Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 411

Search results for: morbidity

411 More Precise: Patient-Reported Outcomes after Stroke

Authors: Amber Elyse Corrigan, Alexander Smith, Anna Pennington, Ben Carter, Jonathan Hewitt

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Background and Purpose: Morbidity secondary to stroke is highly heterogeneous, but it is important to both patients and clinicians in post-stroke management and adjustment to life after stroke. The consideration of post-stroke morbidity clinically and from the patient perspective has been poorly measured. The patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) in morbidity assessment help improve this knowledge gap. The primary aim of this study was to consider the association between PRO outcomes and stroke predictors. Methods: A multicenter prospective cohort study assessed 549 stroke patients at 19 hospital sites across England and Wales during 2019. Following a stroke event, demographic, clinical, and PRO measures were collected. Prevalence of morbidity within PRO measures was calculated with associated 95% confidence intervals. Predictors of domain outcome were calculated using a multilevel generalized linear model. Associated P -values and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results: Data were collected from 549 participants, 317 men (57.7%) and 232 women (42.3%) with ages ranging from 25 to 97 (mean 72.7). PRO morbidity was high post-stroke; 93.2% of the cohort report post-stroke PRO morbidity. Previous stroke, diabetes, and gender are associated with worse patient-reported outcomes across both the physical and cognitive domains. Conclusions: This large-scale multicenter cohort study illustrates the high proportion of morbidity in PRO measures. Further, we demonstrate key predictors of adverse outcomes (Diabetes, previous stroke, and gender) congruence with clinical predictors. The PRO has been demonstrated to be an informative and useful stroke when considering patient-reported outcomes and has wider implications for considerations of PROs in clinical management. Future longitudinal follow-up with PROs is needed to consider association of long-term morbidity.

Keywords: morbidity, patient-reported outcome, PRO, stroke

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410 A Descriptive Study on Psychiatric Morbidity among Nurses Working in Selected Hospitals of Udupi and Mangalore Districts Karnataka, India

Authors: Tessy Treesa Jose, Sripathy M. Bhat

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Nursing is recognized as a stressful occupation and has indicated a probable high prevalence of distress. It is a helping profession requiring a high degree of commitment and involvement. If stress is intense, continuous and repeated, it becomes a negative phenomenon or "distress," which can lead to physical illness and psychological disorders. The frequency of common psychosomatic symptoms including sleeping problems, tension headache, chronic fatigue, palpitation etc. may be an indicator of nurses’ work-related stress level. Objectives of the study were to determine psychiatric morbidity among nurses and to find its association with selected variables. The study population consisted of 1040 registered nurses working in selected medical college hospitals and government hospitals of Udupi and Mangalore districts. Descriptive survey design was used to conduct the study. Subjects were selected by using purposive sampling. Data were gathered by administering background proforma and General Health questionnaire. Severe distress was experienced by 0.9% of nurses and 5.6% had some evidence of distress. Subjects who did not have any distress were 93.5%. No significant association between psychiatric morbidity in nurses and demographic variables was observed. With regard to work variables significant association is observed between psychiatric morbidity and total years of experience (z=10.67, p=0.03) and experience in current area of work (z=9.43, p=0.02).

Keywords: psychiatric morbidity, nurse, selected hospitals, working

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409 Analysis of Impact of Flu Vaccination on Acute Respiratory Viral Infections (ARVI) Morbidity among Population in South Kazakhstan Region, 2010-2015

Authors: Karlygash Tulendieva

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Presently vaccination is the most effective method of prevention of flu and its complications. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the increase of coverage of the population of South Kazakhstan region with flu vaccination and decrease of the ARVI morbidity. The analysis was performed on the data of flu vaccination of risk groups, including children under one year and pregnant women. Data on ARVI morbidity during 2010-2015 and data on vaccination were taken from the reports of the Epidemiological Surveillance Unit of Department of Consumers’ Rights Protection of South Kazakhstan region. Coverage with flu vaccination of the risk groups was annually increasing and in 2015 it reached 16% (450,000/2,800,682) from the total population. The ARVI morbidity rate in the entire population in 2010 was 2,010.4 per 100,000 of the population and decreased 3.2 times to 609.9 per 100,000 of the population in 2015. Annual growth was observed from 2010 to 2015 of specific weight of the vaccinated main risk groups: healthcare workers by 51% (from 17,331 in 2010 to 33,538 in 2015), children with chronic pulmonary and cardio-vascular diseases, immune deficiency, weak and sickly children above six months by 39% (from 63,122 in 2010 to 158,023 in 2015), adults with chronic co-morbidities by 27% (from 44,271 in 2010 to 162,595 in 2015), persons above 65 by 17% (from 10,276 in 2010 to 57,875 in 2015), and annual coverage of pregnant women on second or third trimester from 34,443 in 2010 to 37,969 in 2015. Starting from 2013 and until 2015 vaccination was performed in the region with coverage of at least 90% of children from 6 months to one year. The ARVI morbidity in this age group decreased 3.3 times from 8,687.8 per 100,000 of the population in 2010 to 2,585.8 per 100,000 of the population in 2015. Vaccination of pregnant women on 2-3 trimester was started in the region in 2012. Annual increase of vaccination coverage of pregnant women from 86.1% (34,443/40,000) in 2012 to 95% (37,969/40,000) in 2015 decreased the morbidity 1.5 times from 4,828.8 per 100,000 of population in 2012 to 3,022.7 per 100,000 of population in 2015. Following the increase of vaccination coverage of the population in South Kazakhstan region, the trend was observed of decrease of ARVI morbidity rates among the population and main risk groups, among pregnant women and children under one year.

Keywords: acute respiratory viral infections, flu, risk groups, vaccination

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408 Sexual Satifaction in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Authors: Nashi Khan, Amina Khalid

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Aim: The purpose of this research was to find the psychiatric morbidity and level of sexual satisfaction among women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and their comparison with women with general medical conditions and to examine the correlation between psychiatric morbidity and sexual satisfaction among these women. Design: Cross sectional research design was used. Method: A total of 176 (M age = 30, SD = 5.83) women were recruited from both private and public sector hospitals in Pakistan. About 88 (50%) of the participants were diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome (cases), whereas other 50% belonged to control group. Data were collected using semi structured interview. Sexual satisfaction scale for women (SSS-W) was administered to measure sexual satisfaction level and psychiatric morbidity was assessed by Symptom Checklist-Revised. Results: Results showed that participant’s depression and anxiety level had significant negative correlation with their sexual satisfaction level, whereas, anxiety and depression shared a significant positive correlation. There was a significant difference in the scores for sexual satisfaction, depression and anxiety for both cases and controls. These results suggested that women suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome tend to be less sexually satisfied and experienced relatively more symptoms of depression and anxiety as compared to controls.

