Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: dogs

89 Comparative Acaricidal Efficacy of Fluralaner vs Oral Ivermectin Against Tick Infestation in Dogs

Authors: Tayyaba Zahra, Shehla Gul Bokhari, Asim Khalid Mahmood, Raheela Akhtar, Khizar Matloob

Abstract:

In Pakistan, dogs are commonly infested with ticks, especially in summers, causing not only dermatological issues but also systemic problems. Persistence of tick infestation often leads to heavy losses. Different acaricides are locally available with variable efficacy; however, recurrence of infestation is commonly reported. The present study was thus designed to compare the efficacy of a novel drug Fluralaner and conventionally used Ivermectin against tick infestation. Dogs positive for tick infestation were randomly divided into 2 groups viz, Groups A and B having 8 dogs each. Ticks were enumerated manually from the whole body of dogs at day 0 before the administration of drugs Dogs in Group A were treated with Fluralaner at day 0, and dogs in Group B were treated with Ivermectin. Post-treatment, ticks were counted again at days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. At day 07 of the study, no tick was found on the dogs treated with Fluralaner, while many ticks were present on the dogs treated with Ivermectin showing an efficacy up to 50%. On the consecutive follow-up evaluations, similar results were found for Fluralaner while the efficacy of Ivermectin was further reduced to less than 50%. Furthermore, Fluralaner treated dogs had better RBC counts, PCV, Hgb concentration, LFTs, RFTs post-treatment than the dogs treated with Ivermectin. Statistically, oral Fluralaner proved a more effective drug (P≤0.05)than oral Ivermectin against tick infestation in dogs.

Keywords: fluralaner, ivermectin, dogs, tick infestations

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
88 Stability Analysis of Rabies Model with Vaccination Effect and Culling in Dogs

Authors: Eti Dwi Wiraningsih, Folashade Agusto, Lina Aryati, Syamsuddin Toaha, Suzanne Lenhart, Widodo, Willy Govaerts

Abstract:

This paper considers a deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of rabies virus in the wild dogs-domestic dogs-human zoonotic cycle. The effect of vaccination and culling in dogs is considered on the model, then the stability was analysed to get basic reproduction number. We use the next generation matrix method and Routh-Hurwitz test to analyze the stability of the Disease-Free Equilibrium and Endemic Equilibrium of this model.

Keywords: stability analysis, rabies model, vaccination effect, culling in dogs

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
87 High Prevalence of Canine Mammary Gland Tumor in Nulliparous Compared with Multiparous Female Dogs

Authors: Sudson Sirivaidyapong, Ratthanan Sathienbumrungkit, Nongnapas Ruangpet, Nattanun Uaprayoon, Chawisa Wejjakul

Abstract:

Many factors initiate mammary gland tumor in female dogs such as age, breed, sex, estrous cycle, birth control and pseudopregnancy. Those factors are mostly associated with canine sex hormone. In this study, questionnaires and direct interviews were used to collect information from owners of female dogs that had been diagnosed as mammary tumors at our veterinary teaching hospital, during January 2015 to October 2016 to compare the prevalence of mammary tumor between nulliparous and multiparous female dogs. 200 dogs (from all 212 mammary tumor patients, some were excluded because of inadequate information) were included in the study, 72.5% were nulliparous and 27.5% were multiparous. The results revealed that breed, age, birth control age and birth control methods were not different in both groups; most dogs in both groups were various purebreds, geriatric age, and low incidence of hormonal contraception while 100% of multiparous dogs and 83.7% of nulliparous dogs had been neutered at over two years old. The significant differences between two groups were the frequency of pseudopregnancy and estrus which were much higher in nulliparous female dogs. It can be concluded from our study that nulliparous dogs may be more likely at higher risk of mammary tumor compared to multiparous dogs from various factors especially, the frequency of estrus and the occurrence of pseudopregnancy which related to more times of sex hormonal contact. This study was a preliminary data for further studies to determine the other risk factors of mammary gland tumors in dogs, and to our knowledge, it is the first report on a significantly higher prevalence of mammary tumor in nulliparous female dogs than that in multiparous dogs. This finding corresponds with the study of breast cancer in women but may be from different causes and factors due to the differences in estrous physiology.

Keywords: canine, female dogs, nulliparous, multiparous, mammary tumor, prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
86 Investigation of Norovirus Genogroups (GI, GII and GIV) in Stool of Pet Dogs with Diarrhea

Authors: S. Sokel, M. Kale

Abstract:

Norovirus (NoV) infection is effective and contagious in humans and many animals such as calves, pigs, dogs, cats, monkeys. There is not enough evidence about the zoonotic transmission of NoV between humans and animals. However, the fact that contamination of foods and environment by animal/human waste happens in indirect way leads to consideration of the agent as a zoonotic character. In our study, we aim to search the presence of NoV infection, which is a major public health problem, in possessed dogs showing diarrhea symptoms, to detect its genotype and to study nutrition and life conditions. We searched the existence of human NoV GI, GII and GIV in the stool of 128 pet dogs in Burdur Province with diarrhoea in various sex, age and breed by using Real-Time PCR method. Human NoV GII was found in only 5 of the 128 dog stool samples (3.91%). In the study, it was determined that the owners of the dogs with NoV GII are middle aged or elderly people most of whom are male and that there were no children in their houses. As these dogs are treated like the owner’s child, it is assumed that they could be transmitted with NoV GII as a result of close interaction with their owner.

