Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 193

Search results for: marriage

193 The Role of Gender Ideology in the Legality of Same-Sex Marriage: A Cross-National Analysis

Authors: Amber Salamanca-Blazek

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This paper explores the connection between gender ideology and the legality of same-sex marriage cross-nationally. The author questions what role gender ideology plays in the cultural shift concerning same-sex marriage currently underway around the world and the variations in the legal treatment of same-sex marriage at the national level. Existing literature on gender, gender ideology, the role of gender ideology in traditional and same-sex marriage, and the extent to which this connection has previously been examined is explored. Also, the author explores the relationship between gender ideology and the legality of same-sex marriage in three countries with the differing legality of same-sex marriage - The United States, where same-sex marriage was legalized in 2015, Australia, where same-sex marriage was legalized in 2017, and Iran, where the death penalty for homosexuality still exists. A comparison of gender ideology frameworks and an analysis of the political rhetoric surrounding same-sex marriage in each country are performed. It is argued that the important role of gender ideology in the legality of same-sex marriage has been greatly ignored and is in need of increased attention to assist gay rights activists in their framework. The link of gender ideology and patriarchal authority between the gay rights movement and the women’s rights movement are subsequently discussed. The author argues that because of this linkage between movements, there is a necessity for joint frameworks. Suggestions for future research are also provided.

Keywords: gender ideology, same-sex marriage, same-sex marriage legality, women's rights movement

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192 Stop Forced Child Marriage: A Comparative Global Law Analysis

Authors: Michelle J. Miller

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Millions of girls are forcibly married during the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. At a stage of vulnerability; cultural practices, religious rights, and social standards place girls in a position where they are catapult into womanhood. An advocate against forced child marriage could argue that child rights, cultural rights, religious rights, right to marry, right to life, right to health, right to education, right to be free from slavery, right to be free from torture, right to consent to marriage are all violated by the practice of child marriage. This paper will present how some of these rights are violated and how they establish the need for change.

Keywords: child marriage, forced child marriage, children's rights, religious rights, cultural rights

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191 Education as an Important Correlate for Age at Marriage in Bangladesh

Authors: Forhana Rahman Noor, Shafia Jannat Khanam

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A girl’s schooling is disrupted by the very act of marriage which requires her to move away from home and her school area to live with her husband’s family, according to custom and practice. Once in her new home, her husband or her in-laws decide her continuation of schooling. A plethora of research has confirmed the inter-relationship between education and age at marriage of girls. The primary data was collected from both urban and rural area in Bangladesh. The study revealed that mean age at marriage for girls was 15.69 years, as a whole and it was lower (15.21 years) in the rural area than that of the urban area (17.13 years). These readings confirm early marriage still exists. The most important determinant of age at marriage was found as low education level of the girls. The bi-variate analysis of this study discovered the relationship or association between education and age at marriage. The study also found the education level of husbands of girls has a significant effect on age at marriage of a girl.

Keywords: education, girl, age at marriage, correlate, Bangladesh

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190 Child Marriage and the Law in Nigeria

Authors: Kolawole-Amao, Grace Titilayo

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Children are the most vulnerable members of the society. The child is a foundation of the society and he/she assures its continuity. Thus, the survival, continuity and the standard of development of human society depends upon the protection, preservation, nurture and development of the child. In other words, the rights of a child must be protected and guaranteed for the assurance of a healthy society. The law is an instrument of social change in any society as well as a potent weapon to combat crime, achieve justice for the people and protect their rights. In Nigeria, child marriage still occurs, though its prevalence varies from one region to another. This paper shall Centre on child rights under the law in Nigeria, child marriage and its impact on the child, obstacles in eliminating child marriages and measures that have been adopted as well as the role of the law and its effect in deterring child marriage in Nigeria.

Keywords: child rights, child marriage, law, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
189 Cultural Biases, Cognitive Dispositions and Conception of Marriage in Indian Families: Role of Urbanization

Authors: Nandita Chaube, S. S. Nathawat, Shweta Jha

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Keeping in view a drastic change in social and cultural scenario in India, influencing the marriage patterns, preferences and the concept of marriage, the present study examined cultural biases, cognitive dispositions and conception of marriage among Indian families hailing from urban, semi-urban and rural backgrounds. Structured interviews were conducted on 15 families of Jaipur region and its nearby villages including young adults and aged family members. The sample was comprised of both male and female family members. Qualitative analyses of interview data revealed a considerable difference amongst the families on the basis of residential background and other cultural, cognitive and conceptual levels. Hence, it is concluded that Indian families hailing from different cultural and residential backgrounds differ in their conceptions of marriage.

Keywords: cognitive dispositions, cultural biases, families, marriage, urbanization

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188 Indonesian Marriage Law Reform: A Doctrinal Research to Find the Way to Strengthen Children's Rights against Child Marriage