Keywords: level of sexual satisfaction, psychiatric morbidity, polycystic ovarian syndrome

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407 Assessment of Post-surgical Donor-Site Morbidity in Vastus lateralis Free Flap for Head and Neck Reconstructive Surgery: An Observational Study

Authors: Ishith Seth, Lyndel Hewitt, Takako Yabe, James Wykes, Jonathan Clark, Bruce Ashford

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Background: Vastus lateralis (VL) can be used to reconstruct defects of the head and neck. Whilst the advantages are documented, donor-site morbidity is not well described. This study aimed to assess donor-site morbidity after VL flap harvest. The results will determine future directions for preventative and post-operative care to improve patient health outcomes. Methods: Ten participants (mean age 55 years) were assessed for the presence of donor-site morbidity after VL harvest. Musculoskeletal (pain, muscle strength, muscle length, tactile sensation), quality of life (SF-12), and lower limb function (lower extremity function, gait (function and speed), sit to stand were assessed using validated and standardized procedures. Outcomes were compared to age-matched healthy reference values or the non-operative side. Analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Results: There was no difference in muscle strength (knee extension), muscle length, ability to sit-to-stand, or gait function (all P > 0.05). Knee flexor muscle strength was significantly less on the operated leg compared to the non-operated leg (P=0.02) and walking speed was slower than age-matched healthy values (P<0.001). Thigh tactile sensation was impaired in 89% of participants. Quality of life was significantly less for the physical health component of the SF-12 (P<0.001). The mental health component of the SF-12 was similar to healthy controls (P=0.26). Conclusion: There was no effect on donor site morbidity with regards to knee extensor strength, pain, walking function, ability to sit-to-stand, and muscle length. VL harvest affected donor-site knee flexion strength, walking speed, tactile sensation, and physical health-related quality of life.

Keywords: vastus lateralis, morbidity, head and neck, surgery, donor-site morbidity

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406 Spatio-Temporal Analysis and Mapping of Malaria in Thailand

Authors: Krisada Lekdee, Sunee Sammatat, Nittaya Boonsit

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This paper proposes a GLMM with spatial and temporal effects for malaria data in Thailand. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation via Gibbs sampling MCMC. A conditional autoregressive (CAR) model is assumed to present the spatial effects. The temporal correlation is presented through the covariance matrix of the random effects. The malaria quarterly data have been extracted from the Bureau of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health of Thailand. The factors considered are rainfall and temperature. The result shows that rainfall and temperature are positively related to the malaria morbidity rate. The posterior means of the estimated morbidity rates are used to construct the malaria maps. The top 5 highest morbidity rates (per 100,000 population) are in Trat (Q3, 111.70), Chiang Mai (Q3, 104.70), Narathiwat (Q4, 97.69), Chiang Mai (Q2, 88.51), and Chanthaburi (Q3, 86.82). According to the DIC criterion, the proposed model has a better performance than the GLMM with spatial effects but without temporal terms.

Keywords: Bayesian method, generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), malaria, spatial effects, temporal correlation

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405 The Socio-Demographics of HIV-Infected Persons with Psychological Morbidity in Zaria, Nigeria

Authors: Obiageli Helen Ezeh, Chuks Clement Ezeh

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Background: It is estimated that more than 330 million persons are living with HIV-infection globally and in Nigeria about 3.4 persons are living with the infection, with an annual death rate of 180,000. Psychological morbidity often accompany chronic illnesses and may be associated with substance abuse, poor health seeking behavior and adherence to treatment program; it may worsen existing health problems and the overall quality of life. Until the burden is effectively identified, intervention cannot be planned. Until there is a cure, the goal is to manage and cope effectively with HIV-infection. Little if any studies have been done in this area in the North West geo-political zone of Nigeria. The study would help to identify high risk groups and prevent the progression and spread of the infection. Aim: To identify HIV-infected persons with psychological morbidity, accessing HIV- clinic at Shika Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State; and analyze their socio-demographic profile. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out to assess and analyze the socio-demographic characteristics of HIV-infected persons attending Shika hospital Zaria Nigeria, who screened positive for psychological morbidity. A total of 109 HIV-infected persons receiving HAART at Shika clinic, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, were administered questionnaires, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)measuring psychological morbidity and socio-demographic data. The participants ranged in age between 18 and 75 years. Results: Data were analyzed using SPSS software 15. Both descriptive and inferential Statistics were performed on the data. Results indicate a total prevalent rate of psychological morbidity of 78 percent among participants. Of this, about 16.2 percent were severely distressed, 25.1 percent moderately distressed and 36.7percent were mildly distressed. More females (65 percent of those with psychological morbidity) were found to be distressed than their male (55 percent) counterparts. It was (44 percent) for patients whose HIV-infection was of relatively shorter duration(2-4 years) than those of longer duration(5-9 years; and 10 years/above). The age group (21-30 years) was the most affected (35 percent). The rate was also 55 percent for Christians and 45 percent for Muslims. For married patients with partners it was 20 percent and for singles 30 percent; for the widowed (12 percent) and divorced (38 percent). At the level of tribal/ethnic groups, it was 13 percent for Ibos, 22 percent for Yorubas, 27 percent for Hausas and 33 percent for all the other minority tribes put together. Conclusion/Recommendation: The study has been able to identify the presence of psychological morbidity among HIV-infected persons as high and analyze the socio-demographic factors associated with it as significant. Periodic screening of HIV-infected persons for psychological morbidity and psychosocial intervention was recommended.

Keywords: socio-demographics, psychological morbidities, HIV-Infection, HAART

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404 Influence of Non-Carcinogenic Risk on Public Health

Authors: Gulmira Umarova

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The data on the assessment of the influence of environmental risk to the health of the population of Uralsk in the West region of Kazakhstan were presented. Calculation of non-carcinogenic risks was performed for such air pollutants as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide. Here with the critical organs and systems, which are affected by the above-mentioned substances were taken into account. As well as indicators of primary and general morbidity by classes of diseases among the population were considered. The quantitative risk of the influence of substances on organs and systems is established by results of the calculation.

