Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: frying

34 Pre-Drying Effects on the Quality of Frying Oil

Authors: Hasan Yalcin, Tugba Dursun Capar

Abstract:

Deep-fat frying causes desirable as well as undesirable changes in oil and potato, and changes the quality of the oil by hydrolysis, oxidation, and polymerization. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the pre-drying effects on the quality of both frying oil and potatoes. Prior to frying, potato slices (10 mm x10 mm x 30 mm) were air- dried at 60°C for 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 mins., respectively. Potato slices without the pre-drying treatment were considered as the control variable. Potato slices were fried in sunflower oil at 180°C for 5, 10, and 13 mins. The deep-frying experiments were repeated five times using the new potato slices in the same oil without oil replenishment. Samples of the fresh oil, together with those sampled at the end of successive frying operations (1th, 3th and 5th) were removed and analysed. Moisture content, colour and oil intake of the potato and colour, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), fatty acid composition and viscosity of the used oil were evaluated. The effect of frying time was also examined. Results show that pre-drying treatment had a significant effect on physicochemical properties and colour parameters of potato slices and frying oil. Pre-drying considerably decreased the oil absorption. The lowest oil absorption was found for the treatment that was pre-dried for 120, and fried for 5 min. The FFA levels decreased permanently for each pre-treatment throughout the frying period. All the pre-drying treatments had reached their maximum levels of FFA by the end of the frying procedures. The PV of the control and 60 min pre-dried sample decreased after the third frying. However, the PV of other samples increased constantly throughout the frying periods. Lastly, pre-drying did not affect the fatty acid composition of frying oil considerably when compared against previously unused oil.

Keywords: air-drying, deep-fat frying, moisture content oil uptake, quality

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33 Monitoring the Effect of Deep Frying and the Type of Food on the Quality of Oil

Authors: Omar Masaud Almrhag, Frage Lhadi Abookleesh

Abstract:

Different types of food like banana, potato and chicken affect the quality of oil during deep fat frying. The changes in the quality of oil were evaluated and compared. Four different types of edible oils, namely, corn oil, soybean, canola, and palm oil were used for deep fat frying at 180°C ± 5°C for 5 h/d for six consecutive days. A potato was sliced into 7-8 cm length wedges and chicken was cut into uniform pieces of 100 g each. The parameters used to assess the quality of oil were total polar compound (TPC), iodine value (IV), specific extinction E1% at 233 nm and 269 nm, fatty acid composition (FAC), free fatty acids (FFA), viscosity (cp) and changes in the thermal properties. Results showed that, TPC, IV, FAC, Viscosity (cp) and FFA composition changed significantly with time (P< 0.05) and type of food. Significant differences (P< 0.05) were noted for the used parameters during frying of the above mentioned three products.

Keywords: frying potato, chicken, frying deterioration, quality of oil

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32 Assessment of Frying Material by Deep-Fat Frying Method

Authors: Brinda Sharma, Saakshi S. Sarpotdar

Abstract:

Deep-fat frying is popular standard method that has been studied basically to clarify the complicated mechanisms of fat decomposition at high temperatures and to assess their effects on human health. The aim of this paper is to point out the application of method engineering that has been recently improved our understanding of the fundamental principles and mechanisms concerned at different scales and different times throughout the process: pretreatment, frying, and cooling. It covers the several aspects of deep-fat drying. New results regarding the understanding of the frying method that are obtained as a results of major breakthroughs in on-line instrumentation (heat, steam flux, and native pressure sensors), within the methodology of microstructural and imaging analysis (NMR, MRI, SEM) and in software system tools for the simulation of coupled transfer and transport phenomena. Such advances have opened the approach for the creation of significant information of the behavior of varied materials and to the event of latest tools to manage frying operations via final product quality in real conditions. Lastly, this paper promotes an integrated approach to the frying method as well as numerous competencies like those of chemists, engineers, toxicologists, nutritionists, and materials scientists also as of the occupation and industrial sectors.

Keywords: frying, cooling, imaging analysis (NMR, MRI, SEM), deep-fat frying

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31 Changes in Textural Properties of Zucchini Slices with Deep-Fat-Frying

Authors: E. Karacabey, Ş. G. Özçelik, M. S. Turan, C. Baltacıoğlu, E. Küçüköner

Abstract:

Changes in textural properties of zucchini slices under effects of frying conditions were investigated. Frying time and temperature were interested process variables like slice thickness. Slice thickness was studied at three levels (2, 3, and 4 mm). Frying process was performed at two temperature levels (160 and 180 °C) and each for five different process time periods (1, 2, 3, 5, 8 and 10 min). As frying oil sunflower oil was used. Before frying zucchini slices were thermally processes in boiling water for 90 seconds to inactivate at least 80% of plant’s enzymes. After thermal process, zucchini slices were fried in an industrial fryer at specified temperature and time pairs. Fried slices were subjected to textural profile analysis (TPA) to determine textural properties. In this extent hardness, elasticity, cohesion, chewiness, firmness values of slices were figured out. Statistical analysis indicated significant variations in the studied textural properties with process conditions (p < 0.05). Hardness and firmness were determined for fresh and thermally processes zucchini slices to compare each others. Differences in hardness and firmness of fresh, thermally processed and fried slices were found to be significant (p < 0.05). This project (113R015) has been supported by TUBITAK.

