Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Azin Parvin

40 Vibration Analysis of Pendulum in a Viscous Fluid by Analytical Methods

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin

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In this study, a vibrational differential equation governing on swinging single-degree-of-freedom pendulum in a viscous fluid has been investigated. The damping process is characterized according to two different regimes: at first, damping in stationary viscous fluid, in the second, damping in flowing viscous fluid with constant velocity. Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equation with a simple and innovative approach. Comparisons are made between new method and Numerical Method (rkf45). The results show that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied for other nonlinear problems. Downloads 259
39 Analytical Solving of Nonlinear Differential Equations in the Nonlinear Phenomena for Viscos Fluids

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin

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In the paper, our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve a nonlinear differential equation which is about the motion of an incompressible fluid flow going down of an inclined plane without thermal effect with a simple and innovative approach which we have named it new method. Comparisons are made amongst the Numerical, new method, and HPM methods, and the results reveal that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied to other nonlinear problems. It is noteworthy that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving differential equations, and also most of the sets of differential equations can be answered in this manner which in the other methods they do not have acceptable solutions up to now. A summary of the excellence of this method in comparison to the other manners is as follows: 1) Differential equations are directly solvable by this method. 2) Without any dimensionless procedure, we can solve equation(s). 3) It is not necessary to convert variables into new ones. According to the afore-mentioned assertions which will be proved in this case study, the process of solving nonlinear equation(s) will be very easy and convenient in comparison to the other methods. Downloads 197
38 Challenges over Two Semantic Repositories - OWLIM and AllegroGraph

Authors: Paria Tajabor, Azin Azarbani

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The purpose of this research study is exploring two kind of semantic repositories with regards to various factors to find the best approaches that an artificial manager can use to produce ontology in a system based on their interaction, association and research. To this end, as the best way to evaluate each system and comparing with others is analysis, several benchmarking over these two repositories were examined. These two semantic repositories: OWLIM and AllegroGraph will be the main core of this study. The general objective of this study is to be able to create an efficient and cost-effective manner reports which is required to support decision making in any large enterprise. Downloads 177
37 Design of Low Power FSK Receiver

Authors: M. Aeysha Parvin, J. Asha, J. Jenifer

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This letter presents a novel frequency-shift keying(FSK) receiver using PLL-based FSK demodulator, thereby achieving high sensitivity and low power consumption. The proposed receiver comprises a power amplifier, mixer, 3-stage ring oscillator, PLL based demodulator. Moreover, the proposed receiver is fabricated using 0.12µm CMOS process and consumes 0.7Mw. Measurement results demonstrate that the proposed receiver has a sensitivity of -93dbm with 1Mbps data rate in receiving a 2.4 GHz FSK signal. Downloads 406
36 In-situ Raman Spectroscopy of Flexible Graphene Oxide Films Containing Pt Nanoparticles in The Presense of Atomic Hydrogen

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In-situ Raman spectroscopy of flexible graphene-oxide films examined upon exposure to hydrogen gas, air, and synthetic air. The changes in D and G peaks are attributed to defects responding to atomic hydrogen spilled over from the catalytic behavior of Pt nanoparticles distributed all over the film. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images (HRTEM) as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were carried out to define the density of the samples. Downloads 367
35 Effect of Hydrocolloid Coatings and Bene Kernel Oil Acrylamide Formation during Potato Deep Frying

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This study investigated the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), tragacanth, and saalab hydrocolloids in two concentrations (0.3%, 0.7%) and different frying media, refined canola oil (RCO), RCO + 1% bene kernel oil (BKO), and RCO + 1 mg/l unsaponifiable matter (USM) of BKO on acrylamide formation in fried potato slices. The hydrocolloid coatings significantly reduced acrylamide formation in potatoes fried in all oils. Increasing the hydrocolloid concentration from 0.3% to 0.7% produced no effective inhibition of acrylamide. The 0.7 % CMC solution was identified as the most promising inhibitor of acrylamide formation in RCO oil, with a 62.9% reduction in acrylamide content. The addition of BKO or USM to RCO led to a noticeable reduction in the acrylamide level in fried potato slices. The findings suggest that a 0.7% CMC solution and RCO+USM are promising inhibitors of acrylamide formation in fried potato products.