Keywords: environment, health, morbidity, non-carcinogenic risk

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403 Cardiovascular Disease Is Common among Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Authors: Fathia Ehmouda Zaid, Reim Abudelnbi

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Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and method: Cross-section study (68) patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who visited the outpatient clinic of rheumatology, these patients were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about their past and current clinically for presence of Cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus and use SLEDAI, specific tests [ECG –ECHO –CXRAY] the data are analyzed statistically by Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated and statistical significance was defined as P< 0.05,during period (2013-2014). Objective: Estimation Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, correlation with disease activity, morbidity, and mortality. Result: (68) Patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus' age range from (18-48 years), M=(13±29Y), Sex were female 66/68 (97.1%), male 2/68 (2.9%),duration of disease range[1-15year], M =[7±8y], we found Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus 32/68 (47.1%), correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI,(r= 476** p=0.000),Morbidity,(r= .554**; p=0.000) and mortality (r=.181; p=.139), Cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus are pericarditis 8/68 (11.8%), pericardial effusion 6/68 (8.8%), myocarditis 4/68 (5.9 %), valvular lesions (endocarditis) 1/68 (1.5%), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) 12/68 (17.6%), coronary artery disease 1/68 (1.5%), none of patients have conduction abnormalities involvement. Correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI, pericarditis (r= .210, p=.086), pericardial effusion (r= 0.079, p=.520), myocarditis (r= 272*, p=.027), valvular lesions (endocarditis) (r= .112, p= .362), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r= .257*, p=.035) and coronary artery disease (r=.075, p=.544) correlation between cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and specific organ involvement we found Mucocutaneous (r=.091 p= .459), musculoskeletal (MSK) (r=.110 p=.373), Renal disease (r=.278*, p=.022), neurologic disease (r=.085, p=.489) and Hematologic disease (r=-.264*, p=.030). Conclusion: Cardiovascular manifestation is more frequent symptoms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is 47 % correlation with disease activity and morbidity but not with mortality. Recommendations: Focus research to evaluation and an adequate assessment of cardiovascular complications on the morbidity and mortality of the patients with SLE are still required.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, disease activity, mortality

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402 A Theoretical to Conceptual Paper: The Use of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors, Endothelin Receptor Antagonists and/or Prostacyclin Analogs in Acute Pulmonary Embolism

Authors: Ryan M. Monti, Bijal Mehta

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In cases of massive pulmonary embolism, defined as acute pulmonary embolism presenting with systemic hypotension or right ventricular dysfunction and impending failure, there is indication that unconventional therapies, such as phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and/or prostacyclin analogs may decrease the morbidity and mortality. Based on the premise that dilating the pulmonary artery will decrease the pulmonary vascular pressure, while simultaneously decreasing the aggregation of platelets, it can be hypothesized that increased blood flow through the pulmonary artery will decrease right heart strain and subsequent morbidity and mortality. While this theory has yet to be formally studied, the recommendations for treating massive pulmonary embolism with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and/or prostacyclin analogs in conjunction with the current standards of care in massive pulmonary embolism should be formally studied. In particular, patients with massive PE who are unable to undergo thrombolysis/surgical intervention may be the ideal population to study the use of these treatments to determine any decrease in mortality and morbidity (short term and long term).

Keywords: acute pulmonary thromboembolism, treatment of pulmonary embolism, use of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, prostacyclin analogs in PE

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401 Empirical Modeling and Spatial Analysis of Heat-Related Morbidity in Maricopa County, Arizona

Authors: Chuyuan Wang, Nayan Khare, Lily Villa, Patricia Solis, Elizabeth A. Wentz

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Maricopa County, Arizona, has a semi-arid hot desert climate that is one of the hottest regions in the United States. The exacerbated urban heat island (UHI) effect caused by rapid urbanization has made the urban area even hotter than the rural surroundings. The Phoenix metropolitan area experiences extremely high temperatures in the summer from June to September that can reach the daily highest of 120 °F (48.9 °C). Morbidity and mortality due to the environmental heat is, therefore, a significant public health issue in Maricopa County, especially because it is largely preventable. Public records from the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) revealed that between 2012 and 2016, there were 10,825 incidents of heat-related morbidity incidents, 267 outdoor environmental heat deaths, and 173 indoor heat-related deaths. A lot of research has examined heat-related death and its contributing factors around the world, but little has been done regarding heat-related morbidity issues, especially for regions that are naturally hot in the summer. The objective of this study is to examine the demographic, socio-economic, housing, and environmental factors that contribute to heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. We obtained heat-related morbidity data between 2012 and 2016 at census tract level from MCDPH. Demographic, socio-economic, and housing variables were derived using 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-year estimate from the U.S. Census. Remotely sensed Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI satellite images and Level-1 products were acquired for all the summer months (June to September) from 2012 and 2016. The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2016 percent tree canopy and percent developed imperviousness data were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). We used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis to examine the empirical relationship between all the independent variables and heat-related morbidity rate. Results showed that higher morbidity rates are found in census tracts with higher values in population aged 65 and older, population under poverty, disability, no vehicle ownership, white non-Hispanic, population with less than high school degree, land surface temperature, and surface reflectance, but lower values in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and housing occupancy. The regression model can be used to explain up to 59.4% of total variation of heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. The multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) technique was then used to examine the spatially varying relationships between heat-related morbidity rate and all the significant independent variables. The R-squared value of the MGWR model increased to 0.691, that shows a significant improvement in goodness-of-fit than the global OLS model, which means that spatial heterogeneity of some independent variables is another important factor that influences the relationship with heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. Among these variables, population aged 65 and older, the Hispanic population, disability, vehicle ownership, and housing occupancy have much stronger local effects than other variables.

Keywords: census, empirical modeling, heat-related morbidity, spatial analysis

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400 Stress Hyperglycaemia and Glycaemic Control Post Cardiac Surgery: Relaxed Targets May Be Acceptable

Authors: Nicholas Bayfield, Liam Bibo, Charley Budgeon, Robert Larbalestier, Tom Briffa

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Introduction: Stress hyperglycaemia is common following cardiac surgery. Its optimal management is uncertain and may differ by diabetic status. This study assesses the in-hospital glycaemic management of cardiac surgery patients and associated postoperative outcomes. Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis of all patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Fiona Stanley Hospital from February 2015 to May 2019 was undertaken. Management and outcomes of hyperglycaemia following cardiac surgery were assessed. Follow-up was assessed to 1 year postoperatively. Multivariate regression modelling was utilised. Results: 1050 non-diabetic patients and 689 diabetic patients were included. In the non-diabetic cohort, patients with mild (peak blood sugar level [BSL] < 14.3), transient stress hyperglycaemia managed without insulin were not at an increased risk of wound-related morbidity (P=0.899) or mortality at 1 year (P=0.483). Insulin management was associated with wound-related readmission to hospital (P=0.004) and superficial sternal wound infection (P=0.047). Prolonged or severe stress hyperglycaemia was predictive of hospital re-admission (P=0.050) but not morbidity or mortality (P=0.546). Diabetes mellitus was an independent risk factor 1-year mortality (OR; 1.972 [1.041–3.736], P=0.037), graft harvest site wound infection (OR; 1.810 [1.134–2.889], P=0.013) and wound-related readmission (OR; 1.866 [1.076–3.236], P=0.026). In diabetics, postoperative peak BSL > 13.9mmol/L was predictive of graft harvest site infections (OR; 3.528 [1.724-7.217], P=0.001) and wound-related readmission OR; 3.462 [1.540-7.783], P=0.003) regardless of modality of management. A peak BSL of 10.0-13.9 did not increase the risk of morbidity/mortality compared to a peak BSL of < 10.0 (P=0.557). Diabetics with a peak BSL of 13.9 or less did not have significantly increased morbidity/mortality outcomes compared to non-diabetics (P=0.418). Conclusion: In non-diabetic patients, transient mild stress hyperglycaemia following cardiac surgery does not uniformly require treatment. In diabetic patients, postoperative hyperglycaemia with peak BSL exceeding 13.9mmol/L was associated with wound-related morbidity and hospital readmission following cardiac surgery.

