Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 214

Search results for: Tehran

214 Microseismicity of the Tehran Region Based on Three Seismic Networks

Authors: Jamileh Vasheghani Farahani

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to show the current active faults and active tectonic of the area by three seismic networks in Tehran region: 1-Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization (TDMMO), 2-Broadband Iranian National Seismic Network Center (BIN), 3-Iranian Seismological Center (IRSC). In this study, we analyzed microearthquakes happened in Tehran city and its surroundings using the Tehran networks from 1996 to 2015. We found some active faults and trends in the region. There is a 200-year history of historical earthquakes in Tehran. Historical and instrumental seismicity show that the east of Tehran is more active than the west. The Mosha fault in the North of Tehran is one of the active faults of the central Alborz. Moreover, other major faults in the region are Kahrizak, Eyvanakey, Parchin and North Tehran faults. An important seismicity region is an intersection of the Mosha and North Tehran fault systems (Kalan village in Lavasan). This region shows a cluster of microearthquakes. According to the historical and microseismic events analyzed in this research, there is a seismic gap in SE of Tehran. The empirical relationship is used to assess the Mmax based on the rupture length. There is a probability of occurrence of a strong motion of 7.0 to 7.5 magnitudes in the region (based on the assessed capability of the major faults such as Parchin and Eyvanekey faults and historical earthquakes).

Keywords: Iran, major faults, microseismicity, Tehran

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213 A Retrospective Study on Causes, Surgery Findings, Results and Follow up of 30 Horses with Colic in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Farajallah Adibhashemi

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A retrospective study on causes, surgery findings, results and the follow up of 30 horses with colic in Tehran, Iran. Colic is the main problem horse industry.The causes of colic are related to management like food, sport and medical care. In this study that has been done between 2012-2015 for 30 horses referred to teaching hospital of veterinary medicine faculty of the University of Tehran. Seventy percent of causes was related to management of feeding and twenty percent was for malsporting. The rest of causes was from the anti parasite in bad root. The surgery findings were as follows: 60% displacement of dorsal right and left colon, 20% in impaction of pelvic flexure,10% impaction of the cecum, and 10% impaction of the stomach.

Keywords: horse, colic, Tehran, Iran

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212 Integration Between Seismic Planning and Urban Planning for Improving the City Image of Tehran - Case of Tajrish

Authors: Samira Eskandari

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The image of Tehran has been impacted in recent years due to poor urban management and fragmented governance. There is no cohesive urban beautification framework in Tehran to enforce builders take aesthetic factors seriously when design and construct new buildings. The existing guidelines merely provide people with recommendations, not regulations. Obviously, Tehran needs a more comprehensive and strict urban beautification framework to restore its image. The damaged image has impacted the city’s social, economic and environmental growth. This research aims to find and examine a solution by which the employment of urban beautification regulation would be guaranteed, and city image would be organized. The methodology is based on a qualitative approach associated with analytical methods, in-depth surveys and interviews with Tehran citizens, authorities and experts, and use of academic resources as well as simulation. As a result, one practical solution is to incorporate aesthetic guidelines into a survival-related framework like a seismic guideline. Tehran is a seismic site, and all the buildings in Tehran have to be retrofitted against earthquake during construction. Hence, by integrating seismic regulations and aesthetic disciplines, urban beautification will be somehow guaranteed. Besides, the seismic image can turn into Tehran’s brand and enhances city identity. This research is trying to increase the social, environmental, and economic interconnectedness between urban planning and seismic planning by the usage of landscape architecture methods. As a case study, the potential outcomes are simulated in Tajrish, a suburb located in the north of Tehran. The result is that, by the redefinition of the morphology of seismic retrofitting systems, used in the significant city image elements, and re-function them in accordance with the Iranian culture and traditions, the city image would become more harmonized and legible.

Keywords: earthquake, retrofitting systems, Tehran image, urban beautification

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211 The Trend of Injuries in Building Fire in Tehran from 2002 to 2012

Authors: Mohammadreza Ashouri, Majid Bayatian

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Analysis of fire data is a way for the implementation of any plan to improve the level of safety in cities. Such an analysis is able to reveal signs of changes in a given period and can be used as a measure of safety. The information of about 66,341 fires (from 2002 to 2012) released by Tehran Safety Services and Fire-Fighting Organization and data on the population and the number of households provided by Tehran Municipality and the Statistical Yearbook of Iran were extracted. Using the data, the fire changes, the rate of injuries, and mortality rate were determined and analyzed. The rate of injuries and mortality rate of fires per one million population of Tehran were 59.58% and 86.12%, respectively. During the study period, the number of fires and fire stations increased by 104.38% and 102.63%, respectively. Most fires (9.21%) happened in the 4th District of Tehran. The results showed that the recorded fire data have not been systematically planned for fire prevention since one of the ways to reduce injuries caused by fires is to develop a systematic plan for necessary actions in emergency situations. To determine a reliable source for fire prevention, the stages, definitions of working processes and the cause and effect chains should be considered. Therefore, a comprehensive statistical system should be developed for reported and recorded fire data.

