Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 176

Search results for: biocompatible

176 Melting and Making Zn-Based Alloys and Examine Their Biodegradable and Biocompatible Properties

Authors: Abdulrahman Sumayli

Abstract:

Natural Zinc has many significant biological functions, including developments and sustainable of bones and wound healing. Metallic zinc has recently been explored as potential biomaterials that have preferable biodegradable, biocompatible, and mechanical properties. Pure metal zinc has a preferable physical and mechanical properties for biodegradable and biocompatible applications such as density and modulus of elasticity. The aim of the research is to make different Zn-based metallic alloys and test them effectively to be used as biocompatible and biodegradable materials in the field biomedical application. Microstructure study of the as-cast alloys will be examined using SEM (scanning electron microscope) followed by X-ray diffraction investigated so as to evaluate phase constitution of the designed alloys. After that, immersion test and electrochemical test will be applied to the designed alloys so as to study bio corrosion behaviour of the proposed alloys. Finally, in vitro cytocompatibility well conducted to study biocompatibility of the made alloys.

Keywords: Zn-based alloys, biodegradable and biocompatible materials, cytotoxicity test, neutron synchrotron imaging

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175 Packaging Processes for the Implantable Medical Microelectronics

Authors: Chung-Yu Wu, Chia-Chi Chang, Wei-Ming Chen, Pu-Wei Wu, Shih-Fan Chen, Po-Chun Chen

Abstract:

Electrostimulation medical devices for neural diseases require electroactive and biocompatible materials to transmit signals from electrodes to targeting tissues. Protection of surrounding tissues has become a great challenge for long-term implants. In this study, we designed back-end processes with compatible, efficient, and reliable advantages over the current state-of-the-art. We explored a hermetic packaging process with high quality of adhesion and uniformity as the biocompatible devices for long-term implantation. This approach is able to provide both excellent biocompatibility and protection to the biomedical electronic devices by performing conformal coating of biocompatible materials. We successfully developed a packaging process that is capable of exposing the stimulating electrode and cover all other faces of chip with high quality of protection to prevent leakage of devices and body fluid.

Keywords: biocompatible package, medical microelectronics, surface coating, long-term implantation

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174 Effects of Biocompatible Substrates on the Electrical Properties of Graphene

Authors: M. Simchi, M. Amiri, E. Rezvani, I. Mirzaei, M. Berahman, A. Simchi, M. Fardmanesh

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Graphene is a single-atomic two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms that has considerable properties due to its unique structure and physics with applications in different fields. Graphene has sensitive electrical properties due to its atomic-thin structure. Along with the substrate materials and their influence on the transport properties in graphene, design and fabrication of graphene-based devices for biomedical and biosensor applications are challenging. In this work, large-area high-quality graphene nanosheets were prepared by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using methane gas as carbon source on copper foil and transferred on the biocompatible substrates. Through deposition of titanium and gold contacts, current-voltage response of the transferred graphene on four biocompatible substrates, including PDMS, SU-8, Nitrocellulose, and Kapton (Fig. 2) were experimentally determined. The considerable effect of the substrate type on the electrical properties of graphene is shown. The sheet resistance of graphene is changed from 0.34 to 14.5 kΩ/sq, depending on the substrate.

Keywords: biocompatible substrates, electrical properties, graphene, sheet resistance

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173 Developing Biocompatible Iridium Oxide Electrodes for Bone-Guided Extra-Cochlear Implant

Authors: Yung-Shan Lu, Chia-Fone Lee, Shang-Hsuan Li, Chien-Hao Liu

Abstract:

Recently, various bioelectronic devices have been developed for neurologic disease treatments via electro-stimulations such as cochlear implants and retinal prosthesis. Since the electric signal needs electrodes to be transmitted to an organism, electrodes play an important role of stimulations. The materials of stimulation electrodes affect the efficiency of the delivered currents. The higher the efficiency of the electrodes, the lower the threshold current can be used to stimulate the organism which minimizes the potential damages to the adjacent tissues. In this study, we proposed a biocompatible composite electrode composed of high-charge-capacity iridium oxide (IrOₓ) film for a bone-guide extra-cochlear implant. IrOₓ was exploited to decrease the threshold current due to its high capacitance and low impedance. The IrOₓ electrode was fabricated via microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) photolithography and examined with in-vivo tests with guinea pigs. Based on the measured responses of brain waves to sound, the results demonstrated that IrOₓ electrodes have a lower threshold current compared with the Platinum (Pt) electrodes. The research results are expected to be beneficial for implantable and biocompatible electrodes for electrical stimulations.

