Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Azin Nasrollah Zade

25 Effect of Nitrogen Management on Nitrogen Uptake, Dry Matter Production and Some Yield Parameters

Authors: Mandana Tayefe, Ebrahim Amiri, Azin Nasrollah Zade

Abstract:

Effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on nitrogen uptake, dry matter production, yield and some yield components of rice (Hashemi, Kazemi, Khazar) was investigated in an experiment as factorial in RCBD with 3 replications in a paddy light soil at Guilan province, Iran, 2008-2009. In this experiment, four treatments including: N1-control (no N fertilizer); N2- 30 kgN/ha; N3- 60 kgN/ha; N4- 90 kgN/ha were compared. Results showed that total biomass (8386 kg/ha), grain yield (3662 kg/ha), panicles m-2 (235.8) and total grain per panicle (103.8) were reached the highest value at high nitrogen level. Among the varieties the highest total biomass (7734 kg/ha), grain yield (3414 kg/ha) and total grain per panicle (78.2) belonged to Khazar. Dry matter, total N uptake was varied in different cultivars significantly and Khazar variety had the highest contents. Total biomass and total N uptake was varied significantly with the increasement of the amount of nitrogen applied. As total biomass and total N uptake increased with increasing in N fertilizing.

Keywords: rice, nitrogen, nitrogen uptake, dry matter

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24 Effects of Chemical and Biological Fertilizer on, Yield, Nitrogen Uptake and Nitrogen Harvest Index of Rice

Authors: Azin Nasrollah Zadeh

Abstract:

A factorial experiment was applied to evaluate the effect of chemical and biological fertilizer on yield, total nitrogen uptake and NHI of rice. Four biological treatments including:(M1:no fertilizer),( M2:10 ton/ha cow dung ),(M3:20 ton/ha cow dung) and (M4:5 ton/ha azolla compost) and four chemical fertilizer treatments including: (S1: no fertilizer),(S2:40 kg N /ha),(S3:60 kg N /ha) and ( S4:80 kg N /ha ) were compared. Results showed that highest rate of yield (3387 kg/ha) and total nitrogen uptake (81.4 kg/ha) were reached the highest value at M4. Among the chemical fertilizers the highest grain yield (3373 kg/ha) and total nitrogen uptake (87.7) belonged to highest nitrogen level (S4).Also biological and chemical fertilizers were no significant on Harvest index (NHI). Interaction effect of chemical × biological fertilizers didn't show significant difference between all parameters except of yield, as the most grain yield were obtained in M4S4. So it can be concluded that using of bioilogical fertilizers at appropriate rate and type, considering plant requirement, may improve grain yield, nitrogen uptake and use efficiency in rice.

Keywords: azolla, fertilizer, nitrogen uptake, rice, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
23 Foundation Retrofitting of Storage Tank under Seismic Load

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hossein Zade, E. Izadi, M. Hossein Zade

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The different seismic behavior of liquid storage tanks rather than conventional structures makes their responses more complicated. Uplifting and excessive settlement due to liquid sloshing are the most frequent damages in cylindrical liquid tanks after shell bucking failure modes. As a matter of fact, uses of liquid storage tanks because of the simple construction on compact layer of soil as a foundation are very conventional, but in some cases need to retrofit are essential. The tank seismic behavior can be improved by modifying dynamic characteristic of tank with verifying seismic loads as well as retrofitting and improving base ground. This paper focuses on a typical steel tank on loose, medium and stiff sandy soil and describes an evaluation of displacement of the tank before and after retrofitting. The Abaqus program was selected for its ability to include shell and structural steel elements, soil-structure interaction, and geometrical nonlinearities and contact type elements. The result shows considerable decreasing in settlement and uplifting in the case of retrofitted tank. Also, by increasing shear strength parameter of soil, the performance of the liquid storage tank under the case of seismic load increased.

