, hearing, touch or smell, but how human senses collectively respond to when stationed in a given public space. The collectives may reflect in dimensions like comfort, safety, environment, freedom etc. Various levels of similar other responses would be studied through interviews, observations and other scientific methods for both qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Keywords: society, interaction, people, accessibility, comfort, enclosure

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5148 Post-Pandemic Public Space, Case Study of Public Parks in Kerala

Authors: Nirupama Sam

Abstract:

COVID-19, the greatest pandemic since the turn of the century, presents several issues for urban planners, the most significant of which is determining appropriate mitigation techniques for creating pandemic-friendly and resilient public spaces. The study is conducted in four stages. The first stage consisted of literature reviews to examine the evolution and transformation of public spaces during pandemics throughout history and the role of public spaces during pandemic outbreaks. The second stage is to determine the factors that influence the success of public spaces, which was accomplished by an analysis of current literature and case studies. The influencing factors are categorized under comfort and images, uses and activity, access and linkages, and sociability. The third stage is to establish the priority of identified factors for which a questionnaire survey of stakeholders is conducted and analyzing of certain factors with the help of GIS tools. COVID-19 has been in effect in India for the last two years. Kerala has the highest daily COVID-19 prevalence due to its high population density, making it more susceptible to viral outbreaks. Despite all preventive measures taken against COVID-19, Kerala remains the worst-affected state in the country. Finally, two live case studies of the hardest-hit localities, namely Subhash bose park and Napier Museum park in the Ernakulam and Trivandrum districts of Kerala, respectively, were chosen as study areas for the survey. The responses to the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS for determining the weights of the influencing factors. The spatial success of the selected case studies was examined using the GIS interpolation model. Following the overall assessment, the fourth stage is to develop strategies and guidelines for planning public spaces to make them more efficient and robust, which further leads to improved quality, safety and resilience to future pandemics.

Keywords: urban design, public space, covid-19, post-pandemic, public spaces

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5147 The Role of ICTS in Improving the Quality of Public Spaces in Large Cities of the Third World

Authors: Ayat Ayman Abdelaziz Ibrahim Amayem, Hassan Abdel-Salam, Zeyad El-Sayad

Abstract:

Nowadays, ICTs have spread extensively in everyday life in an unprecedented way. A great attention is paid to the ICTs while ignoring the social aspect. With the immersive invasion of internet as well as smart phones’ applications and digital social networking, people become more socially connected through virtual spaces instead of meeting in physical public spaces. Thus, this paper aims to find the ways of implementing ICTs in public spaces to regain their status as attractive places for people, incite meetings in real life and create sustainable lively city centers. One selected example of urban space in the city center of Alexandria is selected for the study. Alexandria represents a large metropolitan city subjected to rapid transformation. Improving the quality of its public spaces will have great effects on the whole well-being of the city. The major roles that ICTs can play in the public space are: culture and art, education, planning and design, games and entertainment, and information and communication. Based on this classification various examples and proposals of ICTs interventions in public spaces are presented and analyzed to encourage good old fashioned social interaction by creating the New Social Public Place of this Digital Era. The paper will adopt methods such as questionnaire for evaluating the people’s willingness to accept the idea of using ICTs in public spaces, their needs and their proposals for an attractive place; the technique of observation to understand the people behavior and their movement through the space and finally will present an experimental design proposal for the selected urban space. Accordingly, this study will help to find design principles that can be adopted in the design of future public spaces to meet the needs of the digital era’s users with the new concepts of social life respecting the rules of place-making.

Keywords: Alexandria sustainable city center, digital place-making, ICTs, social interaction, social networking, urban places

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5146 Inflating the Public: A Series of Urban Interventions

Authors: Veronika Antoniou, Rene Carraz, Yiorgos Hadjichristou

Abstract:

The Green Urban Lab took the form of public installations that were placed at various locations in four cities in Cyprus. These installations - through which a series of events, activities, workshops and research took place - were the main tools in regenerating a series of urban public spaces in Cyprus. The purpose of this project was to identify issues and opportunities related to public space and to offer guidelines on how design and participatory democracy improvements could strengthen civil society, while raising the quality of the urban public scene. Giant inflatable structures were injected in important urban fragments in order to accommodate series of events. The design and playful installation generated a wide community engagement. The fluid presence of the installations acted as a catalyst for social interaction. They were accessed and viewed effortlessly and surprisingly, creating opportunities to rediscover public spaces.