Keywords: fire statistics, fire analysis, accident prevention, Tehran

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210 An Investigation of the Influence of the Iranian 1979 Revolution on Tehran’s Public Art

Authors: M. Sohrabi Narciss

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Urban spaces of Tehran, the capital of Iran, have witnessed many revolts, movements, and protests during the past few decades. After the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, the 1979 Revolution has had a profound impact on Tehran’s urban space. In 1979, the world watched as Iranians demonstrated en masse against the Pahlavi dynastdy which eventually led to its overthrow. Tehran’s public space is replete with images and artwork that depict the overthrow of the Pahlavi regime and the establishment of an Islamic government in Iran. The public artworks related to the 1979 Islamic Revolution reflect the riots, protests, and strikes that the Iranians underwent during the revolution. Many of these artworks try to revitalize the events that occurred in the 1970s by means of collective memory. Almost 4 decades have passed since the revolution and ever since the public artwork has been affected either directly or indirectly by the Iran-Iraq War, the Green Movement, and the rise and fall of various political forces. The present study is an attempt to investigate Tehran’s urban artwork such as urban sculptures and mural paintings organized and supervised by the government and the graffiti drawn by the critics or the opposition groups. To this end, in addition to the available documents, field research and questionnaires were used to qulaitatively analyze the data. This paper tries to address the following questions: 1) what changes have occurred in Tehran’s urban art? 2) Does the public, revolution-related artwork have an effect on people’s vitality? 3) do Iranians find these artworks appealing or not?

Keywords: public space, Tehran, public art, movement, Islamic revolution

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209 Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Company Approach on Energy Efficiency by the Development of Renewable Energy to Achieving the Sustainable Development Legal Principle

Authors: Mohammad Parvaresh, Mahdi Babaee, Bahareh Arghand, Roushanak Fahimi Hanzaee, Davood Nourmohammadi

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Today, the intelligent network of water and wastewater as one of the key steps in realizing the smart city in the world. Use of pressure relief valves in urban water networks in order to reduce the pressure is necessary in Tehran city. But use these pressure relief valves lead to waste water, more power consumption, and environmental pollution because Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Co. use a quarter of industry 's electricity. In this regard, Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Co. identified solutions to reduce direct and indirect costs in energy use in the process of production, transmission and distribution of water because this company has extensive facilities and high capacity to realize green economy and industry. The aim of this study is to analyze the new project in water and wastewater industry to reach sustainable development.

Keywords: Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Company, water network efficiency, sustainable development, International Environmental Law

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208 The Role of Public Education in Increasing Public Awareness through Mass Media with Emphasis on Newspapers and TV: Coping with Possible Earthquake in Tehran

Authors: Naser Charkhsaz, Ashraf Sadat Mousavi, Navvab Shamspour

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This study aimed to evaluate the role of state education in increasing public awareness through mass media (with emphasis on newspapers and TV) coping with possible earthquake in Tehran. All residents aged 15 to 65 who live in the five regions of Tehran (North, South, East, West and Center) during the plan implementation were selected and studied. The required sample size in each region was calculated based on the Cochran formula (n=380). In order to collect and analyze the data, a questionnaire with reliability (82%) and a one-sample t-test has been used, respectively. The results showed that warnings related to the Tehran earthquake affected people in the pre-contemplation stage, while public education through mass media did not promote public awareness about prevention, preparedness and rehabilitation.

Keywords: media, disaster, knowledge, Iranian Red Crescent society

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207 Thematic Redesign of “Nah Al Balaghe” Riverside Park: Constructing the First Cultural Tourism Center in City of Tehran

Authors: Faraz Nikpour Arani, Shahin Haghi Navand

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After Two years of operation, the “Nahj Al Balaghe” riverside park, redesigning research was ordered by second region of Tehran municipality, the goal was to construct the first cultural tourism center in city of Tehran. After Pathological and analytical studies of existing situation, that made by field work research’s and interviews, the main problems was identified as lack of thematic design and some physical problems that reduced the activity and livability ratio of the park. The main approach of this project was thematic physical redesign and redefinition of activities in order to the “Nahj Al Balaghe’s” ideas, cultural days in “shamsi calendar”, the “7 artistic dimensions” and “four classical elements”. This paper is the abstraction of a full research that was done by writers.