Keywords: steel tank, soil-structure, sandy soil, seismic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
22 Guidance and Control of a Torpedo Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Soheil Arash Moghadam, Abdol R. Kashani Nia, Ali Akrami Zade

Abstract:

Considering numerous applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in various industries, there has been plenty of researches and studies on the motion control of such vehicles. One of the useful aspects for studying is the guidance of these vehicles. In this paper, while presenting motion equations with six degrees of freedom for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, Proportional Navigation Guidance Law and the first order sliding mode control for TAIPAN AUV was used to address its guidance for the purpose of collision with a moving target.

Keywords: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), degree of freedom (DOF), hydrodynamic, line of sight(LOS), proportional navigation guidance(PNG), sliding mode control(SMC)

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21 Islam and Democracy

Authors: Nasrollah Sekhavaty

Abstract:

This topic has many points, one of which could be "the relationship between Islam and democracy". In this paper we discuss the relationship between them. The logic has taught us that there is only one relationship between an object and itself. But if we have two things, there is one of the four relations between them; contradiction, equivalence, absolute generality & peculiarity or generality & peculiarity in some respect. To clarify the relationship between Islam and democracy, at first we must examine the meaning of Islam and Democracy. Islam is a religion which has ideas about politics and governance. The politics in Islam includes both individual and social affairs, to achieve worldly and heavenly blessings. With this assumption, Islam and democracy are not the same, or contrast, nor the absolute generality & peculiarity; but, the relationship between these two concepts is the generality & peculiarity in some respect. Conclusion: If one considers democracy as content, it does not accumulate with Islam which is content. But if democracy means a structure and style of governing, then its content could be Islam.

Keywords: Islam, democracy, contradiction, equivalence, absolute generality, generality & peculiarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
20 Determination of Antibiotic Residues in Carcasses of Cows Slaughtered in Amol City by Four-Plate-Test Method

Authors: Arezou Ghadi, Nasrollah Vahedi, Azam Sinkakarimi

Abstract:

For determination of antibiotic residues in slaughtered cow carcasses of Amol city in Iran, sampling has done from 100 heads of cow. For this purpose, the microbiological F.P.T (Four-Plate Test) method was used. Basis of this method, a clear zone is creating around the leachate on the plate that already has cultured a uniform layer of under test bacteria on agar plate. In this study from 100 heads of cow carcasses, at least 75 cases (75%) in one of the tested organs (muscle-liver-kidney) have been antibiotic residues. Also, it has been found that kidney have the most positive cases (60%) than other organs (liver and muscle), then the liver (58%) and finally are muscles (51%).

Keywords: antibiotic residues, agar plate test, cow carcass

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
19 Challenges over Two Semantic Repositories - OWLIM and AllegroGraph

Authors: Paria Tajabor, Azin Azarbani

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The purpose of this research study is exploring two kind of semantic repositories with regards to various factors to find the best approaches that an artificial manager can use to produce ontology in a system based on their interaction, association and research. To this end, as the best way to evaluate each system and comparing with others is analysis, several benchmarking over these two repositories were examined. These two semantic repositories: OWLIM and AllegroGraph will be the main core of this study. The general objective of this study is to be able to create an efficient and cost-effective manner reports which is required to support decision making in any large enterprise.

Keywords: OWLIM, allegrograph, RDF, reasoning, semantic repository, semantic-web, SPARQL, ontology, query

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
18 Vibration Analysis of Pendulum in a Viscous Fluid by Analytical Methods

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin

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In this study, a vibrational differential equation governing on swinging single-degree-of-freedom pendulum in a viscous fluid has been investigated. The damping process is characterized according to two different regimes: at first, damping in stationary viscous fluid, in the second, damping in flowing viscous fluid with constant velocity. Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equation with a simple and innovative approach. Comparisons are made between new method and Numerical Method (rkf45). The results show that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

Keywords: oscillating systems, angular frequency and damping ratio, pendulum at fluid, locus of maximum

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
17 Numerical Study of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction in Eccentrically Loaded Circular Footing Resting

