Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: transgender

43 Mental Health Status among the Transgender Community: A Study of Mumbai

Authors: Mithlesh Chourase

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Health of the transgender is as important as any other population sub-groups. However, little is known about the issues of mental health problems and health seeking behaviour of transgender in India. This paper examines the depression, stigma problem and suicidality (risk of suicide) among the transgender people in Mumbai city. The study used the primary survey data conducted in Mumbai city among the transgender community with a total sample of 120 among the transgender. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected on demographic and socio-economic characteristic, general health and sexual health problems, mental health and health seeking behaviour among transgender. The quantitative results revealed that among the transgender, the prevalence of depression was very high. In this community 58.3% and 45.8 % of the transgender were suffered from depression and stigma problem respectively. On the other hand 42% and 48% of the transgender attempted suicide and experienced discrimination in the society. The qualitative results also revealed that the transgender were suffered from physical violence especially due to being a transgender, stressed due to being a transgender, experienced discrimination everywhere, experienced sexual health problems especially HIV, partner problem etc. As a result the prevalence of depression, self-harm attempt and suicidal attempt was common among this community.

Keywords: transgender, depression, Mumbai, mental health

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42 Transgender Community in Pakistan through the Lens of Television Dramas

Authors: Ashbeelah Shafaqat Ali

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Pakistan is a country where the transgender community has not been accepted as a third gender yet, but in recent years Pakistani drama industry has taken an initiative to include Transgender characters in the past few years. This research based on qualitative method i.e. content analysis and in-depth interviews investigates the depiction of transgender community in Pakistani television dramas. This study examined two dramas i.e.' Khuda Mera Bhi Hai' and 'Alif Allah Aur Insaan' to analyze the representation of transgender community whereas, in-depth Interviews from 15 transgender people lived in Lahore to observe their opinion regarding their representation in Pakistani television dramas. Snow-ball sampling technique was used for conducting interviews from the transgender community. The results concluded that transgender community did not get equal coverage in Pakistani television dramas but inclusion as characters were observed. This study is helpful in providing a base for observing role of Pakistani television dramas in the development of transgender identity. The major finding revealed is that the inclusion of representation of transgender community in Pakistani television dramas has indicated a successful development towards positive representation. Although, it was suggested by the interviewers that before producing a television drama, appropriate research must be conducted to depict the real life story, problems and struggles of the transgender community. Furthermore, it was analyzed that only fair and equal representation of transgender community by Pakistani drama industry can be beneficial in promoting the third gender rights in the society.

Keywords: Pakistani dramas, portrayal, stereotypes, transgender

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41 Mental Health and Well-Being: Capacity Building of Community to Respond to Mental Health Needs of Transgender Populations

Authors: Harjyot Khosa

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In India and south Asia, stigma and discrimination against transgender community remain disproportionately high. Lack of mental health care restricts effective treatment and care for both physical and mental health. Knowledge assessment of 80 counsellors across India reflected that only 28% counsellors knew about the transgender community. Whereas, only 6% of them felt, that transgender community require a specific mental health support, considering the stigma they face in day to day life. Lastly, 62% did agree that they require specific training to address unmet needs of transgender community. A robust counselling module was developed with focus on technical counselling skills and strategies, specific counselling issues, identity and sexuality, disclosure, hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery. Mental health related support should be an integral part of government and non-government programs for the overall well-being of transgender community who face stigma and discrimination at every level. Needs based capacity building and technical assistance is required towards providing mental health support for transgender populations and their partners.

Keywords: identity and sexuality, mental health, stigma, transgender

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40 Peculiar Implications of Self Perceived Identity as Policy Tool for Transgender Recognition in Pakistan

Authors: Hamza Iftikhar

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The research study focuses on the transgender community's gender recognition challenges. It is one of the issues for the transgender community, interacting directly with the difficulties of gender identity and the lives of these people who are facing gender disapproval from society. This study investigates the major flaws of the transgender act. The study's goal is to look into the strange implications of self-perceived identity as a policy tool for transgender recognition. This policy tool jeopardises the rights of Pakistan's indigenous gender-variant people as well as the country's legal and social framework. Qualitative research using semi structured interviews will be carried out. This study proposes developing a scheme for mainstreaming gender-variant people on the basis of the Pakistani Constitution, Supreme Court guidelines, and internationally recognised principles of law. This would necessitate a thorough review of current law using a new approach and reference point.

Keywords: transgender act, self perceived identity, gender variant, policy tool

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39 From Name-Calling to Insidious Rhetoric: Construction and Evolution of the Transgender Imagery in News Discourse, 1953-2016

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang

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This essay aims to examine how the transgender imagery has been constructed in the Taiwanese news media and its evolution from 1953 to 2016. It also explores the discourse patterns and rhetorical strategies in the transgender-related issues which contributed to levels of evaluation in forming ‘social deviance.’ Samples for analysis were selected from mainstream newspapers, including China Times, United Daily and Apple Daily. The time frame for sample selection is from August 1953 (when the first transgender case was reported in Taiwan) to June 2016. To enhance understanding of media representation as nominalistic-based, the author refers to the representative of critical rhetoric Raymie McKerrow for his study on remembrance and forgetfulness in public discourse (especially in his model of ‘critique of domination’); thereby categorizing the 64 years of transgender discourse into five periods: (1) transgender as ‘intersex’ of surgical-reparative medical treatment; (2) transgender as ‘freak gender-bender’ with criminal behaviors; (3) transgender as ‘ladyboy’ (‘katoey in a Thai term) of bar girls or sex workers; (4) transgender as ‘cross dresser’ of transvestite performance; and (5) transgender as ‘life-style or human right’ of spontaneous gender identification. Based on the research findings, this essay argues that the characterization of transgender reporting as a site for the production of compulsory sexism and gender stereotype by the specific forms of name-calling. Besides, the evolution of word-image addressing to transgender issues also pinpoints media as a reflection of fashion of the day. While the transgender imagery might be crystallized as ‘still social problems’ or ‘gender transgression’ in insidious rhetoric; and while the so-called ‘phobia’ persistently embodies in media discourse to exercise name-calling in an ambiguous (rather than in a bullying) way or under the cover of humanist-liberalist rationales, these emergent rhetorical dilemma should be resolved without any delay.