Keywords: bottom-up initiatives, creativity, public space, social innovation, urban environments

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5145 Geographies of Blackness: An Exploration of the Subaltern Public Spheres of the African Diaspora in European Cities

Authors: Teju N. Adisa-Farrar

Abstract:

In European cities, social, political and cultural geographies of blackness exist. Organizations create spaces to discuss, express, and expose the realities of young people of African descent creating an Afropean lifestyle with transnational affiliations. Focusing on black and brown spaces produced by and for the young people of African descent in Vienna and Brussels, it became clear a multidisciplinary approach would be necessary. Using Cultural Studies frameworks along with Communications Theories on Black Public Spheres and Social-Geography, a basis was created for exploring the creative, political, and economic responses of young people who are apart of the historically (and contemporary) oppressed and excluded groups of the African Diaspora. Through this intrinsic study, it became apparent that spaces created and reclaimed by young people of the African Diaspora were more inclusive and democratic than other spaces. The organizations studied have used city life as the platform to express their struggles and celebrations of their multicultural identity; clearly using historical, global black and Pan-African movements as the basis for local adaptation of an African Diaspora identity.

Keywords: African diaspora, black public sphere, identity, spaces, geographies

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5144 Media in Architecture-Intervention and Visual Experience in Religious Space

Authors: Jorge Duarte de Sá

Abstract:

The appearance of the new media technologies has opened new fields of intervention in architecture creating a new dynamic communication in the relationship between public and space, where are present technological devices that enable a new sensory experience, aesthetic and even spiritual. This connection makes relevant the idea of rehabilitate architectonic spaces with new media technologies such as sacred spaces. This research aims to create a media project integrated in sacred spaces that combine Architecture, Art and New Technologies, exploring new perspectives and different dynamics in space.

Keywords: media, architecture, religious spaces, projections, contemplation

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5143 Ensuring Sustainable Urban Mobility in Indian Cities: Need for Creating People Friendly Roadside Public Spaces

Authors: Pushplata Garg

Abstract:

Mobility, is an integral part of living and sustainability of urban mobility, is essential not only for, but also for addressing global warming and climate change. However, very little is understood about the obstacles/hurdles and likely challenges in the success of plans for sustainable urban mobility in Indian cities from the public perspective. Whereas some of the problems and issues are common to all cities, others vary considerably with financial status, function, the size of cities and culture of a place. Problems and issues similar in all cities relate to availability, efficiency and safety of public transport, last mile connectivity, universal accessibility, and essential planning and design requirements of pedestrians and cyclists are same. However, certain aspects like the type of means of public transportation, priority for cycling and walking, type of roadside activities, are influenced by the size of the town, average educational and income level of public, financial status of the local authorities, and culture of a place. The extent of public awareness, civic sense, maintenance of public spaces and law enforcement vary significantly from large metropolitan cities to small and medium towns in countries like India. Besides, design requirements for shading, location of public open spaces and sitting areas, street furniture, landscaping also vary depending on the climate of the place. Last mile connectivity plays a major role in success/ effectiveness of public transport system in a city. In addition to the provision of pedestrian footpaths connecting important destinations, sitting spaces and necessary amenities/facilities along footpaths; pedestrian movement to public transit stations is encouraged by the presence of quality roadside public spaces. It is not only the visual attractiveness of streetscape or landscape or the public open spaces along pedestrian movement channels but the activities along that make a street vibrant and attractive. These along with adequate spaces to rest and relax encourage people to walk as is observed in cities with successful public transportation systems. The paper discusses problems and issues of pedestrians for last mile connectivity in the context of Delhi, Chandigarh, Gurgaon, and Roorkee- four Indian cities representing varying urban contexts, that is, of metropolitan, large and small cities.

Keywords: pedestrianisation, roadside public spaces, last mile connectivity, sustainable urban mobility

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5142 Digital Publics, Analogue Institutions: Everyday Urban Politics in Gated Neighborhoods in India

Authors: Praveen Priyadarshi

Abstract:

What is the nature of the 'political subjects' in the new urban spaces of the Indian cities? How do they become a 'public'? The paper explores these questions by studying the National Capital Region's gated communities in India. Even as the 'gated-ness' of these neighborhoods constantly underlines the definitive spatial boundary of the 'public' that it is constituted within the walls of a particular gated community, the making of this 'public' occurs as much in the digital spaces—in the digital space of online messaging apps and platforms—populated by unique digital identities. It is through constant exchanges of the digital identities that the 'public' is created. However, the institutional framework and the formal rules governing the making of the public are still analogue because they presume and privilege traditional modes of participation for people to constitute a 'public'. The institutions are designed as rules and norms governing people's behavior when they participate in traditional, physical mode, whereas rules and norms designed in the algorithms regulate people's social and political behavior in the digital domain. In exploring this disjuncture between the analogue institutions and the digital public, the paper analytically evaluates the nature of everyday politics in gates neighborhoods in India.