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hossein Zade

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This article is an attempt to present a numerically study of the behaviour of an eccentrically loaded circular footing resting on sand to determine ‎its ultimate bearing capacity. A surface circular footing of diameter 12 cm (D) was used as ‎shallow foundation. For this purpose, three dimensional models consist of foundation, and medium sandy soil was modelled by ABAQUS software. Bearing capacity of footing was evaluated and the ‎effects of the load eccentricity on bearing capacity, its settlement, and modulus of subgrade reaction were studied. Three different values of load eccentricity with equal space from inside the core on the core boundary and outside the core boundary, which were respectively e=0.75, 1.5, and 2.25 cm, were considered. The results show that by increasing the load eccentricity, the ultimate load and the ‎modulus of subgrade reaction decreased.

Keywords: circular foundation, sand, eccentric loading, modulus of subgrade reaction

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16 Structural and Ion Exchange Studies of Terpolymer Resin Derived from 4, 4'-Biphenol-4,4'-Oxydianiline-Formaldehyde

Authors: Pawan P. Kalbende, Anil B. Zade

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A novel terpolymer resin has been synthesized by condensation polymerization reaction of 4,4’-biphenol and 4,4’-oxydianiline with formaldehyde in presence of 2M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. Composition of resin was determined on the basis of their elemental analysis and further characterized by UV-Visible, infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to confine the most probable structure of synthesized terpolymer. Newly synthesized terpolymer was proved to be a selective chelating ion-exchanger for certain metal ions and were studied for Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions using their metal nitrate solutions. A batch equilibrium method was employed to study the selectivity of metal ions uptake involving the measurements of the distribution of a given metal ion between the terpolymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range, shaking time and in media of different electrolytes at different ionic strengths. Distribution ratios of metal ions were found to be increased by rising pH of the solutions. Hence, it can be used to recover certain metal ions from waste water for the purpose of purification of water and removal of iron from boiler water.

Keywords: terpolymers, ion-exchangers, distribution ratio, metal ion uptake

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15 Analytical Solving of Nonlinear Differential Equations in the Nonlinear Phenomena for Viscos Fluids

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin

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In the paper, our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve a nonlinear differential equation which is about the motion of an incompressible fluid flow going down of an inclined plane without thermal effect with a simple and innovative approach which we have named it new method. Comparisons are made amongst the Numerical, new method, and HPM methods, and the results reveal that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied to other nonlinear problems. It is noteworthy that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving differential equations, and also most of the sets of differential equations can be answered in this manner which in the other methods they do not have acceptable solutions up to now. A summary of the excellence of this method in comparison to the other manners is as follows: 1) Differential equations are directly solvable by this method. 2) Without any dimensionless procedure, we can solve equation(s). 3) It is not necessary to convert variables into new ones. According to the afore-mentioned assertions which will be proved in this case study, the process of solving nonlinear equation(s) will be very easy and convenient in comparison to the other methods.

Keywords: viscos fluid, incompressible fluid flow, inclined plane, nonlinear phenomena

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14 Numerical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Encased Stone Columns under Laterally Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hossein Zade

Abstract:

Out of all methods for ground improvement, stone column became more popular these days due to its simple construction and economic consideration. Installation of stone column especially in loose fine graded soil causes increasing in load bearing capacity and settlement reduction. Encased granular stone columns (EGCs) are commonly subjected to vertical load. However, they may also be subjected to significant amount of shear loading. In this study, three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses were conducted to estimate the shear load capacity of EGCs in sandy soil. Two types of different cases, stone column and geosynthetic encased stone column were studied at different normal pressures varying from 15 kPa to 75 kPa. Also, the effect of diameter in two cases was considered. A close agreement between the experimental and numerical curves of shear stress - horizontal displacement trend line is observed. The obtained result showed that, by increasing the normal pressure and diameter of stone column, higher shear strength is mobilized by soil; however, in the case of encased stone column, increasing the diameter had more dominated effect in mobilized shear strength.

