Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Shanaj Parvin Jonaki

30 Inclusion of Transgender in Mainstream Secondary Schools of Bangladesh: Perceptions and Issues

Authors: Shanaj Parvin Jonaki

Abstract:

After the first wave of the feminist movement, gender has become one of the most important issues to be researched in social science. Many gender theories have been invented and opened a new window to look at. These works showed how gender is a social construct, how gender has been used to oppress, how to rule. While it's the education system’s duty to guide students to understand the concept of gender, it sometimes shows gender-based discrimination. Transgenders exclusion from educational institutes of Bangladesh justifies this very statement. This study aims to figure out how people perceive transgenders’ identity, their inclusion in secondary schools, as well as the underlying barriers in the pathway of inclusion in the context of Bangladesh. A qualitative approach was taken to explore different perspectives towards transgender inclusion from several stakeholders such as students, parents, and teachers of secondary schools and transgenders as well. Data were collected through focus group discussion and interview by convenient sampling. 15 students, 10 parents, and 5 teachers were selected from Bangla Medium school as well as from Madrasha. Collected data were analyzed thematically and were run by experts of gender, education, and psychology to identify the core barriers of inclusion. The study revealed that most of the students, teachers, and parents lacked the knowledge of non-binary gender identities, and they showed unwillingness towards the inclusion of transgender in schools because of the cultural context of Bangladesh. Moreover, this study suggests future initiatives to be taken to ensure the inclusion of transgenders in a secondary school in our country and analyzes it through the lens of feminist theories.

Keywords: education, gender, inclusion, transgender

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29 Design of Low Power FSK Receiver

Authors: M. Aeysha Parvin, J. Asha, J. Jenifer

Abstract:

This letter presents a novel frequency-shift keying(FSK) receiver using PLL-based FSK demodulator, thereby achieving high sensitivity and low power consumption. The proposed receiver comprises a power amplifier, mixer, 3-stage ring oscillator, PLL based demodulator. Moreover, the proposed receiver is fabricated using 0.12µm CMOS process and consumes 0.7Mw. Measurement results demonstrate that the proposed receiver has a sensitivity of -93dbm with 1Mbps data rate in receiving a 2.4 GHz FSK signal.

Keywords: CMOS FSK receiver, phase locked loop (PLL), 3-stage ring oscillator, FSK signal

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28 Vibration Analysis of Pendulum in a Viscous Fluid by Analytical Methods

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin

Abstract:

In this study, a vibrational differential equation governing on swinging single-degree-of-freedom pendulum in a viscous fluid has been investigated. The damping process is characterized according to two different regimes: at first, damping in stationary viscous fluid, in the second, damping in flowing viscous fluid with constant velocity. Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equation with a simple and innovative approach. Comparisons are made between new method and Numerical Method (rkf45). The results show that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

Keywords: oscillating systems, angular frequency and damping ratio, pendulum at fluid, locus of maximum

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27 In-situ Raman Spectroscopy of Flexible Graphene Oxide Films Containing Pt Nanoparticles in The Presense of Atomic Hydrogen

Authors: Ali Moafi, Kourosh Kalantarzadeh, Richard Kaner, Parviz Parvin, Ebrahim Asl Soleimani, Dougal McCulloch

Abstract:

In-situ Raman spectroscopy of flexible graphene-oxide films examined upon exposure to hydrogen gas, air, and synthetic air. The changes in D and G peaks are attributed to defects responding to atomic hydrogen spilled over from the catalytic behavior of Pt nanoparticles distributed all over the film. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images (HRTEM) as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were carried out to define the density of the samples.

Keywords: in situ Raman Spectroscopy, EELS, TEM, graphene oxide, graphene, atomic hydrogen

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26 Effect of Hydrocolloid Coatings and Bene Kernel Oil Acrylamide Formation during Potato Deep Frying

Authors: Razieh Niazmand, Dina Sadat Mousavian, Parvin Sharayei

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), tragacanth, and saalab hydrocolloids in two concentrations (0.3%, 0.7%) and different frying media, refined canola oil (RCO), RCO + 1% bene kernel oil (BKO), and RCO + 1 mg/l unsaponifiable matter (USM) of BKO on acrylamide formation in fried potato slices. The hydrocolloid coatings significantly reduced acrylamide formation in potatoes fried in all oils. Increasing the hydrocolloid concentration from 0.3% to 0.7% produced no effective inhibition of acrylamide. The 0.7 % CMC solution was identified as the most promising inhibitor of acrylamide formation in RCO oil, with a 62.9% reduction in acrylamide content. The addition of BKO or USM to RCO led to a noticeable reduction in the acrylamide level in fried potato slices. The findings suggest that a 0.7% CMC solution and RCO+USM are promising inhibitors of acrylamide formation in fried potato products.