Authors: Erni Agustin, Zendy Prameswari

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The Law Number 1 Year 1974 on Marriage was issued by Indonesian Government to replace the old marriage law stipulated in Burgerlijk Wetboek inherited from the Dutch colonial. The Law defines marriage as both physical and mental bond between a man and a woman as husband and wife with the purpose to form a harmonious family based on deity. Marriage shall be conducted when determined requirements are met based on the Law. Article 7 of the Law Number 1 Year 1974 stipulates the minimum age requirement to enter into marriage, which is 19 years for men and 16 years for women. This stipulation is made to make the marriage achieve the true goal to form a happy, eternal and prosperous family. It is expected at that age, each party has a mature soul and physic. However, it is possible for those who have not reached the age to enter into marriage if there is a dispensation granted by the courts or other official designated by the parents of each party in the marriage. As many other countries in the world, Indonesia has serious problems linked with the child or underage marriage. Indonesia is one of the countries with the highest absolute numbers of child marriage. In 2012, a judicial review was filed to the Constitutional Court against the provisions of the minimum age limit in the Law Number 1 Year 1974 on Marriage. The appeal was filed in order to raise the limit of minimum age for women from 16 years to be 18 years. However, the Constitutional Court considered that the provisions on the minimum age in the Law Number 1 Year 1974 on Marriage is constitutional. At the international level, Indonesia has participated in the formulation of variety of international human rights instrument which have an impact on children, and is a party to a number of them. Indonesia ratified the CRC through Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia Number 36 Year 1990 on 5 September 1990. This paper attempts to analyze three main issues. Firstly, it will scrutinize the ratio legis of the stipulation on minimum age requirement to enter into marriage in the Law Number 1 Year 1974 on Marriage. Secondly, it will discuss the conformity of Indonesian marriage law to the principles and provisions on the CRC. Last, this paper will elaborate the legal measures shall be taken to strengthen the legal protection for children against child marriage. This paper is a doctrinal research using statute, conceptual and historical approaches. This study argues that The Law-making of Indonesian marriage law influenced by religious values that live in Indonesia. With regard to the conformity of Indonesian marriage law with the CRC, Indonesia is facing the issue of the compatibility of its respective national law with the CRC. Therefore, the legal measures that have to be taken are to review and amend the Indonesian Marriage Law to provide better protection for the children against underage marriage.

Keywords: child marriage, children’s rights, indonesian marriage law, underage marriage

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187 Social Norms around Adolescent Girls’ Marriage Practices in Ethiopia: A Qualitative Exploration

Authors: Dagmawit Tewahido

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Purpose: This qualitative study was conducted to explore social norms around adolescent girls’ marriage practices in West Hararghe, Ethiopia, where early marriage is prohibited by law. Methods: Twenty Focus Group Discussions were conducted with Married and Unmarried adolescent girls, adolescent boys and parents of girls using locally developed vignettes. A total of 32 in-depth interviews were conducted with married and unmarried adolescent girls, husbands of adolescent girls and mothers-in-law. Key informant interviews were conducted with 36 district officials. Data analysis was assisted by Open Code computer software. The Social Norms Analysis Plot (SNAP) framework developed by CARE guided the development and analysis of vignettes. A thematic data analysis approach was utilized to summarize the data. Results: Early marriage is seen as a positive phenomenon in our study context, and girls who are not married by the perceived ideal age of 15 are socially sanctioned. They are particularly influenced by their peers to marry. Marrying early is considered a chance given by God and a symbol of good luck. The two common types of marriage are decided: 1) by adolescent girl and boy themselves without seeking parental permission (’Jalaa-deemaa’- meaning ‘to go along’), and 2) by just informing girl’s parents (‘Cabsaa’- meaning ‘to break the culture’). Relatives and marriage brokers also arrange early marriages. Girls usually accept the first marriage proposal regardless of their age. Parents generally tend not to oppose marriage arrangements chosen by their daughters. Conclusions: In the study context social norms encourage early marriage despite the existence of a law prohibiting marriage before the age of eighteen years. Early marriage commonly happens through consensual arrangements between adolescent girls and boys. Interventions to reduce early marriage need to consider the influence of Reference Groups on the decision makers for marriages, especially girls’ own peers.

Keywords: adolescent girls, social norms, early marriage, Ethiopia

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186 Decision Making Regarding Spouse Selection and Women's Autonomy in India: Exploring the Linkage

Authors: Nivedita Paul

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The changing character of marriage be it arranged marriage, love marriage, polygamy, informal unions, all signify different gender relations in everyday lives. Marriages in India are part and parcel of the kinship and cultural practices. Arranged marriage is still the dominant form of marriage where spouse selection is the initiative and decision of the parents; but its form is changing, as women are now actively participating in spouse selection but with parental consent. Spouse selection related decision making is important because marriage as an institution brings social change and gender inequality; especially in a women’s life as marriages in India are mostly patrilocal. Moreover, the amount of say in spouse selection can affect a woman’s reproductive rights, domestic violence issues, household resource allocation, communication possibilities with the spouse/husband, marital life, etc. The present study uses data from Indian Human Development Survey II (2011-12) which is a nationally representative multitopic survey that covers 41,554 households. Currently, married women of age group 15-49 in their first marriage; whose year of marriage is from 1970s to 2000s have been taken for the study. Based on spouse selection experiences, the sample of women has been divided into three marriage categories-self, semi and family arranged. Women in self arranged or love marriage is the sole decision maker in choosing the partner, in semi arranged marriage or arranged marriage with consent both parents and women together take the decision, whereas in family arranged or arranged marriage without consent only parents take the decision. The main aim of the study is to find the relationship between spouse selection experiences and women’s autonomy in India. Decision making in economic matters, child and health related decision making, mobility and access to resources are taken to be proxies of autonomy. Method of ordinal regression has been used to find the relationship between spouse selection experiences and autonomy after marriage keeping other independent variables as control factors. Results show that women in semi arranged marriage have more decision making power regarding financial matters of the household, health related matters, mobility and accessibility to resources, when compared to women in family, arranged marriages. For freedom of movement and access to resources women in self arranged marriage have the highest say or exercise greatest power. Therefore, greater participation of women (even though not absolute control) in spouse selection may lead to greater autonomy after marriage.

Keywords: arranged marriage, autonomy, consent, spouse selection

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185 The Rocketing Raise of Bride Price in the Rural China: Intimacy and Family Changes Brought by Rural Urban Migration

Authors: Lei Liu

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This paper concerns on a special phenomenon of rocketing of bride’s price in rural China after the rural-urban labor migration nowadays. It provides a brief overview of three major prospective on marriage exchange, especially impose the local marriage market due to the post-migration economic environments. Then the author highlights on several factors that influence the rocketing raise of rural marriage gifts using both the primary data from census 2010 and the interviews from the field study, such as one-child policy and the unbalanced sex ratio with the familiar context parents used different strategies in raising their sons and daughters so as to best hold their own interests, causing inequality between females and males. Then this was broken by the independence of rural women and the phenomenon of cross-regional marriage after the free mobility of labor resource between rural areas and urban areas which gives women equal rights to choose their spouses together with some publicly policies that accelerate the decline of patriarchy. In the end, the author spells out a framework of migration influence on rural marriage for some theoretical and policy implications of the findings.