Keywords: encased stone column, laterally load, ordinary stone column, validation

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13 The Influence of the Geogrid Layers on the Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils

Authors: S. A. Naeini, H. R. Rahmani, M. Hossein Zade

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Many classical bearing capacity theories assume that the natural soil's layers are homogenous for determining the bearing capacity of the soil. But, in many practical projects, we encounter multi-layer soils. Geosynthetic as reinforcement materials have been extensively used in the construction of various structures. In this paper, numerical analysis of the Plate Load Test (PLT) using of ABAQUS software in double-layered soils with different thicknesses of sandy and gravelly layers reinforced with geogrid was considered. The PLT is one of the common filed methods to calculate parameters such as soil bearing capacity, the evaluation of the compressibility and the determination of the Subgrade Reaction module. In fact, the influence of the geogrid layers on the bearing capacity of the layered soils is investigated. Finally, the most appropriate mode for the distance and number of reinforcement layers is determined. Results show that using three layers of geogrid with a distance of 0.3 times the width of the loading plate has the highest efficiency in bearing capacity of double-layer (sand and gravel) soils. Also, the significant increase in bearing capacity between unreinforced and reinforced soil with three layers of geogrid is caused by the condition that the upper layer (gravel) thickness is equal to the loading plate width.

Keywords: bearing capacity, reinforcement, geogrid, plate load test, layered soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
12 Types of Innovation Management Office and Their Roles and Responsibilities in Supporting the Innovation Management Process from Organisational Strategic Foresight to Managing Innovation Project Portfolios

Authors: Bakr Zade, Paolo Cervera

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With the aim of maximising return on innovation investments, organisations create central units to support successful implementation of innovation management initiatives. The support units–referred to in this research as innovation management offices (IMOs)–range from small teams of innovation management champions to fully resourced centres of excellence for innovation management. However, roles and responsibilities of IMOs vary in different organisations. This research investigates the different types of IMO in organisations, based on their different roles and responsibilities in supporting innovation management processes. The research uses grounded theory methodology to uncover an IMO taxonomy from emergent concepts during innovation management maturity assessment exercises in twelve organisations from the United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates. The taxonomy distinguishes five types of IMO, based on their roles and responsibilities in supporting innovation management processes, from organisational strategic foresight to managing innovation management project portfolios. The IMO taxonomy addresses a gap in research into innovation management support in organisations and offers a practical framework that diverse organisations can appreciate and use in designing IMOs that are aligned with their innovation management visions and strategies.

Keywords: future foresight, future shaping, innovation management, innovation management office, portfolio management

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11 Effect of National Sovereignty of Non-Citizens Human Rights Standards: Mediterranean Irregular Immigrants Case

Authors: Azin Karami, Bahareh Heydari

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There is a difference between national sovereignty ( national security guarantee) and human rights standards (human security guarantee). Under the pretext of providing security for the majority, Governments violate human rights standards and lead to populism. This paper illustrates despite the human rights standards of non-citizens, they mostly confront different practical and social realities. (a large gap between the reality and the truth). This paper has focused on one of vulnerable irregular non-citizens immigrants from Mediterranean . In addition, it has considered challenges of the basic and primary human rights standards of this group. It shows how government policies affect the flow of irregular immigration. This paper is based upon UN data about Mediterranean immigrants and polls answered by 68 people who intended to migrate from Mediterranean (28 female and 40 male people, the average age of 30 to 40). The model is supposed to be a convenient one to present objective, real evidence of irregular immigrants and discusses the challenges that this group of immigrants confront them .This paper shows clear concept of immigrants.