Keywords: cardiac surgery, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary embolectomy, cardiopulmonary bypass

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399 Estimation of Morbidity Level of Industrial Labour Conditions at Zestafoni Ferroalloy Plant

Authors: M. Turmanauli, T. Todua, O. Gvaberidze, R. Javakhadze, N. Chkhaidze, N. Khatiashvili

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Background: Mining process has the significant influence on human health and quality of life. In recent years the events in Georgia were reflected on the industry working process, especially minimal requirements of labor safety, hygiene standards of workplace and the regime of work and rest are not observed. This situation is often caused by the lack of responsibility, awareness, and knowledge both of workers and employers. The control of working conditions and its protection has been worsened in many of industries. Materials and Methods: For evaluation of the current situation the prospective epidemiological study by face to face interview method was conducted at Georgian “Manganese Zestafoni Ferroalloy Plant” in 2011-2013. 65.7% of employees (1428 bulletin) were surveyed and the incidence rates of temporary disability days were studied. Results: The average length of a temporary disability single accident was studied taking into consideration as sex groups as well as the whole cohort. According to the classes of harmfulness the following results were received: Class 2.0-10.3%; 3.1-12.4%; 3.2-35.1%; 3.3-12.1%; 3.4-17.6%; 4.0-12.5%. Among the employees 47.5% and 83.1% were tobacco and alcohol consumers respectively. According to the age groups and years of work on the base of previous experience ≥50 ages and ≥21 years of work data prevalence respectively. The obtained data revealed increased morbidity rate according to age and years of work. It was found that the bone and articulate system and connective tissue diseases, aggravation of chronic respiratory diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension and cerebral blood discirculation were the leading among the other diseases. High prevalence of morbidity observed in the workplace with not satisfactory labor conditions from the hygienic point of view. Conclusion: According to received data the causes of morbidity are the followings: unsafety labor conditions; incomplete of preventive medical examinations (preliminary and periodic); lack of access to appropriate health care services; derangement of gathering, recording, and analysis of morbidity data. This epidemiological study was conducted at the JSC “Manganese Ferro Alloy Plant” according to State program “ Prevention of Occupational Diseases” (Program code is 35 03 02 05).

Keywords: occupational health, mining process, morbidity level, cerebral blood discirculation

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398 Determining Face-Validity for a Set of Preventable Drug-Related Morbidity Indicators Developed for Primary Healthcare in South Africa

Authors: D. Velayadum, P. Sthandiwe , N. Maharaj, T. Munien, S. Ndamase, G. Zulu, S. Xulu, F. Oosthuizen

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Introduction and aims of the study: It is the responsibility of the pharmacist to manage drug-related problems in order to ensure the greatest benefit to the patient. In order to prevent drug-related morbidity, pharmacists should be aware of medicines that may contribute to certain drug-related problems due to their pharmacological action. In an attempt to assist healthcare practitioners to prevent drug-related morbidity (PDRM), indicators for prevention have been designed. There are currently no indicators available for primary health care in developing countries like South Africa, where the majority of the population access primary health care. There is, therefore, a need to develop such indicators, specifically with the aim of assisting healthcare practitioners in primary health care. Methods: A literature study was conducted to compile a comprehensive list of PDRM indicators as developed internationally using the search engines Google Scholar and PubMed. MESH term used to retrieve suitable articles was 'preventable drug-related morbidity indicators'. The comprehensive list of PDRM indicators obtained from the literature study was further evaluated for face validity. Face validity was done in duplicate by 2 sets of independent researchers to ensure 1) no duplication of indicators when compiling a single list, 2) inclusion of only medication available in primary healthcare, and 3) inclusion of medication currently available in South Africa. Results: The list of indicators, compiled from PDRM indicators in the USA, UK, Portugal, Australia, India, and Canada contained 324 PDRM. 184 of these indicators were found to be duplicates, and the duplications were omitted, leaving a final list of 140. The 140 PDRM indicators were evaluated for face-validity, and 97 were accepted as relevant to primary health care in South Africa. 43 indicators did not comply with the criteria and were omitted from the final list. Conclusion: This study is a first step in compiling a list of PDRM indicators for South Africa. It is important to take cognizance to the fact the health systems differ vastly internationally, and it is, therefore, important to develop country-specific indicators.

Keywords: drug-related morbidity, primary healthcare, South Africa, developing countries

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397 Experience of Hydatid Disease of Liver at a Tertiary Care Center 7 Years Experience

Authors: Jibran Abbasy, Rizwan Sultan, Ammar Humayun, Tabish Chawla

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Background: Hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus Granulosus affects liver in 70-90% of cases. Dogs are the definitive host while humans are the accidental host. Modalities used for its treatment are especially important for our population as the disease is endemic in many Asian countries. The aim of the study was to perform an audit of the various modalities used for treatment of hydatid disease of liver and the response to each modality in tertiary care center of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of patients diagnosed and treated for Hydatid disease of the liver at Aga Khan University Hospital from 1st January 2007 to 31st December 2014 was completed. All patients aged 16 and above were included. Patients who had extra hepatic disease and missing records were excluded. Outcome measures were morbidity, mortality and recurrence of the disease. Results: During the study period 56 patients were treated for isolated hepatic hydatid disease and were included. Mean age was 39 years with 48% being females and 52% males. Most common presenting complaint was abdominal pain seen in 53% of patients(n=41). Duration of symptoms was less than 6 months in 74% (n=38). Mostly right lobe was involved in 69% (n=38).Most common treatment modality used was surgery in 34 patients followed by PAIR in 14 patients while 8 patients were treated medically. At a median follow up of 34 months recurrence was seen in 2 patients treated with PAIR while no patient treated with surgery had recurrence with the median follow up of 20 months. While no morbidity and mortality were observed in PAIR, but in surgery 5 patients had morbidity while 1 patient had mortality. Conclusion: Our data is comparative to other studies in terms of morbidity, mortality, and recurrence. We had adequate follow up. In our study PAIR and surgery both are effective and have less complications and recurrence rate. Surgery is still the gold standard in terms of recurrence.