Keywords: sunflower oil, hardness, firmness, slice thickness, frying temperature, frying time

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30 Modelling of Moisture Loss and Oil Uptake during Deep-Fat Frying of Plantain

Authors: James A. Adeyanju, John O. Olajide, Akinbode A. Adedeji

Abstract:

A predictive mathematical model based on the fundamental principles of mass transfer was developed to simulate the moisture content and oil content during Deep-Fat Frying (DFF) process of dodo. The resulting governing equation, that is, partial differential equation that describes rate of moisture loss and oil uptake was solved numerically using explicit Finite Difference Technique (FDT). Computer codes were written in MATLAB environment for the implementation of FDT at different frying conditions and moisture loss as well as oil uptake simulation during DFF of dodo. Plantain samples were sliced into 5 mm thickness and fried at different frying oil temperatures (150, 160 and 170 ⁰C) for periods varying from 2 to 4 min. The comparison between the predicted results and experimental data for the validation of the model showed reasonable agreement. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and experimental values of moisture and oil transfer models ranging from 0.912 to 0.947 and 0.895 to 0.957, respectively. The predicted results could be further used for the design, control and optimization of deep-fat frying process.

Keywords: frying, moisture loss, modelling, oil uptake

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29 The Perspective of Waste Frying Oil in São Paulo and Its Dimensions in the Reverse Logistics of the Production of Biodiesel

Authors: Max Filipe Goncalves, Alessandra Concilio, Rodrigo Shimada

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The waste frying oil is highly pollutant when disposed incorrectly in the environment. Is necessary search of the Reverse Logistics to identify how can be structure to return the waste like this to productive chain and to be used in the new process. In this context, the objective of this paper is to analyze the perspective of the waste frying oil in São Paulo, and its dimensions in the production of biodiesel. Subjacent factors such as the agents, motivators and legal aspects were analyzed to demonstrate it. Then, the SWOT matrix was built with the aspects observed and the forces, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the reverse logistic chain in São Paulo.

Keywords: biodiesel, perspective, reverse logistic, WFO

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28 Effect of Two Cooking Methods on Kinetics of Polyphenol Content, Flavonoid Content and Color of a Tunisian Meal: Molokheiya (Corchorus olitorius)

Authors: S. Njoumi, L. Ben Haj Said, M. J. Amiot, S. Bellagha

Abstract:

The main objective of this research was to establish the kinetics of variation of total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in Tunisian Corchorus olitorius powder and in a traditional home cooked-meal (Molokheiya) when using stewing and stir-frying as cooking methods, but also to compare the effect of these two common cooking practices on water content, TPC, TFC and color. The L*, a* and b* coordinates values of the Molokheiya varied from 24.955±0.039 to 21.301±0.036, from -1.556±0.048 to 0.23±0.026 and from 5.675±0.052 to 6.313±0.103 when using stewing and from 21.328±0.025 to 20.56±0.021, from -1.093± 0.011to 0.121±0.007 and from 5.708±0.020 to 6.263±0.007 when using stir-frying, respectively. TPC and TFC increased during cooking. TPC of Molokheiya varied from 29.852±0.866 mg GAE/100 g to 220.416±0.519 mg GAE/100 g after 150 min of stewing and from 25.257±0.259 mg GAE/100 g to 208.897 ±0.173 mg GAE/100 g using stir-frying method during 150 min. TFC of Molokheiya varied from 48.229±1.47 mg QE/100 g to 843.802±1.841 mg QE/100 g when using stewing and from 37.031± 0.368 mg QE/100 g to 775.312±0.736 mg QE/100 g when using stir-frying. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final TPC and TFC. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests zero-order kinetics. The mathematical relations and the numerical approach used to model the kinetics of polyphenol and flavonoid contents in Molokheiya are described.

Keywords: Corchorus olitorius, Molokheiya, phenolic compounds, kinetic

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27 Anthropometric Data Variation within Gari-Frying Population

Authors: T. M. Samuel, O. O. Aremu, I. O. Ismaila, L. I. Onu, B. O. Adetifa, S. E. Adegbite, O. O. Olokoshe

Abstract:

The imperative of anthropometry in designing to fit cannot be overemphasized. Of essence is the variability of measurements among population for which data is collected. In this paper anthropometric data were collected for the design of gari-frying facility such that work system would be designed to fit the gari-frying population in the Southwestern states of Nigeria comprising Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo, and Ekiti. Twenty-seven body dimensions were measured among 120 gari-frying processors. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS package to determine the mean, standard deviation, minimum value, maximum value and percentiles (2nd, 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th, and 98th) of the different anthropometric parameters. One sample t-test was conducted to determine the variation within the population. The 50th percentiles of some of the anthropometric parameters were compared with those from other populations in literature. The correlation between the worker’s age and the body anthropometry was also investigated.The mean weight, height, shoulder height (sitting), eye height (standing) and eye height (sitting) are 63.37 kg, 1.57 m, 0.55 m, 1.45 m, and 0.67 m respectively.Result also shows a high correlation with other populations and a statistically significant difference in variability of data within the population in all the body dimensions measured. With a mean age of 42.36 years, results shows that age will be a wrong indicator for estimating the anthropometry for the population.

Keywords: anthropometry, cassava processing, design to fit, gari-frying, workstation design

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26 Effect of Hydrocolloid Coatings and Bene Kernel Oil Acrylamide Formation during Potato Deep Frying

Authors: Razieh Niazmand, Dina Sadat Mousavian, Parvin Sharayei

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), tragacanth, and saalab hydrocolloids in two concentrations (0.3%, 0.7%) and different frying media, refined canola oil (RCO), RCO + 1% bene kernel oil (BKO), and RCO + 1 mg/l unsaponifiable matter (USM) of BKO on acrylamide formation in fried potato slices. The hydrocolloid coatings significantly reduced acrylamide formation in potatoes fried in all oils. Increasing the hydrocolloid concentration from 0.3% to 0.7% produced no effective inhibition of acrylamide. The 0.7 % CMC solution was identified as the most promising inhibitor of acrylamide formation in RCO oil, with a 62.9% reduction in acrylamide content. The addition of BKO or USM to RCO led to a noticeable reduction in the acrylamide level in fried potato slices. The findings suggest that a 0.7% CMC solution and RCO+USM are promising inhibitors of acrylamide formation in fried potato products.