Keywords: critical rhetoric, media representation, McKerrow, nominalistic, social deviance, transgender

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38 A Rhetorical History of Legalization of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Taiwan: 'Transing-Nationalism' and Its Discursive Formation as the Case

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang

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This essay aims to examine how the discursive formation of the 'transing-nationalism' (which is extended and slightly modified from 'homonationalism') had been constructed in the Taiwanese news media before the legalization of 'sex reassignment surgery (SRS)' in 1988. Samples for rhetorical analysis were selected from two mainstream newspapers, including China Times, and United Daily. The time frame for sample selection is from August 1953 (when the first transgender case was reported) to 1988, while the SRS was legalized in Taiwan. To enhance understanding of media representation as contextualized-based, the author refers to the representative of spatial rhetoric Mikhail Bakhtin for his late study on 'emergence' and 'visualization of time' in Bildungsroman; thereby categorizing the media discourse of transgender into two critical period: (1) transgender as 'misrecognized' and 'included' into the rhetoric of modern medical space; (2) transgender as 'institutionalized' into discourse of protection and salvation by the reified sympathy of nation-state. These two periods and relevant spatial rhetoric were of no immediate concern on the vital interest of transgender individuals; therefore constructed the imagery of transgender for the service of nationalism rather than gender consciousness or human right rhetoric. Based on the research findings, this essay concludes that 'queer multiplicity' should be regarded as not only the guideline for the amendment of the gendered policies and laws but the rhetorical resources for the mobilization of transgender movement in Taiwan from now on.

Keywords: Bakhtin, legalization, rhetoric, sex reassignment surgery, transgender, transing-nationalism

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37 Toward a Radical/Populist Democracy from the Dialectical Tensions between Transgender Movement and Gay Movement in Taiwan: A Rhetorical Analysis

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang

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This paper aims to elaborate the rhetorical strategies and its inherent dialectical tensions between transgender movement and gay movement in Taiwan; thereby, a radical/populist democratic model will be reproblematized for theorizing the internal dialogicity of the 'umbrella metaphor' of the so-called 'LGBT' label. Firstly, it examined how the representative gay community in Taiwan defined the category of 'LGBT' by its visual rhetoric of pride parade during the last two decades, and how the imaginary of 'transgender' was systematically precluded or even silenced by 'cisgender privilege' or 'cisnormativity' of the gay community in general. Secondly, it employed Laclau & Mouffe’s (1985) perspective of 'empty signifier' which derives from their radical democratic theorization and populist reason, to explore the rhetorical strategies and language tactics on which transgender activists relied for arguing or mapping both the cooperative and competitive relationship with cisgender allies intentionally. Based on research findings, this paper argued that a relationship between rather than an amalgamation of sexual orientation and gender identity should be recognized. Moreover, that resisting defining transgender as other and everyone else as normal could be the critical issue of LGBT community as a whole, especially while it proceeds toward to a radical/populist democracy.

Keywords: empty signifier, LGBT, populist reason, radical democracy, rhetoric, transgender

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36 High School Transgender Students in Brazil: The Difficulties of Staying in School and the Psychological Implications in a Hostile School Environment

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina

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Our research conducted in 8 different schools in the city of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, we can clearly see that, even in modern times, where the search for equality between men and women is already over 60 years of struggle in this world where you show Much more than two genres and in this world that is proving that sex is not just biological, are confronted with sexist and phallocentric situations in our Schools, and among our students. The sample consisted of 503 students with a mean age between 13 and 21 years. 107 students identified themselves as gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender. The remainder was identified as heterosexual or none at all. Compared to LGBT students, transgender students faced the school's more hostile climates, while non-transgender female students were less likely to experience anti-LGBT victimization. In addition, transgender students experienced more negative experiences at school compared to students whose gender expression adhered to traditional gender norms. Transgender students were more likely to feel insecure at school, with 80.0% of transgender students reporting that they felt insecure at school because of their gender identity. Female students in our research reported lower frequencies of victimization based on sexual orientation and gender identity and were less likely to feel insecure at school. In all indicators of discrimination in school, high school students have outperformed elementary school students and have had fewer resources and supports related to LGBT. High school students reported higher rates of victimization on sexual orientation and gender expression than elementary school students. For example, about one-third (35.5%) of high school students suffered regular physical Very often) based on their sexual orientation, compared to less than a quarter (21.4%) of primary school students. The whole premise here is to perceive the phallocentrism and sexism hidden in our schools. Opposition between the sexes is not reflexive or articulates a biological fact, but a social construction.

Keywords: transgender students, school, psychological implications, discrimination

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35 Transgressing Gender Norms in Addiction Treatment

Authors: Sara Matsuzaka

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At the center of emerging policy debates on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations is the collision of gender binary views with transgender perspectives that challenge conventional gender norms. The results of such socio-political debates could have significant ramifications for the policies and infrastructures of public and private institutions nationwide, including within the addiction treatment field. Despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in addiction treatment programs. Inpatient addiction treatment centers were originally designed to treat heterosexual cisgender populations and, as such, feature gender segregated housing, bathrooms, and counseling sessions. Such heteronormative structural barriers, combined with exposures to stigmatic al attitudes, may dissuade transgender populations from benefiting from the addiction treatment they so direly need. A literature review is performed to explore the mechanisms by which gender segregation alienates transgender populations within inpatient addiction treatment. The constituent parts of the current debate on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations are situated the context of inpatient addiction treatment facilities. Minority Stress Theory is used as a theoretical framework for understanding substance abuse issues among transgender populations as a maladaptive behavioral response for coping with chronic stressors related to gender minority status and intersecting identities. The findings include that despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in and benefiting from addiction treatment. These barriers are present in the form of anticipated or real interpersonal stigma and discrimination by service providers and structural stigma in the form of policy and programmatic components in addiction treatment that marginalize transgender populations. Transphobic manifestations within addiction treatment may dissuade transgender individuals from seeking help, if not reinforce a lifetime of stigmatic experience, potentially exacerbating their substance use issues. Conclusive recommendations for social workers and addiction treatment professionals include: (1) dismantling institutional policies around gender segregation that alienate transgender individuals, (2) developing policies that provide full protections for transgender clients against discrimination based on their gender identity, and (3) implementing trans-affirmative cultural competency training requirements for all staff. Directions for future research are provided.