Keywords: CMC, frying, potato, saalab, tracaganth

34 Effect of Nitrogen Management on Nitrogen Uptake, Dry Matter Production and Some Yield Parameters

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Effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on nitrogen uptake, dry matter production, yield and some yield components of rice (Hashemi, Kazemi, Khazar) was investigated in an experiment as factorial in RCBD with 3 replications in a paddy light soil at Guilan province, Iran, 2008-2009. In this experiment, four treatments including: N1-control (no N fertilizer); N2- 30 kgN/ha; N3- 60 kgN/ha; N4- 90 kgN/ha were compared. Results showed that total biomass (8386 kg/ha), grain yield (3662 kg/ha), panicles m-2 (235.8) and total grain per panicle (103.8) were reached the highest value at high nitrogen level. Among the varieties the highest total biomass (7734 kg/ha), grain yield (3414 kg/ha) and total grain per panicle (78.2) belonged to Khazar. Dry matter, total N uptake was varied in different cultivars significantly and Khazar variety had the highest contents. Total biomass and total N uptake was varied significantly with the increasement of the amount of nitrogen applied. As total biomass and total N uptake increased with increasing in N fertilizing.

Keywords: rice, nitrogen, nitrogen uptake, dry matter

33 Effects of Chemical and Biological Fertilizer on, Yield, Nitrogen Uptake and Nitrogen Harvest Index of Rice

Authors: Azin Nasrollah Zadeh

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A factorial experiment was applied to evaluate the effect of chemical and biological fertilizer on yield, total nitrogen uptake and NHI of rice. Four biological treatments including:(M1:no fertilizer),( M2:10 ton/ha cow dung ),(M3:20 ton/ha cow dung) and (M4:5 ton/ha azolla compost) and four chemical fertilizer treatments including: (S1: no fertilizer),(S2:40 kg N /ha),(S3:60 kg N /ha) and ( S4:80 kg N /ha ) were compared. Results showed that highest rate of yield (3387 kg/ha) and total nitrogen uptake (81.4 kg/ha) were reached the highest value at M4. Among the chemical fertilizers the highest grain yield (3373 kg/ha) and total nitrogen uptake (87.7) belonged to highest nitrogen level (S4).Also biological and chemical fertilizers were no significant on Harvest index (NHI). Interaction effect of chemical × biological fertilizers didn't show significant difference between all parameters except of yield, as the most grain yield were obtained in M4S4. So it can be concluded that using of bioilogical fertilizers at appropriate rate and type, considering plant requirement, may improve grain yield, nitrogen uptake and use efficiency in rice.

Keywords: azolla, fertilizer, nitrogen uptake, rice, yield

32 Effect of National Sovereignty of Non-Citizens Human Rights Standards: Mediterranean Irregular Immigrants Case

Authors: Azin Karami, Bahareh Heydari

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There is a difference between national sovereignty ( national security guarantee) and human rights standards (human security guarantee). Under the pretext of providing security for the majority, Governments violate human rights standards and lead to populism. This paper illustrates despite the human rights standards of non-citizens, they mostly confront different practical and social realities. (a large gap between the reality and the truth). This paper has focused on one of vulnerable irregular non-citizens immigrants from Mediterranean . In addition, it has considered challenges of the basic and primary human rights standards of this group. It shows how government policies affect the flow of irregular immigration. This paper is based upon UN data about Mediterranean immigrants and polls answered by 68 people who intended to migrate from Mediterranean (28 female and 40 male people, the average age of 30 to 40). The model is supposed to be a convenient one to present objective, real evidence of irregular immigrants and discusses the challenges that this group of immigrants confront them .This paper shows clear concept of immigrants. Downloads 101
31 Factors Affecting Sense of Community in Residential Communities Case Study: Residential Communities in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Parvin Foroughifar