Keywords: CMC, frying, potato, saalab, tracaganth

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25 Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Trans Fat Content and Oxidative Parameters of Groundnut Oil

Authors: Akanksha Jain, Santosh J. Passi, William Selvamurthy, Archna Singh

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Heating/frying at elevated temperatures cause numerous physiochemical reactions including oxidative deterioration and trans fatty acid (TFA) formation; however Indian data on these parameters are scanty. The present study was designed to assess the effect of constant heating/frying on formation of TFAs and oxidative stability in groundnut oil. 750 mL of the oil was heated in a large iron karahi (utensil similar to a wok) and freshly cut potato strips were fried constantly at varying temperatures (160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC, 220ºC, 230ºC). In each case, the oil sample was drawn after one hour and stored at –20ºC until analysed. While TFA was estimated using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (AOCS official method Ce 1h–05), other chemical parameters were assessed by AOCS official methods. Oil samples subjected to heating/frying at varying temperatures demonstrated a significant increase in TFAs (p < 0.01) and saturated fatty acids (p < 0.01) while there was a corresponding decrease in cis-unsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01). Frying process demonstrated greater TFA formation (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.11±0.01g/100g; at 230ºC it being 2.33±0.05g/100g) as compared to heating alone (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.07g±0.01/100g; at 230ºC it being 0.47±0.02g/100g), indicating that there was a significant difference in the generation of TFAs during the two thermal treatments (heating vs. frying; p=0.05). With increasing temperatures, acid value, p-anisidine value and total oxidation (TOTOX) value registered a significant increase (p < 0.01); however, peroxide value was found to be inconsistent. Thus, the formation of TFA and various oxidative parameters (except peroxide value) is directly influenced by the temperature of heating/frying. Since TFA formation and poor oxidative stability of oils can pose serious health concerns, food safety agencies/organizations need to devise appropriate policies, stringent food laws/standards and impose necessary safety regulations to curb oil abuse during the process of heating and frying. There is a dire need to raise consumer awareness regarding deleterious health effects of TFA and oxidative deterioration of oils at elevated temperatures employed during heating/frying procedures.

Keywords: cis-unsaturated fatty acid, oxidative stability, saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid

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24 Quantification and Thermal Behavior of Rice Bran Oil, Sunflower Oil and Their Model Blends

Authors: Harish Kumar Sharma, Garima Sengar

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Rice bran oil is considered comparatively nutritionally superior than different fats/oils. Therefore, model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were explored for changes in the different physicochemical parameters. Repeated deep fat frying process was carried out by using dried potato in order to study the thermal behaviour of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil had shown good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although, the model blends constituting 60% RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils, physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): SnF (sunflower oil) was carried by different methods. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition and iodine value can be used for the quantification. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification.

Keywords: rice bran oil, sunflower oil, frying, quantification

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23 Increasing Added-Value of Salak Fruit by Freezing Frying to Improve the Welfare of Farmers: Case Study of Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta-Indonesia

Authors: Sucihatiningsih Dian Wisika Prajanti, Himawan Arif Susanto

Abstract:

Fruits are perishable products and have relatively low price, especially at harvest time. Generally, farmers only sell the products shortly after the harvest time without any processing. Farmers also only play role as price takers leading them to have less power to set the price. Sometimes, farmers are manipulated by middlemen, especially during abundant harvest. Therefore, it requires an effort to cultivate fruits and create innovation to make them more durable and have higher economic value. The purpose of this research is how to increase the added- value of fruits that have high economic value. The research involved 60 farmers of Salak fruit as the sample. Then, descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data in this study. The results showed the selling price of Salak fruit is very low. Hence, to increase the added-value of the fruits, fruit processing is carried out by freezing - frying which can cause the fruits last longer. In addition to increase these added-value, the products can be accommodated for further processed without worrying about their crops rotted or unsold.

Keywords: fruits processing, Salak fruit, freezing frying, farmer’s welfare, Sleman, Yogyakarta

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
22 Control of Oil Content of Fried Zucchini Slices by Partial Predrying and Process Optimization

Authors: E. Karacabey, Ş. G. Özçelik, M. S. Turan, C. Baltacıoğlu, E. Küçüköner

Abstract:

Main concern about deep-fat-fried food materials is their high final oil contents absorbed during frying process and/or after cooling period, since diet including high content of oil is accepted unhealthy by consumers. Different methods have been evaluated to decrease oil content of fried food stuffs. One promising method is partially drying of food material before frying. In the present study it was aimed to control and decrease the final oil content of zucchini slices by means of partial drying and to optimize process conditions. Conventional oven drying was used to decrease moisture content of zucchini slices at a certain extent. Process performance in terms of oil uptake was evaluated by comparing oil content of predried and then fried zucchini slices with those determined for directly fried ones. For predrying and frying processes, oven temperature and weight loss and frying oil temperature and time pairs were controlled variables, respectively. Zucchini slices were also directly fried for sensory evaluations revealing preferred properties of final product in terms of surface color, moisture content, texture and taste. These properties of directly fried zucchini slices taking the highest score at the end of sensory evaluation were determined and used as targets in optimization procedure. Response surface methodology was used for process optimization. The properties, determined after sensory evaluation, were selected as targets; meanwhile oil content was aimed to be minimized. Results indicated that final oil content of zucchini slices could be reduced from 58% to 46% by controlling conditions of predrying and frying processes. As a result, it was suggested that predrying could be one choose to reduce oil content of fried zucchini slices for health diet. This project (113R015) has been supported by TUBITAK.