Keywords: addiction treatment, gender segregation, stigma, transgender

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34 Determining the Prevalence and Correlates of Depression among Transgenders of a Developing Country

Authors: Usama Bin Zubair, Muhammad Azeem

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Introduction: Depression has been one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders in Pakistan. A Census conducted by the government of Pakistan in 2017 showed that more than 10000 trans-genders live in Pakistan. HIV, illicit substance use and mental health issues, including depression, have been the main health problems faced by them. Trans-gender population has been suffering from depressive illness more than normal population all over the world. Aim: To assess the prevalence of depression among the transgender population and analyze the relationship of socio-demographic factors with depression. Subjects and Methods: The sample population comprised of one hundred and forty-two transgender people of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Beck depressive inventory II (BDI-II) was used to record the presence and severity of the depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were categorized as mild, moderate and severe. Relationship of the age, smoking, family income, illicit substance use and education were studied with the presence of depressive symptoms among these transgender people of twin cities of Pakistan. Results: A total of 142 transgender people were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the study participants was 39.55 ± 6.18. Out of these, 45.1% had no depressive symptoms while 31.7% had mild, 12.7% had moderate and 10.6% had severe depressive symptomatology. After applying the binary logistic regression, we found that the presence of depressive symptoms had a significant association with illicit substance use among the target population. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among the transgender population in the twin cities of Pakistan. Use of illicit substances like tobacco, cannabis, opiates, and alcohol should be discouraged to prevent mental health problems.

Keywords: depression, transgender, prevalence, sociodemographic factors

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33 Transgender Practices as Queer Politics: African a Variant

Authors: Adekeye Joshua Temitope

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“Transgender” presents a complexion of ambiguity in the African context and it remains a contested topography in the discourse of sexual identity. The casts and stigmatisations towards transgender unveils vital facts and intricacies often ignored in the academic communities; the problems and oppressions of given sex/gender system, the constrain of monogamy and ignorance of fluidity of human sexuality thereby generating dual discords of “enforced heterosexual” and “unavoidable homosexual.” The African culture voids transgender movements and perceive same-sex sexual behavior as “taboo or bad habits” and this provide reasonable explanations for the failure of asserting for the sexual rights in GLBT movement in most discourse on sexuality in the African context. However, we could not deny the real existence of active flowing and fluidity of human sexuality even though its variants could be latent. The incessant consciousness of the existence of transgender practices in Africa either in form of bisexual desire or bisexual behavior with or without sexual identity, including people who identify themselves as bisexual opens up the vision for us to reconsider and reexamine what constitutes such ambiguity and controversy of transgender identity at present time. The notion of identity politics in gay, lesbian, and transgender community has its complexity and debates in its historical development. This paper analyses the representation of the historical trajectory of transgender practices by presenting the dynamic transition of how people cognize transgender practices under different historical conditions since the understanding of historical transition of bisexual practices would be very crucial and meaningful for gender/sexuality liberation movement at present time and in the future. The paper did a juxtaposition of the trajectories of bisexual practices between Anglo-American world and Africa, as it has certain similarities and differences within diverse historical complexities. The similar condition is the emergence of gay identity under the influence of capitalism but within different cultural context. Therefore, the political economy of each cultural context plays very important role in understanding the formation of sexual identities historically and its development and influence for the GLBT movement afterwards and in the future. By reexamining Kinsey’s categorization and applying Klein’s argument on individual’s sexual orientation this paper is poised to break the given and fixed connection among sexual behavior/sexual orientation/sexual identity, on the other hand to present the potential fluidity of human sexuality by reconsidering and reexamining the present given sex/gender system in our world. The paper concludes that it is obligatory for the essentialist and exclusionary trend at this historical moment since gay and lesbian communities in Africa need to clearly demonstrate and voice for themselves under the nuances of gender/sexuality liberation.

Keywords: heterosexual, homosexual, identity politics, queer politics, transgender

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32 Inclusivity in Public Spaces through Architecture: A Case of Transgender Community in India

Authors: Sakshi Dhruve, Ar. Sarang Barbarwar

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Public spaces are the locus of activity and interaction in any urban area. Such spaces provide identity to cities, towns or neighborhoods and define the people and culture over there. Inclusiveness is one of the core aspects of public or community spaces. With its humongous population and rapidly expanding urban areas, India needs more inclusivity in public spaces to attain true equitable development. The aim of the paper is to discuss the sensitivity of public spaces in India to the transgender community. The study shows how this community was legally included as ‘Third Gender’ in country’s legislation yet lacks social acceptance and security. It shows the challenges and issues faced by them at public spaces. The community was studied on ethnographic basis to understand their culture, lifestyle, requirements, etc. The findings have indicated towards a social stigma from people and insensitivity in designing of civic spaces. The larger objective of the study is also to provide recommendations on the design aspects and interventions in public places to increase their inclusiveness towards the transgender society.