Keywords: echinococcous granulosus, puncture aspiration irrigation reaspiration (PAIR), surgery, hydatid disease

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396 Assessment of Ocular Morbidity, Knowledge and Barriers to Access Eye Care Services among the Children Live in Offshore Island, Bangladesh

Authors: Abir Dey, Shams Noman

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Introduction: Offshore Island is the remote and isolated area from the terrestrial mainland. They are deprived of their needs. The children from an offshore island are usually underserved in the case of health care because it is a remote area where the health care systems are quite poor compared to mainland. So, the proper information is required for appropriate planning to reduce underlying causes behind visual deprivation among the surviving children of the Offshore Island. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine ocular morbidities, knowledge, and barriers of eye care services among children in an Offshore Island. Methods: The study team visited, and all data were collected from different rural communities at Sandwip Upazila, Chittagong district for screening the children aged 5-16 years old by doing spot examination. The whole study was conducted in both qualitative and quantitative methods. To determine ocular status of children, examinations were done under skilled Ophthalmologists and Optometrists. A focus group discussion was held. The sample size was 490. It was a community based descriptive study and the sampling method was purposive sampling. Results: In total 490 children, about 56.90% were female and 43.10% were male. Among them 456 were school-going children (93.1%) and 34 were non-school going children (6.9%). In this study the most common ocular morbidity was Allergic Conjunctivitis (35.2%). Other mentionable ocular morbidities were Refractive error (27.7%), Blepharitis (13.8%), Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (7.5%), Strabismus (6.3%) and Amblyopia (6.3%). Most of the non-school going children were involved in different types of domestic work like farming, fishing, etc. About 90.04% children who had different ocular abnormalities could not attend to the doctor due to various reasons. Conclusions: The ocular morbidity was high in rate on the offshore island. Eye health care facility was also not well established there. Awareness should be raised about necessity of maintaining hygiene and eye healthcare among the island people. Timely intervention through available eye care facilities and management can reduce the ocular morbidity rate in that area.

Keywords: morbidities, screening, barriers, offshore island, knowledge

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395 Incidence of Post-Stroke Depression in a Tertiary Hospital in Cebu City, Philippines

Authors: Ivory A. Rulona, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul

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Background: Depression is common after stroke with quoted rates ranging from 18% to 61%. 8 Mood disturbance is common after stroke and may present as depression or anxiety. Psychological mood disturbance is associated with higher rates of mortality, long term disability, and hospital readmission. Objectives: To investigate the incidence of post-stroke depression in a tertiary hospital in Cebu City, Philippines and to determine its associated factors. The study is designed to be prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Participants: Adult patients seen and diagnosed to have stroke either infarct or hemorrhage within the period of January 1 to July 31, 2014. Results: A total of 100 patients with stroke were interviewed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) questionnaire. The average age of the respondents was 60.50 years old ±1.18, majority were males (55%), 83% were married, and 81% were employed. The most common co-morbidity was hypertension 78% followed by diabetes mellitus at 50%. Moreover, 39% of these patients had stroke in months, 26% in years, and 18% in weeks. The average functional capacity based on Modified Rankin Scale was 2.14+/-0.14. Among 100 patients, a total of 30 patients (30%) had depression: 2 (2%) very severe, 5 (5%) moderate and 23 (23%) had mild depression while 70 patients (70%) had no depression. Stroke located at the dominant hemisphere was not associated with severe depression (p=0.102). A similar trend was also noted among those with stroke at the right side (p=0.183), pons (p=0.634), bilateral (p=0.776), and midbrain (p=0.336). Conclusion: This study showed that majority of stroke patients were males with average age of 60.50 years. Hypertension was the most common co-morbidity. There was no association between stroke location and depression. The incidence of PSD was 30%.

Keywords: post-stroke depression, co-morbidity, disturbance, bilateral

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394 Sewage Induced Behavioural Responses in an Air-Breathing Fish, Pangasius pangasius

Authors: Sasikala Govindaraj, P. Palanisamy, G. M. Natarajan

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Domestic sewage poses major threats to the aquatic environment in third world countries due to lack of technical and economic sources which can have significant impacts on fish. The tolerance limits to toxicants found in domestic effluents vary among species and their integrative effects may lead to reproductive failure and reduction of survival and growth of the more sensitive fish species. The mechanism of action of toxic substances upon various concentrations of sewage was taken aiming to evaluate locomotory, physiological, neurological and morbidity response of fish. The rapid biomonitoring assessment technique for qualitative evaluation of various industrial pollutants, behavioral responses of an air-breathing fish Pangasius pangasius were used as biomarkers for water quality assessment. The present investigation concluded that sewage is highly toxic to the fish and severely affects their physiology and behavior.

Keywords: air-breathing organs, behavioral, locomotory, morbidity, neurological, physiological, sewage

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393 Probabilistic Approach to the Spatial Identification of the Environmental Sources behind Mortality Rates in Europe

Authors: Alina Svechkina, Boris A. Portnov

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In line with a rapid increase in pollution sources and enforcement of stricter air pollution regulation, which lowers pollution levels, it becomes more difficult to identify actual risk sources behind the observed morbidity patterns, and new approaches are required to identify potential risks and take preventive actions. In the present study, we discuss a probabilistic approach to the spatial identification of a priori unidentified environmental health hazards. The underlying assumption behind the tested approach is that the observed adverse health patterns (morbidity, mortality) can become a source of information on the geographic location of environmental risk factors that stand behind them. Using this approach, we analyzed sources of environmental exposure using data on mortality rates available for the year 2015 for NUTS 3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) subdivisions of the European Union. We identified several areas in the southwestern part of Europe as primary risk sources for the observed mortality patterns. Multivariate regressions, controlled by geographical location, climate conditions, GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, dependency ratios, population density, and the level of road freight revealed that mortality rates decline as a function of distance from the identified hazard location. We recommend the proposed approach an exploratory analysis tool for initial investigation of regional patterns of population morbidity patterns and factors behind it.

Keywords: mortality, environmental hazards, air pollution, distance decay gradient, multi regression analysis, Europe, NUTS3

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
392 Analysis of Rainfall and Malaria Trends in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Abiodun M. Adeola, Hannes Rautenbach, Gbenga J. Abiodun, Thabo E. Makgoale, Joel O. Botai, Omolola M. Adisa, Christina M. Botai

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There was a surge in malaria morbidity as well as mortality in 2016/2017 malaria season in malaria-endemic regions of South Africa. Rainfall is a major climatic driver of malaria transmission and has potential use for predicting malaria. Annual and seasonal trends and cross-correlation analyses were performed on time series of monthly total rainfall (derived from interpolated weather station data) and monthly malaria cases in five districts of Limpopo Province for the period of 1998 to 2017. The time series analysis indicated that an average of 629.5mm of rainfall was received over the period of study. The rainfall has an annual variation of about 0.46%. Rainfall amount varies among the five districts, with the north-eastern part receiving more rainfall. Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated that total monthly rainfall with one to two months lagged effect is significant in malaria transmission in all the five districts. The strongest correlation is noticed in Mopani (r=0.54; p-value = < 0.001), Vhembe (r=0.53; p-value = < 0.001), Waterberg (r=0.40; p-value = < 0.001), Capricorn (r=0.37; p-value = < 0.001) and lowest in Sekhukhune (r=0.36; p-value = < 0.001). More particularly, malaria morbidity showed a strong relationship with an episode of rainfall above 5-year running means of rainfall of 400 mm. Both annual and seasonal analyses showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied across the districts and it is seasonally dependent. Adequate understanding of climatic variables dynamics annually and seasonally is imperative in seeking answers to malaria morbidity among other factors, particularly in the wake of the sudden spike of the disease in the province.