Keywords: CMC, frying, potato, saalab, tracaganth

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25 Investigating Role of Novel Molecular Players in Forebrain Roof-Plate Midline Invagination

Authors: Mohd Ali Abbas Zaidi, Meenu Sachdeva, Jonaki Sen

Abstract:

In the vertebrate embryo, the forebrain anlagen develops from the anterior-most region of the neural tube which is the precursor of the central nervous system (CNS). The roof plate located at the dorsal midline region of the forebrain anlagen, acts as a source of several secreted molecules involved in patterning and morphogenesis of the forebrain. One such key morphogenetic event is the invagination of the forebrain roof plate which results in separation of the single forebrain vesicle into two cerebral hemispheres. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling plays a key role in this process. Blocking RA signaling at the dorsal forebrain midline inhibits dorsal invagination and results in the absence of certain key features of this region, such as thinning of the neuroepithelium and a lowering of cell proliferation. At present we are investigating the possibility of other signaling pathways acting in concert with RA signaling to regulate this process. We have focused on BMP signaling, which we found to be active in a mutually exclusive domain to that of RA signaling within the roof plate. We have also observed that there is a change in BMP signaling activity on modulation of RA signaling indicating an antagonistic relationship between the two. Moreover, constitutive activation of BMP signaling seems to completely inhibit thinning and partially affect invagination, leaving the lowering of cell proliferation in the midline unaffected. We are employing in-silico modeling as well as molecular manipulations to investigate the relative contribution if any, of regional differences in rates of cell proliferation and thinning of the neuroepithelium towards the process of invagination. We have found expression of certain cell adhesion molecules in forebrain roof-plate whose mRNA localization across the thickness of neuroepithelium is influenced by Bmp and RA signaling, giving regional rigidity to roof plate and assisting invagination. We also found expression of certain cytoskeleton modifiers in a localized small domains in invaginating forebrain roof plate suggesting that midline invagination is under control of many factors.

Keywords: bone morphogenetic signaling, cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules, forebrain roof plate, retinoic acid signaling

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24 Analytical Solving of Nonlinear Differential Equations in the Nonlinear Phenomena for Viscos Fluids

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin

Abstract:

In the paper, our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve a nonlinear differential equation which is about the motion of an incompressible fluid flow going down of an inclined plane without thermal effect with a simple and innovative approach which we have named it new method. Comparisons are made amongst the Numerical, new method, and HPM methods, and the results reveal that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied to other nonlinear problems. It is noteworthy that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving differential equations, and also most of the sets of differential equations can be answered in this manner which in the other methods they do not have acceptable solutions up to now. A summary of the excellence of this method in comparison to the other manners is as follows: 1) Differential equations are directly solvable by this method. 2) Without any dimensionless procedure, we can solve equation(s). 3) It is not necessary to convert variables into new ones. According to the afore-mentioned assertions which will be proved in this case study, the process of solving nonlinear equation(s) will be very easy and convenient in comparison to the other methods.

Keywords: viscos fluid, incompressible fluid flow, inclined plane, nonlinear phenomena

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23 Factors Affecting Sense of Community in Residential Communities Case Study: Residential Communities in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Parvin Foroughifar

Abstract:

The concept of sense of community refers to residents’ sense of attachment and commitment to the other residents in a residential community. It is implicitly indicative of the mental image of a physical environment in which the residents enjoy strong social ties. Sense of community, a crucial factor in improving quality of life and social welfare, leads to life satisfaction in a residential community. Despite the important functions of such a notion, few empirical studies, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have been so far carried out in Iran to investigate the effective factors in sharpening the sense of community in residential communities. This survey research examined sense of community in 360 above 20-year old residents of three residential communities in Tehran, Iran using cluster sampling and questionnaire. The study yielded the result that variables of local social ties, social control and trust, sense of security, length of residence, use of public spaces, and mixed land use have a significant relationship with sense of community.

Keywords: sense of community, local social ties, sense of security, public space, residential community, Tehran

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22 Radiation Usage Impact of on Anti-Nutritional Compounds (Antitrypsin and Phytic Acid) of Livestock and Poultry Foods

Authors: Mohammad Khosravi, Ali Kiani, Behroz Dastar, Parvin Showrang

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Review was carried out on important anti-nutritional compounds of livestock and poultry foods and the effect of radiation usage. Nowadays, with advancement in technology, different methods have been considered for the optimum usage of nutrients in livestock and poultry foods. Steaming, extruding, pelleting, and the use of chemicals are the most common and popular methods in food processing. Use of radiation in food processing researches in the livestock and poultry industry is currently highly regarded. Ionizing (electrons, gamma) and non-ionizing beams (microwave and infrared) are the most useable rays in animal food processing. In recent researches, these beams have been used to remove and reduce the anti-nutritional factors and microbial contamination and improve the digestibility of nutrients in poultry and livestock food. The evidence presented will help researchers to recognize techniques of relevance to them. Simplification of some of these techniques, especially in developing countries, must be addressed so that they can be used more widely.

Keywords: antitrypsin, gamma anti-nutritional components, phytic acid, radiation

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21 Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector

Authors: Salma Parvin, M. A. Alim

Abstract:

The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.

Keywords: DASC, forced convection, mass flow rate, nanofluid

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20 Effect of Different Plan Shapes on the Load Carrying Capacity of a Steel Frame under Extreme Loading

Authors: Omid Khandel, Azadeh Parvin

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An increase in accidental explosions in recent years has increased the interest on investigating the response and behavior of structures in more details. The present work focused on finite element analysis of multistory steel frame structures with different plan shapes subjected to blast loadings. In order to study the effect of the geometry of the building, three different shapes for the plan of the building were modeled and studied; Rectangular, Square and L shape plans. The nonlinear dynamic analysis was considered in this study. The relocation technique was also used to improve the behavior of structure. The accuracy of the multistory frame model was confirmed with those of the existing study in the literature and they were in good agreement. The effect of span length of the buildings was also considered. Finite element analysis of various scenarios for relocating the plastic hinges and improving the response of the structure was performed. The base shear versus displacement curves were compared to reveal the best possible scenarios to provide recommendations to designers and practitioners.