Keywords: dog, human, norovirus, Real-Time PCR, stool

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
85 Seroepidemiology of Q Fever among Companion Dogs in Fars Province, South of Iran

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Mohammad Abbaszadeh Hasiri

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Coxiella burnetii is a gram-negative obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes Q fever, a significant zoonotic disease. Sheep, cattle, and goats are the most commonly reported reservoirs for the bacteria, but infected cats and dogs have also been implicated in the transmission of the disease to human. The aim of present study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii among companion dogs in Fars province, South of Iran. A total of 181 blood samples were collected from asymptomatic dogs, mostly referred to Veterinary Hospital of Shiraz University for regular vaccination. The IgG antibody detection against Coxiella burnetii was made by indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), employing phase I and II Coxiella burnetii antigens. A logistic regression model was developed to analyze multiple risk factors associated with seropositivity. An overall seropositivity of 7.7% (n=14) was observed. Prevalence was significantly higher in adult dogs above five years (18.18 %) compared with dogs between 1 and five years (7.86 %) and less than one year (6.17%) (P=0.043). Prevalence was also higher in male dogs (11.21 %) than in female (2.7 %) (P=0.035). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of positive cases and breed, type of housing, type of food and exposure to other farm animals (P>0.05). The results of this study showed the presence of Coxiella burnetii infection among the companion dogs population in Fars province. To our knowledge, this is the first study regarding Q fever in dogs carried out in Iran. In areas like Iran, where human cases of Q fever are not common or remain unreported, the public health implications of Q fever seroprevalence in dogs are quite significant.

Keywords: Coxiella burnetii, dog, Iran, Q fever

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
84 Gastric Foreign Bodies in Dogs

Authors: Naglaa A. Abd Elkader, Haithem A. Farghali

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The present study carried out on fifteen clinical cases of different species of dogs which admitted to surgical clinic of veterinary medicine with different symptoms (Acute vomiting, hematemesis and anorexia). There was diagnostic march which including plain radiograph and endoscopic examination. Treatment was including surgical interference and endoscopic retrieval followed by medicinal treatment. This study was aimed the detection of different foreign bodies by the most suitable method according to the type of the foreign bodies.

Keywords: stomach, endoscopy, foreign bodies, dogs

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
83 Cost-Effectiveness of a Certified Service or Hearing Dog Compared to a Regular Companion Dog

Authors: Lundqvist M., Alwin J., Levin L-A.

Abstract:

Background: Assistance dogs are dogs trained to assist persons with functional impairment or chronic diseases. The assistance dog concept includes different types: guide dogs, hearing dogs, and service dogs. The service dog can further be divided into subgroups of physical services dogs, diabetes alert dogs, and seizure alert dogs. To examine the long-term effects of health care interventions, both in terms of resource use and health outcomes, cost-effectiveness analyses can be conducted. This analysis can provide important input to decision-makers when setting priorities. Little is known when it comes to the cost-effectiveness of assistance dogs. The study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of certified service or hearing dogs in comparison to regular companion dogs. Methods: The main data source for the analysis was the “service and hearing dog project”. It was a longitudinal interventional study with a pre-post design that incorporated fifty-five owners and their dogs. Data on all relevant costs affected by the use of a service dog such as; municipal services, health care costs, costs of sick leave, and costs of informal care were collected. Health-related quality of life was measured with the standardized instrument EQ-5D-3L. A decision-analytic Markov model was constructed to conduct the cost-effectiveness analysis. Outcomes were estimated over a 10-year time horizon. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as cost per gained quality-adjusted life year was the primary outcome. The analysis employed a societal perspective. Results: The result of the cost-effectiveness analysis showed that compared to a regular companion dog, a certified dog is cost-effective with both lower total costs [-32,000 USD] and more quality-adjusted life-years [0.17]. Also, we will present subgroup results analyzing the cost-effectiveness of physicals service dogs and diabetes alert dogs. Conclusions: The study shows that a certified dog is cost-effective in comparison with a regular companion dog for individuals with functional impairments or chronic diseases. Analyses of uncertainty imply that further studies are needed.

Keywords: service dogs, hearing dogs, health economics, Markov model, quality-adjusted, life years

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
82 Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis In Brazil

Authors: Elisangela Sobreira, Denise Teixeira

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Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem in Brazil, it is the main reservoir dog. In the period 2012-2016 78 diagnoses were performed in dogs suspected. Blood samples were collected from the cephalic vein obtaining serum used for the indirect immunofluorescence test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while it collected a drop of blood for the rapid chromatographic immunoassay. Obtained in 32 dogs positive. The test is important for the control of this disease and is used routinely in the Zoonoses Control Center.

Keywords: Brazil, dogs, Leismaniasis, Zoonoses center

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
81 Endoscopic Depiction and Treatment Evaluation of Spirocerca lupi in Dogs

Authors: ELdessouky Sheta, Sayed Elzomor, Haithem Farghali, Kawkab A. Ahmed, Naglaa A. Abd Elkader

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The present investigation has been dealt with Spirocerca (S.) lupi infested mongrel dogs. This parasitic disease is highly infective to human beings and carnivores. The diagnosis march has been comprised the lateral contrast thoracic radiographs, fecal examination, blood profile, endoscopic examination and histopathological sections of deep seated pinch biopsies. These infested dogs have been put under an adopted treatment with Ivermectin injection combined with oral prednisolone. The obtained results reveal an absence of the pessimistic recognitions particularly after 3 weeks from the onset of treatment. Endoscopically the presented esophageal nodules are marked out in the distal third of infested dogs' esophagus as masses assigned into the esophageal lumen and fundus of stomach. The endoscopic outlook of Spirocerca lupi lesions has been considered an integral procedure of the diagnostic march and for evaluation of treatment follow up. The diagnostic procedures and the recommended treatment are the vet's guidance to care for Spirocerca lupi in dogs, hoping in future to prevent this disease from being spread among human beings and other carnivores.

Keywords: endoscopy, esophagus, stomach spirocercosis, dogs

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
80 Therapeutic Management of Toxocara canis Induced Hepatitis in Dogs

Authors: Milind D. Meshram

Abstract:

Ascarids are the most frequent worm parasite of dogs and cats. There are two species that commonly infect dogs: Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina. Adult roundworms live in the stomach and intestines and can grow to 7 inches (18 cm) long. A female may lay 200,000 eggs in a day. The eggs are protected by a hard shell. They are extremely hardy and can live for months or years in the soil. A dog aged about 6 years, from Satara was referred to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (TVCC) with a complaint of abdominal pain, anorexia, loss of condition and dull body coat with mucous pale membrane. The clinical examination revealed Anaemia, palpation of abdomen revealed enlargement of liver, slimy feel of the intestine loop, diarrhea.