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The concept of sense of community refers to residents’ sense of attachment and commitment to the other residents in a residential community. It is implicitly indicative of the mental image of a physical environment in which the residents enjoy strong social ties. Sense of community, a crucial factor in improving quality of life and social welfare, leads to life satisfaction in a residential community. Despite the important functions of such a notion, few empirical studies, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have been so far carried out in Iran to investigate the effective factors in sharpening the sense of community in residential communities. This survey research examined sense of community in 360 above 20-year old residents of three residential communities in Tehran, Iran using cluster sampling and questionnaire. The study yielded the result that variables of local social ties, social control and trust, sense of security, length of residence, use of public spaces, and mixed land use have a significant relationship with sense of community. Downloads 66
30 Effects of Damper Locations and Base Isolators on Seismic Response of a Building Frame

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Structural vibration means repetitive motion that causes fatigue and reduction of the performance of a structure. An earthquake may release high amount of energy that can have adverse effect on all components of a structure. Therefore, decreasing of vibration or maintaining performance of structures such as bridges, dams, roads and buildings is important for life safety and reducing economic loss. When earthquake or any vibration happens, investigation on parts of a structure which sustain the seismic loads is mandatory to provide a safe condition for the occupants. One of the solutions for reducing the earthquake vibration in a structure is using of vibration control devices such as dampers and base isolators. The objective of this study is to investigate the optimal positions of friction dampers and base isolators for better seismic response of 2D frame. For this purpose, a two bay and six story frame with different distribution formats was modeled and some of their responses to earthquake such as inter-story drift, max joint displacement, max axial force and max bending moment were determined and compared using non-linear dynamic analysis. Downloads 229
29 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Highly Porous Scaffold for Biomedicine

Authors: Neda Sinaei, Davood Zare, Mehrdad Azin

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Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biocompatible and biodegradable polymers produced by a wide range of bacterial strains. These biopolymers are significantly studied for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications because of their fascinating physicochemical properties. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) scaffold that has been extracted from a novel bacteria using oil wastewater was selected to study. Some physical parameters affecting scaffold properties such as PHB concentration, solvent evaporation speed, and ultrasonic time were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the porosity. Afterward, the biocompatibility of PHB scaffold was assessed. Initial results showed the highly porous PHB scaffold structure with a variety of pore sizes. Subsequent results indicated that more unique pore sizes can be obtained by optimizing physical factors. It would be noticed that the morphology of the pore structure was accordingly affected by ultrasonic time. Hence, In vitro cell viability tests on the PHB scaffold using human foreskin fibroblasts revealed strong cell attachment and proliferation supports. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cost-effective PHB scaffold has the potential using as a biomaterial cell adhesion substrate in therapeutic applications. Downloads 128
28 Radiation Usage Impact of on Anti-Nutritional Compounds (Antitrypsin and Phytic Acid) of Livestock and Poultry Foods

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Review was carried out on important anti-nutritional compounds of livestock and poultry foods and the effect of radiation usage. Nowadays, with advancement in technology, different methods have been considered for the optimum usage of nutrients in livestock and poultry foods. Steaming, extruding, pelleting, and the use of chemicals are the most common and popular methods in food processing. Use of radiation in food processing researches in the livestock and poultry industry is currently highly regarded. Ionizing (electrons, gamma) and non-ionizing beams (microwave and infrared) are the most useable rays in animal food processing. In recent researches, these beams have been used to remove and reduce the anti-nutritional factors and microbial contamination and improve the digestibility of nutrients in poultry and livestock food. The evidence presented will help researchers to recognize techniques of relevance to them. Simplification of some of these techniques, especially in developing countries, must be addressed so that they can be used more widely. Downloads 268
27 Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector

Authors: Salma Parvin, M. A. Alim

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The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.