Keywords: thematic redesign, Nah Al Balaghe riverside park, cultural tourism center, Tehran

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206 Molecular Identification of Pneumocystis SPP Isolated from Wild Rats in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Babak Rezavand

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Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised and HIV-positive patients and remained one of the most important common opportunistic infections in these individuals in the world. Pneumocystis infection has been reported in many mammals. The aim of this study was to determine the Pneumocystis infection in wild rats as natural reservoirs of this organism in Tehran city, Iran. Fifty three rats (Rattus rattus) were live trapped in different areas of Tehran city, Iran. After isolation of their lung tissues and homogenization in sterile conditions, DNA was extracted. DNAs from all of the Pneumocystis species were amplified by pAZ102-H and pAZ102-E primers, and Nested PCR was performed using pAZ102-X and pAZ102-W primers from the initial PCR product for all the species of Pneumocystis. Amplification of the genome revealed the presence of Pneumocystis in the lungs of 17 rats (32%) through a PCR product with a bandwidth of 346 bp. In the Nested PCR amplification, from the PCR product of 53 rats, 64.2% of the samples were positive with a bandwidth of 261bp. Pneumocystis SPP infestation is highly prevalent among wild rats in Tehran city, indicating the existence of infection in the natural ecosystem of these rodents. As a host, rat plays an important role in the transmission of the microorganism in the world.

Keywords: pneumocystis SPP, rattus rattus, nested PCR, Tehran

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205 A Relative Analysis of Carbon and Dust Uptake by Important Tree Species in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Sahar Elkaee Behjati

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Air pollution, particularly with dust, is one of the biggest issues Tehran is dealing with, and the city's green space which consists of trees has a critical role in absorption of it. The question this study aimed to investigate was which tree species the highest uptake capacity of the dust and carbon have suspended in the air. On this basis, 30 samples of trees from two different districts in Tehran were collected, and after washing and centrifuging, the samples were oven dried. The results of the study revealed that Ulmus minor had the highest amount of deposited dust in both districts. In addition, it was found that in Chamran district Ailanthus altissima and in Gandi district Ulmus minor has had the highest absorption of deposited carbon. Therefore, it could be argued that decision making on the selection of species for urban green spaces should take the above-mentioned parameters into account.

Keywords: dust, leaves, uptake total carbon, Tehran, tree species

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204 The Role of Brand Experience in Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in Ayandeh Bank Branches in Tehran

Authors: Seyed Reza Agha Seyed Hosseini, Nicolas Hamelin

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Many marketing executives are looking for a comprehensive plan for delivering quality services and products that will create a distinct and unforgettable long-term experience for customers in dealing with their brand. Various brand management experts believe that a company looking to enhance its brand experience in the minds of customers should have a plan to increase customer satisfaction as well as customer loyalty. The purpose of this research was to investigate the role of brand experience in customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in Ayandeh Bank branches in Tehran. The study employed a quantitative methodology. For data gathering, a questionnaire was utilised to measure all the variables of the research. The statistical population of the study consisted of all the customers of Ayandeh Bank branches in Tehran, and the study data was gathered from 400 respondents. The findings indicate that brand experience has a direct and meaningful impact on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, and, furthermore, that customer satisfaction has a direct and significant effect on customer loyalty in the branches of Ayandeh Bank in Tehran.

Keywords: brand experience, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, bank

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203 Functions and Effects of Green Facades in the Developing Countries: Case Study of Tehran

Authors: S. Jahani, V. Choopankareh

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Many people lost their life caused by environmental pollution every year. The negative effects of environmental crises appear to be much higher in Asian countries. The most important environmental issue in the developing countries and especially in Tehran, to our best knowledge, is air pollution that has affected many aspects of life in society. Environmental topics related to technology’s development have been salient issues among the main concerns of designers. Green facades are the most considerable solutions which designers and architectures are focused on, all over the world. But there are lots of behavioral and psychological problems about this point. In this line, this excavation has tried to reveal the cultural and psychological influences of green façade in developing countries like Tehran. Green façades in developing countries are so useless, although they are so expensive. As a matter of fact, users consider green facade as a decorative item. This research is an attempt to recognize the reasons which show green façades as worthless element. Also, some solutions are presented to promote green façades in the developing countries as an intrinsic solution. There are so many environmental threats, especially about air pollution, for a city as Tehran, which might be solved by green facades.

Keywords: air pollution, developing countries, effects, green facades

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202 Safety Status of Stations and Tunnels of Tehran Line 4 Urban and Suburb Railways (Subway) Against Fire Risks

Authors: Yousefi Aryian, Ghanbaripour Amir naser

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Record of 2 million trips during a day by subway makes it the most application and the most efficient branch of public transportation. Great safety, energy consumption reduction, appropriate speed, and lower prices for passengers in comparison with private cars or buses, are some reasons for this remarkable statics. This increasing popularity compels the author to evaluate the safety of subway stations and tunnels against fire and fire extinguishing systems in Tehran subway network and then compare some of its safety parameters to other countries. This paper assessed the methods and systems used in different parts of Tehran subway and then by comparing the facilities and equipment necessary to declare and extinguish the fire, the solutions and world standards (NFPA) are explored.