Keywords: therapeutic management, Toxocara canis, induced hepatitis, dogs

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
79 Antibiogram and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius from Shelter Dogs with Skin Infections and Dog Owners in Abakaliki, Nigeria

Authors: Moses Ikechukwu Benjamin

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The continued increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcuspseudintermedius (MRSP) among dogs and the zoonotic transmission event of MRSP from dogs to humans threaten veterinary medicine and public health. The cardinal objective of this study was to determine the antibiogram and frequency of toxingenes in MRSP obtained from shelter dogs with skin infections and dog owners in Abakaliki, Eastern Nigeria. Skinswabs from 61 shelter dogs with skin infections and 33 nasal swabs from dog owners were processed and analyzed using standard microbiological techniques. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. The screening for Seccanine, lukD, siet, and exitoxin genes was carried out by PCR. A total of 23 (37.7 %) and 1 (3 %) MRSP strains were obtained from shelter dogs and dog owners, respectively. Generally, isolates exhibited high resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, and cefepime (100 % - 66.7 %) but were very susceptible (100 % - 70.7 %) to chloramphenicol and doripenem. The only isolate from dog owners harbouredseccanine, lukD, and siet toxin genes while solatesfrom shelter dogs harbouredseccanine16 (69.6 %), lukD 17 (73.9 %), siet 20 (87 %), and exi1 (4.4 %) toxin genes. Isolates were generally observed to be more resistant than other reports from the literature. Interesting, there was a similarity in the resistance antibiotypes and frequency of toxin genes harboured by MRSP isolates between shelter dogs with skin infections and their owner in a sampled household, thus suggesting a likely zoonotic transmission event. This report of the occurrence of MRSP and high frequency of toxin genes (Seccanine,lukD, and siet) in shelter dogs and dog owners represent a major challenge, especially in terms of antibiotic therapy, and is a serious concern for both animal and public health.

Keywords: methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius, zoonotic transmission, antibiotic resistance, companion dogs, toxin genes

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
78 Molecular Characterization of Dirofilaria repens in Dogs from Karnataka, India

Authors: D. S. Malatesh, K. J. Ananda, C. Ansar Kamran, K. Ganesh Udupa

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Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-borne filarioid nematode of dogs and other carnivores and accidentally affects humans. D. repens is reported in many countries, including India. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by D. repens is a zoonotic disease, widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa, with higher prevalence reported in dogs from Sri Lanka (30-60%), Iran (61%) and Italy (21-25%). Dirofilariasis in dogs was diagnosed by detection of microfilariae in blood. Identification of different Dirofilaria species was done by using molecular methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Even though many researchers reported molecular evidence of D. repens across India, to our best knowledge there is no data available on molecular diagnosis of D. repens in dogs and its zoonotic implication in Karnataka state a southern state in India. The aim of the present study was to identify the Dirofilaria species occurring in dogs from Karnataka, India. Out of 310 samples screened for the presence of microfilariae using traditional diagnostic methods, 99 (31.93%) were positive for the presence of microfilariae. Based on the morphometry, the microfilariae were identified as D. repens. For confirmation of species, the samples were subjected to PCR using pan filarial primers (DIDR-F1, DIDR-R1) for amplification of internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. The PCR product of 484 base pairs on agarose gel was indicative of D. repens. Hence, a single PCR reaction using pan filarial primers can be used to differentiate filarial species found in dogs. The present study confirms that dirofilarial species occurring in dogs from Karnataka is D. repens and further sequencing studies are needed for genotypic characterization of D. repens.

Keywords: Dirofilaria repens, molecular characterization, polymerase chain reaction, Karnataka, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
77 Zoonotic Dirofilaria Repens: Geographic Spread and New Avenues for Control

Authors: Francesco La Torre, Angela Di Cesare, Donato Traversa

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The mosquito-transmitted nematode Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of subcutaneous filariosis in dogs, other animals and humans. Adults and circulating microfilariae may cause different forms of skin conditions, and various allergic reactions. The infection is distributed in several countries and spreading in several areas of Europe. The control of D. repens is pivotal to reduce the transmission in dogs and to minimize the risk of infection in humans, but only few information is available for the chemoprevention of subcutaneous filariosis of dogs. A recent clinical field study showed the efficacy and safety of a monthly administration of an oral formulation containing milbemycin oxime (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of D. repens infection in dogs. Most recent and focused insights into epidemiology and control of zoonotic canine subcutaneous filariosis are here discussed.

Keywords: Dirofilaria repens, epidemiology, zoonosis, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 636
76 Clinical, Bacteriological and Histopathological Aspects of First-Time Pyoderma in a Population of Iranian Domestic Dogs: A Retrospective Study (2012-2017)

Authors: Shaghayegh Rafatpanah, Mehrnaz Rad, Ahmad Reza Movassaghi, Javad Khoshnegah

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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility and ERIC-PCR typing of staphylococci species from dogs with pyoderma. The study animals were 61 clinical cases of Iranian domestic dogs with the first-time pyoderma. The prevalence of pyoderma was significantly higher amongst adult (odds Ratio: 0.21; p=0.001) large breed (odds Ratio: 2.42; p=0.002)dogs. There was no difference in prevalence of pyoderma in male and females (odds Ratio: 1.27; p= 0.337). The 'head, face and pinna' and 'trunk' were the most affected lesion regions, each with 19 cases (26.76%). An identifiable underlying disease was present in 52 (85.24%) of the dogs. Bacterial species were recovered from 43 of the 61 (70.49%) studied animals. No isolates were recovered from 18 studied dogs. The most frequently recovered bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (32/43 isolates, 74.41%) including S. epidermidis (22/43 isolates, 51.16%), S. aureus (7/43 isolates, 16.27%) and S. pseudintermedius (3/43 isolates, 6.97%). Staphylococci species resistance was most commonly seen against amoxicillin (94.11%), penicillin (83.35%), and ampicillin (76.47%). Resistant to cephalexin and cefoxitin was 5.88% and 2.94%, respectively. A total of 27 of the staphylococci isolated (84.37 %) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, and 19 isolates (59.37%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobial drugs. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of resistance between the staphylococci isolated from cases of superficial and deep pyoderma. ERIC-PCR results revealed 19 different patterns among 22 isolates of S. epidermidis and 7 isolates of S. aureus.