Keywords: DASC, forced convection, mass flow rate, nanofluid

26 Effect of Different Plan Shapes on the Load Carrying Capacity of a Steel Frame under Extreme Loading

Authors: Omid Khandel, Azadeh Parvin

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An increase in accidental explosions in recent years has increased the interest on investigating the response and behavior of structures in more details. The present work focused on finite element analysis of multistory steel frame structures with different plan shapes subjected to blast loadings. In order to study the effect of the geometry of the building, three different shapes for the plan of the building were modeled and studied; Rectangular, Square and L shape plans. The nonlinear dynamic analysis was considered in this study. The relocation technique was also used to improve the behavior of structure. The accuracy of the multistory frame model was confirmed with those of the existing study in the literature and they were in good agreement. The effect of span length of the buildings was also considered. Finite element analysis of various scenarios for relocating the plastic hinges and improving the response of the structure was performed. The base shear versus displacement curves were compared to reveal the best possible scenarios to provide recommendations to designers and practitioners. Downloads 211
25 Integrating Building Information Modeling into Facilities Management Operations

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Facilities such as residential buildings, office buildings, and hospitals house large density of occupants. Therefore, a low-cost facility management program (FMP) should be used to provide a satisfactory built environment for these occupants. Facility management (FM) has been recently used in building projects as a critical task. It has been effective in reducing operation and maintenance cost of these facilities. Issues of information integration and visualization capabilities are critical for reducing the complexity and cost of FM. Building information modeling (BIM) can be used as a strong visual modeling tool and database in FM. The main objective of this study is to examine the applicability of BIM in the FM process during a building’s operational phase. For this purpose, a seven-storey office building is modeled Autodesk Revit software. Authors integrated the cloud-based environment using a visual programming tool, Dynamo, for the purpose of having a real-time cloud-based communication between the facility managers and the participants involved in the project. An appropriate and effective integrated data source and visual model such as BIM can reduce a building’s operational and maintenance costs by managing the building life cycle properly. Downloads 79
24 Hyperspectral Image Classification Using Tree Search Algorithm

Authors: Shreya Pare, Parvin Akhter

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Remotely sensing image classification becomes a very challenging task owing to the high dimensionality of hyperspectral images. The pixel-wise classification methods fail to take the spatial structure information of an image. Therefore, to improve the performance of classification, spatial information can be integrated into the classification process. In this paper, the multilevel thresholding algorithm based on a modified fuzzy entropy function is used to perform the segmentation of hyperspectral images. The fuzzy parameters of the MFE function have been optimized by using a new meta-heuristic algorithm based on the Tree-Search algorithm. The segmented image is classified by a large distribution machine (LDM) classifier. Experimental results are shown on a hyperspectral image dataset. The experimental outputs indicate that the proposed technique (MFE-TSA-LDM) achieves much higher classification accuracy for hyperspectral images when compared to state-of-art classification techniques. The proposed algorithm provides accurate segmentation and classification maps, thus becoming more suitable for image classification with large spatial structures. Downloads 70
23 Factors Predicting Individual Health among Pilgrims of Kurdistan County: An Application of Health Belief Model

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Background: Lack of individual health as one of the major health problems among the pilgrims can be followed by several complications. The main aim of this study was to determine factors predicting individual health among pilgrims of Kurdistan County; in the west of Iran and health belief model (HBM) was applied as theoretical framework. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 pilgrims who referred in the red crescent of Kurdistan County, the west of Iran which was randomly selected for participation in this study. A structured questionnaire was applied for collecting data and data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlations and linear regression statistical tests. Results: The mean age of respondents was 59.45 years [SD: 11.56], ranged from 50 to 73 years. The HBM predictor variables accounted for 47% of the variation in the outcome measure of the individual health. The best predictors for individual health were perceived severity and cause to action. Conclusion: Based on our result, it seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about complications of lack of individual health and increasing cause to action among the pilgrims may be useful in order to promote individual health among pilgrims.