Keywords: nonlinear dynamic analysis, plastic hinge relocation, Retrofit, SAP2000

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19 Hyperspectral Image Classification Using Tree Search Algorithm

Authors: Shreya Pare, Parvin Akhter

Abstract:

Remotely sensing image classification becomes a very challenging task owing to the high dimensionality of hyperspectral images. The pixel-wise classification methods fail to take the spatial structure information of an image. Therefore, to improve the performance of classification, spatial information can be integrated into the classification process. In this paper, the multilevel thresholding algorithm based on a modified fuzzy entropy function is used to perform the segmentation of hyperspectral images. The fuzzy parameters of the MFE function have been optimized by using a new meta-heuristic algorithm based on the Tree-Search algorithm. The segmented image is classified by a large distribution machine (LDM) classifier. Experimental results are shown on a hyperspectral image dataset. The experimental outputs indicate that the proposed technique (MFE-TSA-LDM) achieves much higher classification accuracy for hyperspectral images when compared to state-of-art classification techniques. The proposed algorithm provides accurate segmentation and classification maps, thus becoming more suitable for image classification with large spatial structures.

Keywords: classification, hyperspectral images, large distribution margin, modified fuzzy entropy function, multilevel thresholding, tree search algorithm, hyperspectral image classification using tree search algorithm

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18 Factors Predicting Individual Health among Pilgrims of Kurdistan County: An Application of Health Belief Model

Authors: Arsalan Ghaderi, Behzad Karami Matin, Abdolrahim Afkhamzadeh, Abouzar Keshavarzi, Parvin Nokhasi

Abstract:

Background: Lack of individual health as one of the major health problems among the pilgrims can be followed by several complications. The main aim of this study was to determine factors predicting individual health among pilgrims of Kurdistan County; in the west of Iran and health belief model (HBM) was applied as theoretical framework. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 pilgrims who referred in the red crescent of Kurdistan County, the west of Iran which was randomly selected for participation in this study. A structured questionnaire was applied for collecting data and data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlations and linear regression statistical tests. Results: The mean age of respondents was 59.45 years [SD: 11.56], ranged from 50 to 73 years. The HBM predictor variables accounted for 47% of the variation in the outcome measure of the individual health. The best predictors for individual health were perceived severity and cause to action. Conclusion: Based on our result, it seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about complications of lack of individual health and increasing cause to action among the pilgrims may be useful in order to promote individual health among pilgrims.

Keywords: individual health, pilgrims, Iran, health belief model

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17 The Predictive Value of Extensor Grip Test for the Effectiveness of Treatment for Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Mohammad Javad Zehtab, S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Ali Majlesara, Parvin Tajik, Babak Siavashi

Abstract:

Objective: There are different modalities proposed for tennis elbow treatment with few randomized trials comparing them. We designed a study to compare the effectiveness of five different modalities and determine the usefulness of recently proposed extensor grip test (EGT) in predicting the response to treatment. Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial 92 of 98 tennis elbow patients in Sina hospital of Tehran, Iran between 2006 and 2007 fulfill trial entry criteria, among these patients 56 (60.9%) had positive EGT result. Stratified on EGT result, patients allocated randomly to 5 treatment groups: Brace (B) group, physiotherapy (P), brace + physiotherapy (BP), injection (I) and injection + physiotherapy (IP). Results: Patients who had positive result of EGT had better response to treatments: less SOC (p = 0.06), less PFFQ and patients’ satisfaction scores (p < 0.001). Among the treatment IP was the most successful, then BP, P and B, respectively; injection was the worst treatment modality. Response to treatment was comparable in all groups between EGT positive and negative patients except bracing; in which positive EGT was correlated with a dramatic response to treatment. Conclusion: In all patients IP and then BP is recommended but in EGT negatives, bracing seems to be of no use. Injection alone is not recommended in either group.

Keywords: tennis elbow, extensor grip test, physiotherapy, tennis elbow treatment

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16 Antioxidant Effects of Regular Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Parvin Farzanegi

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with increased free radicals and oxidative stress. The evidence indicates that physical inactivity is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for a wide range of chronic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of eight-week aerobic exercise on some antioxidant enzyme activities in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: sixteen sedentary postmenopausal women with T2DM were randomly assigned to the control (n=8; CG) and exercise group (n=8; EG). The exercise consisted of progressive aerobic training at a moderate intensity (50-70% of the maximum heart rate), for 25-60 min/day, and 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Age, sex, and body mass index were similar in the two groups. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Also levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation and glucose in the plasma were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Following the 8 weeks of exercise training, the plasma MDA and glucose levels were significantly reduced in EG compared to CG (P=0.001 and P=0.011 respectively). However, SOD (P=0.017) and CAT (P=0.011) activities were increased in EG compared to CG. Conclusion: The present study suggests regular aerobic exercise appears can exert protective effects against oxidative stress due to its ability to increase antioxidant defense and glucose control in postmenopausal women with T2DM.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, antioxidant, diabetes mellitus, type 2

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15 The Effect of Dry Matter Production Growth Rate, Temperature Rapeseed

Authors: Vadood Mobini, Mansoreh Agazadeh Shahrivar, Parvin Hashemi Gelenjkhanlo, Hassan Vazifah