Keywords: dog, pyoderma, Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
75 A Pilot Study Based on Online Survey Research Assessing the COVID-19 Impact on the Wellbeing of 15 Dogs Involved in Flemish Animal-Assisted Intervention Projects

Authors: L. Meers, L. Contalbrigo, V. Stevens, O. Ulitina, S. Laufer, W. E. Samuels, S. Normando

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Since the COVID-19 pandemic started, there has been concern that domestic animals may help spread SARS-Cov-2. This concern also greatly affected human-animal interaction projects such as animal-assisted interventions (AAI). As a result, institutions and AAI practitioners developed new safety protocols and procedures to control the spread of the SARS-Cov-2 virus during AAI sessions and to guarantee safety for their clients and animals. However, little is known yet about the impact on animals' needs and the possible welfare issues due to these lifestyle adaptions. Fifteen therapists in Flanders, Belgium, who were currently conducting canine-assisted interventions, conducted unstructured observations on how their dogs' (11 mixed breeds, 3 Labradors, 1 terrier aged 2 – 12 years) behaviors changed due to institutional COVID-19 safety protocols. Most (80%) of the respondents reported that their dogs showed sniffing or sneezing after smelling disinfected areas. Two (13%) dogs responded with vomiting and gagging, and three (20%) dogs urinated over disinfected areas. All protocols advise social distancing between participants and animals. When held back, eight (53%) dogs showed self-calming behaviors. Respondents reported that most (73%) dogs responded with flight reactions when seeing humans wearing facial masks. When practitioners threw their used masks in open dustbins, five (33%) dogs tried to take them out with their mouths and play with them; two (13%) Labradors tried to eat them. Taking the dogs' temperatures was the most frequently (53%) used method to supervise their health. However, all dogs showed behaviors as ducking the tail, trying to escape, or biting the animal handler during this procedure. We interpret these results to suggest that dogs tended to react with stress and confusion to the changes in AAI practices they're part of. The health and safety protocols that institutions used were largely borne from recommendations made to protect humans. The participating practitioners appeared to use their knowledge of dog behavior and safety to modify them as best they could—but with more significant concern directed towards the other humans. Given their inter-relatedness and mutual importance for welfare, we advocate for integrated human and animal health and welfare assessments and protocols to provide a framework for "One health" approaches in animal-assisted interventions.

Keywords: animal-assisted therapy, COVID-19 protocol, one health, welfare

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
74 Effect of Low Level Laser on Healing of Congenital Septal Defects on Dogs

Authors: Hady Atef, Zinab Helmy, Heba Abdeen, Mostafa Fadel

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Background and purpose: After the success of the first trials of this experiment which were done on rabbits, a new study were conducted on dogs to ensure the past results; in a step forward to use low-level LASER therapy in the treatment of congenital septal defects in infants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level LASER irradiation on congenital septal defects in dogs. Subjects and Methodology: six male dogs who have congenital septal defects in their hearts -with age ranged 6-10 months- enrolled in this study for one and half months. They were assigned into two groups: Group (A): The study group consisted of 3 canine hearts who received routine animal care associated with LASER irradiation. Group (B): The control group consisted of 3 canine hearts who received only routine animal care. Sizes of the septal defects were measured for both groups at the beginning and after the end of the study. Results: There was a significant decrease in the size of the diameter of the congenital septal defect with the study group (percentage of improvement was 42.19%) when compared with control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that low-level LASER therapy can be considered as a promising therapy for congenital heart defects in animals and to be examined on children with similar congenital lesions after then.

Keywords: laser, congenital septal defects, dogs, infants

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
73 Proteomic Analysis of Cytoplasmic Antigen from Brucella canis to Characterize Immunogenic Proteins Responded with Naturally Infected Dogs

Authors: J. J. Lee, S. R. Sung, E. J. Yum, S. C. Kim, B. H. Hyun, M. Her, H. S. Lee

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Canine brucellosis is a critical problem in dogs leading to reproductive diseases which are mainly caused by Brucella canis. There are, nonetheless, not clear symptoms so that it may go unnoticed in most of the cases. Serodiagnosis for canine brucellosis has not been confirmed. Moreover, it has substantial difficulties due to broad cross-reactivity between the rough cell wall antigens of B. canis and heterospecific antibodies present in normal, uninfected dogs. Thus, this study was conducted to characterize the immunogenic proteins in cytoplasmic antigen (CPAg) of B. canis, which defined the antigenic sensitivity of the humoral antibody responses to B. canis-infected dogs. In analysis of B. canis CPAg, first, we extracted and purified the cytoplasmic proteins from cultured B. canis by hot-saline inactivation, ultrafiltration, sonication, and ultracentrifugation step by step according to the sonicated antigen extract method. For characterization of this antigen, we checked the sort and range of each protein on SDS-PAGE and verified the immunogenic proteins leading to reaction with antisera of B. canis-infected dogs. Selected immunodominant proteins were identified using MALDI-MS/MS. As a result, in an immunoproteomic assay, several polypeptides in CPAg on one or two-dimensional electrophoresis (DE) were specifically reacted to antisera from B. canis-infected dogs but not from non-infected dogs. The polypeptides with approximate 150, 80, 60, 52, 33, 26, 17, 15, 13, 11 kDa on 1-DE were dominantly recognized by antisera from B. canis-infected dogs. In the immunoblot profiles on 2-DE, ten immunodominant proteins in CPAg were detected with antisera of infected dogs between pI 3.5-6.5 at approximate 35 to 10 KDa, without any nonspecific reaction with sera in non-infected dogs. Ten immunodominant proteins identified by MALDI-MS/MS were identified as superoxide dismutase, bacteroferritin, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, extracellular solute-binding protein family3, transaldolase, 26kDa periplasmic immunogenic protein, Rhizopine-binding protein, enoyl-CoA hydratase, arginase and type1 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Most of these proteins were determined by their cytoplasmic or periplasmic localization with metabolism and transporter functions. Consequently, this study discovered and identified the prominent immunogenic proteins in B. canis CPAg, highlighting that those antigenic proteins may accomplish a specific serodiagnosis for canine brucellosis. Furthermore, we will evaluate those immunodominant proteins for applying to the advanced diagnostic methods with high specificity and accuracy.