Keywords: correlation, malaria, rainfall, seasonal, trends

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391 Factors Predicting Symptom Cluster Functional Status and Quality of Life of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

Authors: D. Supaporn, B. Julaluk

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The purposes of this study were to study symptom cluster, functional status and quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to examine factors related to and predicting symptom cluster, functional status and quality of life of COPD patients. The sample was 180 COPD patients multi-stage random sampling from 4 hospitals in the eastern region, Thailand. The research instruments were 8 questionnaires and recorded forms measuring personal and illness data, co-morbidity, physical and psychological symptom, health status perception, social support, and regimen adherence, functional status and quality of life. Spearman rank and Pearson correlation coefficient, exploratory factors analysis and standard multiple regression were used to analyzed data. The findings revealed that two symptom clusters were generated: physical symptom cluster including dyspnea, fatigue and insomnia; and, psychological symptom cluster including anxiety and depression. Scores of physical symptom cluster was at moderate level while that of psychological symptom cluster was at low level. Scores on functional status, social support and overall regimen adherence were at good level whereas scores on quality of life and health status perception were at moderate level. Disease severity was positively related to physical symptom cluster, psychological symptom cluster and quality of life, and was negatively related to functional status at a moderate level (rs = .512, .509, .588 and -.611, respectively). Co-morbidity was positively related to physical symptom cluster and psychological symptom cluster at a low level (r = .179 and .176, respectively). Regimen adherence was negatively related to quality of life and psychological symptom cluster at a low level (r=-.277 and -.309, respectively), and was positively related to functional status at a moderate level (r=.331). Health status perception was negatively related to physical symptom cluster, psychological symptom cluster and quality of life at a moderate to high level (r = -.567, -.640 and -.721, respectively) and was positively related to functional status at a high level (r = .732). Social support was positively related to functional status (r=.235) and was negatively related to quality of life at a low level (r=-.178). Physical symptom cluster was negatively related to functional status (r= -.490) and was positively related to quality of life at a moderate level (r=.566). Psychological symptom cluster was negatively related to functional status and was positively related to quality of life at a moderate level (r= -.566 and .559, respectively). Disease severity, co-morbidity and health status perception could predict 40.2% of the variance of physical symptom cluster. Disease severity, co-morbidity, regimen adherence and health status perception could predict 49.8% of the variance of psychological symptom cluster. Co-morbidity, regimen adherence and health status perception could predict 65.0% of the variance of functional status. Disease severity, health status perception and physical symptom cluster could predict 60.0% of the variance of quality of life in COPD patients. The results of this study can be used for enhancing quality of life of COPD patients.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, functional status, quality of life, symptom cluster

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390 Effect of Food Supplies Holstein Calves Supplemented with Bacillus Subtilis PB6 in Morbidity and Mortality

Authors: Banca Patricia Pena Revuelta, Ramiro Gonzalez Avalos, Juan Leonardo Rocha Valdez, Jose Gonzalez Avalos, Karla Rodriguez Hernandez

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Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve productivity and animals' health. In addition, they can be part of the composition of different types of products, including foods (functional foods), medicines, and dietary supplements. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the feeding of Holstein calves supplemented with bacillus subtilis PB6 in morbidity and mortality. 60 newborn animals were used, randomly included in 1 of 3 treatments. The treatments were as follows: T1 = control, T2 = 10 g / calf / day. The first takes within 20 min after birth, T3 = 10 g / calf/day. The first takes between 12 and 24 h after birth. In all the treatments, 432 L of pasteurized whole milk divided into two doses/day 07:00 and 15:00, respectively, were given for 60 days. The addition of bacillus subtilis PB6 was carried out in the milk tub at the time of feeding them. The first colostrum intake (2 L • intake) was given within 2 h after birth, after which they were given a second 6 h after the first one. The diseases registered to monitor the morbidity and mortality of the calves were: diarrhea and pneumonia. The registry was carried out from birth to 60 days of life. The parameter evaluated was food consumption. The variable statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance, and comparison of means was performed using the Tukey test. The value of P < 0.05 was used to consider the statistical difference. The results of the present study in relation to the consumption of food show no statistical difference P < 0.05 between treatments (14,762, 11,698, and 12,403 kg of food average, respectively). Calves group to which they were not provided Bacillus subtilis PB6 obtained higher feed intake. The addition of Bacillus subtilis PB6 in feeding calves does not increase feed intake.

Keywords: feeding, development, milk, probiotic

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389 Retrospective/Prospective Analysis of Guideline Implementation and Transfusion Rates

Authors: B. Kenny

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The complications associated with transfusions are well documented, with the serious hazards of transfusion (SHOT) reporting system continuing to report deaths and serious morbidity due to the transfusion of allogenic blood. Many different sources including the TRICC trial, NHMRC and Cochrane recommending similar transfusion triggers/guidelines. Recent studies found the rate of infection (deep infection, wound infection, chest infection, urinary tract infection, and others) were purely a dose response relationship, increasing the Relative Risk by 3.44. It was also noted that each transfused patient stayed in hospital for one additional day. We hypothesise that providing an approved/standardised, guideline with a graphical summary of decision pathways for anaemic patients will reduce unnecessary transfusions. We retrospectively assessed patients undergoing primary knee or hip arthroplasties over a 4 year period, 1459 patients. Of these, 339 (23.24%) patients received allogenic blood transfusions and 858 units of blood were transfused, 9.14% of patients transfused had haemoglobin levels above 100 g/L, 7.67% of patients were transfused without knowing the haemoglobin level, 24 hours prior to transfusion initiation and 4.5% had possible transfusion reactions. Overall, 17% of allogenic transfusions topatients admitted to the Orthopaedic department within a 4 year period were outside NHMRC and Cochrane guidelines/recommendations. If our transfusion frequency is compared with that of other authors/hospitals, transfusion rates are consistently being high. We subsequently implemented a simple guideline for transfusion initiation. This guideline was then assessed. We found the transfusion rate post transfusion implementation to be significantly lower, without increase in patient morbidity or mortalitiy, p <0.001). Transfusion rates and patient outcome can be optimized by a simple graphical aid for decision making.