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Seed number is a function of dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate (CGR), photothermal quotient (PTQ) and temperature during a critical developmental period, which is around flowering in canola (Brassica napus L.). The objective of this experiment was to determine factors such as dry matter, CGR, temperature, and PTQ around flowering which affect seed number. The experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station of Gonbad, Iran, between 2005 and 2007. Two cultivars of canola (Hyola401 and RGS003), as subplots were grown at 5 sowing dates as main plots, spaced approximately 30 days apart, to obtain different environmental conditions during flowering. The experiment was arranged in two conditions, i.e., supplemental irrigation and rainfed. Seed number per unit area was a key factor for increasing seed yield. Late sowing dates made the critical period of flowering coincide with high temperatures, decreased days to the flowering, seed number per unit area and seed yield. Seed number was driven by the availability of carbohydrates around flowering. Seed number per unit area was maximized for the cultivars when exposed to the highest PTQ, and to the lowest temperature between the beginning of flowering to that of seed filling. The relationship of seed number with aboveground dry matter, CGR, temperature, and PTQ around flowering, over different environmental conditions, showed these variables were generally applicable to seed number determination.

Keywords: flowering, cultivar, seed filling, environmental conditions, seed yield

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14 Urban Heat Island Effects on Human Health in Birmingham and Its Mitigation

Authors: N. A. Parvin, E. B. Ferranti, L. A. Chapman, C. A. Pfrang

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This study intends to investigate the effects of the Urban Heat Island on public health in Birmingham. Birmingham is located at the center of the West Midlands and its weather is Highly variable due to geographical factors. Residential developments, road networks and infrastructure often replace open spaces and vegetation. This transformation causes the temperature of urban areas to increase and creates an "island" of higher temperatures in the urban landscape. Extreme heat in the urban area is influencing public health in the UK as well as in the world. Birmingham is a densely built-up area with skyscrapers and congested buildings in the city center, which is a barrier to air circulation. We will investigate the city regarding heat and cold-related human mortality and other impacts. We are using primary and secondary datasets to examine the effect of population shift and land-use change on the UHI in Birmingham. We will also use freely available weather data from the Birmingham Urban Observatory and will incorporate satellite data to determine urban spatial expansion and its effect on the UHI. We have produced a temperature map based on summer datasets of 2020, which has covered 25 weather stations in Birmingham to show the differences between diurnal and nocturnal summer and annual temperature trends. Some impacts of the UHI may be beneficial, such as the lengthening of the plant growing season, but most of them are highly negative. We are looking for various effects of urban heat which is impacting human health and investigating mitigation options.

Keywords: urban heat, public health, climate change

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13 Green Fruit and Vegetables Have Favorable Effects on 3-Year Changes of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Cohort Study

Authors: Parvin Mirmiran, Zahra Bahadoran, Nazanin Moslehi, Fereidoun Azizi

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Background and aim: We aimed to investigate the effects of green fruits and vegetables (green FV) consumption on the 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, on 1272 adults. Dietary intake of green FV, including green cabbage, broccoli, lettuce, celery, green beans, green peas, cucumber, leafy vegetables, zucchini, green chili and bell pepper, and kiwi fruit, has been assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline and second examination. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measures were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. The associations of cardiometabolic risk changes with mean intake of green FV were estimated. Results: The mean age of men and women at baseline was 39.8±12.7 and 37.3±12.1 years, respectively. Mean intake of green FV was 152±77 g/d. More intake from green FV was accompanied to more intake of vitamin A, α and β-carotene, lutein, β-criptoxanthine, potassium, magnesium and fiber. Consumption of green FV was inversely associated with 3-year change of waist circumference (β= -0.07, P=0.01), total cholesterol (β= -0.11, P=0.01) and triglycerides (β= -0.13, P=0.01). Each 25 g/d increase in consumption of green FV decreased the incidence of hyper-triglyceridemia by 12% (OR:0.88, 95%CI:0.71-0.99) in men. In women, no significant association was observed between consumption of green FV with cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusion: Higher consumption of green FV could have preventive effects against abdominal fat gain and lipid disorders.

Keywords: cardiometabolic risk factors, abdominal obesity, lipid disorders, fruits, vegetables

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12 Higher Consumption of White Rice Increase the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi

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Background: Higher consumption of white rice has been suggested as a risk factor for development of metabolic abnormalities. In this study we investigated the association between consumption of white rice and the 3-year occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults with and without abdominal obesity. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study on 1476 adults, aged 19-70 years. Dietary intakes were measured, using a 168-food items validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were evaluated at both baseline (2006-2008) and after 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). MetS and its components were defined according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by NCEP ATP III, and the new cutoff points of waist circumference for Iranian adults. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of the MetS in each quartile of white rice consumption. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.8±12.3 y, and mean BMI was 26.0±4.5 kg/m2 at baseline. The prevalence of MetS in subjects with abdominal obesity was significantly higher (40.9 vs. 16.2%, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in white rice consumption between the two groups. Mean daily intake of white rice was 93±59, 209±58, 262±60 and 432±224 g/d, in the first to fourth quartiles of white rice, respectively. Stratified analysis by categories of waist circumference showed that higher consumption of white rice was more strongly related to the risk of metabolic syndrome in participants who had abdominal obesity (OR: 2.34, 95% CI:1.14-4.41 vs. OR:0.99, 95% CI:0.60-1.65) Conclusion: We demonstrated that higher consumption of white rice may be a risk for development of metabolic syndrome in adults with abdominal obesity.