Keywords: human rights, human security, national sovereignty, irregular immigrants

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
10 Effects of Damper Locations and Base Isolators on Seismic Response of a Building Frame

Authors: Azin Shakibabarough, Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Ashutosh Bagchi

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Structural vibration means repetitive motion that causes fatigue and reduction of the performance of a structure. An earthquake may release high amount of energy that can have adverse effect on all components of a structure. Therefore, decreasing of vibration or maintaining performance of structures such as bridges, dams, roads and buildings is important for life safety and reducing economic loss. When earthquake or any vibration happens, investigation on parts of a structure which sustain the seismic loads is mandatory to provide a safe condition for the occupants. One of the solutions for reducing the earthquake vibration in a structure is using of vibration control devices such as dampers and base isolators. The objective of this study is to investigate the optimal positions of friction dampers and base isolators for better seismic response of 2D frame. For this purpose, a two bay and six story frame with different distribution formats was modeled and some of their responses to earthquake such as inter-story drift, max joint displacement, max axial force and max bending moment were determined and compared using non-linear dynamic analysis.

Keywords: fast nonlinear analysis, friction damper, base isolator, seismic vibration control, seismic response

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9 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Highly Porous Scaffold for Biomedicine

Authors: Neda Sinaei, Davood Zare, Mehrdad Azin

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Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biocompatible and biodegradable polymers produced by a wide range of bacterial strains. These biopolymers are significantly studied for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications because of their fascinating physicochemical properties. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) scaffold that has been extracted from a novel bacteria using oil wastewater was selected to study. Some physical parameters affecting scaffold properties such as PHB concentration, solvent evaporation speed, and ultrasonic time were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the porosity. Afterward, the biocompatibility of PHB scaffold was assessed. Initial results showed the highly porous PHB scaffold structure with a variety of pore sizes. Subsequent results indicated that more unique pore sizes can be obtained by optimizing physical factors. It would be noticed that the morphology of the pore structure was accordingly affected by ultrasonic time. Hence, In vitro cell viability tests on the PHB scaffold using human foreskin fibroblasts revealed strong cell attachment and proliferation supports. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cost-effective PHB scaffold has the potential using as a biomaterial cell adhesion substrate in therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Polyhydroxybutyrate, biocompatible, scaffold, porous, tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
8 Integrating Building Information Modeling into Facilities Management Operations

Authors: Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Azin Shakibabarough, Ashutosh Bagchi

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Facilities such as residential buildings, office buildings, and hospitals house large density of occupants. Therefore, a low-cost facility management program (FMP) should be used to provide a satisfactory built environment for these occupants. Facility management (FM) has been recently used in building projects as a critical task. It has been effective in reducing operation and maintenance cost of these facilities. Issues of information integration and visualization capabilities are critical for reducing the complexity and cost of FM. Building information modeling (BIM) can be used as a strong visual modeling tool and database in FM. The main objective of this study is to examine the applicability of BIM in the FM process during a building’s operational phase. For this purpose, a seven-storey office building is modeled Autodesk Revit software. Authors integrated the cloud-based environment using a visual programming tool, Dynamo, for the purpose of having a real-time cloud-based communication between the facility managers and the participants involved in the project. An appropriate and effective integrated data source and visual model such as BIM can reduce a building’s operational and maintenance costs by managing the building life cycle properly.

Keywords: building information modeling, facility management, operational phase, building life cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
7 Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia

Authors: Ehsan Kaviani, Azin Golmoradizade

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Introduction: Traditionally, tendons are considered to only contain tenocytes that are responsible for the maintenance, repair, and remodeling of tendons. Stem cells, which are termed tendon-derived stem cells, so this study we investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with swallowing training on post-stroke dysphagia. Methods: This review article is about effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on post-stroke dysphagia that were extracted from Science Direct, Pro quest, and Pub med Data Bases. 15 articles had been selected according to inclusion criteria from 2014 to 2019, and 6 of them had been deleted by exclusion criteria. Results: The results of our systematic review suggest that tDCS may represent a promising novel treatment for post-stroke dysphagia. However, to date, little is known about the optimal parameters of tDCS for relieving post-stroke dysphagia. Further studies are warranted to refine this promising intervention by exploring the optimal parameters of tDCS. Conclusion: anodal tDCS over the affected hemisphere may be as effective as cathodal tDCS on the unaffected hemisphere to enhance recovery after subacute ischemic stroke and anodal tdcs applied over the affected pharyngeal motor cortex can enhance the outcome of swallowing training in post-stroke dysphagia.