Keywords: health process, optimization, response surface methodology, oil uptake, conventional oven

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21 A 1H NMR-Linked PCR Modelling Strategy for Tracking the Fatty Acid Sources of Aldehydic Lipid Oxidation Products in Culinary Oils Exposed to Simulated Shallow-Frying Episodes

Authors: Martin Grootveld, Benita Percival, Sarah Moumtaz, Kerry L. Grootveld

Abstract:

Objectives/Hypotheses: The adverse health effect potential of dietary lipid oxidation products (LOPs) has evoked much clinical interest. Therefore, we employed a 1H NMR-linked Principal Component Regression (PCR) chemometrics modelling strategy to explore relationships between data matrices comprising (1) aldehydic LOP concentrations generated in culinary oils/fats when exposed to laboratory-simulated shallow frying practices, and (2) the prior saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents of such frying media (FM), together with their heating time-points at a standard frying temperature (180 oC). Methods: Corn, sunflower, extra virgin olive, rapeseed, linseed, canola, coconut and MUFA-rich algae frying oils, together with butter and lard, were heated according to laboratory-simulated shallow-frying episodes at 180 oC, and FM samples were collected at time-points of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 min. (n = 6 replicates per sample). Aldehydes were determined by 1H NMR analysis (Bruker AV 400 MHz spectrometer). The first (dependent output variable) PCR data matrix comprised aldehyde concentration scores vectors (PC1* and PC2*), whilst the second (predictor) one incorporated those from the fatty acid content/heating time variables (PC1-PC4) and their first-order interactions. Results: Structurally complex trans,trans- and cis,trans-alka-2,4-dienals, 4,5-epxy-trans-2-alkenals and 4-hydroxy-/4-hydroperoxy-trans-2-alkenals (group I aldehydes predominantly arising from PUFA peroxidation) strongly and positively loaded on PC1*, whereas n-alkanals and trans-2-alkenals (group II aldehydes derived from both MUFA and PUFA hydroperoxides) strongly and positively loaded on PC2*. PCR analysis of these scores vectors (SVs) demonstrated that PCs 1 (positively-loaded linoleoylglycerols and [linoleoylglycerol]:[SFA] content ratio), 2 (positively-loaded oleoylglycerols and negatively-loaded SFAs), 3 (positively-loaded linolenoylglycerols and [PUFA]:[SFA] content ratios), and 4 (exclusively orthogonal sampling time-points) all powerfully contributed to aldehydic PC1* SVs (p 10-3 to < 10-9), as did all PC1-3 x PC4 interaction ones (p 10-5 to < 10-9). PC2* was also markedly dependent on all the above PC SVs (PC2 > PC1 and PC3), and the interactions of PC1 and PC2 with PC4 (p < 10-9 in each case), but not the PC3 x PC4 contribution. Conclusions: NMR-linked PCR analysis is a valuable strategy for (1) modelling the generation of aldehydic LOPs in heated cooking oils and other FM, and (2) tracking their unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) triacylglycerol sources therein.

Keywords: frying oils, lipid oxidation products, frying episodes, chemometrics, principal component regression, NMR Analysis, cytotoxic/genotoxic aldehydes

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20 Vitamin Content of Swordfish (Xhiphias gladius) Affected by Salting and Frying

Authors: L. Piñeiro, N. Cobas, L. Gómez-Limia, S. Martínez, I. Franco

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The swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a large oceanic fish of high commercial value, which is widely distributed in waters of the world’s oceans. They are considered to be an important source of high quality proteins, vitamins and essential fatty acids, although only half of the population follows the recommendation of nutritionists to consume fish at least twice a week. Swordfish is consumed worldwide because of its low fat content and high protein content. It is generally sold as fresh, frozen, and as pieces or slices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of salting and frying on the composition of the water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B9 and B12) and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E) of swordfish. Three loins of swordfish from Pacific Ocean were analyzed. All the fishes had a weight between 50 and 70 kg and were transported to the laboratory frozen (-18 ºC). Before the processing, they were defrosted at 4 ºC. Each loin was sliced and salted in brine. After cleaning the slices, they were divided into portions (10×2 cm) and fried in olive oil. The identification and quantification of vitamins were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using methanol and 0.010% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phases at a flow-rate of 0.7 mL min-1. The UV-Vis detector was used for the detection of the water- and fat-soluble vitamins (A and D), as well as the fluorescence detector for the detection of the vitamin E. During salting, water and fat-soluble vitamin contents remained constant, observing an evident decrease in the values of vitamin B2. The diffusion of salt into the interior of the pieces and the loss of constitution water that occur during this stage would be related to this significant decrease. In general, after frying water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins showed a great thermolability with high percentages of retention with values among 50–100%. Vitamin B3 is the one that exhibited higher percentages of retention with values close to 100%. However, vitamin B9 presented the highest losses with a percentage of retention of less than 20%.

Keywords: frying, HPLC, salting, swordfish, vitamins

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19 Organic Waste Valorization for Biodiesel Production: Chemical and Biological Approach

Authors: Meha Alouini, Wissem Mnif, Yasmine Souissi

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This work will be conducted within the framework of the environmental sustainable development. It involves waste recovering into biodiesel fuel. Low cost feedstocks such as waste of frying oil and animal fats have been utilized to replace refined vegetable oil for biodiesel production. Biodiesel which refers to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was carried out by both chemical and enzymatic reaction of transesterification. In order to compare the two studied reactions the obtained biodiesel was characterized by determining its esters content and its fuel properties according to the European standard EN 14214. It was noted that the chemical method gave the product with the best physical property. But the biological one was found more effective for obtaining important ester content. Thus it would be interesting to optimize the enzymatic pathway of production of biodiesel to obtain a better property of biodiesel.