Keywords: Brucella canis, Canine brucellosis, cytoplasmic antigen, immunogenic proteins

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
72 Molecular Detection of Tuberculosis in Dogs in the Three North-Eastern States Assam, Mizoram and Nagaland of India

Authors: A. G. Barua, Uttam Rajkhowa, Pranjal Moni Nath, Nur Abdul Kadir

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most closely-related intracellular bacterial pathogens, grouped as the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC). MTB, the primary agent of human tuberculosis (TB), can develop clinical TB in animals as 75 percent of canine mycobacterial infection is caused by close contact with an infected human being. In the present study, molecular detection of TB in dogs in three North-eastern states of India, Assam Mizoram, and Nagaland was carried out. So far, there has been a lack of systematic study in these regions, hampered by slow diagnostic methods and poor infrastructure. In an attempt to rectify this situation, molecular epidemiology was carried out for nine months to detect canine TB in a sample of 340 dogs. Isolation of DNA was done with swabs (throat/nasal), nodules of lungs and fluids from 100 suspected dogs and the molecular study were carried out with the help of conventional and real-time PCR. Post-mortem study was also carried out. Our results showed that the prevalence of clinical TB in dogs from a high-risk setting was 1 percent. However, the prevalence of immunological sensitization to M. tuberculosis antigen in dogs living in contact with sputum smeared positive TB cases was almost 50 percent. The latter setting had the maximum impact in terms of TB transmission. During the study period, a survey with a standard questionnaire was carried out in the TB hospitals to study reverse zoonosis. It was observed that an infected human being was one of the major risk factors for dogs to contract the infection. This observation was drawn by examining the probable airborne transmission from humans to their pets or strays. The present study helped to discover the nuances of TB transmission more clearly and systematically as compared to other sporadic tests to detect MTB in canine.

Keywords: Assam and Nagaland, canine TB, India, molecular detection, tuberculosis

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71 The Short-Term Stress Indicators in Home and Experimental Dogs

Authors: Madara Nikolajenko, Jevgenija Kondratjeva

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Stress is a response of the body to physical or psychological environmental stressors. Cortisol level in blood serum is determined as the main indicator of stress, but the blood collection, the animal preparation and other activities can cause unpleasant conditions and induce increase of these hormones. Therefore, less invasive methods are searched to determine stress hormone levels, for example, by measuring the cortisol level saliva. The aim of the study is to find out the changes of stress hormones in blood and saliva in home and experimental dogs in simulated short-term stress conditions. The study included clinically healthy experimental beagle dogs (n=6) and clinically healthy home American Staffordshire terriers (n=6). The animals were let into a fenced area to adapt. Loud drum sounds (in cooperation with 'Andžeja Grauda drum school') were used as a stressor. Blood serum samples were taken for sodium, potassium, glucose and cortisol level determination and saliva samples for cortisol determination only. Control parameters were taken immediately before the start of the stressor, and next samples were taken immediately after the stress. The last measurements were taken two hours after the stress. Electrolyte levels in blood serum were determined using direction selective electrode method (ILab Aries analyzer) and cortisol in blood serum and saliva using electrochemical luminescence method (Roche Diagnostics). Blood glucose level was measured with glucometer (ACCU-CHECK Active test strips). Cortisol level in the blood increased immediately after the stress in all home dogs (P < 0,05), but only in 33% (P < 0,05) of the experimental dogs. After two hours the measurement decreased in 83% (P < 0,05) of home dogs (in 50% returning to the control point) and in 83% (P < 0,05) of the experimental dogs. Cortisol in saliva immediately after the stress increased in 50% (P > 0,05) of home dogs and in 33% (P > 0,05) of the experimental dogs. After two hours in 83% (P > 0,05) of the home animals, the measurements decreased, only in 17% of the experimental dogs it decreased as well, while in 49% measurement was undetectable due to the lack of material. Blood sodium, potassium, and glucose measurements did not show any significant changes. The combination of short-term stress indicators, when, after the stressor, all indicators should immediately increase and decrease after two hours, confirmed in none of the animals. Therefore the authors can conclude that each animal responds to a stressful situation with different physiological mechanisms and hormonal activity. Cortisol level in saliva and blood is released with the different speed and is not an objective indicator of acute stress.

Keywords: animal behaivor, cortisol, short-term stress, stress indicators

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
70 Insulin-Producing Cells from Adult Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Control Chemically-Induced Diabetes in Dogs

Authors: Maha Azzam, Mahmoud Gabr, Mahmoud Zakaria, Ayman Refaie, Amani Ismail, Sherry Khater, Sylvia Ashamallah, Mohamed Ghoniem

Abstract:

Evidence was provided that human bone marrow-derived mesenhymal stem cells (HBM-MSCs) could be differentiated to form insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Transplantation of these cells was able to cure chemically-induced diabetes in nude mice. The efficacy of these cells to control diabetes in large animals was carried out to evaluate the sufficient number of cells needed/Kg body weight and to determine the functional longevity in vivo. Materials/Methods: Ten male mongrel dogs weighing 15-20 Kg were used in this study. Diabetes was chemically-induced in 7 dogs by a mixture of alloxan and streptozotocin. Three non-diabetic served as normal controls. Differentiated HBM-MSCs (5 million/Kg) were encapsulated in theracyte capsules and transplanted beneath the rectus sheath. Each dog received 2 capsules. One dog died 4 days postoperative from inhalation pneumonia. The remaining 6 dogs were followed up for 6-18 months. Results: Four dogs became normoglycemic within 6-8 weeks with normal glucose tolerance curves providing evidence that the transplanted cells were glucose-sensitive and insulin-responsive. In the remaining 2 dogs, fasting blood glucose was reduced but did not reach euglycemic levels. The sera of all transplanted dogs contained human insulin and c-peptide but negligible levels of canine insulin. When the HBM-MSCs loaded capsules were removed, rapid return of diabetic state was noted. The harvested capsules were examined by immunofluorescence. IPCs were seen and co-expression of with c-peptide was confirmed. Furthermore, all the pancreatic endocrine genes were expressed by the transplanted cells. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that theracyte capsules could protect the xenogenic HBM-MSCs from the host immune response. This is an important issue when clinical stem cell therapy is considered for definitive treatment for T1DM.