Keywords: rural-urban migration, gender stratification, rural China, bride price, marriage

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184 The Pursuit of Marital Sustainability Inspiring by Successful Matrimony of Two Distinguishable Indonesian Ethnics as a Learning Process

Authors: Mutiara Amalina Khairisa, Purnama Arafah, Rahayu Listiana Ramli

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In recent years, so many cases of divorce increasingly occur. Betrayal in form of infidelity, less communication one another, economically problems, selfishness of two sides, intervening parents from both sides which frequently occurs in Asia, especially in Indonesia, the differences of both principles and beliefs, “Sense of Romantism” depletion, role confict, a large difference in the purpose of marriage,and sex satisfaction are expected as the primary factors of the causes of divorce. Every couple of marriage wants to reach happy life in their family but severe problems brought about by either of those main factors come as a reasonable cause of failure marriage. The purpose of this study is to find out how marital adjustment and supporting factors in ensuring the success of that previous marital adjusment are inseparable two things assumed as a framework can affect the success in marriage becoming a resolution to reduce the desires to divorce. Those two inseparable things are able to become an aspect of learning from the success of the different ethnics marriage to keep holding on wholeness.

Keywords: marital adjustment, marital sustainability, learning process, successful ethnicity differences marriage, basical cultural values

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183 Necessity of Recognition of Same-Sex Marriages and Civil Partnerships Concluded Abroad from Civil Status Registry Point of View

Authors: Ewa Kamarad

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Recent problems with adopting the EU Regulation on matrimonial property regimes have clearly proven that Member States are unable to agree on the scope of the Regulation and, therefore, on the definitions of matrimonial property and marriage itself. Taking into account that the Regulation on the law applicable to divorce and legal separation, as well as the Regulation on matrimonial property regimes, were adopted in the framework of enhanced cooperation, it is evident that lack of a unified definition of marriage has very wide-ranging consequences. The main problem with the unified definition of marriage is that the EU is not entitled to adopt measures in the domain of material family law, as this area remains under the exclusive competence of the Member States. Because of that, the legislation on marriage in domestic legal orders of the various Member States is very different. These differences concern not only issues such as form of marriage or capacity to enter into marriage, but also the most basic matter, namely the core of the institution of marriage itself. Within the 28 Member States, we have those that allow both different-sex and same-sex marriages, those that have adopted special, separate institutions for same-sex couples, and those that allow only marriage between a man and a woman (e.g. Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia). Because of the freedom of movement within the European Union, it seems necessary to somehow recognize the civil effects of a marriage that was concluded in another Member State. The most crucial issue is how far that recognition should go. The thesis presented in the presentation is that, at an absolute minimum, the authorities of all Member States must recognize the civil status of the persons who enter into marriage in another Member State. Lack of such recognition might cause serious problems, both for the spouses and for other individuals. The authorities of some Member States may treat the marriage as if it does not exist because it was concluded under foreign law that defines marriage differently. Because of that, it is possible for the spouse to obtain a certificate of civil status stating that he or she is single and thus eligible to enter into marriage – despite being legally married under the law of another Member State. Such certificate can then be used in another country to serve as a proof of civil status. Eventually the lack of recognition can lead to so-called “international bigamy”. The biggest obstacle to recognition of marriages concluded under the law of another Member State that defines marriage differently is the impossibility of transcription of a foreign civil certificate in the case of such a marriage. That is caused by the rule requiring that a civil certificate issued (or transcribed) under one country's law can contain only records of legal institutions recognized by that country's legal order. The presentation is going to provide possible solutions to this problem.

Keywords: civil status, recognition of marriage, conflict of laws, private international law

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
182 Child Marriage in Indonesian Law Perspective

Authors: Sonny Dewi Judiasih

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Every person retains the right to marry and starts a family through a legitimized marriage. Indonesian Marriage Act has regulated the minimum age for boys to marry is 19 while the girls is 16, with an exception that the parents could ask for an exemption to the court or to the authorized official. Despite the age limit is set by the Marriage Act, however, with the influences from adat law and islamic law which allows younger persons to marry, the child marriage phenomenon is inevitable to happen in Indonesia. Child marriages in Indonesia have shown such alarming fact where 4.8 percentage of total marriage number come from persons with the age of 10 to 14 years old. The percentage was the result from a research conducted by the National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN). The result shows 41.9 percent of child marriages was contributed by girls who marry in the age of 15 to 19, which mostly comes from villagers. Other fact shows 50 percent of child marriages end in divorce with grounds varied from the mental health of the children, economic situation, and so on. With more children committed early marriages, more babies will be borned from indebted families. Subsequently, the government’s program to alleviate poverty will be short of expectations. Other risk for child marriages includes death of the mother and the child after giving birth. The people have challenged the legality of child marriages through judicial review filed to the Constitutional Court. The Court decided to reinforce the age limitation previously set by the Marriage Act by issuing judicial decision no: 30-74/PUU-Xii/2014. The Court stated that changes to the age limit must be in conform with cultural and traditional situation. Further, it stated child marriages are allowed to be arranged as an “emergency exit” if the parents filed such request to an exemption on the grounds of coercive situation and after the court or the authorized officials issued its approval.

Keywords: child, marriage, court, Indonesia

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181 Islam, Forced Marriages and Pakistani Culture: An Analytical Overview

Authors: Naseem Akhter, Rozina Khattak, Arshad Munir

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The Islamic social and family system is very clear concerning will, choice, consent and negation of compulsion and force in human life. Marriage is not only a civil contract but also a religious and spiritual contract between spouse (man and woman), which allows them for each other to live gladly, joyfully and legally in the society. It is an immortal and perpetual association between man and woman, which is filled with sympathetic affection, kindness, compassion and security. Islam gives specific rights to parents and guardians to set up the marriage ceremony and get done it as a respectful family occasion, confer their blessing and advice for a life partner of their children. The rights of parents and guardians are summed up in the term of "Willayah”. Islam does not permit parents, guardians and other relatives to compel their children regarding the marriage of their choice, because the groom and the bride are the real parties of the contract. Therefore, their willingness is of prime importance in order to spend whole life with each other. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) prohibits forcing a virgin to marriage without her permission, whether this is her father or someone else. The right of free consent to choose a life partner is the basic right for the human which is God (Allah) gifted. Unfortunately, forced marriage is a common practice in Pakistani society that has no link with Islam. This article is being written in the same context.