Keywords: individual health, pilgrims, Iran, health belief model

22 Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia

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Introduction: Traditionally, tendons are considered to only contain tenocytes that are responsible for the maintenance, repair, and remodeling of tendons. Stem cells, which are termed tendon-derived stem cells, so this study we investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with swallowing training on post-stroke dysphagia. Methods: This review article is about effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on post-stroke dysphagia that were extracted from Science Direct, Pro quest, and Pub med Data Bases. 15 articles had been selected according to inclusion criteria from 2014 to 2019, and 6 of them had been deleted by exclusion criteria. Results: The results of our systematic review suggest that tDCS may represent a promising novel treatment for post-stroke dysphagia. However, to date, little is known about the optimal parameters of tDCS for relieving post-stroke dysphagia. Further studies are warranted to refine this promising intervention by exploring the optimal parameters of tDCS. Conclusion: anodal tDCS over the affected hemisphere may be as effective as cathodal tDCS on the unaffected hemisphere to enhance recovery after subacute ischemic stroke and anodal tdcs applied over the affected pharyngeal motor cortex can enhance the outcome of swallowing training in post-stroke dysphagia. Downloads 58
21 The Predictive Value of Extensor Grip Test for the Effectiveness of Treatment for Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Objective: There are different modalities proposed for tennis elbow treatment with few randomized trials comparing them. We designed a study to compare the effectiveness of five different modalities and determine the usefulness of recently proposed extensor grip test (EGT) in predicting the response to treatment. Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial 92 of 98 tennis elbow patients in Sina hospital of Tehran, Iran between 2006 and 2007 fulfill trial entry criteria, among these patients 56 (60.9%) had positive EGT result. Stratified on EGT result, patients allocated randomly to 5 treatment groups: Brace (B) group, physiotherapy (P), brace + physiotherapy (BP), injection (I) and injection + physiotherapy (IP). Results: Patients who had positive result of EGT had better response to treatments: less SOC (p = 0.06), less PFFQ and patients’ satisfaction scores (p < 0.001). Among the treatment IP was the most successful, then BP, P and B, respectively; injection was the worst treatment modality. Response to treatment was comparable in all groups between EGT positive and negative patients except bracing; in which positive EGT was correlated with a dramatic response to treatment. Conclusion: In all patients IP and then BP is recommended but in EGT negatives, bracing seems to be of no use. Injection alone is not recommended in either group. Downloads 219
20 Supply Chains Resilience within Machine-Made Rug Producers in Iran

Authors: Malihe Shahidan, Azin Madhi, Meisam Shahbaz

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In recent decades, the role of supply chains in sustaining businesses and establishing their superiority in the market has been under focus. The realization of the goals and strategies of a business enterprise is largely dependent on the cooperation of the chain, including suppliers, distributors, retailers, etc. Supply chains can potentially be disrupted by both internal and external factors. In this paper, resilience strategies have been identified and analyzed in three levels: sourcing, producing, and distributing by considering economic depression as a current risk factor for the machine-made rugs industry. In this study, semi-structured interviews for data gathering and thematic analysis for data analysis are applied. Supply chain data has been gathered from seven rug factories before and after the economic depression through semi-structured interviews. The identified strategies were derived from literature review and validated by collecting data from a group of eighteen industry and university experts, and the results were analyzed using statistical tests. Finally, the outsourcing of new products and products in the new market, the development and completion of the product portfolio, the flexibility in the composition and volume of products, the expansion of the market to price-sensitive, direct sales, and disintermediation have been determined as strategies affecting supply chain resilience of machine-made rugs' industry during an economic depression. Downloads 51
19 Antioxidant Effects of Regular Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Parvin Farzanegi