Keywords: biodiesel, fatty acid methyl esters, transesterification, waste frying oil, waste beef fat

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18 Changes in Textural Properties of Zucchini Slices Under Effects of Partial Predrying and Deep-Fat-Frying

Authors: E. Karacabey, Ş. G. Özçelik, M. S. Turan, C. Baltacıoğlu, E. Küçüköner

Abstract:

Changes in textural properties of any food material during processing is significant for further consumer’s evaluation and directly affects their decisions. Thus any food material should be considered in terms of textural properties after any process. In the present study zucchini slices were partially predried to control and reduce the product’s final oil content. A conventional oven was used for partially dehydration of zucchini slices. Following frying was carried in an industrial fryer having temperature controller. This study was based on the effect of this predrying process on textural properties of fried zucchini slices. Texture profile analysis was performed. Hardness, elasticity, chewiness, cohesiveness were studied texture parameters of fried zucchini slices. Temperature and weight loss were monitored parameters of predrying process, whereas, in frying, oil temperature and process time were controlled. Optimization of two successive processes was done by response surface methodology being one of the common used statistical process optimization tools. Models developed for each texture parameters displayed high success to predict their values as a function of studied processes’ conditions. Process optimization was performed according to target values for each property determined for directly fried zucchini slices taking the highest score from sensory evaluation. Results indicated that textural properties of predried and then fried zucchini slices could be controlled by well-established equations. This is thought to be significant for fried stuff related food industry, where controlling of sensorial properties are crucial to lead consumer’s perception and texture related ones are leaders. This project (113R015) has been supported by TUBITAK.

Keywords: optimization, response surface methodology, texture profile analysis, conventional oven, modelling

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17 Effect of Different Oils on Quality of Deep-fried Dough Stick

Authors: Nuntaporn Aukkanit

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oils on chemical, physical, and sensory properties of deep-fried dough stick. Five kinds of vegetable oil which were used for addition and frying consist of: palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil, and canola oil. The results of this study showed that using different kinds of oil made significant difference in the quality of deep-fried dough stick. Deep-fried dough stick fried with the rice bran oil had the lowest moisture loss and oil absorption (p≤0.05), but it had some unsatisfactory physical properties (color, specific volume, density, and texture) and sensory characteristics. Nonetheless, deep-fried dough stick fried with the sunflower oil had moisture loss and oil absorption slightly more than the rice bran oil, but it had almost higher physical and sensory properties. Deep-fried dough sticks together with the sunflower oil did not have different sensory score from the palm oil, commonly used for production of deep-fried dough stick. These results indicated that addition and frying with the sunflower oil are appropriate for the production of deep-fried dough stick.

Keywords: deep-fried dough stick, palm oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil

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16 Modernization of Garri-Frying Technologies with Respect to Women Anthromophic Quality in Nigeria

Authors: Adegbite Bashiru Adeniyi, Olaniyi Akeem Olawale, Ayobamidele Sinatu Juliet

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The study was carried out in the 6 South Western states of Nigeria to analyze socio-economic characteristic of garri processors and their anthropometric qualities with respect to modern technologies used in garri processing. About 20 respondents were randomly selected from each of the 6 workstations purposively considered for the study due to their daily processing activities already attracted high patronage of customers. These include Oguntolu village (Ogun State), Igoba-Akure (Ondo State), Imo-Ilesa (Osun State), Odo Oba-Ileri (Oyo State), Irasa village (Ekiti State) and Epe in Lagos state. Interview schedule was conducted for 120 respondents to elicit information. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools. It was observed from the findings that respondents were in their most productive age range (36-45 years) except Ogun state where majority (45%) were relatively older than 45 years. A fewer processors were much younger than 26 years old. It furthers revealed that not less than 55% have body weight greater than 50.0 kilogram, also not less than 70% were taller than 1.5 meter. So also, the hand length and hand thickness of the majority were long and bulky which are considered suitable for operating some modern and improved technologies in garri-frying process. This information could be used by various technological developers to enhance production of modern equipment and tools for a greater efficiency.

Keywords: agro-business, anthromorphic, modernization, proficiency

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15 Dependence of Free Fatty Acid and Chlorophyll Content on Thermal Stability of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

Authors: Yongjun Ahn, Sung Gyu Choi, Seung-Yeop Kwak

Abstract:

Selective removal of free fatty acid (FFA) and chlorophyll in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is necessary to enhance the thermal stability in the condition of the deep frying. In this work, we demonstrated improving the thermal stability of EVOO by selective removal of free fatty acid and chlorophyll using (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS) functionalized mesoporous silica with controlled pore size. The adsorption kinetics of free fatty acid and chlorophyll into the mesoporous silica were quantitatively analyzed by Freundlich and Langmuir model. The highest chlorophyll adsorption efficiency was shown in the pore size at 5 nm, suggesting that the interaction between the silica and the chlorophyll could be optimized at this point. The amino-functionalized mesoporous silica showed drastically improved removal efficiency of FFA than the bare silica. Moreover, beneficial compounds like tocopherol and phenolic compounds maintained even after adsorptive removal. Extra virgin olive oil treated by aminopropyl-functionalized silica had a smoke point high enough to be used as commercial frying oil. Based on these results, it is expected to attract the considerable amount of interest toward facile adsorptive refining process of EVOO using pore size controlled and amino-functionalized mesoporous silica.