Keywords: diabetes, mesenchymal stem cells, dogs, Insulin-producing cells

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69 Antitumor Activity of Gold Nanorods against Mammary Gland and Skin Carcinoma in Dogs and Cats

Authors: Abdoon A.S., El Ashkar E.A., Kandil O.M., Wael H. Eisa, Shaban A.M., Khaled H.M., El Ashkar M.R., El Shaer M., Hussein H., Shaalan A.H., El Sayed M.

Abstract:

Cancer is a major obstacle to human health and development worldwide. Conventional strategies for cancer intervention include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Recently, plasmon photothermal therapy (PPTT) was introduced as a promising treatment for the management of cancer and several non-cancerous diseases that are generally characterized by overgrowth of abnormal cells. The present work was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic efficacy and toxicity of gold nanorods (AuNRs) in dogs and cats suffering from spontaneous mammary gland. AuNRs was injected intratumoral (IT, n=10, dose of 75 p.p.m/kg body weight) or by using spray method after surgical removal of cancer tissue (n=2) in dogs and cats. Then exposed to laser light after 60 min. Treated animals were observed every 2 days and the morphological changes in tumor size and shape were recorded. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment for checking CBC, liver and kidney functions. Results revealed that AuNRs successfully treat mammary gland tumor in dogs and cats (adenocarcinoma type 1 to IV). AuNRs induced sloughing of carcinogenic tissue within 5 to 15 days. AuNRs have no toxic effect on blood profile and the toxicity studies still under evaluation. Conclusion, AuNRs can be used for treatment of mammary gland carcinoma in dogs and cats.

Keywords: pet animals, mammary gland tumor, AuNRs, photothermal therapy, toxicity studies

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68 Behavioral Response of Dogs to Interior Environment: An Exploratory Study on Design Parameters for Designing Dog Boarding Centers in Indian Context

Authors: M. R. Akshaya, Veena Rao

Abstract:

Pet population in India is increasing phenomenally owing to the changes in urban lifestyle with increasing number of single professionals, single parents, delayed parenthood etc. The animal companionship as a means of reducing stress levels, deriving emotional support, and unconditional love provided by dogs are a few reasons attributed for increasing pet ownership. The consequence is the booming of the pet care products and dog care centers catering to the different requirements of rearing the pets. Dog care centers quite popular in tier 1 metros of India cater to the requirement of the dog owners providing space for the dogs in absence of the owner. However, it is often reported that the absence of the owner leads to destructive and exploratory behavior issues; the main being the anxiety disorders. In the above context, it becomes imperative for a designer to design dog boarding centers that help in reducing the separation anxiety in dogs keeping in mind the different interior design parameters. An exploratory research with focus group discussion is employed involving a group of dog owners, behaviorists, proprietors of day care as well as boarding centers, and veterinarians to understand their perception on the significance of different interior parameters of color, texture, ventilation, aroma therapy and acoustics as a means of reducing the stress levels in dogs sent to the boarding centers. The data collected is organized as thematic networks thus enabling the listing of the interior design parameters that needs to be considered in designing dog boarding centers. 

Keywords: behavioral response, design parameters, dog boarding centers, interior environment

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67 Parathyroid Hormone Receptor 1 as a Prognostic Indicator in Canine Osteosarcoma

Authors: Awf A. Al-Khan, Michael J. Day, Judith Nimmo, Mourad Tayebi, Stewart D. Ryan, Samantha J. Richardson, Janine A. Danks

Abstract:

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of malignant primary bone tumour in dogs. In addition to their critical roles in bone formation and remodeling, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor (PTHR1) are involved in progression and metastasis of many types of tumours in humans. The aims of this study were to determine the localisation and expression levels of PTHrP and PTHR1 in canine OS tissues using immunohistochemistry and to investigate if this expression is correlated with survival time. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 44 dogs with known survival time that had been diagnosed with primary osteosarcoma were analysed for localisation of PTHrP and PTHR1. Findings showed that both PTHrP and PTHR1 were present in all OS samples. The dogs with high level of PTHR1 protein (16%) had decreased survival time (P<0.05) compared to dogs with less PTHR1 protein. PTHrP levels did not correlate with survival time (P>0.05). The results of this study indicate that the PTHR1 is expressed differently in canine OS tissues and this may be correlated with poor prognosis. This may mean that PTHR1 may be useful as a prognostic indicator in canine OS and could represent a good therapeutic target in OS.

Keywords: dog, expression, osteosarcoma, parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), survival

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66 Synthesis of New Analogs of IPS-339, and Study of Their Cardiovascular in Dogs

Authors: Elham Zarenezhad, Ali Zarenezhad, Mehdi Mardkhoshnood

Abstract:

We described the synthesis and biological study of O-oxime ethers having a-amino acid residues as new analogs of IPS-339. In this synthesis, the reaction of fluorene O-oxime with epichlorohydrin or epibromohydrin afforded the corresponding O-oxime ether adducts. The N-alkylation of valine amino acid with O-oxime ether adducts led to the synthesis of new analogs of IPS-339. The cardiovascular properties of the compound have been studied. In this regard, six clinically healthy same sex mongrel dogs were examined. The dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of two members. 1 groups received 2 mg kg-1 body weight of compound (2-(3-(9H-fluoren-9-ylideneaminooxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid) intravenously, whereas group 2 and 3 received only DMSO–water (distil.) and propranolol (Inderal) (2 mg kg-1), respectively. The electrocardiograph (ECG) was recorded with lead II. The recording was run successively by 5 min time interval on each dog before, simultaneously, and after compound infusion. Data after administration were taken from normal sinus beats that were closely related to the arrhythmias whenever they occurred. In general, no detectable arrhythmia was observed in all ECG records regardless of increasing the heart rate that likely caused by stress origin from invasive procedure just after infusion. Compound diminished the heart rate during study especially at 20th minute compared to propranolol as a reference drug. Compound (2-(3-(9H-fluoren-9-ylideneaminooxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid) was the most effective compound with remarkable ability in declining of the heart rate.