Keywords: dysphagia, stroke, cortical stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
6 Effect of Short-Term Enriching of Algae with Selenium and Zinc on Growth and Mineral Composition of Marine Rotifer

Authors: Sirwe Ghaderpour, Nasrollah Ahmadifard, Naser Agh, Zakaria Vahabzadeh

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Rotifers are used in many hatcheries for feeding the earliest stages of fish larvae and crustaceans due to their small size, slow movements, fast reproduction, and easy cultivation. One of the disadvantages of using rotifers as live prey is their lower content of some nutrients compared to copepods, so it is necessary to increase the amounts of these nutrients by means of enrichment. Minerals are a group of micro-elements, essential to fish, that is lacking in the rotifers, for example, selenium (30 fold) and zinc (5 fold) are present in lower quantities than the minimum amounts found in copepods. In this study, the condensed Isochrysis aff. galbana (T-ISO) and Nannochloropsis oculata were suspended at concentration of 18 × 109 cell mL⁻¹ of water with 20 ppt of salinity. Four different levels (0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg L⁻¹) of each Na₂SeO₃ and ZnSO₄.7H₂O separately were prepared, and 1 mL of each stock was poured to the algae enrichment vessels for 1 h simultaneously. After that, the material was centrifuged (at 4000 rpm for 5 min), and the precipitated enriched algae was used for rotifer feeding. The contents of Se, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined in enriched microalgae and rotifer by Atomic absorption. The highest content of both minerals was observed in 0.4 Zn + 0.4 Se treatment and also rotifer enriched with these enriched microalgae. The enrichment of microalgae with Zn and Se does not affect the content of Cu in the microalgae. Also, the content of Cu in rotifer fed with the enriched microalgae showed the highest Cu content in the treatments than the control. But, the enrichment with both minerals had a negative effect on the content Mn in enriched mixed microalgae except 0.4 Zn + 0.4 Se. The Mn content in enriched rotifer decreased in the treatments than the control except for 0.1 Zn + 0.1 Se. There was no significant effect on rotifer growth in combined enrichment with both minerals (p < 0.05). Overall, rotifers enrichment with Se and Zn mixed microalgae resulted in increasing Se, Zn, and Cu. This will allow Se and Zn microalgae enriched rotifers to be used as the minerals delivery method for fish larvae nutritional requirements.

Keywords: enrichment, larvae, microalgae, mineral, rotifer

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
5 Supply Chains Resilience within Machine-Made Rug Producers in Iran

Authors: Malihe Shahidan, Azin Madhi, Meisam Shahbaz

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In recent decades, the role of supply chains in sustaining businesses and establishing their superiority in the market has been under focus. The realization of the goals and strategies of a business enterprise is largely dependent on the cooperation of the chain, including suppliers, distributors, retailers, etc. Supply chains can potentially be disrupted by both internal and external factors. In this paper, resilience strategies have been identified and analyzed in three levels: sourcing, producing, and distributing by considering economic depression as a current risk factor for the machine-made rugs industry. In this study, semi-structured interviews for data gathering and thematic analysis for data analysis are applied. Supply chain data has been gathered from seven rug factories before and after the economic depression through semi-structured interviews. The identified strategies were derived from literature review and validated by collecting data from a group of eighteen industry and university experts, and the results were analyzed using statistical tests. Finally, the outsourcing of new products and products in the new market, the development and completion of the product portfolio, the flexibility in the composition and volume of products, the expansion of the market to price-sensitive, direct sales, and disintermediation have been determined as strategies affecting supply chain resilience of machine-made rugs' industry during an economic depression.