Keywords: white rice, abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, food science, triglycerides

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11 The Methanotrophic Activity in a Landfill Bio-Cover through a Subzero Winter

Authors: Parvin Berenjkar, Qiuyan Yuan, Richard Sparling, Stan Lozecznik

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Landfills highly contribute to anthropological global warming through CH₄ emissions. Landfills are usually capped by a conventional soil cover to control the migration of gases. Methane is consumed by CH₄-oxidizing microorganisms known as methanotrophs that naturally exist in the landfill soil cover. The growth of methanotrophs can be optimized in a bio-cover that typically consists of a gas distribution layer (GDL) to homogenize landfill gas fluxes and an overlying oxidation layer composed of suitable materials that support methanotrophic populations. Materials such as mature yard waste composts can provide an inexpensive and favourable porous support for the growth and activity of methanotrophs. In areas with seasonal cold climates, it is valuable to know if methanotrophs in a bio-cover can survive in winter until the next spring, and how deep they are active in the bio-cover to mitigate CH₄. In this study, a pilot bio-cover was constructed in a closed landfill cell in Winnipeg that has a very cold climate in Canada. The bio-cover has a surface area of 2.5 m x 3.5 m and 1.5 m of depth, filled with 50 cm of gravel as a GDL and 70 cm of biosolids compost amended with yard and leaf waste compost. The observed in situ potential of methanotrophs for CH₄ oxidation was investigated at a specific period of time from December 2016 to April 2017 as well as November 2017 to April 2018, when the transition to surface frost and thawing happens in the bio-cover. Compost samples taken from different depths of the bio-cover were incubated in the laboratory under standardized conditions; an optimal air: methane atmosphere, at 22ºC, but at in situ moisture content. Results showed that the methanotrophs were alive oxidizing methane without a lag, indicating that there was the potential for methanotrophic activity at some depths of the bio-cover.

Keywords: bio-cover, global warming, landfill, methanotrophic activity

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10 The Next Generation’s Learning Ability, Memory, as Well as Cognitive Skills Is under the Influence of Paternal Physical Activity (An Intergenerational and Trans-Generational Effect): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Parvin Goli, Amirhosein Kefayat, Rezvan Goli

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Background: It is well established that parents can influence their offspring's neurodevelopment. It is shown that paternal environment and lifestyle is beneficial for the progeny's fitness and might affect their metabolic mechanisms; however, the effects of paternal exercise on the brain in the offspring have not been explored in detail. Objective: This study aims to review the impact of paternal physical exercise on memory and learning, neuroplasticity, as well as DNA methylation levels in the off-spring's hippocampus. Study design: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, an electronic literature search was conducted in databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Eligible studies were those with an experimental design, including an exercise intervention arm, with the assessment of any type of memory function, learning ability, or any type of brain plasticity as the outcome measures. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed as effect size. Results: The systematic review revealed the important role of environmental enrichment in the behavioral development of the next generation. Also, offspring of exercised fathers displayed higher levels of memory ability and lower level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. A significant effect of paternal exercise on the hippocampal volume was also reported in the few available studies. Conclusion: These results suggest an intergenerational effect of paternal physical activity on cognitive benefit, which may be associated with hippocampal epigenetic programming in offspring. However, the biological mechanisms of this modulation remain to be determined.

Keywords: hippocampal plasticity, learning ability, memory, parental exercise

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9 Dietary Intake and the Risk of Hypertriglyceridemia in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

Authors: Parvin Mirmiran, Zahra Bahadoran, Sahar Mirzae, Fereidoun Azizi

Abstract:

Background and aim: Lifestyle factors, especially dietary intakes play an important role in metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In this study, we assessed the association between dietary factors and 3-year changes of serum triglycerides (TG), HDL-C and the atherogenic index of plasma among Iranian adults. This longitudinal study was conducted on 1938 subjects, aged 19-70 years, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measurements including serum TG were assessed at baseline (2006-2008) and after a 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). Dietary data were collected by using a 168-food item, validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. The risk of hypertriglyceridemia in the quartiles of dietary factors was evaluated using logistic regression models with adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and energy intakes. Results: Mean age of the participants at baseline was 41.0±13.0 y. Mean TG and HDL-C at baseline was 143±86 and 42.2±10.0 mg/dl, respectively. Three-year change of serum TG were inversely related energy intake from phytochemical rich foods, whole grains, and legumes (P<0.05). Higher intakes compared to lower ones of dietary fiber and phytochemical-rich foods had similar impact on decreased risk of hyper-triglyceridemia (OR=0.58, 95% CI=0.34-1.00). Higher- compared to lower-dietary sodium to potassium ratios (Na/K ratio) increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia by 63% (OR=0.1.63, 95% CI= 0.34-1.00). Conclusion: Findings showed that higher intakes of fiber and phytochemical rich foods especially whole grain and legumes could have protective effects against lipid disorders; in contrast higher sodium to potassium ratio had undesirable effect on triglycerides.