Keywords: gated communities, everyday politics, new urban spaces, digital publics

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5141 The Effectiveness of Tehran Municipality's Transformation of a Metro Station into Pedestrian-Friendly Public Spaces

Authors: Homa Hedayat

Abstract:

Public spaces have been a central concern of urban planners for centuries but have been neglected for a long time. In the modernist planning, the focus has been on the requirements of cars rather than the needs and expectations of pedestrians, and therefore, cities have lost many qualities. Urban public space is a space within the city area which is accessible to all people and is the ground for their activity. People’s public life occurs in urban public spaces in a complex set of forms and functions. These spaces must facilitate diverse behavior, uses, and activities such as shopping, walking, conversation, entertainment, relaxation or even passing the time during festivities and events. One of the public spaces is the surrounding space of public transportation stations. Subway stations, although potentially encompass many different groups of people accommodate few social interactions. Making the surrounding areas of subway stations pedestrian-oriented, potentially increases the socialization capacity. The Sadeghieh Subway Station can be considered as the most important subway station in Tehran, which on the one hand is the rail port of Tehran's western entrance, and on the other is the port for railway journeys inside the city. The main concern of this study is to assess the success or failure of the interventions made by the municipality for changing the surrounding area of the Sadeghieh Subway Station into a pedestrian-oriented space and examine the amount of the area's improvement into a desirable space. The method used in this study is surveying, in which the data were collected using a questionnaire and interview. The study's population is all people who use Sadeghieh Subway, and the sample size for the study was 140 subjects. Using parametric one-sample t-test, we found improvement in factors such as transportation, security, pedestrian infrastructure, vitality and climate comfort. However, there was no improvement in mix use, recreational activity, readability.

Keywords: public space, public transportation stations, pedestrian-oriented space, socialization

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5140 Adaptive Reuse of Lost Urban Space

Authors: Rana Sameeh

Abstract:

The city is the greatest symbol of human civilization and has been built for safety and comfort. However, uncontrolled urban growth caused some anonymous and unsightly images of the cities such as unused or abandoned spaces. When social interaction is missed in a public space it means the public space is lost since public spaces reflect the social life and interaction of people. Accordingly; this space became one of the most meaningless parts of the cities and has broken the continuity of the urban fabric. Lost urban spaces are the leftover unstructured landscape within the urban fabric. They are generally the unrecognized urban areas that are in need of redesign, since they have a great value that can add to their surrounding urban context. The research significance lies within the importance of urban open spaces, their value and their impact on the urban fabric. The research also addresses the reuse and reclamation of lost urban spaces in order to increase the percentage of green areas along the urban fabric, provide urban open spaces, develop a sustainable approach towards urban landscape and enhance the quality of the public open space and user experience. In addition, the reuse of lost space will give it the identity and function it lacks while also providing places for presence, spending time and observing. Creating continuity in a broken urban fabric represents an exploratory process in the relationship between infrastructure and the urban fabric and seeks to establish an architectural solution to leftover space within the city. In doing so, the research establishes a framework (criteria) for adaptive reuse of lost urban space throughout inductive and deductive methodology, analytical methodology; by analyzing some relevant examples and similar cases of lost spaces and finally through field methodology; by applying the achieved criteria on a case study in Alexandria and carrying on SWOT analysis and evaluation of the potentials of this case study.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, lost urban space, quality of public open space, urban fabric

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5139 Urban Citizenship in a Sensor Rich Society

Authors: Mike Dee

Abstract:

Urban public spaces are sutured with a range of surveillance and sensor technologies that claim to enable new forms of ‘data based citizen participation’, but also increase the tendency for ‘function-creep’, whereby vast amounts of data are gathered, stored and analysed in a broad application of urban surveillance. This kind of monitoring and capacity for surveillance connects with attempts by civic authorities to regulate, restrict, rebrand and reframe urban public spaces. A direct consequence of the increasingly security driven, policed, privatised and surveilled nature of public space is the exclusion or ‘unfavourable inclusion’ of those considered flawed and unwelcome in the ‘spectacular’ consumption spaces of many major urban centres. In the name of urban regeneration, programs of securitisation, ‘gentrification’ and ‘creative’ and ‘smart’ city initiatives refashion public space as sites of selective inclusion and exclusion. In this context of monitoring and control procedures, in particular, children and young people’s use of space in parks, neighbourhoods, shopping malls and streets is often viewed as a threat to the social order, requiring various forms of remedial action. This paper suggests that cities, places and spaces and those who seek to use them, can be resilient in working to maintain and extend democratic freedoms and processes enshrined in Marshall’s concept of citizenship, calling sensor and surveillance systems to account. Such accountability could better inform the implementation of public policy around the design, build and governance of public space and also understandings of urban citizenship in the sensor saturated urban environment.