Keywords: distribution, economic depression, machine-made rug, outsourcing, production, sourcing, supply chain, supply chain resilience

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
4 Condition Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Azin Shakibabarough, Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Ashutosh Bagchi

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Catastrophic bridge failure happens due to the lack of inspection, lack of design and extreme events like flooding, an earthquake. Bridge Management System (BMS) is utilized to diminish such an accident with proper design and frequent inspection. Visual inspection cannot detect any subsurface defects, so using Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques remove these barriers as far as possible. Among all NDE techniques, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been proved as a highly effective device for detecting internal defects in a reinforced concrete bridge deck. GPR is used for detecting rebar location and rebar corrosion in the reinforced concrete deck. GPR profile is composed of hyperbola series in which sound hyperbola denotes sound rebar and blur hyperbola or signal attenuation shows corroded rebar. Interpretation of GPR images is implemented by numerical analysis or visualization. Researchers recently found that interpretation through visualization is more precise than interpretation through numerical analysis, but visualization is time-consuming and a highly subjective process. Automating the interpretation of GPR image through visualization can solve these problems. After interpretation of all scans of a bridge, condition assessment is conducted based on the generated corrosion map. However, this such a condition assessment is not objective and precise. Condition assessment based on structural integrity and strength parameters can make it more objective and precise. The main purpose of this study is to present an automated interpretation method of a reinforced concrete bridge deck through a visualization technique. In the end, the combined analysis of the structural condition in a bridge is implemented.

Keywords: bridge condition assessment, ground penetrating radar, GPR, NDE techniques, visualization

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3 IL-23, an Inflammatory Cytokine, Decreased by Shark Cartilage and Vitamin A Oral Treatment in Patient with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zarei, Hassan zm, Abolghasem Ajami, Darush Moslemi, Narges Afsary, Amrollah Mostafa-zade

Abstract:

Introduction: IL-23 is responsible for the differentiation and expansion of Th17/ThIL-17 cells from naive CD4+ T cells. Therefore, may be IL-23/IL17 axis involve in a variety of allergic and autoimmune diseases, such as RA, MS, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and asthma. TGF-β is also share for the differentiation Th17 producing IL-17 and CD4+CD25+Foxp3hiT regulatory cells from naïve CD4+ T cells which are involved in the regulation of immune response, maintaining immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis ,and the control of autoimmunity and cancer surveillance. Therefore, T regulatory cells play a key role in autoimmunity, allergy, cancer, infectious disease, and the induction of transplantation tolerance. Vitamin A and it's derivatives (retinoids) inhibit or reverse the carcinogenic process in some types of cancers in oral cavity,head and neck, breast, skin, liver, and blood cells. Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, in vitro. Our purpose is whether simultaneous oral treatment vitamin A and shark cartilage can modulate IL-23/IL-17 and CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory cell/TGF-β pathways and Th1/Th2 immunity in patients with gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23,IL-17,TGF-β,IL-4 and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: An imbalance between IL-17 secretion and TGF-β/Foxp3 t regulatory cell pathway and so, Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) was not seen in patients with gastric cancer treated by vitamin A and shark cartilage. But, the simultaneously presented down-regulation of IL-23 indicated, at least cytokine level. Conclusion: Il-23, as a pro-angiogenesis cytokine, probably, help to tumor growth. Hence, suggested that down-regulation of IL-23, at least cytokine level, is useful for anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, TGF-β/CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory pathway, γ-IFN, IL-4, shark cartilage and gastric cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
2 Brand Positioning in Iran: A Case Study of the Professional Soccer League

Authors: Homeira Asadi Kavan, Seyed Nasrollah Sajjadi, Mehrzade Hamidi, Hossein Rajabi, Mahdi Bigdely