Keywords: lipid disorders, hypertriglyceridemia, diet, food science

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8 Broccoli Sprouts Powder Could Improve Metabolic and Liver Disorder-Induced by High-Fructose Corn Syrup

Authors: Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Maryam Tohidi, Fereidoun Azizi

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Broccoli sprouts, rich source of bioactive compounds specially sulforaphane (SFN), have unique functional properties. This study was conducted to investigate the possible treatment effects of high-SFN broccoli sprouts powder on metabolic and liver disorders in rats fed with high-fructose corn syrup. Methods: Thirty-two male wistar rats, pretreated with an eight-week high-fructose diet (water containing 30% fructose), were randomly allocated into three groups: Baseline control (BC), control (C) (normal diet), and BSP-diet (normal diet+5% BSP). The duration of the study was 6 weeks. Biochemical measurements, liver weight and triglyceride content were evaluated and histopathological examination of liver was performed. Results: After 6-weeks, the liver weight was significantly lower in BSP group compared to controls (13.4 g vs. 11.4 g, P<0.05). After 6 weeks, a significant decrease was observed in fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both experimental groups (P<0.05). Compared to controls, serum levels of HDL-C were significantly higher in BSP group. The liver TG content in BSP compared to control group was lower (14.6 vs. 16.4 mg/mg tissue). The hepatic levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase had not considerable changes in the groups after the intervention period but the level of alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased in BSP group (P<0.05). The histopathological examination of liver confirmed a decrease lobular and portal inflammation and ballooning in BSP group compared to control. Conclusion: High-SFN broccoli sprouts powder has beneficials effect on metabolic and liver changes-induced by high fructose corn syrup.

Keywords: broccoli sprouts, metabolic disorders, fatty liver, food science

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7 Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Chitosan-Gold Nanoparticles, Carbon Nanotubes for Detection of Ovarian Cancer Biomarker

Authors: Parvin Samadi Pakchin, Reza Saber, Hossein Ghanbari, Yadollah Omidi

Abstract:

Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality among the gynecological malignancies, and it remains the one of the most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Tumor markers are biochemical molecules in blood or tissues which can indicates cancers occurrence in the human body. So, the sensitive and specific detection of cancer markers typically recruited for diagnosing and evaluating cancers. Recently extensive research efforts are underway to achieve a simple, inexpensive and accurate device for detection of cancer biomarkers. Compared with conventional immunoassay techniques, electrochemical immunosensors are of great interest, because they are specific, simple, inexpensive, easy to handling and miniaturization. Moreover, in the past decade nanotechnology has played a crucial role in the development of biosensors. In this study, a signal-off electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of CA125 antigen has been developed using chitosan-gold nanoparticles (CS-AuNP) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites. Toluidine blue (TB) is used as redox probe which is immobilized on the electrode surface. CS-AuNP is synthesized by a simple one step method that HAuCl4 is reduced by NH2 groups of chitosan. The CS-AuNP-MWCNT modified electrode has shown excellent electrochemical performance compared with bare Au electrode. MWCNTs and AuNPs increased electrochemical conductivity and accelerate electrons transfer between solution and electrode surface while excessive amine groups on chitosan lead to the effective loading of the biological material (CA125 antibody) and TB on the electrode surface. The electrochemical, immobilization and sensing properties CS-AuNP-MWCNT-TB modified electrodes are characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry with Fe(CN)63−/4−as an electrochemical redox indicator.

Keywords: signal-off electrochemical biosensor, CA125, ovarian cancer, chitosan-gold nanoparticles

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6 Comparison of Different Reanalysis Products for Predicting Extreme Precipitation in the Southern Coast of the Caspian Sea

Authors: Parvin Ghafarian, Mohammadreza Mohammadpur Panchah, Mehri Fallahi

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Synoptic patterns from surface up to tropopause are very important for forecasting the weather and atmospheric conditions. There are many tools to prepare and analyze these maps. Reanalysis data and the outputs of numerical weather prediction models, satellite images, meteorological radar, and weather station data are used in world forecasting centers to predict the weather. The forecasting extreme precipitating on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea (CS) is the main issue due to complex topography. Also, there are different types of climate in these areas. In this research, we used two reanalysis data such as ECMWF Reanalysis 5th Generation Description (ERA5) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction /National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) for verification of the numerical model. ERA5 is the latest version of ECMWF. The temporal resolution of ERA5 is hourly, and the NCEP/NCAR is every six hours. Some atmospheric parameters such as mean sea level pressure, geopotential height, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, sea surface temperature, etc. were selected and analyzed. Some different type of precipitation (rain and snow) was selected. The results showed that the NCEP/NCAR has more ability to demonstrate the intensity of the atmospheric system. The ERA5 is suitable for extract the value of parameters for specific point. Also, ERA5 is appropriate to analyze the snowfall events over CS (snow cover and snow depth). Sea surface temperature has the main role to generate instability over CS, especially when the cold air pass from the CS. Sea surface temperature of NCEP/NCAR product has low resolution near coast. However, both data were able to detect meteorological synoptic patterns that led to heavy rainfall over CS. However, due to the time lag, they are not suitable for forecast centers. The application of these two data is for research and verification of meteorological models. Finally, ERA5 has a better resolution, respect to NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, but NCEP/NCAR data is available from 1948 and appropriate for long term research.