Keywords: community spaces, ethnographic, stigma, Third Gender community

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31 Stress, Anxiety and Its Associated Factors Within the Transgender Population of Delhi: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Annie Singh, Ishaan Singh

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Background: Transgenders are people who have a gender identity different from their sex assigned at birth. Their gender behaviour doesn’t match their body anatomy. The community faces discrimination due to their gender identity all across the world. The term transgender is an umbrella term for many people non-conformal to their biological identity; note that the term transgender is different from gender dysphoria, which is a DSM-5 disorder defined as problems faced by an individual due to their non-conforming gender identity. Transgender people have been a part of Indian culture for ages yet have continued to face exclusion and discrimination in society. This has led to the low socio-economic status of the community. Various studies done across the world have established the role of discrimination, harassment and exclusion in the development of psychological disorders. The study is aimed to assess the frequency of stress and anxiety in the transgender population and understand the various factors affecting the same. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey of self consenting transgender individuals above the age of 18 residing in Delhi was done to assess their socioeconomic status and experiential ecology. Recruitment of participants was done with the help of NGOs. The survey was constructed GAD-7 and PSS-10, two well-known scales were used to assess the stress and anxiety levels. Medians, means and ranges are used for reporting continuous data wherever required, while frequencies and percentages are used for categorical data. For associations and comparison between groups in categorical data, the Chi-square test was used, while the Kruskal-Wallis H test was employed for associations involving multiple ordinal groups. SPSS v28.0 was used to perform the statistical analysis for this study. Results: The survey showed that the frequency of stress and anxiety is high in the transgender population. A demographic survey indicates a low socio-economic background. 44% of participants reported facing discrimination on a daily basis; the frequency of discrimination is higher in transwomen than in transmen. Stress and anxiety levels are similar among both transmen and transwomen. Only 34.5% of participants said they had receptive family or friends. The majority of participants (72.7%) reported a positive or neutral experience with healthcare workers. The prevalence of discrimination is significantly lower in the higher educated groups. Analysis of data shows a positive impact of acceptance and reception on mental health, while discrimination is correlated with higher levels of stress and anxiety. Conclusion: The prevalence of widespread transphobia and discrimination faced by the transgender community has culminated in high levels of stress and anxiety in the transgender population and shows variance according to multiple socio-demographic factors. Educating people about the LGBT community formation of support groups, policies and laws are required to establish trust and promote integration.

Keywords: transgender, gender, stress, anxiety, mental health, discrimination, exclusion

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30 Inclusion of Transgender in Mainstream Secondary Schools of Bangladesh: Perceptions and Issues

Authors: Shanaj Parvin Jonaki

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After the first wave of the feminist movement, gender has become one of the most important issues to be researched in social science. Many gender theories have been invented and opened a new window to look at. These works showed how gender is a social construct, how gender has been used to oppress, how to rule. While it's the education system’s duty to guide students to understand the concept of gender, it sometimes shows gender-based discrimination. Transgenders exclusion from educational institutes of Bangladesh justifies this very statement. This study aims to figure out how people perceive transgenders’ identity, their inclusion in secondary schools, as well as the underlying barriers in the pathway of inclusion in the context of Bangladesh. A qualitative approach was taken to explore different perspectives towards transgender inclusion from several stakeholders such as students, parents, and teachers of secondary schools and transgenders as well. Data were collected through focus group discussion and interview by convenient sampling. 15 students, 10 parents, and 5 teachers were selected from Bangla Medium school as well as from Madrasha. Collected data were analyzed thematically and were run by experts of gender, education, and psychology to identify the core barriers of inclusion. The study revealed that most of the students, teachers, and parents lacked the knowledge of non-binary gender identities, and they showed unwillingness towards the inclusion of transgender in schools because of the cultural context of Bangladesh. Moreover, this study suggests future initiatives to be taken to ensure the inclusion of transgenders in a secondary school in our country and analyzes it through the lens of feminist theories.

Keywords: education, gender, inclusion, transgender

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29 Indigeneity of Transgender Cultures: Traditional Knowledge and Appropriation

Authors: Priyanka Sinnarkar

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The appropriation of traditional knowledge has already deprived vast indigenous communities of material benefits. One such industry in India responsible for the extensive exploitation of the indigenous communities is Bollywood or the film industry. Indigenous communities are usually marginalized and exploited, whilst the beneficiary is always the third part. Transgender culture in India dates back to 400 AD with a precise description in the Kama Sutra. Since then, with escalating evolution in governance, the community lost its glory and was criminalized until late 2014. However, the traditional knowledge and cultural practices never diminished. The formation of cults (gharanas) and peculiar folklore has remained in place. This study is intended to highlight the culture of the hijra gharanas and their contribution to intangible cultural heritage. Whilst adhering to the norms of the United Nations pertaining to traditional knowledge and indigenous communities, these papers focuses on the fact that one of the most marginalized and ostracized communities in India treasures a huge amount of rituals and practices that are appropriated by the film industry, leaving the transgender community to indulge into odd jobs and commercial sex work leading to poverty and illiteracy. A comparison between caste reservations and no reservation for this community will bring to light the lacuna in the democratic system. Also, through empirical findings, it can be inferred that a creative sector of the society is not properly exploited to its complete potential, thereby restricting a good contribution to intellectual property. It is important to state that the roots of this problem are not in modern practices. Thus an etymological analysis from mythology to the present will help understand that appropriate application of human rights in this segment will be useful to render justice to this community and thereby recognize the IP that has been succumbed since ages.

Keywords: indigenous, intellectual property, traditional knowedge, transgender

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28 The Erasure of Sex and Gender Minorities by Misusing Sex and Gender in Public Health

Authors: Tessalyn Morrison, Alexis Dinno, Taurica Salmon

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Sex and gender conflation continue to perpetuate the invisibility of gender minorities and obscure information about the ways that biological sex and gender affect health. The misuse of sex and gender terms, and their respective binaries, can yield inaccurate results. But more importantly, it contributes to the erasure of sex and gender minority health experiences. This paper discusses ways in which public health researchers can use sex and gender terms correctly and center the health experiences of intersex, transgender, non binary, and a-gender individuals. It includes promoting sensitivity in approaching minority communities, improving survey questions, and collaborating with sex and gender minority communities to improve research quality and participant experiences. Improving our standards for the quality of sex and gender term usage and centering sex and gender minorities in public health research are imperative to address the health inequalities faced by sex and gender minorities.