Keywords: subway station, tunnel, fire alarm, extinguishing fire, NFPA standards

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201 Decision Support System in Air Pollution Using Data Mining

Authors: E. Fathallahi Aghdam, V. Hosseini

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Environmental pollution is not limited to a specific region or country; that is why sustainable development, as a necessary process for improvement, pays attention to issues such as destruction of natural resources, degradation of biological system, global pollution, and climate change in the world, especially in the developing countries. According to the World Health Organization, as a developing city, Tehran (capital of Iran) is one of the most polluted cities in the world in terms of air pollution. In this study, three pollutants including particulate matter less than 10 microns, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide were evaluated in Tehran using data mining techniques and through Crisp approach. The data from 21 air pollution measuring stations in different areas of Tehran were collected from 1999 to 2013. Commercial softwares Clementine was selected for this study. Tehran was divided into distinct clusters in terms of the mentioned pollutants using the software. As a data mining technique, clustering is usually used as a prologue for other analyses, therefore, the similarity of clusters was evaluated in this study through analyzing local conditions, traffic behavior, and industrial activities. In fact, the results of this research can support decision-making system, help managers improve the performance and decision making, and assist in urban studies.

Keywords: data mining, clustering, air pollution, crisp approach

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200 Study on the Stages of Knowledge Flow in Central Libraries of Tehran Universities by the Pattern of American Productivity & Quality Center

Authors: Amir Reza Asnafi, Ehsan Tajabadi, Mohsen Hajizeinolabedini

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The purpose of this study is to identify the concept of knowledge flow in central libraries of Tehran universities in by the pattern of American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC). The present study is an applied and descriptive survey in terms of its purpose and the methodology used. In this study, APQC framework was used for data collection. The study population is managers and supervisors of central libraries’ departments of public universities of Tehran belonging to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology. These libraries include: Central Libraries of Al-Zahra University, Amir Kabir, Tarbiat Modarres, Tehran, Khajeh Nasir Toosi University of Technology, Shahed, Sharif, Shahid Beheshti, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Iran University of Science and Technology. Due to the limited number of members of the community, sampling was not performed and the census was conducted instead. The study of knowledge flow in central libraries of public universities in Tehran showed that in seven dimensions of knowledge flow of APQC, these libraries are far from desirable level and to achieve the ideal point, many activities in the field of knowledge flow need to be made, therefore suggestions were made in this study to reach the desired level. One Sample t Test in this research showed that these libraries are at a poor level in terms of these factors: in the dimensions of creation, identification and use of knowledge at a medium level and in the aspects of knowledge acquisition, review, sharing and access and also Manova test or Multivariable Analyze of Variance proved that there was no significant difference between the dimensions of knowledge flow between these libraries and the status of the knowledge flow in these libraries is at the same level as well. Except for the knowledge creation aspect that is slightly different in this regard that was mentioned before.

Keywords: knowledge flow, knowledge management, APQC, Tehran’s academic university libraries

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199 The Effectiveness of Teaching Emotional Intelligence on Reducing Marital Conflicts and Marital Adjustment in Married Students of Tehran University

Authors: Elham Jafari

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of emotional intelligence training on reducing marital conflict and marital adjustment in married students of the University of Tehran. This research is an applied type in terms of purpose and a semi-experimental design of pre-test-post-test type with the control group and with follow-up test in terms of the data collection method. The statistical population of the present study consisted of all married students of the University of Tehran. In this study, 30 married students of the University of Tehran were selected by convenience sampling method as a sample that 15 people in the experimental group and 15 people in the control group were randomly selected. The method of data collection in this research was field and library. The data collection tool in the field section was two questionnaires of marital conflict and marital adjustment. To analyze the collected data, first at the descriptive level, using statistical indicators, the demographic characteristics of the sample were described by SPSS software. In inferential statistics, the statistical method used was the test of analysis of covariance. The results showed that the effect of the independent variable of emotional intelligence on the reduction of marital conflicts is statistically significant. And it can be inferred that emotional intelligence training has reduced the marital conflicts of married students of the University of Tehran in the experimental group compared to the control group. Also, the effect of the independent variable of emotional intelligence on marital adjustment was statistically significant. It can be inferred that emotional intelligence training has adjusted the marital adjustment of married students of the University of Tehran in the experimental group compared to the control group.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, marital conflicts, marital compatibility, married students

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198 Environmental Justice and Citizenship Rights in the Tehran Health Plan