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Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with increased free radicals and oxidative stress. The evidence indicates that physical inactivity is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for a wide range of chronic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of eight-week aerobic exercise on some antioxidant enzyme activities in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: sixteen sedentary postmenopausal women with T2DM were randomly assigned to the control (n=8; CG) and exercise group (n=8; EG). The exercise consisted of progressive aerobic training at a moderate intensity (50-70% of the maximum heart rate), for 25-60 min/day, and 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Age, sex, and body mass index were similar in the two groups. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Also levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation and glucose in the plasma were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Following the 8 weeks of exercise training, the plasma MDA and glucose levels were significantly reduced in EG compared to CG (P=0.001 and P=0.011 respectively). However, SOD (P=0.017) and CAT (P=0.011) activities were increased in EG compared to CG. Conclusion: The present study suggests regular aerobic exercise appears can exert protective effects against oxidative stress due to its ability to increase antioxidant defense and glucose control in postmenopausal women with T2DM. Downloads 108
18 The Effect of Dry Matter Production Growth Rate, Temperature Rapeseed

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Seed number is a function of dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate (CGR), photothermal quotient (PTQ) and temperature during a critical developmental period, which is around flowering in canola (Brassica napus L.). The objective of this experiment was to determine factors such as dry matter, CGR, temperature, and PTQ around flowering which affect seed number. The experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station of Gonbad, Iran, between 2005 and 2007. Two cultivars of canola (Hyola401 and RGS003), as subplots were grown at 5 sowing dates as main plots, spaced approximately 30 days apart, to obtain different environmental conditions during flowering. The experiment was arranged in two conditions, i.e., supplemental irrigation and rainfed. Seed number per unit area was a key factor for increasing seed yield. Late sowing dates made the critical period of flowering coincide with high temperatures, decreased days to the flowering, seed number per unit area and seed yield. Seed number was driven by the availability of carbohydrates around flowering. Seed number per unit area was maximized for the cultivars when exposed to the highest PTQ, and to the lowest temperature between the beginning of flowering to that of seed filling. The relationship of seed number with aboveground dry matter, CGR, temperature, and PTQ around flowering, over different environmental conditions, showed these variables were generally applicable to seed number determination. Downloads 300
17 Urban Heat Island Effects on Human Health in Birmingham and Its Mitigation

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This study intends to investigate the effects of the Urban Heat Island on public health in Birmingham. Birmingham is located at the center of the West Midlands and its weather is Highly variable due to geographical factors. Residential developments, road networks and infrastructure often replace open spaces and vegetation. This transformation causes the temperature of urban areas to increase and creates an "island" of higher temperatures in the urban landscape. Extreme heat in the urban area is influencing public health in the UK as well as in the world. Birmingham is a densely built-up area with skyscrapers and congested buildings in the city center, which is a barrier to air circulation. We will investigate the city regarding heat and cold-related human mortality and other impacts. We are using primary and secondary datasets to examine the effect of population shift and land-use change on the UHI in Birmingham. We will also use freely available weather data from the Birmingham Urban Observatory and will incorporate satellite data to determine urban spatial expansion and its effect on the UHI. We have produced a temperature map based on summer datasets of 2020, which has covered 25 weather stations in Birmingham to show the differences between diurnal and nocturnal summer and annual temperature trends. Some impacts of the UHI may be beneficial, such as the lengthening of the plant growing season, but most of them are highly negative. We are looking for various effects of urban heat which is impacting human health and investigating mitigation options.