Keywords: mesoporous silica, extra virgin olive oil, selective adsorption, thermal stability

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14 Study of Oxidative Stability, Cold Flow Properties and Iodine Value of Macauba Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Acacia A. Salomão, Willian L. Gomes da Silva, Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino

Abstract:

Biodiesel physical and chemical properties depend on the raw material composition used in its synthesis. Saturated fatty acid esters confer high oxidative stability, while unsaturated fatty acid esters improve the cold flow properties. In this study, an alternative vegetal source - the macauba kernel oil - was used in the biodiesel synthesis instead of conventional sources. Macauba can be collected from native palm trees and is found in several regions in Brazil. Its oil is a promising source when compared to several other oils commonly obtained from food products, such as soybean, corn or canola oil, due to its specific characteristics. However, the usage of biodiesel made from macauba oil alone is not recommended due to the difficulty of producing macauba in large quantities. For this reason, this project proposes the usage of blends of the macauba oil with conventional oils. These blends were prepared by mixing the macauba biodiesel with biodiesels obtained from soybean, corn, and from residual frying oil, in the following proportions: 20:80, 50:50 e 80:20 (w/w). Three parameters were evaluated, using the standard methods, in order to check the quality of the produced biofuel and its blends: oxidative stability, cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and iodine value. The induction period (IP) expresses the oxidative stability of the biodiesel, the CFPP expresses the lowest temperature in which the biodiesel flows through a filter without plugging the system and the iodine value is a measure of the number of double bonds in a sample. The biodiesels obtained from soybean, residual frying oil and corn presented iodine values higher than 110 g/100 g, low oxidative stability and low CFPP. The IP values obtained from these biodiesels were lower than 8 h, which is below the recommended standard value. On the other hand, the CFPP value was found within the allowed limit (5 ºC is the maximum). Regarding the macauba biodiesel, a low iodine value was observed (31.6 g/100 g), which indicates the presence of high content of saturated fatty acid esters. The presence of saturated fatty acid esters should imply in a high oxidative stability (which was found accordingly, with IP = 64 h), and high CFPP, but curiously the latter was not observed (-3 ºC). This behavior can be explained by looking at the size of the carbon chains, as 65% of this biodiesel is composed by short chain saturated fatty acid esters (less than 14 carbons). The high oxidative stability and the low CFPP of macauba biodiesel are what make this biofuel a promising source. The soybean, corn and residual frying oil biodiesels also have low CFPP, but low oxidative stability. Therefore the blends proposed in this work, if compared to the common biodiesels, maintain the flow properties but present enhanced oxidative stability.

Keywords: biodiesel, blends, macauba kernel oil, stability oxidative

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13 Management Methods of Food Losses in Polish Processing Plants

Authors: Beata Bilska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Danuta Kolozyn-Krajewska

Abstract:

Food loss and food waste are a global problem of the modern economy. The research undertaken aimed to analyze how food is handled in catering establishments when it comes to food waste and to demonstrate the main ways of management with foods/dishes not served to consumers. A survey study was conducted from January to June 2019. The selection of catering establishments participating in the study was deliberate. The study included establishments located only in Mazowieckie Voivodeship (Poland). Forty-two completed questionnaires were collected. In some questions, answers were based on a 5-point scale of 1 to 5 (from "always" / "every day" to "never"). The survey also included closed questions with a suggested cafeteria of answers. The respondents stated that in their workplaces, dishes served cold and hot ready meals are discarded every day or almost every day (23.7% and 20.5% of answers respectively). A procedure most frequently used for dealing with dishes not served to consumers on a given day is their storage at a cool temperature until the following day. In the research, 1/5 of respondents admitted that consumers "always" or "usually" leave uneaten meals on their plates, and over 41% "sometimes" do so. It was found additionally that food not used in the foodservice sector is most often thrown into a public container for rubbish. Most often thrown into the public container (with communal trash) were: expired products (80.0%), plate waste (80.0%) and inedible products (fruit and vegetable peels, eggshells) (77.5%). Most frequently into the container dedicated only to food waste were thrown out used deep-frying oil (62.5%). 10% of respondents indicated that inedible products in their workplaces are allocated for animal feeds. Food waste in the foodservice sector remains an insufficiently studied issue, as owners of these objects are often unwilling to disclose data about the subject. Incorrect ways of management with foods not served to consumers were observed. There is a need to develop educational activities for employees and management in the context of food waste management in the foodservice sector.

Keywords: food waste, inedible products, plate waste, used deep-frying oil

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12 Evaluation of Three Potato Cultivars for Processing (Crisp French Fries)

Authors: Hatim Bastawi

Abstract:

Three varieties of potatoes, namely Agria, Alpha and Diamant were evaluated for their suitability for industrial production of French fries. The evaluation was under taken after testing quality parameters of specific gravity, dry matter, peeling ratio, and defect after frying and panel test. The variety Agria ranked the best followed by Alpha with regard to the parameters tested. On the other hand, Diamant showed significantly higher defect percentage than the other cultivars. Also, it was significantly judged of low acceptance by panelists.