Keywords: synoptic patterns, heavy precipitation, reanalysis data, snow

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5 Effects of Intracerebroventricular Injection of Ghrelin and Aerobic Exercise on Passive Avoidance Memory and Anxiety in Adult Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Mohaya Farzin, Parvin Babaei, Mohammad Rostampour

Abstract:

Ghrelin plays a considerable role in important neurological effects related to food intake and energy homeostasis. As was found, regular physical activity may make available significant improvement of the cognitive functions in various behavioral situations. Anxiety is one of the main concerns of the modern world, affecting millions of individuals’ health. There are contradictory results regarding Ghrelin's effects on anxiety-like behavior, and the plasma level of this peptide is increased during physical activity. Here we aimed to evaluate the coincident effects of exogenous Ghrelin and aerobic exercise on anxiety-like behavior and passive avoidance memory in Wistar rats. Forty-five male Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) were divided into 9 groups (n=5) and received intra-hippocampal injections of 3.0 nmol Ghrelin and performed aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks. Control groups received the same volume of saline and diazepam as negative and positive control groups, respectively. Learning and memory were estimated using a shuttle box apparatus, and anxiety-like behavior was recorded by an elevated plus-maze test (EPM). Data were analyzed by ANOVA test, and P<0.05 was considered significant. Our findings showed that the combined effect of ghrelin and aerobic exercise improves the acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of passive avoidance memory in Wistar rats. Furthermore, it is supposed that the ghrelin receiving group spent less time in open arms and fewer open arms entries compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, exercising Wistar rats spent more time in the open arm zone in comparison with a control group (P<0.05). The Exercise + Ghrelin administration established reduced anxiety (P<0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that aerobic exercise contributes to an increase in the endogenous production of ghrelin, and physical activity alleviates anxiety-related behaviors induced by intra-hippocampal injection of Ghrelin. In general, exercise and ghrelin can reduce anxiety and improve memory.

Keywords: anxiety, ghrelin, aerobic exercise, learning, passive avoidance memory

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4 In vitro Study of Laser Diode Radiation Effect on the Photo-Damage of MCF-7 and MCF-10A Cell Clusters

Authors: A. Dashti, M. Eskandari, L. Farahmand, P. Parvin, A. Jafargholi

Abstract:

Breast Cancer is one of the most considerable diseases in the United States and other countries and is the second leading cause of death in women. Common breast cancer treatments would lead to adverse side effects such as loss of hair, nausea, and weakness. These complications arise because these cancer treatments damage some healthy cells while eliminating the cancer cells. In an effort to address these complications, laser radiation was utilized and tested as a targeted cancer treatment for breast cancer. In this regard, tissue engineering approaches are being employed by using an electrospun scaffold in order to facilitate the growth of breast cancer cells. Polycaprolacton (PCL) was used as a material for scaffold fabricating because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and supporting cell growth. The specific breast cancer cells have the ability to create a three-dimensional cell cluster due to the spontaneous accumulation of cells in the porosity of the scaffold under some specific conditions. Therefore, we are looking for a higher density of porosity and larger pore size. Fibers showed uniform diameter distribution and final scaffold had optimum characteristics with approximately 40% porosity. The images were taken by SEM and the density and the size of the porosity were determined with the Image. After scaffold preparation, it has cross-linked by glutaraldehyde. Then, it has been washed with glycine and phosphate buffer saline (PBS), in order to neutralize the residual glutaraldehyde. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor (MTT) results have represented approximately 91.13% viability of the scaffolds for cancer cells. In order to create a cluster, Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7, breast cancer cell line) and Michigan Cancer Foundation-10A (MCF-10A, human mammary epithelial cell line) cells were cultured on the scaffold in 24 well plate for five days. Then, we have exposed the cluster to the laser diode 808 nm radiation to investigate the effect of laser on the tumor with different power and time. Under the same conditions, cancer cells lost their viability more than the healthy ones. In conclusion, laser therapy is a viable method to destroy the target cells and has a minimum effect on the healthy tissues and cells and it can improve the other method of cancer treatments limitations.

Keywords: breast cancer, electrospun scaffold, polycaprolacton, laser diode, cancer treatment

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3 Trend of Overweight and Obesity, Based on Population Study among School Children in North West of Iran: Implications for When to Intervene

Authors: Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou, Fatemeh Rezaiegoyjeloo, Parvin Ayremlou, Fariba Babaie

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Introduction: Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health problem in both developed and developing countries. Overweight and obesity in children may have severe consequences later in adolescence and adulthood. The aim of current study was to determine the prevalence trend of overweight and obesity in school-aged children from 2009 to 2011. Methods: The present study was a population-based study and conducted in three consecutive years, from 2009 to 2011. The study population included all of primary, secondary and high school children in rural and urban regions of West Azarbijan province in West-North of Iran. Body mass index (BMI), the ratio of weight to height squared [weight (kg)]/ [height (m)]2, was calculated to the nearest decimal place. Overweight and obesity were classified using CDC recommendations for age and sex: a BMI 85th–95th percentile was classified as overweight and a BMI>95th percentile was classified as obese. All statistical analyses were performed using the Excel Software. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample in different time periods. The prevalence was calculated as the ratio of number present cases to a given population number in a given subgroup at a given time. Results: Overall, 165740, 145146 and 146203 school children were assessed at 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. Prevalence of overweight in primary school children among girls were 52.83, 86.93 and 116.36 and for boys were 57.07, 53.4 and 93.55 per 1000 person in 2009, 2010 and 2011 years ,respectively. The prevalence of obesity in secondary school children for girls were 22.26, 27.75 and 28.43 and 26.52, 25.72 and 35.85 for boys per 1000 person in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively, The highest prevalence of overweight was 77.58, 142.4 and 126.46 per 1000 person among primary, secondary and high school children, respectively, in 2011. The lowest prevalence of obesity was 12.52, 24.1 and 21.61 per 1000 person among primary, secondary and high school children, respectively, in 2009. Conclusion: However, the rapid increase in both obesity and overweight should have a special attention. Research on prevalence trend of overweight and obesity in children is poorly reported in Iran. So that, future studies need to follow-up on the associations between overweight and obesity with health outcomes when children develop and reach adolescence and adulthood.