Keywords: choice, consent, forced marriage, Islam, parents, spouse

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180 The Nexus between Child Marriage and Women Empowerment with Physical Violence in Two Culturally Distinct States of India

Authors: Jayakant Singh, Enu Anand

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Background: Child marriage is widely prevalent in India. It is a form of gross human right violation that succumbs a child bride to be subservient to her husband within a marital relation. We investigated the relationship between age at marriage of women and her level of empowerment with physical violence experienced 12 months preceding the survey among young women aged 20-24 in two culturally distinct states- Bihar and Tamil Nadu of India. Methods: We used the information collected from 10514 young married women (20-24 years) at all India level, 373 in Bihar and 523 in Tamil Nadu from the third round of National Family Health Survey. Empowerment index was calculated using different parameters such as mobility, economic independence and decision making power of women using Principal Component Analysis method. Bivariate analysis was performed primarily using chi square for the test of significance. Logistic regression was carried out to assess the effect of age at marriage and empowerment on physical violence. Results: Lower level of women empowerment was significantly associated with physical violence in Tamil Nadu (OR=2.38, p<0.01) whereas child marriage (marriage before age 15) was associated with physical violence in Bihar (OR=3.27, p<0.001). The mean difference in age at marriage between those who experienced physical violence and those who did not experience varied by 7 months in Bihar and 10 months in Tamil Nadu. Conclusion: Culture specific intervention may be a key to reduction of violence against women as the results showed association of different factors contributing to physical violence in Bihar and Tamil Nadu. Marrying at an appropriate age perhaps is protective of abuse because it equips a woman to assert her rights effectively. It calls for an urgent consideration to curb both violence and child marriage with stricter involvement of family, civil society and the government. In the meanwhile physical violence may be recognized as a public health problem and integrate appropriate treatment to the victims within the health care institution.

Keywords: child marriage, empowerment, India, physical violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
179 The Igbo People's Dual Religion Identity on Rite of Marriage in Imo State

Authors: Henry Okechukwu Onyeiwu

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To fully understand the critical role of marriage in society, it is important to view it as a social institution that provides some basic social needs for society. A ‘social institution’ is the network of shared meanings, norms, definitions, expectations, and understandings held by the members of society. It is what guides and governs how the members of the society are expected to act and interact, what is socially desirable and legitimate, what they should be striving for, and so on. One of the major social institutions is marriage. Marriage is and has often focused on children and what is best for them because the rising generation literally is the future of every society. However, according to the aforementioned definition, which notes that marriage may also be a union between two persons of the same sex with legal support, this study stands with the definitions that are based on marriage being a union between a man and woman that is the most appropriate in Igbo land and not the other way round. The issue to be evaluated concerns marriage as it associates with Igbo Catholic Christians in Nigeria. Pasts of Igbo culture should be better organized into the Christian faith. Igbo Christians actually convey a significant number of their customary thoughts, customs, and social qualities, particularly regarding marriage, in the aftermath of switching to Christianity. The analyst agrees that marriage among Igbo Christians warrants adequate evolution. This study, therefore, concentrates on the Igbo community’s interpretation of the concept of culture and religion and the religious implications of traditional marriage and Christian marriage ceremonies in Igbo. The research design of this study is a qualitative design that provides in-depth information on the dual religious identity of the Igbo people on the rite of marriage in Imo state. The study population was composed of both male and female members from each selected local government area in Imo State. Thematic analysis was used to elaborate on the result from the respondents. This survey found that reputation is a major concern for Ibo people. Parental discomfort can lead to the use of coping strategies such as displacement, in which parents pass on their own vulnerable sentiments to their children. Those who participate in marriage negotiations feel the pain of their parents because they are unable to communicate their own feelings. As a result, participants experience increased stress and a range of negative emotions related to their marriage, including worry, dissatisfaction, and ambivalence. It was concluded that when it comes to Igbo culture, marriage is seen as a need for the continuation of the family’s lineage of descent, according to the outcome. The Task at hand was to discover how the locals preparing to get married define the impending transition. Imo State is home to the practice of Igba-nkwu, where the woman is either inherited or taken in the place of another.

Keywords: Igbo, culture, Christianity, traditional marriage, Christian wedding

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178 Implementation of Maqasid Syari'ah in the Concept of Reforming the Indonesian Marriage Law Based on Gender Equality: Study of the Counter Legal Draft Compilation of Islamic Law

Authors: Nirmalasanti Pramesi

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In 2004 the CLD KHI Team offered several new ideas in the field of Islamic family law, such as marriage, inheritance (waris), and waqf. The new idea is based on six main principles; pluralism, nationality, human rights, democracy, maslahah, and gender equality. However, the existence of this has actually caused various criticisms, appreciations, and controversies. For this reason, CLD-KHI, as the idea of reforming family law, especially in the field of marriage, really needs to be studied academically with a comprehensive method as an unfinished problem. The main issues examined in this study are what are the ideas for reforming the law of marriage that have been formulated by the CLD KHI team, as well as how to implement Maqasid Sharia in legal reform. The methodology used in this research is a qualitative method with a normative-empirical-sociological approach. The results of this research show every substance of the idea considers aspects of locality, nationality, and global ethics. The Maqasid approach used in most of the legal provisions is moderate (wasati). Meanwhile, in matters of wali niqah and inheritance, it is adjusted to the context of Indonesian society.