Keywords: urban heat, public health, climate change

16 Inclusion of Transgender in Mainstream Secondary Schools of Bangladesh: Perceptions and Issues

Authors: Shanaj Parvin Jonaki

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After the first wave of the feminist movement, gender has become one of the most important issues to be researched in social science. Many gender theories have been invented and opened a new window to look at. These works showed how gender is a social construct, how gender has been used to oppress, how to rule. While it's the education system’s duty to guide students to understand the concept of gender, it sometimes shows gender-based discrimination. Transgenders exclusion from educational institutes of Bangladesh justifies this very statement. This study aims to figure out how people perceive transgenders’ identity, their inclusion in secondary schools, as well as the underlying barriers in the pathway of inclusion in the context of Bangladesh. A qualitative approach was taken to explore different perspectives towards transgender inclusion from several stakeholders such as students, parents, and teachers of secondary schools and transgenders as well. Data were collected through focus group discussion and interview by convenient sampling. 15 students, 10 parents, and 5 teachers were selected from Bangla Medium school as well as from Madrasha. Collected data were analyzed thematically and were run by experts of gender, education, and psychology to identify the core barriers of inclusion. The study revealed that most of the students, teachers, and parents lacked the knowledge of non-binary gender identities, and they showed unwillingness towards the inclusion of transgender in schools because of the cultural context of Bangladesh. Moreover, this study suggests future initiatives to be taken to ensure the inclusion of transgenders in a secondary school in our country and analyzes it through the lens of feminist theories.

Keywords: education, gender, inclusion, transgender

15 Green Fruit and Vegetables Have Favorable Effects on 3-Year Changes of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Cohort Study

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Background and aim: We aimed to investigate the effects of green fruits and vegetables (green FV) consumption on the 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, on 1272 adults. Dietary intake of green FV, including green cabbage, broccoli, lettuce, celery, green beans, green peas, cucumber, leafy vegetables, zucchini, green chili and bell pepper, and kiwi fruit, has been assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline and second examination. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measures were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. The associations of cardiometabolic risk changes with mean intake of green FV were estimated. Results: The mean age of men and women at baseline was 39.8±12.7 and 37.3±12.1 years, respectively. Mean intake of green FV was 152±77 g/d. More intake from green FV was accompanied to more intake of vitamin A, α and β-carotene, lutein, β-criptoxanthine, potassium, magnesium and fiber. Consumption of green FV was inversely associated with 3-year change of waist circumference (β= -0.07, P=0.01), total cholesterol (β= -0.11, P=0.01) and triglycerides (β= -0.13, P=0.01). Each 25 g/d increase in consumption of green FV decreased the incidence of hyper-triglyceridemia by 12% (OR:0.88, 95%CI:0.71-0.99) in men. In women, no significant association was observed between consumption of green FV with cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusion: Higher consumption of green FV could have preventive effects against abdominal fat gain and lipid disorders. Downloads 325
14 Condition Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Using Ground Penetrating Radar

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Catastrophic bridge failure happens due to the lack of inspection, lack of design and extreme events like flooding, an earthquake. Bridge Management System (BMS) is utilized to diminish such an accident with proper design and frequent inspection. Visual inspection cannot detect any subsurface defects, so using Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques remove these barriers as far as possible. Among all NDE techniques, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been proved as a highly effective device for detecting internal defects in a reinforced concrete bridge deck. GPR is used for detecting rebar location and rebar corrosion in the reinforced concrete deck. GPR profile is composed of hyperbola series in which sound hyperbola denotes sound rebar and blur hyperbola or signal attenuation shows corroded rebar. Interpretation of GPR images is implemented by numerical analysis or visualization. Researchers recently found that interpretation through visualization is more precise than interpretation through numerical analysis, but visualization is time-consuming and a highly subjective process. Automating the interpretation of GPR image through visualization can solve these problems. After interpretation of all scans of a bridge, condition assessment is conducted based on the generated corrosion map. However, this such a condition assessment is not objective and precise. Condition assessment based on structural integrity and strength parameters can make it more objective and precise. The main purpose of this study is to present an automated interpretation method of a reinforced concrete bridge deck through a visualization technique. In the end, the combined analysis of the structural condition in a bridge is implemented. Downloads 81
13 Higher Consumption of White Rice Increase the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults with Abdominal Obesity