Authors: Mohammad Parvaresh, Mahdi Babaee, Bahareh Arghand, Davood Nourmohammadi

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Environmental degradation is caused by social inequalities and the inappropriate use of nature and a factor in the violation of human rights. Indeed, the right to a safe, healthy and ecologically-balanced environment is an independent human right. Therefore, the relationship between human rights and environmental protection is crucial for the study of social justice and sustainable development, and environmental problems are a result of the failure to realize social and economic justice. In this regard, 'article 50 of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran as a general principle have many of the concepts of sustainable development, including: the growth and improvement of human life, the rights of present and future generations, and the integrity of the inner and outer generation, the prohibition of any environmental degradation'. Also, Charter on Citizen’s Rights, which was conveyed by the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Mr. Rouhani refers to the right to a healthy environment and sustainable development. In this regard in 2013, Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Co. defined a plan called 'Tehran’s Health Line' was includes Western and Eastern part by about 26 kilometers of water transferring pipelines varied 1000 to 2000 mm diameters. This project aims to: (1) Transfer water from the northwest water treatment plant to the southwest areas, which suffer from qualitative and quantitative water, in order to mix with the improper wells’ water; (2) Reducing the water consumption provided by harvesting from wells which results in improving the underground water resources, causing the large settlements and stopping the immigrating slums into the center or north side of the city. All of the financial resources accounted for 53,000,000 US$ which is mobilized by Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Co. to expedite the work. The present study examines the Tehran Health Line plan and the purpose of implementation of this plan to achieve environmental protection, environmental justice and citizenship rights for all people who live in Tehran.

Keywords: environmental justice, international environmental law, erga omnes, charter on citizen's rights, Tehran health line

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197 The Relationship between Organizational Silence and Voice with the Quality of Work Life among Employees of the Youth and Sports Departments of Tehran Province

Authors: Soodabeh Dehghan, Siavash Hamidzadeh, Naqshbandi Seyyed Salahedin, Ali Mohammad Safania

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The present research with the aim of the relationship between organizational silence and organizational voice with quality of work-life among employees of the sport and youth departments of Tehran Province was done. The statistical population of this research includes all employees of the sport and youth departments of Tehran province, and considering the not very large number of society, the sample and society were considered to be the same, and the sample was considered as the whole number. To measure each of these variables, a questionnaire was used. The research questionnaire was presented in four sections. The results showed that, since the extension of the process of organizational silence is usually done by managers, their attitude and attitudes toward this phenomenon are prioritized and also because silence reduces learning due to lack of knowledge sharing, makes it less effective and makes changes more difficult, it is necessary to take steps to break the silence and to further urge the staff (employees) to express their beliefs (organizational voices) and to share them in the organization's fate individuals, whose beliefs are respected and so called taken into account in the organization, would be dependent on the organization and feel obliged to remain with the organization during the hardships. This affects employees' quality of work life and their satisfaction too much.

Keywords: organizational silence, organizational voice, quality of work life, the sports and youth departments of Tehran province

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196 Design and Fabrication of a Parabolic trough Collector and Experimental Investigation of Direct Steam Production in Tehran

Authors: M. Bidi, H. Akhbari, S. Eslami, A. Bakhtiari

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Due to the high potential of solar energy utilization in Iran, development of related technologies is of great necessity. Linear parabolic collectors are among the most common and most efficient means to harness the solar energy. The main goal of this paper is design and construction of a parabolic trough collector to produce hot water and steam in Tehran. To provide precise and practical plans, 3D models of the collector under consideration were developed using Solidworks software. This collector was designed in a way that the tilt angle can be adjusted manually. To increase concentraion ratio, a small diameter absorber tube is selected and to enhance solar absorbtion, a shape of U-tube is used. One of the outstanding properties of this collector is its simple design and use of low cost metal and plastic materials in its manufacturing procedure. The collector under consideration was installed in Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran and the values of solar irradiation, ambient temperature, wind speed and collector steam production rate were measured in different days and hours of July. Results revealed that a 1×2 m parabolic trough collector located in Tehran is able to produce steam by the rate of 300ml/s under the condition of atmospheric pressure and without using a vacuum cover over the absorber tube.

Keywords: desalination, parabolic trough collector, direct steam production, solar water heater, design and construction

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195 Factors Affecting Sense of Community in Residential Communities Case Study: Residential Communities in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Parvin Foroughifar

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The concept of sense of community refers to residents’ sense of attachment and commitment to the other residents in a residential community. It is implicitly indicative of the mental image of a physical environment in which the residents enjoy strong social ties. Sense of community, a crucial factor in improving quality of life and social welfare, leads to life satisfaction in a residential community. Despite the important functions of such a notion, few empirical studies, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have been so far carried out in Iran to investigate the effective factors in sharpening the sense of community in residential communities. This survey research examined sense of community in 360 above 20-year old residents of three residential communities in Tehran, Iran using cluster sampling and questionnaire. The study yielded the result that variables of local social ties, social control and trust, sense of security, length of residence, use of public spaces, and mixed land use have a significant relationship with sense of community.