Keywords: cultivars, crisps, French fries

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11 Ways Management of Foods Not Served to Consumers in Food Service Sector

Authors: Marzena Tomaszewska, Beata Bilska, Danuta Kolozyn-Krajewska

Abstract:

Food loss and food waste are a global problem of the modern economy. The research undertaken aimed to analyze how food is handled in catering establishments when it comes to food waste and to demonstrate main ways of management with foods/dishes not served to consumers. A survey study was conducted from January to June 2019. The selection of catering establishments participating in the study was deliberate. The study included establishments located only in Mazowieckie Voivodeship (Poland). 42 completed questionnaires were collected. In some questions, answers were based on a 5-point scale of 1 to 5 (from 'always'/'every day' to 'never'). The survey also included closed questions with a suggested cafeteria of answers. The respondents stated that in their workplaces, dishes served cold and hot ready meals are discarded every day or almost every day (23.7% and 20.5% of answers respectively). A procedure most frequently used for dealing with dishes not served to consumers on a given day is their storage at a cool temperature until the following day. In the research, 1/5 of respondents admitted that consumers 'always' or 'usually' leave uneaten meals on their plates, and over 41% 'sometimes' do so. It was found additionally that food not used in food service sector is most often thrown into a public container for rubbish. Most often thrown into the public container (with communal trash) were: expired products (80.0%), plate waste (80.0%), and inedible products (fruit and vegetable peels, egg shells) (77.5%). Most frequently into the container dedicated only for food waste were thrown out used deep-frying oil (62.5%). 10% of respondents indicated that inedible products in their workplaces is allocate for animal feeds. Food waste in the food service sector still remains an insufficiently studied issue, as owners of these objects are often unwilling to disclose data pertaining to the subject. Incorrect ways of management with foods not served to consumers were observed. There is the need to develop the educational activities for employees and management in the context of food waste management in the food service sector. This publication has been developed under the contract with the National Center for Research and Development No Gospostrateg1/385753/1/NCBR/2018 for carrying out and funding of a project implemented as part of the 'The social and economic development of Poland in the conditions of globalizing markets - GOSPOSTRATEG' program entitled 'Developing a system for monitoring wasted food and an effective program to rationalize losses and reduce food wastage' (acronym PROM).

Keywords: food waste, inedible products, plate waste, used deep-frying oil

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10 Changing from Crude (Rudimentary) to Modern Method of Cassava Processing in the Ngwo Village of Njikwa Sub Division of North West Region of Cameroon

Authors: Loveline Ambo Angwah

Abstract:

The processing of cassava from tubers or roots into food using crude and rudimentary method (hand peeling, grating, frying and to sun drying) is a very cumbersome and difficult process. The crude methods are time consuming and labour intensive. While on the other hand, modern processing method, that is using machines to perform the various processes as washing, peeling, grinding, oven drying, fermentation and frying is easier, less time consuming, and less labour intensive. Rudimentarily, cassava roots are processed into numerous products and utilized in various ways according to local customs and preferences. For the people of Ngwo village, cassava is transformed locally into flour or powder form called ‘cumcum’. It is also sucked into water to give a kind of food call ‘water fufu’ and fried to give ‘garri’. The leaves are consumed as vegetables. Added to these, its relative high yields; ability to stay underground after maturity for long periods give cassava considerable advantage as a commodity that is being used by poor rural folks in the community, to fight poverty. It plays a major role in efforts to alleviate the food crisis because of its efficient production of food energy, year-round availability, tolerance to extreme stress conditions, and suitability to present farming and food systems in Africa. Improvement of cassava processing and utilization techniques would greatly increase labor efficiency, incomes, and living standards of cassava farmers and the rural poor, as well as enhance the-shelf life of products, facilitate their transportation, increase marketing opportunities, and help improve human and livestock nutrition. This paper presents a general overview of crude ways in cassava processing and utilization methods now used by subsistence and small-scale farmers in Ngwo village of the North West region in Cameroon, and examine the opportunities of improving processing technologies. Cassava needs processing because the roots cannot be stored for long because they rot within 3-4 days of harvest. They are bulky with about 70% moisture content, and therefore transportation of the tubers to markets is difficult and expensive. The roots and leaves contain varying amounts of cyanide which is toxic to humans and animals, while the raw cassava roots and uncooked leaves are not palatable. Therefore, cassava must be processed into various forms in order to increase the shelf life of the products, facilitate transportation and marketing, reduce cyanide content and improve palatability.

Keywords: cassava roots, crude ways, food system, poverty

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9 Recovery of Fried Soybean Oil Using Bentonite as an Adsorbent: Optimization, Isotherm and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak, Avinash Kumar, Uma Dash, Kalpana Rayaguru

Abstract:

Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils, worldwide. Deep-fat frying of foods at higher temperatures adds unique flavour, golden brown colour and crispy texture to foods. But it brings in various changes like hydrolysis, oxidation, hydrogenation and thermal alteration to oil. The presence of Peroxide value (PV) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of the deep-fat fried oil. Using bentonite as an adsorbent, the PV can be reduced, thereby improving the quality of the soybean oil. In this study, operating parameters like heating time of oil (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30 h), contact time ( 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 h) and concentration of adsorbent (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/ 100 ml of oil) have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) considering percentage reduction of PV as a response. Adsorption data were analysed by fitting with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The results show that the Langmuir model shows the best fit compared to the Freundlich model. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Keywords: bentonite, Langmuir isotherm, peroxide value, RSM, soybean oil

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8 Petai Chips as an Antioxidant Chips from Indonesia

Authors: R. S. Fisca, Y. R. Elox, L. Umi, U. Z. Luttfia, Kun Harismah

Abstract:

Petai (Parkia speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. It is consumed either raw or cooked. It has been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, hypertension, and kidney problems. It contains minerals and vitamins. Petai contains a lot of chemical compounds that are beneficial for health, including antioxidants, Vitamin B6 0,9mg, energy 142 g. cal, 10.4 g protein. 2 g fat, 22 g carbohydrates, 95 mg calcium, phosphorus 115 mg, 1 mg iron, 200 IU of vitamin A, vitamin B1 0.17 mg, 36 mg of vitamin C that can resolve various health problems. These chips are the result of innovation from petai packaged in such a way becomes a tasty snack chips and can be enjoyed by many people to relax and also nutritious for health. In the manufacture of petai chips require several steps of them start by boiling, flating, drying and the last frying. In introducing the products widely we sell petai chips with several methods. Some of these methods include direct sales, delivery order, online/social media, and open some booth at a few places and the car free day in Solo every sunday. Opportunity in selling petai chips is very wide because there is no competitors with similar business. With the innovation of petai chips become healthy snacks can be introduced to the public and can even be exported out of the country as one of the extraordinary snacks from Indonesia.