Keywords: electrocardiograph (ECG), cardiovascular, IPS-339, dogs

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65 Transorbital Craniectomy for Treatment of Frontal Lobe and Olfactory Bulb Neoplasia in Two Canids

Authors: Kathryn L. Duncan, Charles A. Kuntz, James O. Simcock

Abstract:

A surgical approach to the cranium for treatment of frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasia in dogs is described in this report, which provided excellent access for visualisation and removal of gross neoplastic tissue. An 8-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu crossbreed dog (dog 1) and a 13-year-old neutered male Miniature Fox Terrier (dog 2) were evaluated for removal of neoplasms involving both the frontal lobe and olfactory bulb. Both dogs presented with abnormal neurological clinical signs, decreased menace responses, and behavioural changes. Additionally, dog 2 presented with compulsive circling and generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity. Computed tomography was performed in both dogs, and MRI was also performed in dog 1. Imaging was consistent with frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasia. A transorbital frontal bone craniectomy, with orbital ligament desmotomy and ventrolateral retraction of the globe, was performed in both cases without complication. Dog 1 had a focal area of lysis in the frontal bone adjacent to the neoplasm in the frontal lobe. The presence of the bone defect provided part of the impetus for this approach, as it would permit resection of the lytic bone. In addition, the neoplasms would be surgically accessible without encountering interposed brain parenchyma, reducing the risk of iatrogenic injury. Both dogs were discharged from the hospital within 72 hours post-operatively, both with normal mentation. Case 1 had a histopathologic diagnosis of malignant anaplastic neoplasm. The tumour recurred 101d postoperatively, and the patient was euthanized. Case 2 was diagnosed with a meningioma and was neurologically normal at 294d postoperatively. This transorbital surgical approach allowed successful removal of the intracranial frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasms in 2 dogs. This approach should be considered for dogs with lateralized frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasms that are closely associated with the suborbital region of the frontal bone.

Keywords: neurosurgery, small animal surgery, surgical oncology, veterinary neurology

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64 Conservation Detection Dogs to Protect Europe's Native Biodiversity from Invasive Species

Authors: Helga Heylen

Abstract:

With dogs saving wildlife in New Zealand since 1890 and governments in Africa, Australia and Canada trusting them to give the best results, Conservation Dogs Ireland want to introduce more detection dogs to protect Europe's native wildlife. Conservation detection dogs are fast, portable and endlessly trainable. They are a cost-effective, highly sensitive and non-invasive way to detect protected and invasive species and wildlife disease. Conservation dogs find targets up to 40 times faster than any other method. They give results instantly, with near-perfect accuracy. They can search for multiple targets simultaneously, with no reduction in efficacy The European Red List indicates the decline in biodiversity has been most rapid in the past 50 years, and the risk of extinction never higher. Just two examples of major threats dogs are trained to tackle are: (I)Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia Japonica), not only a serious threat to ecosystems, crops, structures like bridges and roads - it can wipe out the entire value of a house. The property industry and homeowners are only just waking up to the full extent of the nightmare. When those working in construction on the roads move topsoil with a trace of Japanese Knotweed, it suffices to start a new colony. Japanese Knotweed grows up to 7cm a day. It can stay dormant and resprout after 20 years. In the UK, the cost of removing Japanese Knotweed from the London Olympic site in 2012 was around £70m (€83m). UK banks already no longer lend on a house that has Japanese Knotweed on-site. Legally, landowners are now obliged to excavate Japanese Knotweed and have it removed to a landfill. More and more, we see Japanese Knotweed grow where a new house has been constructed, and topsoil has been brought in. Conservation dogs are trained to detect small fragments of any part of the plant on sites and in topsoil. (II)Zebra mussels (Dreissena Polymorpha) are a threat to many waterways in the world. They colonize rivers, canals, docks, lakes, reservoirs, water pipes and cooling systems. They live up to 3 years and will release up to one million eggs each year. Zebra mussels attach to surfaces like rocks, anchors, boat hulls, intake pipes and boat engines. They cause changes in nutrient cycles, reduction of plankton and increased plant growth around lake edges, leading to the decline of Europe's native mussel and fish populations. There is no solution, only costly measures to keep it at bay. With many interconnected networks of waterways, they have spread uncontrollably. Conservation detection dogs detect the Zebra mussel from its early larvae stage, which is still invisible to the human eye. Detection dogs are more thorough and cost-effective than any other conservation method, and will greatly complement and speed up the work of biologists, surveyors, developers, ecologists and researchers.

Keywords: native biodiversity, conservation detection dogs, invasive species, Japanese Knotweed, zebra mussel

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63 Serological IgG Testing to Diagnose Alimentary Induced Diseases and Monitoring Efficacy of an Individual Defined Diet in Dogs

Authors: Anne-Margré C. Vink

Abstract:

Background: Food-related allergies and intolerances are frequently occurring in dogs. Diagnosis and monitoring according to ‘Golden Standard’ of elimination efficiency are time-consuming, expensive, and requires expert clinical setting. In order to facilitate rapid and robust, quantitative testing of intolerance, and determining the individual offending foods, a serological test is implicated. Method: As we developed Medisynx IgG Human Screening Test ELISA before and the dog’s immune system is most similar to humans, we were able to develop Medisynx IgG Dog Screening Test ELISA as well. In this study, 47 dogs suffering from Canine Atopic Dermatitis (CAD) and several secondary induced reactions were included to participate in serological Medisynx IgG Dog Screening Test ELISA (within < 0,02 % SD). Results were expressed as titers relative to the standard OD readings to diagnose alimentary induced diseases and monitoring the efficacy of an individual eliminating diet in dogs. Split sample analysis was performed by independently sending 2 times 3 ml serum under two unique codes. Results: The veterinarian monitored these dogs to check dog’ results at least at 3, 7, 21, 49, 70 days and after period of 6 and 12 months on an individual negative diet and a positive challenge (retrospectively) at 6 months. Data of each dog were recorded in a screening form and reported that a complete recovery of all clinical manifestations was observed at or less than 70 days (between 50 and 70 days) in the majority of dogs(44 out of 47 dogs =93.6%). Conclusion: Challenge results showed a significant result of 100% in specificity as well as 100% positive predicted value. On the other hand, sensitivity was 95,7% and negative predictive value was 95,7%. In conclusion, an individual diet based on IgG ELISA in dogs provides a significant improvement of atopic dermatitis and pruritus including all other non-specific defined allergic skin reactions as erythema, itching, biting and gnawing at toes, as well as to several secondary manifestations like chronic diarrhoea, chronic constipation, otitis media, obesity, laziness or inactive behaviour, pain and muscular stiffness causing a movement disorders, excessive lacrimation, hyper behaviour, nervous behaviour and not possible to stay alone at home, anxiety, biting and aggressive behaviour and disobedience behaviour. Furthermore, we conclude that a relatively more severe systemic candidiasis, as shown by relatively higher titer (class 3 and 4 IgG reactions to Candida albicans), influence the duration of recovery from clinical manifestations in affected dogs. These findings are consistent with our preliminary human clinical studies.