Keywords: Maqasid syari'ah, CLD KHI, marriage law reform, moderate

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177 Intellectual Women: The Continuing Struggle between Marriage and Personal Dreams in Margaret Drabble's a Summer Bird-Cage and The Millstone

Authors: Ashwag Abdul-Hakeem Al-Thubaiti

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This study aims at analysing women's hesitant attitudes towards marriage in Margaret Drabble's novels, A Summer-Bird-Cage (1964) and The Millstone (1965), to prove that these ambivalent feelings are due to their search for autonomy. The heroines' radical outlook on independence is only meant to hide their conflict regarding sex-experience and fear of intimacy, a fear that has been enhanced by their rejection of the expression of faith that considers marriage a sacred bond and instead focus on their own identity and dissolve any bond that may affect their independence. To achieve their autonomy, they have to depend on themselves financially and focus on their aspirational goals. This sharp division between the two worlds, the family life and the personal success attributes negatively to their lives and leads to a self-identity crisis. Drabble tends to solve this struggle by awakening their maternal instinct. Once they respect their physical needs and appreciate their role as it is assigned to them by nature and society, they reach a balanced identity.

Keywords: autonomy, marriage, maternity, women

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176 The Opinions of Counselor Candidates' regarding Universal Values in Marriage Relationship

Authors: Seval Kizildag, Ozge Can Aran

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The effective intervention of counselors’ in conflict between spouses may be effective in increasing the quality of marital relationship. At this point, it is necessary for counselors to consider their own value systems at first and then reflect this correctly to the counseling process. For this reason, it is primarily important to determine the needs of counselors. Starting from this point of view, in this study, it is aimed to reveal the perspective of counselor candidates about the universal values in marriage relation. The study group of the survey was formed by sampling, which is one of the prospective sampling methods. As a criterion being a candidate for counseling area and having knowledge of the concepts of the Marriage and Family Counseling course is based, because, that candidate students have a comprehensive knowledge of the field and that students have mastered the concepts of marriage and family counseling will strengthen the findings of this study. For this reason, 61 counselor candidates, 32 (52%) female and 29 (48%) male counselor candidates, who were about to graduate from a university in south-east Turkey and who took a Marriage and Family Counseling course, voluntarily participated in the study. The average age of counselor candidates’ is 23. At the same time, 70 % of the parents of these candidates brought about their marriage through arranged marriage, 13% through flirting, 8% by relative marriage, 7% through friend circles and 2% by custom. The data were collected through Demographic Information Form and a form titled ‘Universal Values Form in Marriage’ which consists of six questions prepared by researchers. After the data were transferred to the computer, necessary statistical evaluations were made on the data. The qualitative data analysis was used on the data which was obtained in the study. The universal values which include six basic values covering trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, citizenship, determined under the name as ‘six pillar of character’ are used as base and frequency values of the data were calculated trough content analysis. According to the findings of the study, while the value which most students find the most important value in marriage relation is being reliable, the value which they find the least important is to have citizenship consciousness. Also in this study, it is found out that counselor candidates associate the value of being trustworthiness ‘loyalty’ with (33%) as the highest in terms of frequency, the value of being respect ‘No violence’ with (23%), the value of responsibility ‘in the context of gender roles and spouses doing their owns’ with (35%) the value of being fairness ‘impartiality’ with (25%), the value of being caring ‘ being helpful’ with (25%) and finally as to the value of citizenship ‘love of country’ with (14%) and’ respect for the laws ‘ with (14%). It is believed that these results of the study will contribute to the arrangements for the development of counseling skills for counselor candidates regarding value in marriage and family counseling curricula.

Keywords: caring, citizenship, counselor candidate, fairness, marriage relationship, respect, responsibility, trustworthiness, value system

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175 Religious Fundamentalism Prescribes Requirements for Marriage and Reproduction

Authors: Steven M. Graham, Anne V. Magee

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Most world religions have sacred texts and traditions that provide instruction about and definitions of marriage, family, and family duties and responsibilities. Given that religious fundamentalism (RF) is defined as the belief that these sacred texts and traditions are literally and completely true to the exclusion of other teachings, RF should be predictive of the attitudes one holds about these topics. The goals of the present research were to: (1) explore the extent to which people think that men and women can be happy without marriage, a significant sexual relationship, a long-term romantic relationship, and having children; (2) determine the extent to which RF is associated with these beliefs; and, (3) to determine how RF is associated with considering certain elements of a relationship to be necessary for thinking of that relationship as a marriage. In Study 1, participants completed a reliable and valid measure of RF and answered questions about the necessity of various elements for a happy life. Higher RF scores were associated with the belief that both men and women require marriage, a sexual relationship, a long-term romantic relationship, and children in order to have a happy life. In Study 2, participants completed these same measures and the pattern of results replicated when controlling for overall religiosity. That is, RF predicted these beliefs over and above religiosity. Additionally, participants indicated the extent to which a variety of characteristics were necessary to consider a particular relationship to be a marriage. Controlling for overall religiosity, higher RF scores were associated with the belief that the following were required to consider a relationship a marriage: religious sanctification, a sexual component, sexual monogamy, emotional monogamy, family approval, children (or the intent to have them), cohabitation, and shared finances. Interestingly, and unexpectedly, higher RF scores were correlated with less importance placed on mutual consent in order to consider a relationship a marriage. RF scores were uncorrelated with the importance placed on legal recognition or lifelong commitment and these null findings do not appear to be attributable to ceiling effects or lack of variability. These results suggest that RF constrains views about both the importance of marriage and family in one’s life and also the characteristics required to consider a relationship a proper marriage. This could have implications for the mental and physical health of believers high in RF, either positive or negative, depending upon the extent to which their lives correspond to these templates prescribed by RF. Additionally, some of these correlations with RF were substantial enough (> .70) that the relevant items could serve as a brief, unobtrusive measure of RF. Future research will investigate these possibilities.