Keywords: epidemiology, gender, intersex, research methods, sex, transgender

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27 Homosexuality and Inclusion: Experiences of Learners and Teachers within South African School's Contex

Authors: Tsediso Makoelle

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South Africa like in other parts of the world has acknowledged the prevalence of the phenomenon of homosexuality in the society. Due to the number of homosexuality cases in the South African society, questions have been asked about the impact of homosexuality in schools and how teachers and learners deal with homosexuality within the context of an emerging inclusive education system. This qualitative study analysis the experiences of teachers and learners in selected secondary schools in relation to prevalence of transgender in schools. Interviews were conducted with principals, teachers and focus group of learners in schools were cases homosexuality have been reported. Data was analysed using an inductive analysis framework. Among the findings was that homosexuality is still viewed as a taboo in Black-African dominated school communities and that the need to create all-embracing and inclusive environment was evident. The study suggests a needs to open communications in communities about homosexuality in order to develop an all-inclusive environment for all learners regardless of their sexual orientation.

Keywords: homosexuality, inclusive education, sexual orientation, transgender

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26 Need and Willingness to Use ‘Meditation on Twin Hearts’ for Management of Anxiety and Depression for the Transgender Community: A Pilot Study

Authors: Neha Joshi, Srikanth Jois, Hector J. Peughero, Poornima Jayakrishna, Moulya R., Purnima Madivanan, Kiran Kumar K. Salagame

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Transgenders are a marginalized section of the community, who are at high risk of mental health problems due to their stigmatization, abandonment by family, prejudice, discrimination by society at large, and the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse from both within and outside their community. Their mental healthcare needs remain largely unaddressed due to lack of access, discrimination by healthcare professions, and lack of resources, including time and money, to seek conventional medical and psychotherapeutic treatments. Meditation is increasingly receiving acceptance as a tool for managing stress and anxiety by the patients as well as mental healthcare professionals. “Meditation on Twin Hearts” is a no cost, self-administered intervention that a person can practice anywhere and at any time of the day. This pilot study evaluates the need for alternate traditional and ingenious interventions like “Meditation of Twin Hearts” to address the mental healthcare needs of the transgender community and acceptance of such an intervention by the community. Thirteen individuals identifying themselves as transgender were invited to participate in one (Hunsur Taluk) of the five scheduled free meditation camps in Mysore. After obtaining informed consent for participation in the study, their mental health status is captured using an anonymous survey using standard, validated, self-reported questionnaires Generalised Anxiety Disorders (GAD)-7 for anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised for suicidality. Then, they were requested to attend a session on “Meditation on Twin Hearts.” After the session, their feedback on willingness to further explore the meditation technique for managing their mental healthcare need was assessed through another survey form. Out of the 13 participants, 92% scored for anxiety (4 mild, and 8 moderate anxiety). In the depression scale, 5 scored for mild and 5 for moderate depression, with a total of 77% (10/13) scoring positively on depression scale. Nearly 70% of participants (9/13), scored greater than the clinical cutoff for the need for clinical intervention. The proportion of individuals at risk for suicide was particularly high in this group, with 8/ 13 (61.5%) participants scoring the clinical cutoff score of ≥ 7. Surprisingly, none of the participants had ever consulted a mental healthcare professional. All the participants (13/13; 100%) responded in affirmative to the question, “Will you be willing to continue meditation for management of your anxiety?” Six out of 13 participants described their experience of meditation as “happy” and 3 described it as “peaceful”. None of the participants reported any negative beliefs or experience regarding the meditation. The study provides evidence for the urgent yet unmet mental healthcare need of the transgender community. The findings of the study also supports the rationale of conducting future systematic research to evaluate and explore ingenious and traditional practices, such as meditation, to meet the healthcare needs, especially in marginalized populations in a low income setting such as Lower and Middle Income countries. Based on these preliminary findings, the Principal Investigator (PI) is planning to cover 4 more areas of Mysore district.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, meditation on twin heart, suicidality, transgender

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25 Breaking the Barriers: Exploring the Barriers to LGBTQ+ Accessing Palliative Care and the Hospice

Authors: Emma Worley, Mhairi De Sainte Croix, Savneet Lochab, Christopher Roberts, Mark Stroud, Mo Salehan, Kevin Jones

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Awareness about the importance of teaching about diversity at medical school is growing. In the realm of diversity includes discussion around the LGBTQ+ community. At Bristol, diversity is taught in first or second year. However, echoing and expanding that teaching throughout the curriculum is needed. This feeds into the spiral curriculum but also highlights the relevance of the topic. It is well known that some people in the LGBTQ+ community struggle the access healthcare due to previous negative experiences. In 2019, 1 in 7 LGBTQ+ people avoided seeking medical care due to fears about discrimination. If people have fears about seeking medical help, then seeking help from Palliative care when they are at their most vulnerable situation can be even harder. To improve positive healthcare situations for people who identify as LGBTQ+ needs to start with talking. Along with some of our CTAs (clinical teaching assistants) we created a teaching session to explore the barriers faced by LGBTQ+ and incorporated communication stations into this. Our plan is to run this session as a three-hour session first discussing different topics: ethnical diversity, ‘coming out’, LGBTQ+ in the older generation, transgender. This will be followed by looking more closely at the barriers to accessing the hospice. The next part of the session will encompass two or three communication scenarios hopefully prompting further discussion and reflection on ways to improve our communication. The first scenario outline is a gay man/lesbian woman with lung cancer discussing options around the hospice. The second scenario is a transgender person with female genitalia who now has cervical cancer (as was not followed up on pap smears after the change of name). The third scenario is a HIV homosexual male patient who has been admitted with dementia. He has a partner but is not married. His next of kin is down as his parents but his parents do not know about his sexuality and HIV status. It allows discussion around confidentiality as well as broaching the meaning of ‘family’ in the LGBTQ+ community. We have chosen to pitch this teaching session to Bristol Year 4 students. They will be currently doing their 6-week Palliative care block, which fits in well. Each session will have four students attend. We have been lucky enough to have two CTAs (clinical teaching assistants) who identify as LGBTQ+ offer their experiences and help. They have been able to help us with the preparation and delivery of the session. Given anecdotal evidence and stories helps to highlight the importance and relevance of this session. The aim is to increase awareness of some factors that may contribute to people who identify as LGBTQ+ having a negative healthcare experience. By starting to talk about it allows awareness and only then will we be able to start to change and improve. Our aim, if the sessions run well, is to expand these sessions to different academy hospitals. Therefore, all Bristol 4th year students would have the opportunity to take part in the teaching session. We would like to expand our portfolio of case scenarios, to address so tricker topics such as a transgender person with dementia who reverts back to a different gender. We would also like to recruit a diverse range of actors, ideally people who identify as the patient in the scenario does. For example, a transgender person acts the transgender scenario. This would give authenticity and enhance the student’s learning experience.