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Positioning strategies of a sports brand can create a unique impression in the minds of the fans, sponsors, and other stakeholders. In order to influence potential customer's perception in an effective and positive way, a brands positioning strategy must be unique, credible, and relevant. Many sports clubs in Iran have been struggling to implement and achieve brand positioning accomplishments, due to different reasons such as lack of experience, scarcity of experts in the sports branding, and lack of related researches in this field. This study will provide a comprehensive theoretical framework and action plan for sport managers and marketers to design and implement effective brand positioning and to enable them to be distinguishable from competing brands and sports clubs. The study instrument is interviews with sports marketing and brand experts who have been working in this industry for a minimum of 20 years. Qualitative data analysis was performed using Atlast.ti text mining software version 7 and Open, axial and selective coding were employed to uncover and systematically analyze important and complex phenomena and elements. The findings show 199 effective elements in positioning strategies in Iran Professional Soccer League. These elements are categorized into 23 concepts and sub-categories as follows: Structural prerequisites, Strategic management prerequisites, Commercial prerequisites, Major external prerequisites, Brand personality, Club symbols, Emotional aspects, Event aspects, Fans’ strategies, Marketing information strategies, Marketing management strategies, Empowerment strategies, Executive management strategies, League context, Fans’ background, Market context, Club’s organizational context, Support context, Major contexts, Political-Legal elements, Economic factors, Social factors, and Technological factors. Eventually, the study model was developed by 6 main dimensions of Causal prerequisites, Axial Phenomenon (brand position), Strategies, Context Factors, Interfering Factors, and Consequences. Based on the findings, practical recommendations and strategies are suggested that can help club managers and marketers in developing and improving their respective sport clubs, brand positioning, and activities.

Keywords: brand positioning, soccer club, sport marketing, Iran professional soccer league, brand strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
1 3D Simulation of Orthodontic Tooth Movement in the Presence of Horizontal Bone Loss

Authors: Azin Zargham, Gholamreza Rouhi, Allahyar Geramy

Abstract:

One of the most prevalent types of alveolar bone loss is horizontal bone loss (HBL) in which the bone height around teeth is reduced homogenously. In the presence of HBL the magnitudes of forces during orthodontic treatment should be altered according to the degree of HBL, in a way that without further bone loss, desired tooth movement can be obtained. In order to investigate the appropriate orthodontic force system in the presence of HBL, a three-dimensional numerical model capable of the simulation of orthodontic tooth movement was developed. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of different degrees of HBL on a long-term orthodontic tooth movement. Moreover, the effect of different force magnitudes on orthodontic tooth movement in the presence of HBL was studied. Five three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary lateral incisor with 0 mm, 1.5 mm, 3 mm, 4.5 mm and 6 mm of HBL were constructed. The long-term orthodontic tooth tipping movements were attained during a 4-weeks period in an iterative process through the external remodeling of the alveolar bone based on strains in periodontal ligament as the bone remodeling mechanical stimulus. To obtain long-term orthodontic tooth movement in each iteration, first the strains in periodontal ligament under a 1-N tipping force were calculated using finite element analysis. Then, bone remodeling and the subsequent tooth movement were computed in a post-processing software using a custom written program. Incisal edge, cervical, and apical area displacement in the models with different alveolar bone heights (0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 mm bone loss) in response to a 1-N tipping force were calculated. Maximum tooth displacement was found to be 2.65 mm at the top of the crown of the model with a 6 mm bone loss. Minimum tooth displacement was 0.45 mm at the cervical level of the model with a normal bone support. Tooth tipping degrees of models in response to different tipping force magnitudes were also calculated for models with different degrees of HBL. Degrees of tipping tooth movement increased as force level was increased. This increase was more prominent in the models with smaller degrees of HBL. By using finite element method and bone remodeling theories, this study indicated that in the presence of HBL, under the same load, long-term orthodontic tooth movement will increase. The simulation also revealed that even though tooth movement increases with increasing the force, this increase was only prominent in the models with smaller degrees of HBL, and tooth models with greater degrees of HBL will be less affected by the magnitude of an orthodontic force. Based on our results, the applied force magnitude must be reduced in proportion of degree of HBL.

Keywords: bone remodeling, finite element method, horizontal bone loss, orthodontic tooth movement.

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