Keywords: attitudes about marriage, fertility intentions, measurement, religious fundamentalism

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174 Barred from Each Other: Why Normative Husbands Remain Married to Incarcerated Wives

Authors: Tomer Einat, Sharon Rabinovitz, Inbal Harel-Aviram

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This study explores men’s motivation and justification to remain married to their criminal, imprisoned wives. Using semi-structured interviews and content-analysis, data were collected and analyzed from eight men who maintain stable marriage relationships with their incarcerated wives. Participants are normative men who describe incarceration as a challenge that enhances mutual responsibility and commitment. They exaggerate the extent to which their partners resemble archetypal romantic ideals. They use motivational accounts to explain the woman’s criminal conduct, which is perceived as non-relevant to her real identity. Physical separation and lack of physical intimacy are perceived as the major difficulties in maintaining their marriage relations. Length of imprisonment and marriage was found to be related to the decision whether to continue or terminate the relationships. Women-inmates’ partners experience difficulties and use coping strategies very similar to those cited by other normative spouses facing lengthy separation.

Keywords: female inmates, marriage, normative spouses, romantic accounts

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173 Regional Variations in Spouse Selection Patterns of Women in India

Authors: Nivedita Paul

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Marriages in India are part and parcel of kinship and cultural practices. Marriage practices differ in India because of cross-regional diversities in social relations which itself has evolved as a result of causal relationship between space and culture. As the place is important for the formation of culture and other social structures, therefore there is regional differentiation in cultural practices and marital customs. Based on the cultural practices some scholars have divided India into North and South kinship regions where women in the North get married early and have lesser autonomy compared to women in the South where marriages are mostly consanguineous. But, the emergence of new modes and alternative strategies such as matrimonial advertisements becoming popular, as well as the increase in women’s literacy and work force participation, matchmaking process in India has changed to some extent. The present study uses data from Indian Human Development Survey II (2011-12) which is a nationally representative multitopic survey that covers 41,554 households. Currently married women of age group 15-49 in their first marriage; whose year of marriage is from the 1970s to 2000s have been taken for the study. Based on spouse selection experiences, the sample of women has been divided into three marriage categories-self, semi and family arranged. Women in self-arranged or love marriage is the sole decision maker in choosing the partner, in semi-arranged marriage or arranged marriage with consent both parents and women together take the decision, whereas in family arranged or arranged marriage without consent only parents take the decision. The main aim of the study is to show the spatial and regional variations in spouse selection decision making. The basis for regionalization has been taken from Irawati Karve’s pioneering work on kinship studies in India called Kinship Organization in India. India is divided into four kinship regions-North, Central, South and East. Since this work was formulated in 1953, some of the states have experienced changes due to modernization; hence these have been regrouped. After mapping spouse selection patterns using GIS software, it is found that the northern region has mostly family arranged marriages (around 64.6%), the central zone shows a mixed pattern since family arranged marriages are less than north but more than south and semi-arranged marriages are more than north but less than south. The southern zone has the dominance of semi-arranged marriages (around 55%) whereas the eastern zone has more of semi-arranged marriage (around 53%) but there is also a high percentage of self-arranged marriage (around 42%). Thus, arranged marriage is the dominant form of marriage in all four regions, but with a difference in the degree of the involvement of the female and her parents and relatives.

Keywords: spouse selection, consent, kinship, regional pattern

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172 Women Domestic Violence in Nepalese Society: A Case Study of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski

Authors: Rajani Bogati, Gopini Pathak

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Women living in husband’s home (second home) after getting married is a common culture in Nepalese society. Most of the marriages are arranged between the mutual understandings of their parents as per their cultural practice. Culturally, arranged marriage system protects women in the society. Even though, women domestic violence is also still alive in the society. It depends upon the family class, ethnicity, caste, religion etc. Lower class (poor) family always try to get marriage from the higher class (rich) family of girl and also try to send their girl in higher class family. This study analysis the freedom of women of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski district on the base of the family class of girl where she born (First home). 88% women are getting more respect in their second home if their family class of first home and second homes are same. They feel more comfortable and freedom in their second home. 79% of Women are suffering from domestic violence while the marriage between the boys from higher class and the girls from lower class. But less than 10% women are getting distress from violence if the marriage is accompanied between the girls from higher class and the boys from lower class. Less domestic violence is seem where the both families are educated, even though they are from different class. This study recommends that the society should be educated first to reduce women domestic violence.

Keywords: arranged marriage, women, family class, domestic violence

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171 Analysis of the Best Interest of the Child Principle within a Marriage Law Framework: A Study of South Africa

Authors: Lizelle Ramaccio Calvino

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Article 3 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Child states that 'The best interests of the child must be a top priority in all decisions and actions that affect children.' This stance is also echoed in terms of article 20 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. South Africa, as a signatory of the aforesaid international and national conventions, constitutionalised the best interest of the child in terms of section 28(2) of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. Section 28(2) provides that '[A] child’s best interests are of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child.' The application of 'the best interests of the child' principle is consequently applicable in all fields of South African law, including matrimonial law. Two separate but equal Acts regulate civil marriages in South Africa, namely the Marriage Act 25 of 1961 and the Civil Union Act 17 of 2006. Customary marriages are regulated by the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act 120 of 1998. In terms of the Marriage Act and the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act, a minor may (provided he/she obtains the required consent) enter into a marriage. Despite the aforesaid, section 1 of the Civil Union Act categorically prohibits a minor from entering into a civil union. The article will first determine whether the ban of minors from entering into a civil union undermines the 'the best interests of the child' principle, and if so, whether it is in violation of the Constitution as well as international and national conventions. In addition, the article will critically analyse whether the application of the Marriage Act and the Civil Union Act (dual Acts) result in disparity within the South African marriage law framework, and if so, whether such discrepancy violates same-sex couples’ right (in particular a same-sex minor) to equality before the law and to have their dignity protected. The article intends, through the application of a qualitative research methodology and by way of a comparative analyses of international and domestic laws, consider whether a single well-defined structure such as the Dutch marriage law system would not be an improved alternative to address the existing paradox resulting from the application of an Act that undermines 'the best interest of the child' principle. Ultimately the article proposes recommendations for matrimonial law reform.