Keywords: overweight, obesity, school children, prevalence trend, Iran

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2 A Qualitative Study of Unmet Needs of Families of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Bangladesh

Authors: Reshma Parvin Nuri, Heather Michelle Aldersey, Setareh Ghahari

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Objectives: Worldwide, it is well known that taking care of children with disabilities (CWD) can have a significant impact on the entire family unit. Over the last few decades, an increased number of studies have been conducted on families of CWD in higher income countries, and much of this research has identified family needs and strategies to meet those needs. However, family needs are incredibly under-studied in developing countries. Therefore, the aims of this study were to: (a) explore the needs of families of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Bangladesh; (b) investigate how some of the family needs have been met and (c) identify the sources of supports that might help the families to meet their needs in the future. Methods: A face to face, semi-structured in-depth interview was conducted with 20 family members (12 mothers, 4 fathers, 1 sister, 2 grandmothers, and 1 aunt) who visited the Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP), Bangladesh between June and August 2016. Constant comparison method of grounded theory approach within the broader spectrum of qualitative study was used to analyze the data. Results: Participants identified five categories of needs: (a) financial needs, (b) access to disability-related services, (c) family and community cohesion, (d) informational needs, and (e) emotional needs. Participants overwhelmingly reported that financial need is their greatest family need. Participants noted that families encountered additional financial expenses for a child with CP, beyond what they would typically pay for their other children. Participants were seeing education as their non-primary need as they had no hope that their children would be physically able to go to school. Some participants also shared their needs for social inclusion and participation and receiving emotional support. Participants further expressed needs to receive information related to the child’s health condition and availability/accessibility of governmental support programs. Besides unmet needs, participants also highlighted that some of their needs have been met through formal and informal support systems. Formal support systems were mainly institution-based and run by non-governmental organizations, whereas participants identified informal support coming from family, friends and community members. Participants overwhelmingly reported that they receive little to no support from the government. However, participants identified the government as the key stakeholder who can play vital role in meeting their unmet needs. Conclusions: In the next phase of this research, the plan is to understand how the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh is working to meet the needs of families of CWD. There is also need for further study on needs of families of children with conditions other than CP and those who live in the community and do not have access to the CRP Services. There is clear need to investigate ways to enable children with CP have better access to education in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, children with cerebral palsy, family needs, support

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1 Understanding the Common Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistant-Bacterial Load in the Textile Industrial Effluents

Authors: Afroza Parvin, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Rokunozzaman, Papon Debnath

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The effluents of textile industries have considerable amounts of heavy metals, causing potential microbial metal loads if discharged into the environment without treatment. Aim: In this present study, both lactose and non-lactose fermenting bacterial isolates were isolated from textile industrial effluents of a specific region of Bangladesh, named Savar, to compare and understand the load of heavy metals in these microorganisms determining the effects of heavy metal resistance properties on antibiotic resistance. Methods: Five different textile industrial canals of Savar were selected, and effluent samples were collected in 2016 between June to August. Total bacterial colony (TBC) was counted for day 1 to day 5 for 10-6 dilution of samples to 10-10 dilution. All the isolates were isolated and selected using 4 differential media, and tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of heavy metals and antibiotic susceptibility test with plate assay method and modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, respectively. To detect the combined effect of heavy metals and antibiotics, a binary exposure experiment was performed, and to understand the plasmid profiling plasmid DNA was extracted by alkaline lysis method of some selective isolates. Results: Most of the cases, the colony forming units (CFU) per plate for 50 ul diluted sample were uncountable at 10-6 dilution, however, countable for 10-10 dilution and it didn’t vary much from canal to canal. A total of 50 Shigella, 50 Salmonella, and 100 E.coli (Escherichia coli) like bacterial isolates were selected for this study where the MIC was less than or equal to 0.6 mM for 100% Shigella and Salmonella like isolates, however, only 3% E. coli like isolates had the same MIC for nickel (Ni). The MIC for chromium (Cr) was less than or equal to 2.0 mM for 16% Shigella, 20% Salmonella, and 17% E. coli like isolates. Around 60% of both Shigella and Salmonella, but only 20% of E.coli like isolates had a MIC of less than or equal to 1.2 mM for lead (Pb). The most prevalent resistant pattern for azithromycin (AZM) for Shigella and Salmonella like isolates was found 38% and 48%, respectively; however, for E.coli like isolates, the highest pattern (36%) was found for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT). In the binary exposure experiment, antibiotic zone of inhibition was mostly increased in the presence of heavy metals for all types of isolates. The highest sized plasmid was found 21 Kb and 14 Kb for lactose and non-lactose fermenting isolates, respectively. Conclusion: Microbial resistance to antibiotics and metal ions, has potential health hazards because these traits are generally associated with transmissible plasmids. Microorganisms resistant to antibiotics and tolerant to metals appear as a result of exposure to metal-contaminated environments.

Keywords: antibiotics, effluents, heavy metals, minimum inhibitory concentration, resistance

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