Keywords: communication skills, healthcare barriers, LGBTQ+, palliative care

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24 ‘Nature Will Slow You Down for a Reason’: Virtual Elder-Led Support Services during COVID-19

Authors: Grandmother Roberta Oshkawbewisens, Elder Isabelle Meawasige, Lynne Groulx, Chloë Hamilton, Lee Allison Clark, Dana Hickey, Wansu Qiu, Jared Leedham, Nishanthini Mahendran, Cameron Maclaine

Abstract:

In March of 2020, the world suddenly shifted with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic; in-person programs and services were unavailable and a scramble to shift to virtual service delivery began. The Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) established virtual programming through the Resiliency Lodge model and connected with Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people across Turtle Island and Inuit Nunangat through programs that provide a safe space to slow down and reflect on their lives, environment, and well-being. To continue to grow the virtual Resiliency Lodge model, NWAC needed to develop an understanding of three questions: how COVID-19 affects Elder-led support services, how Elder-led support services have adapted during the pandemic, and what Wise Practices need to be implemented to continue to develop, refine, and evaluate virtual Elder-led support services specifically for Indigenous women, girls, two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people. Through funding from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR), NWAC gained deeper insight into these questions and developed a series of key findings and recommendations that are outlined throughout this report. The goals of this project are to contribute to a more robust participatory analysis that reflects the complexities of Elder-led virtual cultural responses and the impacts of COVID-19 on Elder-led support services; develop culturally and contextually meaningful virtual protocols and wise practices for virtual Indigenous-led support; and develop an Evaluation Strategy to improve the capacity of the Resiliency Lodge model. Significant findings from the project include Resiliency Lodge programs, especially crafting and business sessions, have provided participants with a sense of community and contributed to healing and wellness; Elder-led support services need greater and more stable funding to offer more workshops to more Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people; and Elder- and Indigenous-led programs play a significant role in healing and building a sense of purpose and belonging among Indigenous people. Ultimately, the findings and recommendations outlined in this research project help to guide future Elder-led virtual support services and emphasize the critical need to increase access to Elder-led programming for Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people.

Keywords: indigenous women, traditional healing, virtual programs, covid-19

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23 The Hijras of Odisha: A Study of the Self-Identity of the Eunuchs and Their Identification with Stereotypical Feminine Roles

Authors: Purnima Anjali Mohanty, Mousumi Padhi

Abstract:

Background of the study: In the background of the passage of the Transgender Bill 2016, which is the first such step of formal recognition of the rights of transgender, the Hijras have been recognized under the wider definition of Transgender. Fascinatingly, in the Hindu social context, Hijras have a long social standing during marriages and childbirths. Other than this ironically, they live an ostracized life. The Bill rather than recognizing their unique characteristics and needs, reinforces the societal dualism through a parallelism of their legal rights with rights available to women. Purpose of the paper: The research objective was to probe why and to what extent did they identify themselves with the feminine gender roles. Originality of the paper: In the Indian context, the subject of eunuch has received relatively little attention. Among the studies that exist, there has been a preponderance of studies from the perspective of social exclusion, rights, and physical health. There has been an absence of research studying the self-identity of Hijras from the gender perspective. Methodology: The paper adopts the grounded theory method to investigate and discuss the underlying gender identity of transgenders. Participants in the study were 30 hijras from various parts of Odisha. 4 Focus group discussions were held for collecting data. The participants were approached in their natural habitat. Following the methodological recommendations of the grounded theory, care was taken to select respondents with varying experiences. The recorded discourses were transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analysed sentence by sentence, and coded. Common themes were identified, and responses were categorized under the themes. Data collected in the latter group discussions were added till saturation of themes. Finally, the themes were put together to prove that despite the demand for recognition as third gender, the eunuchs of Odisha identify themselves with the feminine roles. Findings: The Hijra have their own social structure and norms which are unique and are in contrast with the mainstream culture. These eunuchs live and reside in KOTHIS (house), where the family is led by a matriarch addressed as Maa (mother) with her daughters (the daughters are eunuchs/effeminate men castrated and not castrated). They all dress up as woman, do womanly duties, expect to be considered and recognized as woman and wife and have the behavioral traits of a woman. Looking from the stance of Feminism one argues that when the Hijras identify themselves with the gender woman then on what grounds they are given the recognition as third gender. As self-identified woman; their claim for recognition as third gender falls flat. Significance of the study: Academically it extends the study of understanding of gender identity and psychology of the Hijras in the Indian context. Practically its significance is far reaching. The findings can be used to address legal and social issues with regards to the rights available to the Hijras.