Keywords: best interests of the child, civil marriage, civil union, minor

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170 Flourishing in Marriage among Arab Couples in Israel: The Impact of Capitalization Support and Accommodation on Positive and Negative Affect

Authors: Niveen Hassan-Abbas, Tammie Ronen-Rosenbaum

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Background and purpose: 'Flourishing in marriage' is a concept refers to married individuals’ high positivity ratio regarding their marriage, namely greater reported positive than negative emotions. The study proposes a different approach to marriage which emphasizes the place of the individual himself as largely responsible for his personal flourishing within marriage. Accordingly, the individual's desire to preserve and strengthen his marriage largely determines the marital behavior in a way that will contribute to his marriage success (Actor Effect), regardless the contribution of his or her partner to his marriage success (Partner Effect). Another assumption was that flourishing in marriage could be achieved by two separate processes, where capitalization support increases the positive marriage's evaluations and accommodation decreases the negative one. A theoretical model was constructed, whereby individuals who were committed to their marriage were hypothesized as employing self-control skills by way of two dynamic processes. First, individual’s higher degree of 'capitalization supportive responses' - supportive responses to the partner's sharing of positive personal experiences - was hypothesized as increasing one’s positive evaluations of marriage and thereby one’s positivity ratio. Second, individual’s higher degree of 'accommodation' responses - the ability during conflict situations to control the impulse to respond destructively and instead to respond constructively - was hypothesized as decreasing one’s negative evaluations of marriage and thereby increasing one’s positivity ratio. Methods: Participants were 156 heterosexual Arab couples from different regions of Israel. The mean period of marriage was 10.19 (SD=7.83), ages were 31.53 years for women (SD=8.12) and 36.80 years for men (SD=8.07). Years of education were 13.87 for women (SD=2.84) and 13.23 years for men (SD=3.45). Each participant completed seven questionnaires: socio-demographic, self-control skills, commitment, capitalization support, accommodation, marital quality, positive and negative affect. Using statistical analyses adapted to dyadic research design, firstly descriptive statistics were calculated and preliminary tests were performed. Next, dyadic model based on the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: The assumption according to which flourishing in marriage can be achieved by two processes was confirmed. All of the Actor Effect hypotheses were confirmed. Participants with higher self-control used more capitalization support and accommodation responses. Among husbands, unlike wives, these correlations were stronger when the individual's commitment level was higher. More capitalization supportive responses were found to increase positive evaluations of marriage, and greater spousal accommodation was found to decrease negative evaluations of marriage. High positive evaluations and low negative evaluations were found to increase positivity ratio. Not according to expectation, four partner effect paths were found significant. Conclusions and Implications: The present findings coincide with the positive psychology approach that emphasizes human strengths. The uniqueness of this study is its proposal that individuals are largely responsible for their personal flourishing in marriage. This study demonstrated that marital flourishing can be achieved by two processes, where capitalization increases the positive and accommodation decreases the negative. Practical implications include the need to construct interventions that enhance self-control skills for employment of capitalizing responsiveness and accommodation processes.

Keywords: accommodation, capitalization support, commitment, flourishing in marriage, positivity ratio, self-control skills

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169 The Marriage of a Sui Juris Girl: Permission of Wali (Guardian) or Consent of Ward in the Context of Personal Law in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Farooq

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The present article explores the woman's consent as a paramount element in contracting a Muslim marriage. Also, whether permission of the wali (guardian) is a condition per se for a valid nikah (marriage deed) in the eye of law and Sharia. The researcher attempts to treat it through the related issues, inter alia; the marriage guardian, the women's legal capacity to give consent whether she is a virgin or nonvirgin and how that consent is to be given or may be understood. Does her laugh, tears or salience needs a legal interpretation as well as other female manifestations of emotion explained by the Muslim jurists? The silence of Muslim Family Law Ordinance 1961 (hereafter; MFLO 1961) in this regard and the likely reasons behind such silence is also inquired in brief. Germane to the theme, the various cases in which the true notion of woman's consent is interpreted by courts in Pakistan are also examined. In order to address the issue in hand, it is proposed to provide a brief overview of a few contemporary writers' opinions in which the real place of woman's consent in Muslim marriage is highlighted. Key to the idea of young Muslim woman's marriage, the doctrine of kafa'a (equality or suitability) between the man and woman is argued here to be grounded in the patriarchal and social norms. It is, therefore, concluded that such concept was the result of analogical reasoning and has less importance in the present time. As such it is not a valid factor in current scenarios to validate or invalidate marital bonds. A standard qualitative convention is used for this research. Among primary and secondary sources; for examples, Qur'an, Sunnah, Books, Scholarly articles, texts of law and case law is used to point out the researcher's view. In summation, the article is concluded with a bold statement that a young woman being a party to the contract, is absolutely entitled to 'full and free' consent for the Muslim marriage contract. It is the woman, an indispensable partaker and her consent (not the guardian' permission) that does validate or invalidate the said agreement in the eye of contemporary personal law and in Sharia.

Keywords: consent of woman, ejab (declaration), Nikah (marriage agreement), qabol (acceptance), sui juris (of age; independent), wali (guardian), wilayah (guardianship)

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168 Legal Pluralism and Efficiency in International Marriage Law: Implications of Regulatory Competition on an Analysis of Conflict of Law Rules

Authors: Rorick Daniel Tovar Galvan

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The existence of different legal systems represents an important barrier for married couples that attempt to reside in another country. Each movement can cause important changes in the rights and obligations derived from the marriage since a different law could be used by the courts to solve legal disputes arising from their relationship. In a context in which it is increasingly common to move from one country to another, people cannot be certain about the outcomes of proceedings dealing with i.e., the dissolution of property regime, maintenance payments or time to wait to initiate divorce because a foreign – and in most cases unknown – law could apply every time they move. At first glance, the answer to this issue seems to be the harmonization of the legal systems: the greater the mobility of individuals inside a group of countries, the higher the similarities of their laws should be. Such a solution could be positive for spouses because a higher degree of legal certainty would be reached in case the same legal rules applied regardless of the place where the couple lives. However, the legal pluralism brings with it also advantages that could be appreciated when one looks closely at the economic rationale behind the legal institution of marriage. This contribution carries out an economic analysis of the existence of different legal systems in the area of marriage law and proposes another strategy to cope with the problems arising from legal pluralism. Far from eliminating the diversity of legal systems, one wishes to foster it, since significant advantages could arise from such diversity in case couples are permitted to choose the applicable law themselves. Based on the idea that the law could be seem as a product offered in the market as well as states and spouses as suppliers and consumers of this product, the paper shows the advantages of designing a legal framework that allows spouses to determine freely the law governing the legal effects of their marriage. Instead of promoting the harmonization of the substantive law, one explores the benefits of encouraging the regulatory competition at international level in the area of marriage law.