Keywords: allergy, canine atopic dermatitis, CAD, food allergens, IgG-ELISA, food-incompatibility

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62 Verification of the Necessity of Maintenance Anesthesia with Isoflurane after Induction with Tiletamine-Zolazepam in Dogs Using the Dixon's up-and-down Method

Authors: Sonia Lachowska, Agnieszka Antonczyk, Joanna Tunikowska, Pawel Kucharski, Bartlomiej Liszka

Abstract:

Isoflurane is one of the most commonly used anaesthetic gases in veterinary medicine. Due to its numerous side effects, intravenous anaesthesia is more often used. The combination of tiletamine with zolazepam has proved to be a safe and pharmacologically beneficial combination. Analgesic effect, fast induction time, effective myorelaxation, and smooth recovery are the main advantages of this combination of drugs. In the following study, the authors verified the necessity of isoflurane to maintain anaesthesia in dogs after the use of tiletamine-zolazepam for induction. 12 dogs were selected to the group with the inclusion criteria: ASA (American Society of Anaesthesiology) I or II. Each dog received premedication intramuscularly with medetomidine-butorfanol (10 μg/kg, 0,1 mg/kg respectively). 15 minutes from premedication, preoxygenation lasting 5 minutes was started. Anaesthesia was induced with tiletamine-zolazepam at the dose of 5 mg/kg. Then the dogs were intubated and anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. Initially, MAC (Minimum Alveolar Concentration) was set to 0.7 vol.%. After 15 minutes equilibration, MAC was determined using Dixon’s up-and-down method. Painful stimulation including compressions of paw pad, phalange, groin area, and clamping Backhaus on skin. Hemodynamic and ventilation parameters were measured and noted in 2 minutes intervals. In this method, the positive or negative response to the noxious stimulus is estimated and then used to determine the concentration of isoflurane for next patient. The response is only assessed once in each patient. The results show that isoflurane is not necessary to maintain anaesthesia after tiletamine-zolazepam induction. This is clinically important because the side effects resulting from using isoflurane are eliminated.

Keywords: anaesthesia, dog, Isoflurane, The Dixon's up-and-down method, Tiletamine, Zolazepam

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61 Evaluation of Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor A (TNF-A) Changes in Synovial Fluid and Serum in Dogs with Osteoarthritis; An Experimental Study

Authors: Behrooz Nikahval, Mohammad Saeed Ahrari-Khafi, Sakineh Behroozpoor, Saeed Nazifi

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive and degenerative condition of the articular cartilage and other joints’ structures. It is essential to diagnose this condition as early as possible. The present research was performed to measure the Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in synovial fluid and blood serum of dogs with surgically transected cruciate ligament as a model of OA, to evaluate if measuring of these parameters can be used as a way of early diagnosis of OA. In the present study, four mature, clinically healthy dogs were selected to investigate the effect of experimental OA, on OPG and TNF-α as a way of early detection of OA. OPG and TNF-α were measured in synovial fluid and blood serum on days 0, 14, 28, 90 and 180 after surgical transaction of cranial cruciate ligament in one stifle joint. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there was a significant increase in TNF-α in both synovial fluid and blood serum. OPG showed a decrease two weeks after OA induction. However, it fluctuated afterward. In conclusion, TNF-α could be used in both synovial fluid and blood serum as a way of early detection of OA; however, further research still needs to be conducted on OPG values in OA detection.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, osteoprotegrin, tumor necrosis factor α, synovial fluid, serum, dog

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60 Investigation of Leptospira Infection in Stray Animals in Thailand: Leptospirosis Risk Reduction in Human

Authors: Ruttayaporn Ngasaman, Saowakon Indouang, Usa Chethanond

Abstract:

Leptospirosis is a public health concern zoonosis in Thailand. Human and animals are often infected by contact with contaminated water. The infected animals play an important role in leptospira infection for both human and other hosts via urine. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, some of which may present mild flu-like symptoms including fever, vomiting, and jaundice. Without treatment, Leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis, liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death. The prevalence of leptospirosis in stray animals in Thailand is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate leptospira infection in stray animals including dogs and cats in Songkhla province, Thailand. Total of 434 blood samples were collected from 370 stray dogs and 64 stray cats during the population control program from 2014 to 2018. Screening test using latex agglutination for the detection of antibodies against Leptospira interrogans in serum samples shows 29.26% (127/434) positive. There were 120 positive samples of stray dogs and 7 positive samples of stray cats. Detection by polymerase chain reaction specific to LipL32 gene of Leptospira interrogans showed 1.61% (7/434) positive. Stray cats (5/64) show higher prevalence than stray dogs (2/370). Although active infection was low detected, but seroprevalence was high. This result indicated that stray animals were not active infection during sample collection but they use to get infected or in a latent period of infection. They may act as a reservoir for domestic animals and human in which stay in the same environment. In order to prevent and reduce the risk of leptospira infection in a human, stray animals should be done health checking, vaccination, and disease treatment.

Keywords: leptospirosis, stray animals, risk reduction, Thailand

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