Keywords: feminism, gender perspective, Hijras, rights, self-identity

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22 Genderqueerness in Polish: A Survey-Based Study of Linguistic Strategies Employed by Genderqueer Speakers of Polish

Authors: Szymon Misiek

Abstract:

The genderqueer (or gender non-binary, both terms referring to those individuals who are identified as neither men nor women) community has been gaining greater visibility over the last few years. This includes legal recognition, representation in popular media, and inclusion of non-binary perspectives in research on transgender issues. Another important aspect of visibility is language. Gender-neutrality, often associated with genderqueer people, is relatively easy to achieve in natural-gender languages such as English. This can be observed in the growing popularity of the 'singular they' pronoun (used specifically with reference to genderqueer individuals) or the gender-neutral title 'Mx.' (as an alternative to 'Ms./Mr.'). 'Singular they' seems to have become a certain standard in the genderqueer community. Grammatical-gender languages, such as Polish, provide for a greater challenge to genderqueer speakers. In Polish, every noun is inherently gendered, while verbs, adjectives, and pronouns inflect for gender. Those who do not wish to settle for using only either masculine or feminine forms (which some genderqueer Polish speakers do choose) have to somehow mix the two, attempt to avoid gendered forms altogether, or turn to non-standard forms, such as neuter (not used for people in standard Polish), plurals (vaguely akin to English 'singular they'), or neologisms (such as verb forms using the '-u-' affix). The following paper presents the results of a survey conducted among genderqueer speakers of Polish regarding their choice of linguistic strategies. As no definitive standard such as 'singular they' has (yet) emerged, it rather seeks to emphasize the diversity of chosen strategies and their relation to a person's specific identity as well as the context an exchange takes place. The findings of the study may offer an insight into how heavily gendered languages deal with non-normatively gendered experiences, and to what extent English influences this process (e.g., the majority of genderqueer poles choose English terms to label their identity), as well as help design good practices aimed at achieving gender-equality in speech.

Keywords: genderqueer, grammatical gender in Polish, non-binary, transgender

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21 Intersectional Bullying, LGBT Youth and the Construction of Power

Authors: Elle Hilke Dominski

Abstract:

This paper explores the impact of intersectional bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) youth from a multi-layered experience perspective within bullying incidents at school. Present inclusionary measures at school may not be designed as a continuous process of finding better methods for responding to diversity, rather remain ‘fixed’ as singular solutions applied universally. This paper argues recognizing education through a lens of inclusion begins to realize most educational systems are poorly equipped to handle diversity.

Keywords: bullying, education, intersectional bullying, LGBT

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20 The Queer Language: A Case Study of the Hyderabadi Queers

Authors: Sreerakuvandana Vandana

Abstract:

Although the term third gender is relatively new, the language that is in use has already made its way to the concept of identity. With the vast recognition and the transparency in expressing their identity without a tint of embarrassment, it is highly essential to take into account the idea of “identity” and “language”. The community however picks up language as a tool to assert their presence in the “mainstream”, albeit contradictory practices. The paper is an attempt to see how Koti claims and tries to be a language just like any other language. With that, it also identifies how the community wants to be identified as a unique group, but yet want to remain grounded to the ‘mainstream’. The work is an attempt to bring out the secret language of the LGBT community and understand their desire to be recognized as "main stream." The paper is also an attempt to bring into light this language and see if it qualifies to be a language at all.

Keywords: identity, language, queer, transgender

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19 Gender Dimension of Migrations Influenced by Genocide and Feminicides around the Globe

Authors: Lejla Mušić

Abstract:

Gender dimension of migration analyzes the intersection in between the world statistics on male and female migrations, around the world, involving the questions of youth migrations. Comparative analyses of world migration statistics as methodology offer the insight into the position of women in labor market around world. There are different forms of youth debris in contemporary world. The main problems are illegal migration, feminization of poverty, kidnapping the girls in Nigeria, femicides in Juarez and Mexico. Illegal migrations involve forced labor, rape and prostitution. Transgender youth share ideas through the online media (anti-bullying videos) and develop their own styles such as anarcho-punk, rave, or rock. Therefore, the stronger gender equality laws and laws for protection of women on work should be enforced.

Keywords: hyperfeminisation, rape, gangs of girls, rent boys masculinities, Varoç in Istanbul, forced labor, rape and prostitution, illegal emigrations

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18 The Influence of Minority Stress on Depression among Thai Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

Authors: Priyoth Kittiteerasack, Alana Steffen, Alicia K. Matthews

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Depression is a leading cause of the worldwide burden of disability and disease burden. Notably, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations are more likely to be a high-risk group for depression compared to their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. To date, little is known about the rates and predictors of depression among Thai LGBT populations. As such, the purpose of this study was to: 1) measure the prevalence of depression among a diverse sample of Thai LGBT adults and 2) determine the influence of minority stress variables (discrimination, victimization, internalized homophobia, and identity concealment), general stress (stress and loneliness), and coping strategies (problem-focused, avoidance, and seeking social support) on depression outcomes. This study was guided by the Minority Stress Model (MSM). The MSM posits that elevated rates of mental health problems among LGBT populations stem from increased exposures to social stigma due to their membership in a stigmatized minority group. Social stigma, including discrimination and violence, represents unique sources of stress for LGBT individuals and have a direct impact on mental health. This study was conducted as part of a larger descriptive study of mental health among Thai LGBT adults. Standardized measures consistent with the MSM were selected and translated into the Thai language by a panel of LGBT experts using the forward and backward translation technique. The psychometric properties of translated instruments were tested and acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha > .8 and Content Validity Index = 1). Study participants were recruited using convenience and snowball sampling methods. Self-administered survey data were collected via an online survey and via in-person data collection conducted at a leading Thai LGBT organization. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses using multiple linear regression models were conducted to analyze study data. The mean age of participants (n = 411) was 29.5 years (S.D. = 7.4). Participants were primarily male (90.5%), homosexual (79.3%), and cisgender (76.6%). The mean score for depression of study participant was 9.46 (SD = 8.43). Forty-three percent of LGBT participants reported clinically significant levels of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. In multivariate models, the combined influence of demographic, stress, coping, and minority stressors explained 47.2% of the variance in depression scores (F(16,367) = 20.48, p < .001). Minority stressors independently associated with depression included discrimination (β = .43, p < .01) victimization (β = 1.53, p < .05), and identity concealment (β = -.54, p < .05). In addition, stress (β = .81, p < .001), history of a chronic disease (β = 1.20, p < .05), and coping strategies (problem-focused coping β = -1.88, p < .01, seeking social support β = -1.12, p < .05, and avoidance coping β = 2.85, p < .001) predicted depression scores. The study outcomes emphasized that minority stressors uniquely contributed to depression levels among Thai LGBT participants over and above typical non-minority stressors. Study findings have important implications for nursing practice and the development of intervention research.