Keywords: transfusion, morbidity, mortality, neck of femur, fracture, arthroplasty, rehabilitation

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388 An Investigation of the Relevant Factors of Unplanned Readmission within 14 Days of Discharge in a Regional Teaching Hospital in South Taiwan

Authors: Xuan Hua Huang, Shu Fen Wu, Yi Ting Huang, Pi Yueh Lee

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Background: In Taiwan, the Taiwan healthcare care Indicator Series regards the rate of hospital readmission as an important indicator of healthcare quality. Unplanned readmission not only effects patient’s condition but also increase healthcare utilization rate and healthcare costs. Purpose: The purpose of this study was explored the effects of adult unplanned readmission within 14 days of discharge at a regional teaching hospital in South Taiwan. Methods: The retrospectively review design was used. A total 495 participants of unplanned readmissions and 878 of non-readmissions within 14 days recruited from a regional teaching hospital in Southern Taiwan. The instruments used included the Charlson Comorbidity Index, and demographic characteristics, and disease-related variables. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 22.0. The descriptive statistics were used (means, standard deviations, and percentage) and the inferential statistics were used T-test, Chi-square test and Logistic regression. Results: The unplanned readmissions within 14 days rate was 36%. The majorities were 268 males (54.1%), aged >65 were 318 (64.2%), and mean age was 68.8±14.65 years (23-98years). The mean score for the comorbidities was 3.77±2.73. The top three diagnosed of the readmission were digestive diseases (32.7%), respiratory diseases (15.2%), and genitourinary diseases (10.5%). There were significant relationships among the gender, age, marriage, comorbidity status, and discharge planning services (χ2: 3.816-16.474, p: 0.051~0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that old age (OR = 1.012, 95% CI: 1.003, 1.021), had the multi-morbidity (OR = 0.712~4.040, 95% CI: 0.559~8.522), had been consult with discharge planning services (OR = 1.696, 95% CI: 1.105, 2.061) have a higher risk of readmission. Conclusions: This study finds that multi-morbidity was independent risk factor for unplanned readmissions at 14 days, recommended that the interventional treatment of the medical team be provided to provide integrated care for multi-morbidity to improve the patient's self-care ability and reduce the 14-day unplanned readmission rate.

Keywords: unplanned readmission, comorbidities, Charlson comorbidity index, logistic regression

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387 The Effect of Primary Treatment on Histopathological Patterns and Choice of Neck Dissection in Regional Failure of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

Authors: Ralene Sim, Stefan Mueller, N. Gopalakrishna Iyer, Ngian Chye Tan, Khee Chee Soo, R. Shetty Mahalakshmi, Hiang Khoon Tan

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Background: Regional failure in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is managed by salvage treatment in the form of neck dissection. Radical neck dissection (RND) is preferred over modified radical neck dissection (MRND) since it is traditionally believed to offer better long-term disease control. However, with the advent of more advanced imaging modalities like high-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography-CT scans, earlier detection is achieved. Additionally, concurrent chemotherapy also contributes to reduced tumour burden. Hence, there may be a lesser need for an RND and a greater role for MRND. With this retrospective study, the primary aim is to ascertain whether MRND, as opposed to RND, has similar outcomes and hence, whether there would be more grounds to offer a less aggressive procedure to achieve lower patient morbidity. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 66 NPC patients treated at Singapore General Hospital between 1994 to 2016 for histologically proven regional recurrence, of which 41 patients underwent RND and 25 who underwent MRND, based on surgeon preference. The type of ND performed, primary treatment mode, adjuvant treatment, and pattern of recurrence were reviewed. Overall survival (OS) was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimate and compared. Results: Overall, the disease parameters such as nodal involvement and extranodal extension were comparable between the two groups. Comparing MRND and RND, the median (IQR) OS is 1.76 (0.58 to 3.49) and 2.41 (0.78 to 4.11) respectively. However, the p-value found is 0.5301 and hence not statistically significant. Conclusion: RND is more aggressive and has been associated with greater morbidity. Hence, with similar outcomes, MRND could be an alternative salvage procedure for regional failure in selected NPC patients, allowing similar salvage rates with lesser mortality and morbidity.

Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, neck dissection, modified neck dissection, radical neck dissection

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386 Enquiry into Psychological and Psychosocial Aspects in Cancer Care: Cancer Diseases Hospital, Zambia

Authors: Mubita Namuyamba

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Despite an increase in the number of cancer programs and partnerships in cancer care provision, the burden of cancer in Zambia is increasingly having a significant impact on morbidity and mortality rates. The increase in cancer morbidity and mortality rates has given rise to psychological and psycho social implications (PPsI) in cancer care. Cancer patients, care givers and health care providers are faced with a multitude of PPsIs in cancer care that mainly impact negatively on the management of cancer patients. The study adopted a case study design and was purposively conducted at the Cancer Diseases Hospital in Lusaka (Zambia) after obtaining ethical clearance from the Ethics committee. The sample for this study included 70 cancer patients, 20 care givers and 5 hospital staff (4 nurses and 1 doctor). Data was collected using interviews guides, focus group discussion guides and questionnaires respectively. The qualitative data was analysed thematically. The various psychological and psychosocial challenges that conspire to deter the provision of effective cancer care nursing and improved methods of minimizing the psychological and psychosocial implications in cancer care are the products of this study.

Keywords: case study, enquiry, psychological and psycho social aspects, Zambia

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385 Social Ties and the Prevalence of Single Chronic Morbidity and Multimorbidity among the Elderly Population in Selected States of India

Authors: Sree Sanyal

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Research in ageing often highlights the age-related health dimension more than the psycho-social characteristics of the elderly, which also influences and challenges the health outcomes. Multimorbidity is defined as the person having more than one chronic non-communicable diseases and their prevalence increases with ageing. The study aims to evaluate the influence of social ties on self-reported prevalence of multimorbidity (selected chronic non-communicable diseases) among the selected states of elderly population in India. The data is accessed from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India (BKPAI), collected in 2011 covering the self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases like arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, lung disease with asthma, hypertension, cataract, depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. The data of the above diseases were taken together and categorized as: ‘no disease’, ‘one disease’ and ‘multimorbidity’. The predicted variables were demographic, socio-economic, residential types, and the variable of social ties includes social support, social engagement, perceived support, connectedness, and importance of the elderly. Predicted probability for multiple logistic regression was used to determine the background characteristics of the old in association with chronic morbidities showing multimorbidity. The finding suggests that 24.35% of the elderly are suffering from multimorbidity. Research shows that with reference to ‘no disease’, according to the socio-economic characteristics of the old, the female oldest old (80+) from others in caste and religion, widowed, never had any formal education, ever worked in their life, coming from the second wealth quintile standard, from rural Maharashtra are more prone with ‘one disease’. From the social ties background, the elderly who perceives they are important to the family, after getting older their decision-making status has been changed, prefer to stay with son and spouse only, satisfied with the communication from their children are more likely to have less single morbidity and the results are significant. Again, with respect to ‘no disease’, the female oldest old (80+), who are others in caste, Christian in religion, widowed, having less than 5 years of education completed, ever worked, from highest wealth quintile, residing in urban Kerala are more associated with multimorbidity. The elderly population who are more socially connected through family visits, public gatherings, gets support in decision making, who prefers to spend their later years with son and spouse only but stays alone shows lesser prevalence of multimorbidity. In conclusion, received and perceived social integration and support from associated neighborhood in the older days, knowing about their own needs in life facilitates better health and wellbeing of the elderly population in selected states of India.