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Background: Higher consumption of white rice has been suggested as a risk factor for development of metabolic abnormalities. In this study we investigated the association between consumption of white rice and the 3-year occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults with and without abdominal obesity. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study on 1476 adults, aged 19-70 years. Dietary intakes were measured, using a 168-food items validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were evaluated at both baseline (2006-2008) and after 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). MetS and its components were defined according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by NCEP ATP III, and the new cutoff points of waist circumference for Iranian adults. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of the MetS in each quartile of white rice consumption. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.8±12.3 y, and mean BMI was 26.0±4.5 kg/m2 at baseline. The prevalence of MetS in subjects with abdominal obesity was significantly higher (40.9 vs. 16.2%, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in white rice consumption between the two groups. Mean daily intake of white rice was 93±59, 209±58, 262±60 and 432±224 g/d, in the first to fourth quartiles of white rice, respectively. Stratified analysis by categories of waist circumference showed that higher consumption of white rice was more strongly related to the risk of metabolic syndrome in participants who had abdominal obesity (OR: 2.34, 95% CI:1.14-4.41 vs. OR:0.99, 95% CI:0.60-1.65) Conclusion: We demonstrated that higher consumption of white rice may be a risk for development of metabolic syndrome in adults with abdominal obesity. Downloads 364
12 The Methanotrophic Activity in a Landfill Bio-Cover through a Subzero Winter

Abstract:

Landfills highly contribute to anthropological global warming through CH₄ emissions. Landfills are usually capped by a conventional soil cover to control the migration of gases. Methane is consumed by CH₄-oxidizing microorganisms known as methanotrophs that naturally exist in the landfill soil cover. The growth of methanotrophs can be optimized in a bio-cover that typically consists of a gas distribution layer (GDL) to homogenize landfill gas fluxes and an overlying oxidation layer composed of suitable materials that support methanotrophic populations. Materials such as mature yard waste composts can provide an inexpensive and favourable porous support for the growth and activity of methanotrophs. In areas with seasonal cold climates, it is valuable to know if methanotrophs in a bio-cover can survive in winter until the next spring, and how deep they are active in the bio-cover to mitigate CH₄. In this study, a pilot bio-cover was constructed in a closed landfill cell in Winnipeg that has a very cold climate in Canada. The bio-cover has a surface area of 2.5 m x 3.5 m and 1.5 m of depth, filled with 50 cm of gravel as a GDL and 70 cm of biosolids compost amended with yard and leaf waste compost. The observed in situ potential of methanotrophs for CH₄ oxidation was investigated at a specific period of time from December 2016 to April 2017 as well as November 2017 to April 2018, when the transition to surface frost and thawing happens in the bio-cover. Compost samples taken from different depths of the bio-cover were incubated in the laboratory under standardized conditions; an optimal air: methane atmosphere, at 22ºC, but at in situ moisture content. Results showed that the methanotrophs were alive oxidizing methane without a lag, indicating that there was the potential for methanotrophic activity at some depths of the bio-cover. Downloads 50
11 The Next Generation’s Learning Ability, Memory, as Well as Cognitive Skills Is under the Influence of Paternal Physical Activity (An Intergenerational and Trans-Generational Effect): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Parvin Goli, Amirhosein Kefayat, Rezvan Goli

Abstract:

Background: It is well established that parents can influence their offspring's neurodevelopment. It is shown that paternal environment and lifestyle is beneficial for the progeny's fitness and might affect their metabolic mechanisms; however, the effects of paternal exercise on the brain in the offspring have not been explored in detail. Objective: This study aims to review the impact of paternal physical exercise on memory and learning, neuroplasticity, as well as DNA methylation levels in the off-spring's hippocampus. Study design: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, an electronic literature search was conducted in databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Eligible studies were those with an experimental design, including an exercise intervention arm, with the assessment of any type of memory function, learning ability, or any type of brain plasticity as the outcome measures. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed as effect size. Results: The systematic review revealed the important role of environmental enrichment in the behavioral development of the next generation. Also, offspring of exercised fathers displayed higher levels of memory ability and lower level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. A significant effect of paternal exercise on the hippocampal volume was also reported in the few available studies. Conclusion: These results suggest an intergenerational effect of paternal physical activity on cognitive benefit, which may be associated with hippocampal epigenetic programming in offspring. However, the biological mechanisms of this modulation remain to be determined. Downloads 119