Keywords: depression, LGBT, minority stress, sexual and gender minority, Thailand

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17 Action Plans to Prevent Negative Attitudes Towards Gay and Lesbian Parents: A Systemic Analysis of Health-Care Interventions in Belgium

Authors: Therese Scali

Abstract:

Over the years, the European Union has continued to extend its action on lesbian, gay men, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights to a range of areas including access to justice, asylum, freedom of expression and assembly, parenting, and mutual recognition of civil status within the EU. The European Parliament has been a driving force behind such action adopting a range of resolutions calling for continued progress in this field. In particular, Belgium has been one of the first countries to legalize same-sex parenting and to create a general framework for action against negative attitudes towards gay and lesbian parents. The present paper aims at highlighting public healthcare workers’ attitudes towards different types of same-sex headed families in Belgium, and the content of their interventions in schools. Results revealed that attitudes can go from supportive to unsupportive, and participants do not show the same degree of support towards the different types of same-sex parenting. This contribution highlights work’s implication for public policy by understanding the resources and challenges that health-care professionals face in their work.

Keywords: attitudes, gay and lesbian parents, health-care workers, homophobia, prevention

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16 Body, Sex and Culture: Gender Dissidences through Cinema

Authors: Piedad Lucia Bolivar Goez, Daniel Ignacio Garzon Luna, Maria Camila Balcero Angel, Sara Carolina Martinez Roman, Daniela Natalia Polo Rivas, Sandra Liliana Rocha Guitierrez

Abstract:

This article provides a critical analysis on the conception of disorders of sexual development (DSDs) within the bioethics framework. By means of analytical thought, the objective is to approach topics such as the rediscovery of the body, the reinvention of sexuality and link them to the liability that health personnel have to inform people about the options they have to decide over their health and body. The medicalization of sexed bodies in both psychosocial and anatomo-morpho-physiological dimensions from a legal standpoint were analyzed. Its also explored the gender stereotypes established by society and the role of laws in guaranteeing the right of autonomy that takes on greater relevance in DSD. Through this analysis, it was concluded that despite intersexuality having been analyzed by Colombia’s Constitutional Court, that it is stated as a fair entity, the stigmatization by society has not allowed these individuals to belong to an egalitarian context in which everyone has the same opportunities of access to the goods and services that they need. This leads individuals to hide their identity and expression of genre in order to be accepted in a set of contexts. Thus creating a vulnerability that the health system must be able to identify and in which it is necessary to intervene at a biopsychosocial level, in order to guarantee the protection of the individual within an unquestionable frame of equality and solidarity.

Keywords: disorders of sex development, gender identity, sexuality, transgender persons

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15 Story of Alex: Sociology of Gender

Authors: Karen V. Lee

Abstract:

The significance of this study involves autoethnographic research about a music teacher learning about the socialization of gender issues in teaching. Mentorship involving intervention helps with the consequences influencing a transgendered music teacher. Basic storytelling methodology involves the qualitative method of research as a theoretical framework where the author provides a storied reflection about political issues surrounding teachers and the sociology of gender. Sub-themes involve counseling, adult education to ensure students and teachers receive social, emotional, physical, spiritual, and educational resources that evoke visceral, emotional responses from the audience. Major findings share how stories are helpful resources for others who struggle with the socialization of gender. It is hoped the research dramatizes an episodic yet incomplete story that highlights the circumstances surrounding the protagonist having his sex reassignment surgery during his undergraduate education degree. In conclusion, the research is a reflexive storied framework that embraces a positive outlook about a transgendered teacher during his masectomy. The sensory experience seeks verisimilitude by evoking lifelike and believable feelings from others. Thus, the scholarly importance of the sociology of gender and society provides transformative aspects that contributes to social change. Overall, the surgery surrounding the story about transgendered issues are not uncommon in society. Thus, continued education supports the moral mission to help teachers overcome and understand issues of gender that can socially impacts their professional lives as teachers.

Keywords: sociology of gender, transgender, music teachers, story, autoethnography as research, ideology

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14 Urban Sexual Geographies, Queer Citizenship and the Socio-Economic Status of LGBTIQs in Vienna

Authors: Karin Schoenpflug, Christine M. Klapeer

Abstract:

In a large study for the Vienna City Council’s Antidiscrimination unit (WASt) an interdisciplinary team (in the fields of economics, sociology and political science) working with urban economics, critical citizenship studies, the sociology of work & inequality and urban political/human geography conducted an online survey asking LGBTIs (lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender and intersex people) in Vienna detailed questions on their quality-of-life, happiness and well-being. 3.161 persons responded and provided us with a rich data set concerning: 1) Labor market structures, discrimination, working conditions and employment practices (economic citizenship); 2) access to health care, welfare, education and safety in public spaces (social citizenship); 3) political participation as well as access to legal institutions (political citizenship). All those fields are important dimensions in regards to “full” citizenship and the well-being of the LGBTI population, but are also constitutive for the inclusion of sexual and gender minorities into the city population(s) of Vienna. Our data also allows us to map the sexual geography of Vienna as LGBTI communities are more likely to live in certain districts; some places are considered safe(r) and “friendlier”. In this way our work helps to fill a research gap connecting (urban) spaces and sexuality, and it produces new data and insights on the quality-of-life of this subpopulation. Our findings allow for urban (policy) planning and limiting violence and discrimination and improving the collective wellbeing and social cohesion.

Keywords: urban sexual geographies, LGBTI, socio-economic status, Vienna, sitizenship status

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