Keywords: morbidity, multi-morbidity, prevalence, social ties

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384 Antiplatelets and Anticoagulants in Rural Emergency General Surgery

Authors: Jeong-Moh John Yahng, Angelika Na

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Introduction: Increasing numbers of general surgical patients are being prescribed antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications (APAC) for various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular conditions. Surgical patients who are on APAC present a management challenge as bleeding risk needs to be balanced with thromboembolic risk. Although guidelines exist in regards to APAC management in elective surgery, there is a lack of guidelines in the emergency surgery setting. In this study we aim to characterise APAC usage in emergency general surgical patients admitted to a rural hospital. We also assess the impact of APAC usage on clinical management of these patients. Methods: Prospective study of emergency general surgical admissions at Northeast Health Wangaratta (Victoria) from 2 July to 25 Oct 2014. Questionnaire collected demographics data, admission diagnosis, APAC usage, anaesthesia techniques, operation types, transfusion requirement and morbidity / mortality data. Results: During the 4 month study, 118 patients were classified into two groups: non-APAC (n=96, 81%) and APAC (n=22, 19%). Patients in the APAC group were older compared to the non-APAC patients (mean age 72 vs 42 years old). Amongst patients younger than 60 years old, only 1% of them were on APAC. In contrast, 49% of patients older than 60 years old were on APAC (p<0.001). Patients who were admitted with a bleeding problem were more likely to be on APAC (p<0.05). 19% of emergency general surgery patients were on APAC. The majority (91%) of them were on antiplatelet medication, with two patients being on dual antiplatelet agents (aspirin + clopidogrel or ticagrelor). 15% of emergency general surgical patients requiring operations were on APAC. 11% of all laparotomies and 33% of gastroscopy for haematemesis/melaena patients were on APAC. Both of the patients operated for bleeding following surgery at another hospital were in the APAC group. In regards to impact on clinical management, 59% of APAC patients had their medications interrupted or ceased, on average by 3.5 days (range 1-13 days). 2 out of 75 operations were delayed due to APAC usage. There was no difference in the use of central venous or arterial line for increased monitoring (p=0.14) or in the use of warming blanket (Bair Hugger™) (p=0.94). Overall, transfusion rate was higher amongst APAC patients (14% vs 3%) (p 0.04). The recorded morbidity (n=2) and mortality (n=1) in this study were all in the APAC group. Discussion: Nineteen percent of emergency general surgical admissions and fifteen percent of operated patients were on APAC. The prevalence of APAC usage was higher in those aged sixty and above. General surgical patients who were admitted with a bleeding problem were more likely to be on APAC. Two patients who were operated for bleeding following surgery at another hospital were in the APAC group. Note that there was no patient in the non-APAC group who was admitted for post-operative bleeding. We observed two cases in which operation was delayed due to APAC usage. Transfusion, morbidity and mortality rate were higher in the APAC group. Conclusion: In this study, nineteen percent of emergency general surgical admissions were on APAC. The use of APAC is more prevalent in the older age group, particularly those aged sixty and above. Higher proportion of APAC compared to non-APAC patients were admitted and operated for bleeding problems. There is an urgent need for clinical guidelines regarding APAC management in emergency general surgical patients.

Keywords: antiplatelet, anticoagulants, emergency general surgery, rural general surgery, morbidity, mortality

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383 Prevalence of Obesity and Associated Risk Factors in South African Employees

Authors: Jeanne Grace, Shereen Currie

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Background: Obesity associated comorbidities increase the risk of morbidity and mortality among employees in the workplace. Objectives: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia associated with obesity within the workplace in South Africa. Methods: A total of 17359 male (n = 8561) and female (n = 8798) employees, aged between 18-64 years (40.8 ± 11.0), from various corporate and industrial companies in South Africa participated in the study. Subjects were assigned to one of five body mass index (BMI) categories, according to their BMI: normal weight, BMI of 18.5‒24.9 kg/m² (n = 7338); overweight, BMI of 25.0‒29.9 kg/m² (n = 6323); obese class I, BMI of 30.0-34.9 kg/m² (n = 2552); obese class II, BMI of 35.0-39.9 kg/m² (n = 782); and obese class III, BMI of ≥ 40 kg/m² (n = 364). Height, weight, blood pressure, random blood glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Results: The prevalence of normal weight men was 29.2% and women 55.0%; overweight men 46.4% and women 26.7%, obese men 24.4% and women 18.3%. A significant association (p<0.01) of BMI with diabetes, systolic and diastolic hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were noted. Conclusion: Obesity is strongly associated with adverse comorbidities that may impact employees’ quality of life and performance. If unaddressed, it can increase comorbidities, not only affecting the bottom line of companies but causing morbidity and mortality, including sudden death.

Keywords: body mass index, cholesterol, blood glucose, workplace

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382 Air Pollution and Respiratory-Related Restricted Activity Days in Tunisia

Authors: Mokhtar Kouki Inès Rekik

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This paper focuses on the assessment of the air pollution and morbidity relationship in Tunisia. Air pollution is measured by ozone air concentration and the morbidity is measured by the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days during the 2-week period prior to the interview. Socioeconomic data are also collected in order to adjust for any confounding covariates. Our sample is composed by 407 Tunisian respondents; 44.7% are women, the average age is 35.2, near 69% are living in a house built after the 1980, and 27.8% have reported at least one day of respiratory-related restricted activity. The model consists on the regression of the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days on the air quality measure and the socioeconomic covariates. In order to correct for zero-inflation and heterogeneity, we estimate several models (Poisson, Negative binomial, Zero inflated Poisson, Poisson hurdle, Negative binomial hurdle and finite mixture Poisson models). Bootstrapping and post-stratification techniques are used in order to correct for any sample bias. According to the Akaike information criteria, the hurdle negative binomial model has the greatest goodness of fit. The main result indicates that, after adjusting for socioeconomic data, the ozone concentration increases the probability of positive number of restricted activity days.

Keywords: bootstrapping, hurdle negbin model, overdispersion, ozone concentration, respiratory-related restricted activity days

Procedia PDF Downloads 173