Keywords: sense of community, local social ties, sense of security, public space, residential community, Tehran

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194 Women's Challenges in Access to Urban Spaces and Infrastructures: A Comparative Study of the Urban Infrastructures Conforming to Women's Needs in Tehran and Istanbul

Authors: Parastoo Kazemiyan

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Over the past 80 years, in compliance with the advent of modernity in Iran and Turkey, the presence of women in economic and social arenas has creates serious challenges in the capacity of urban spaces to respond to their presence and transport because urban spaces up until then were based on masculine criteria and therefore, women could use such spaces in the company of their fathers or husbands. However, as modernity expanded by Reza Shah and Ataturk, women found the opportunity to work and be present in urban spaces alongside men and their presence in economic and social domains resulted in their presence in these spaces in the early and late hours of the day. Therefore, the city had to be transformed in structural, social, and environmental terms to accommodate women's activities and presence in various urban arenas, which was a huge step in transition from a masculine man-based culture to an all-inclusive human-based culture in these two countries. However, the optimization of urban space was subject to political changes in the two countries, leading to significant differences in designing urban spaces in Tehran and Istanbul. What shows the importance and novelty of the present study lie in the differences in urban planning and optimization in the two capital cities, which gave rise to different outcomes in desirability and quality of living in these two capital cities. Due to the importance of the topic, one of the most significant factors in desirability and acceptability of urban space for women was examined using a descriptive-analytic method based on qualitative methodology in Tehran and Istanbul. The results showed that the infrastructural factors in Istanbul, including safety of access, variety, and number of public transport modes, transparency, and supervision over public spaces have provided women with a safer and more constant presence compared to Tehran. It seems that challenges involved in providing access to urban spaces in Tehran in terms of infrastructure and function have made Tehran unable to respond to the most basic needs of its female citizens.

Keywords: gender differences, urban space security, access to transportation systems, women's challenges

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193 The Impact of Macroeconomic Factors on Tehran Stock Exchange Index during Economic and Oil Sanctions between January 2006 and December 2012

Authors: Hamed Movahedizadeh, Annuar Md Nassir, Mehdi Karimimalayer, Navid Samimi Sedeh, Ehsan Bagherpour

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The aim of this paper is to evaluate Tehran’s Stock Exchange (TSE) performance regarding with impact of four macroeconomic factors including world crude Oil Price (OP), World Gold Price (GP), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and total Supplied Oil by Iran (SO) from January 2006 to December 2012 that Iran faced with economic and oil sanctions. Iran's exports of crude oil and lease condensate reduced to roughly 1.5 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2012, compared to 2.5 million bbl/d in 2011 due to hard sanctions. Monthly data are collected and subjected to a battery of tests through ordinary least square by EViews7. This study found that gold price and oil price are positively correlated with stock returns while total oil supplied and consumer price index have negative relationship with stock index, however, consumer price index tends to become insignificant in stock index. While gold price and consumer price index have short run relationship with TSE index at 10% of significance level this amount for oil price is significant at 5% and there is no significant short run relationship between supplied oil and Tehran stock returns. Moreover, this study found that all macroeconomic factors have long-run relationship with Tehran Stock Exchange Index.

Keywords: consumer price index, gold price, macroeconomic, oil price, sanction, stock market, supplied oil

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192 Strategic Development of Urban Environmental Management Base on Good Governance - Case study of (Waste Management of Tehran)

Authors: A. Farhad Sadri, B. Ali Farhadi, C. Nasim Shalamzari

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Waste management is a principle of urban and environmental governance. Waste management in Tehran metropolitan requires good strategies for better governance. Using of good urban governance principles together with eight main indexes can be an appropriate base for this aim. One of the reasonable tools in this field is usage of SWOT methods which provides possibility of comparing the opportunities, threats, weaknesses, and strengths by using IFE and EFE matrixes. The results of the above matrixes, respectively 2.533 and 2.403, show that management system of Tehran metropolitan wastes has performed weak regarding to internal factors and has not have good performance regarding using the opportunities and dealing with threats. In this research, prioritizing and describing the real value of each 24 strategies in waste management in Tehran metropolitan have been surveyed considering good governance derived from Quantitative Strategic Planning Management (QSPM) by using Kolomogrof-Smirnoff by 1.549 and significance level of 0.073 in order to define normalization of final values and all of the strategies utilities and Variance Analysis of ANOVA has been calculated for all SWOT strategies. Duncan’s test results regarding four WT, ST, WO, and SO strategies show no significant difference. In addition to mean comparison by Duncan method in this research, LSD (Lowest Significant Difference test) has been used by probability of 5% and finally, 7 strategies and final model of Tehran metropolitan waste management strategy have been defined. Increasing the confidence of people with transparency of budget, developing and improving the legal structure (rule-oriented and law governance, more responsibility about requirements of private sectors, increasing recycling rates and real effective participation of people and NGOs to improve waste management (contribution) and etc, are main available strategies which have been achieved based on good urban governance management principles.