Keywords: citizenship, public space, surveillance, young people

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5138 Walkability and Urban Social Identity

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelat

Abstract:

One of the most recent fields of investigation in urban issues focuses on the walkability in urban spaces. The paper aims to establish the theoretical relationship between the people's link with definite urban public spaces and the social identity processes derived from the relation with these places. The theoretical aspects which are examined for this purpose are: the concept of walkability and its developments and the social identity theories derived from walkable spaces. In fact, the paper presents the main results obtained from an empirical investigation which concern to the genesis of urban social identity in particular street as one of the main elements of public spaces in cities. İsmet İnönü Blvd which known as Salamis Street in Famagusta, North Cyprus is one of the main street in city whit high level of physical and social activities all the time. The urban social identity of users was analyzed, focusing on three main factors: walkability of space, social identification, and image of the space. These three factors were analyzed in relation to a series of items in the initial questionnaire, evaluation of existing natural resources, and environmental attitudes.

Keywords: walkability, urban public space, pedestrian, social activity, social identity

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5137 The Impact of Public Open Space System on Housing Price in Chicago

Authors: Si Chen, Le Zhang, Xian He

Abstract:

The research explored the influences of public open space system on housing price through hedonic models, in order to support better open space plans and economic policies. We have three initial hypotheses: 1) public open space system has an overall positive influence on surrounding housing prices. 2) Different public open space types have different levels of influence on motivating surrounding housing prices. 3) Walking and driving accessibilities from property to public open spaces have different statistical relation with housing prices. Cook County, Illinois, was chosen to be a study area since data availability, sufficient open space types, and long-term open space preservation strategies. We considered the housing attributes, driving and walking accessibility scores from houses to nearby public open spaces, and driving accessibility scores to hospitals as influential features and used real housing sales price in 2010 as a dependent variable in the built hedonic model. Through ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis, General Moran’s I analysis and geographically weighted regression analysis, we observed the statistical relations between public open spaces and housing sale prices in the three built hedonic models and confirmed all three hypotheses.

Keywords: hedonic model, public open space, housing sale price, regression analysis, accessibility score

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5136 Architectural Design Strategies and Visual Perception of Contemporary Spatial Design

Authors: Nora Geczy

Abstract:

In today’s architectural practice, during the process of designing public, educational, healthcare and cultural space, human-centered architectural designs helping spatial orientation, safe space usage and the appropriate spatial sequence of actions are gaining increasing importance. Related to the methodology of designing public buildings, several scientific experiments in spatial recognition, spatial analysis and spatial psychology with regard to the components of space producing mental and physiological effects have been going on at the Department of Architectural Design and the Interdisciplinary Student Workshop (IDM) at the Széchenyi István University, Győr since 2013. Defining the creation of preventive, anticipated spatial design and the architectural tools of spatial comfort of public buildings and their practical usability are in the limelight of our research. In the experiments applying eye-tracking cameras, we studied the way public spaces are used, especially concentrating on the characteristics of spatial behaviour, orientation, recognition, the sequence of actions, and space usage. Along with the role of mental maps, human perception, and interaction problems in public spaces (at railway stations, galleries, and educational institutions), we analyzed the spatial situations influencing psychological and ergonomic factors. We also analyzed the eye movements of the experimental subjects in dynamic situations, in spatial procession, using stairs and corridors. We monitored both the consequences and the distorting effects of the ocular dominance of the right eye on spatial orientation; we analyzed the gender-based differences of women and men’s orientation, stress-inducing spaces, spaces affecting concentration and the spatial situation influencing territorial behaviour. Based on these observations, we collected the components of creating public interior spaces, which -according to our theory- contribute to the optimal usability of public spaces. We summed up our research in criteria for design, including 10 points. Our further goals are testing design principles needed for optimizing orientation and space usage, their discussion, refinement, and practical usage.

Keywords: architecture, eye-tracking, human-centered spatial design, public interior spaces, visual perception

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