Keywords: conflict of laws, harmonization, international marriage law, law and economics, regulatory competition

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167 Non-Monogamy as Rebellion against Tradition in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake

Authors: Jingya Huang

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This paper argues that Moushumi Mazoomdar has non-monogamous relationships with different men before and after her marriage as a form of rebellion against the traditional Indian culture deeply ingrained in her. Written by Jhumpa Lahiri, The Namesake (2004) features an Indian couple migrating to America who gives birth to two children, including the main character Gogol. Moushumi, like Gogol, is also a second-generation Indian American. Because of the influence of American culture, Moushumi prefers to marry for love, disdaining any thought of an arranged marriage. This paper is divided into two parts: before and after marriage which can also be seen in the light of polyamory and infidelity. First, according to Anapol (2010), polyamory is a newly created word from Greek and Latin which means “loving more than one person at a time when it comes to romantic or erotic love.” The discussion of polyamory mainly focuses on the most basic heterosexual relationship without mentioning of homosexual and bisexual love relationships. By adopting Anapol’s concept of polyamory, this paper examines the nature of the relationships between Moushumi and other men before her marriage. Afterwards, the concept of infidelity is discussed to analyze the interaction between Moushumi and Dimitri. How Moushumi rebels against tradition is shown through these two main discussions.

Keywords: Indian American, non-monogamous relationship, rebellion, polyamory, infidelity

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166 Unveiling the Realities of Marrying Too Young: Evidence from Child Brides in Sub-Saharan Africa and Infant Mortality Implications

Authors: Emmanuel Olamijuwon

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Despite laws against child marriage - a violation against child rights, the practice remains widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and globally partly because of persistent poverty, gender inequality, protection and the need to reinforce family ties. Using pooled data from the recent demographic and health surveys of 20-sub-Saharan African countries with a regional representative sample of 36,943 girls under 18 years, this study explores the prevalence, pattern and infant mortality implications of this marriage type while also examining its regional variations. Indications from the study are that child marriage is still very high in the region with variations above one-tenth in West, Central and Southern Africa regions except in the East African region where only about 7% of children under 18 were already married. Preliminary findings also suggest that about one-in-ten infant deaths were to child brides many of whom were residing in poor households, rural residence, unemployed and have less than secondary education. Based on these findings, it is, therefore, important that government of African countries addresses critical issues through increased policies towards increasing enrollment of girl children in schools as many of these girls are not likely to have any economic benefit to the region if the observed pattern continues.

Keywords: child marriage, infant mortality, Africa, child brides

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165 Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Decree Divorces in India with Special Reference to the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

Authors: Poonamdeep kaur

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With the increase in number of Non-Resident Indian marriages there is also increase in foreign decree divorces which inevitably causes the problem of recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in India. The Hindus in India are governed by the Hindu Marriage Act, 1956. According to the said Act the courts in India have jurisdiction to try the matrimonial dispute if the marriage is performed in India or the parties to the marriage have domicile in India irrespective of their nationality status. But, sometimes one of the parties to the marriage whose marriage is solemnized in India obtains divorce in foreign courts and prays for the recognition and enforcement of such divorce in India. In such case section 13 of the Indian Civil Procedure Code, 1908, comes into play for the recognition and enforcement of foreign divorces in India. The section makes a foreign judgment conclusive in India subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions. Even if a foreign decree divorce is given on personal connecting factors of the parties to the matrimonial dispute like domicile, such divorce may still be refused recognition in India by virtue of section 13 of the Indian Civil Procedure Code, 1908. It is a universal truth that municipal law of countries is not the same throughout the world. Comity plays an important role in recognition and enforcing a foreign judgment, but, now in India the principle is not applied mechanically as the divorce matter is dealt strictly with regard to Indian Law. So in this paper there will be deep analysis of Indian case laws relating to recognition and enforcement of foreign divorces and based on this a comparative study will be made with the laws of Canada and England on the same subject to find out whether the Indian law on recognition and Enforcement of foreign judgment are in line with the laws of Canada and England and whether in recent years the Indian courts have evolved some new principles of private international law to deal with limping marriages. At last conclusions will be drawn out from the comparative study and suggestions would be given to make the rules of recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments on divorce more certain.

Keywords: divorce, foreign decree, private international law, recognition and enforcement of foreign judgment

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164 Node Pair Selection Scheme in Relay-Aided Communication Based on Stable Marriage Problem

Authors: Tetsuki Taniguchi, Yoshio Karasawa

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This paper describes a node pair selection scheme in relay-aided multiple source multiple destination communication system based on stable marriage problem. A general case is assumed in which all of source, relay and destination nodes are equipped with multiantenna and carry out multistream transmission. Based on several metrics introduced from inter-node channel condition, the preference order is determined about all source-relay and relay-destination relations, and then the node pairs are determined using Gale-Shapley algorithm. The computer simulations show that the effectiveness of node pair selection is larger in multihop communication. Some additional aspects which are different from relay-less case are also investigated.

Keywords: relay, multiple input multiple output (MIMO), multiuser, amplify and forward, stable marriage problem, Gale-Shapley algorithm

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