Keywords: waste, strategy, environmental management, urban good governance, SWOT

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191 Environmental Risk Assessment of Mechanization Waste Collection Scheme in Tehran

Authors: Amin Padash, Javad Kazem Zadeh Khoiy, Hossein Vahidi

Abstract:

Purpose: The mechanization system for the urban services was implemented in Tehran City in the year 2004 to promote the collection of domestic wastes; in 2010, in order to achieve the objectives of the project of urban services mechanization and qualitative promotion and improve the urban living environment, sustainable development and optimization of the recyclable solid wastes collection systems as well as other dry and non-organic wastes and conformity of the same to the modern urban management methods regarding integration of the mechanized urban services contractors and recycling contractors and in order to better and more correct fulfillment of the waste separation and considering the success of the mechanization plan of the dry wastes in most of the modern countries. The aim of this research is analyzing of Environmental Risk Assessment of the mechanization waste collection scheme in Tehran. Case Study: Tehran, the capital of Iran, with the population of 8.2 million people, occupies 730 km land expanse, which is 4% of total area of country. Tehran generated 2,788,912 ton (7,641 ton/day) of waste in year 2008. Hospital waste generation rate in Tehran reaches 83 ton/day. Almost 87% of total waste was disposed of by placing in a landfill located in Kahrizak region. This large amount of waste causes a significant challenge for the city. Methodology: To conduct the study, the methodology proposed in the standard Mil-St-88213 is used. This method is an efficient method to examine the position in opposition to the various processes and the action is effective. The method is based on the method of Military Standard and Specialized in the military to investigate and evaluate options to locate and identify the strengths and weaknesses of powers to decide on the best determining strategy has been used. Finding and Conclusion: In this study, the current status of mechanization systems to collect waste and identify its possible effects on the environment through a survey and assessment methodology Mil-St-88213, and then the best plan for action and mitigation of environmental risk has been proposed as Environmental Management Plan (EMP).

Keywords: environmental risk assessment, mechanization waste collection scheme, Mil-St-88213

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190 The Influence of Neighborhood Centers of Tehran Municipality in Living Style of the Residents of Each Neighborhood

Authors: Fahimeh Rafiezade, Fatemeh Kakoyi Dinaki, Maryam Soufi

Abstract:

This research studies and identifies the important elements of the living style of the residents of one of the neighborhoods of Tehran. The study will also study the role, the degree, and extent of the influence of neighborhood trainings in the lives of these people. Saraymahaleh is one of the centers established by Tehran municipality in various neighborhoods of Tehran in order to provide educational, cultural, etc. services. We carried out our study according to demography, field study, observation, 30 interviews, and 2 focus group discussions (FGD) at Sahebalzaman neighborhood in district 18 of Tehran municipality. We interpreted our observations and interviews with the neighborhoods’ supervisors and city council assistants (Shorayar), supervisor of Saraymahaleh and people who refer to them. We used this information to study the citizens’ lifestyle, values, behavioral, motivational, and attitude preferences in their religious and environmental orientations, cultural consumptions, and spare times, and the influence of Saraymahaleh on these aspects according to specific economic, cultural, and ethnic characteristics. Sahebalzaman neighborhood is considered an underprivileged district in terms of economy, high illiteracy, and low but structured migration of young people. The interviews we made helped us classify the people referring to Saraymahaleh based on their demographic attributes and attitudes and the reason of referring and finally the influence of the rendered services on their lifestyles. The studies indicate that women made the most part of people referring to Saraymahaleh Sahebalzaman. They were mostly young, in their midlives, and generally unemployed without a specialized skill. People referred to Saraymahaleh Sahebalzaman mostly to receive services or for entertainment and recreation purposes, i.e. they did not take part actively. In addition to creating welfare and cultural facilities, Saraymahaleh increases the level of skill training, empowerment, innovation and creativity, and issues skill certificates and documents that helps to increase job and income producing opportunities for the neighborhood residents, improve the quality of their live, and increase their hope for life.

Keywords: lifestyle, living in neighborhood, Saraymahaleh, Tehran municipality, urban life, demography

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189 Comparing Abused and Normal Male Students in Tehran Guidance Schools: Emphasizing the Co-Dependency of Their Mothers

Authors: Mohamad Saleh Sangin Ostadi, Esmail Safari, Somayeh Akbari, Kaveh Qaderi Bagajan

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The aim of this study is to compare abused and normal male students in Tehran guidance schools with emphasis on the co-dependency of their mothers. The method of this study is based on survey method and comparison (Ex-Post Facto). The method of sampling is also multi-stage cluster. Accordingly, we did sampling from secondary schools of education and training in Tehran, including 12 schools with levels of first, second and third. Each of the schools represents the three – high, medium and low- economic and social conditions. In the following, three classes from every school and 20 students from each class were randomly selected. By (CTQ) abused and normal students were separated that 670 children were recognized as normal and 50 children as abused. Then, 50 children were randomly selected from normal group and compared with abused group. Using Spanned-Fischer Co-dependency Scale, we compared mothers of abused and normal students. The results showed that mothers of the abused children have higher co- dependency average comparing to the mothers of the normal children.