Keywords: antioxidants, chips, healty, petai

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7 Simultaneous Determination of Six Characterizing/Quality Parameters of Biodiesels via 1H NMR and Multivariate Calibration

Authors: Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino

Abstract:

The characterization and the quality of biodiesel samples are checked by determining several parameters. Considering a large number of analysis to be performed, as well as the disadvantages of the use of toxic solvents and waste generation, multivariate calibration is suggested to reduce the number of tests. In this work, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra were used to build multivariate models, from partial least squares (PLS) regression, in order to determine simultaneously six important characterizing and/or quality parameters of biodiesels: density at 20 ºC, kinematic viscosity at 40 ºC, iodine value, acid number, oxidative stability, and water content. Biodiesels from twelve different oils sources were used in this study: babassu, brown flaxseed, canola, corn, cottonseed, macauba almond, microalgae, palm kernel, residual frying, sesame, soybean, and sunflower. 1H NMR reflects the structures of the compounds present in biodiesel samples and showed suitable correlations with the six parameters. The PLS models were constructed with latent variables between 5 and 7, the obtained values of r(cal) and r(val) were greater than 0.994 and 0.989, respectively. In addition, the models were considered suitable to predict all the six parameters for external samples, taking into account the analytical speed to perform it. Thus, the alliance between 1H NMR and PLS showed to be appropriate to characterize and evaluate the quality of biodiesels, reducing significantly analysis time, the consumption of reagents/solvents, and waste generation. Therefore, the proposed methods can be considered to adhere to the principles of green chemistry.

Keywords: biodiesel, multivariate calibration, nuclear magnetic resonance, quality parameters

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6 Antioxidant Properties and Nutritive Value of Raw and Cooked Pool barb (Puntius sophore) of Eastern Himalayas

Authors: Chungkham Sarojnalini, Wahengbam Sarjubala Devi

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Antioxidant properties and nutritive values of raw and cooked Pool barb, Puntius sophore (Hamilton-Buchanan) of Eastern Himalayas, India were determined. Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of the raw, steamed, fried and curried Pool barb was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value of the raw, steamed, fried and curried Pool barb was 1.66 microgram/ml, 16.09 microgram/ml, 8.99 microgram/ml, 0.59 microgram/ml whereas the IC50 of the reference ascorbic acid was 46.66 microgram/ml. This results shows that the fish have high antioxidant activity. Protein content was found highest in raw (20.50±0.08%) and lowest in curried (18.66±0.13%). Moisture content in raw, fried and curried was 76.35±0.09, 46.27±0.14 and 57.46±0.24 respectively. Lipid content was recorded 2.46±0.14% in raw and 21.76±0.10% in curried. Ash content varies from 12.57±0.11 to 22.53±0.07%. The total aminoacids were varied from 36.79±0.02 and 288.43±0.12 mg/100 g. Eleven essential mineral elements were found abundant in all the samples. The samples had a considerable amount of Fe ranging from 152.17 to 320.39 milligram/100 gram, Ca 902.06 to 1356.02 milligram/100 gram, Zn 91.07 to 138.14 milligram/100 gram, K 193.25 to 261.56 milligram/100 gram, Mg 225.06 to 229.10 milligram/100 gram. Ni was not detected in the curried fish. The Mg and K contents were significantly decreased in frying method; however the Fe, Cu, Ca, Co and Mn content were increased significantly in all the cooked samples. The Mg and Na contents were significantly increased in curried sample and the Cr content was decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all the cooked samples.

Keywords: antioxidant property, pool barb, minerals, aminoacids, proximate composition, cooking methods

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5 Influence of the Cooking Technique on the Iodine Content of Frozen Hake

Authors: F. Deng, R. Sanchez, A. Beltran, S. Maestre

Abstract:

The high nutritional value associated with seafood is related to the presence of essential trace elements. Moreover, seafood is considered an important source of energy, proteins, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Generally, seafood is consumed cooked. Consequently, the nutritional value could be degraded. Seafood, such as fish, shellfish, and seaweed, could be considered as one of the main iodine sources. The deficient or excessive consumption of iodine could cause dysfunction and pathologies related to the thyroid gland. The main objective of this work is to evaluated iodine stability in hake (Merluccius) undergone different culinary techniques. The culinary process considered were: boiling, steaming, microwave cooking, baking, cooking en papillote (twisted cover with the shape of a sweet wrapper) and coating with a batter of flour and deep-frying. The determination of iodine was carried by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Regarding sample handling strategies, liquid-liquid extraction has demonstrated to be a powerful pre-concentration and clean-up approach for trace metal analysis by ICP techniques. Extraction with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH reagent) was used as a sample preparation method in this work. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the stability of iodine was degraded with the cooking processes. The major degradation was observed for the boiling and microwave cooking processes. The content of iodine in hake decreased up to 60% and 52%, respectively. However, if the boiling cooking liquid is preserved, this loss that has been generated during cooking is reduced. Only when the fish was cooked by following the cooking en papillote process the iodine content was preserved.

Keywords: cooking process, ICP-MS, iodine, hake

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