Keywords: co-dependency, child abuse, abused children, parental psychological health

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188 Strategies to Promote Safety and Reduce the Vulnerability of Urban Worn-out Textures to the Potential Risk of Earthquake

Authors: Bahareh Montakhabi

Abstract:

Earthquake is known as one of the deadliest natural disasters, with a high potential for damage to life and property. Some of Iran's cities were completely destroyed after major earthquakes, and the people of the region suffered a lot of mental, financial and psychological damage. Tehran is one of the cities located on the fault line. According to experts, the only city that could be severely damaged by a moderate earthquake in Earthquake Engineering Intensity Scale (EEIS) (70% destruction) is Tehran because Tehran is built precisely on the fault. Seismic risk assessment (SRA) of cities in the scale of urban areas and neighborhoods is the first phase of the earthquake crisis management process, which can provide the information required to make optimal use of available resources and facilities in order to reduce the destructive effects and consequences of an earthquake. This study has investigated strategies to promote safety and reduce the vulnerability of worn-out urban textures in the District 12 of Tehran to the potential risk of earthquake aimed at prioritizing the factors affecting the vulnerability of worn-out urban textures to earthquake crises and how to reduce them, using the analytical-exploratory method, analytical hierarchy process (AHP), Expert choice and SWOT technique. The results of SWAT and AHP analysis of the vulnerability of the worn-out textures of District 12 to internal threats (1.70) and external threats (2.40) indicate weak safety of the textures of District 12 regarding internal and external factors and a high possibility of damage.

Keywords: risk management, vulnerability, worn-out textures, earthquake

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187 The Effect of Parents and Coaches on Preschool Children's Self-Control in Preschool Centers in District 5 of Tehran

Authors: Alieh Arasteh

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The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of parents and educators on the self-control of children in pre-primary schools in District 5 of Tehran. The method of this survey was a survey and post-correlation type. The statistical population of this study included all teachers and parents of children in preschool centers in the region. The 5th city of Tehran in 1397 was the number of kindergartens in 117 centers and the number of parents was 1872, the sample size of the parents was 320 and the sample size of the trainers was 76. The method of sampling in this study was randomized and clustered. The data gathering tool was Rosenbaum and Ronen (1992) self-control skills, a five-factor questionnaire NEO personality Costa and McCrae (1985) and a questionnaire on demographic characteristics, reliability using Cronbach's alpha, the data analysis was performed using the software spss24. The results of the research showed that the personality characteristics of parents, parents' socioeconomic status and personality traits of educators affect the self-control dimensions of pre-primary school children (P <0.05).

Keywords: self-control, pre-primary school, the effect of parents, couches

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186 Relationship between Teachers' Empowerment and Personality Traits, Case Study: Tehran Public Schools of Region 5

Authors: Alireza Ladan Moghaddam, Hadi Rezghi Shirsavar, Panteha Pirayandeh

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This study aimed to investigate the Relationship between Teachers' Empowerment and Personality Traits (Case Study: Tehran Public Schools of region 5). To achieve this objective, a descriptive research in correlation type has been used. The statistical population of this research includes all teachers and administrators in Tehran Public Schools of region 5. In this study, a five factor model of personality and a 49-item questionnaire to measure empowerment of teachers have been used to assess personality traits of administrators and the teachers' empowerment, respectively. The research hypotheses test has been done using SPSS and LISREL software. The results show that in general there is no significant relationship between personality traits of administrators and teachers' empowerment, and among the 5 dimensions of personality, there is only significant relationship between the characteristic of administrators' agreeableness and teachers' empowerment. The results suggested a way to improve knowledge and skills of teachers a top priority administrator consider. In addition, the performance of teachers affected by the performance of the executive directors, so it is necessary to improve their yield towering notice.

Keywords: personality traits, five factor model of personality, teacher, empowerment

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185 Site Selection of CNG Station by Using FUZZY-AHP Model (Case Study: Gas Zone 4, Tehran City Iran)

Authors: Hamidrza Joodaki

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The most complex issue in urban land use planning is site selection that needs to assess the verity of elements and factors. Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods are the best approach to deal with complex problems. In this paper, combination of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) model and FUZZY logic was used as MCDM methods to select the best site for gas station in the 4th gas zone of Tehran. The first and the most important step in FUZZY-AHP model is selection of criteria and sub-criteria. Population, accessibility, proximity and natural disasters were considered as the main criteria in this study. After choosing the criteria, they were weighted based on AHP by EXPERT CHOICE software, and FUZZY logic was used to enhance accuracy and to approach the reality. After these steps, criteria layers were produced and weighted based on FUZZY-AHP model in GIS. Finally, through ARC GIS software, the layers were integrated and the 4th gas zone in TEHRAN was selected as the best site to locate gas station.

Keywords: multiple criteria decision making (MCDM), analytic hierarchy process (AHP), FUZZY logic, geographic information system (GIS)

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