Keywords: cochlear implants, electrode, electrical stimulation, iridium oxide

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172 Green Synthesis of Red-Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters: Characterization and Application for Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Agnė Mikalauskaitė, Renata Karpicz, Vitalijus Karabanovas, Arūnas Jagminas

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The use of biocompatible precursors for the synthesis and stabilization of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (NCs) with strong red photoluminescence creates an important link between natural sciences and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the cost-effective synthesis of Au nanoclusters by templating and reduction of chloroauric acid with the cheap amino acid food supplements. This synthesis under the optimized conditions leads to the formation of biocompatible Au NCs having good stability and intense red photoluminescence, peaked at 680 to 705 nm, with a quantum yield (QY) of ≈7% and the average lifetime of up to several µs. The composition and luminescent properties of the obtained NCs were compared with ones formed via well-known bovine serum albumin reduction approach. Our findings implied that synthesized Au NCs tend to accumulate in more tumorigenic breast cancer cells (line MDA-MB-213) and after dialysis can be prospective for bio imagining.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, proteins, materials chemistry, red-photoluminescence, bioimaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
171 Polysulfide as Active ‘Stealth’ Polymers with Additional Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Farah El Mohtadi, Richard d'Arcy, Nicola Tirelli

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Since 40 years, poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been the gold standard in biomaterials and drug delivery, because of its combination of chemical and biological inertness. However, the possibility of its breakdown under oxidative conditions and the demonstrated development of anti-PEG antibodies highlight the necessity to develop carriers based on materials with increased stability in a challenging biological environment. Here, we describe the synthesis of polysulfide via anionic ring-opening polymerization. In vitro, the synthesized polymer was characterized by low toxicity and a level of complement activation (in human plasma) and macrophage uptake slightly lower than PEG and poly (2‐methyl-2‐oxazoline) (PMOX), of a similar size. Importantly, and differently from PEG, on activated macrophages, the synthesized polymer showed a strong and dose-dependent ROS scavenging activity, which resulted in the corresponding reduction of cytokine production. Therefore, the results from these studies show that polysulfide is highly biocompatible and are potential candidates to be used as an alternative to PEG for various applications in nanomedicine.

Keywords: PEG, low toxicity, ROS scavenging, biocompatible

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170 Functional Slow Release of Encapsulated Ibuprofen in Cross-linked Gellan Gum Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Nor Jannah Mohd Sebri, Khairul Anuar Mat Amin

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Dication cross-linked gellan gum hydrogel loaded with Ibuprofen with excellent mechanical properties had been synthesized as potential candidate for non-toxic biocompatible polymer material in tissue engineering. The gellan gum hydrogel with 5% Ibuprofen had produced a slow release profile with total drug release time of 25 hours as a resulting low swelling value recorded at 22+0.5%. Its compressive strength, 200.13+21 kPa was highest of all other hydrogel ratio of 0.5% and 1.0% Ibuprofen incorporation. Young’s Modulus of the hydrogel with 5% Ibuprofen was recorded at 1.8+0.01 MPa, indicating good gel strength in which it is capable of withstanding a fair amount of subjected force during topical wound dressing application. Excellent mechanical properties, together with slow release profile, make the ibuprofen-loaded hydrogel a prospect candidate as biocompatible extracellular matrices in wound management.

Keywords: gellan gum, ibuprofen, slow drug release, hydrogel

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169 Investigation of Self-Assembling of Maghemite Nanoparticles into Chain–Like Structures Using Birefringence Measurements

Authors: C. R. Stein; K. Skeff Neto, K. L. C. Miranda, P. P. C. Sartoratto, M. E. Xavier, Z. G. M. Lacava, S. M. De Freita, P. C. Morais

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In this study, static magnetic birefringence (SMB) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the self-assembling of maghemite nanoparticles suspended as biocompatible magnetic fluid (BMF) while incubated or not with the Black Eyed–Pea Trypsin Chymotripsin Inhibitor–BTCI protein. The stock samples herein studied are dextran coated maghemite nanoparticles (average core diameter of 7.1 nm, diameter dispersion of 0.26, and containing 4.6×1016 particle/mL) and the dextran coated maghemite nanoparticles associated with the BTCI protein. Several samples were prepared by diluting the stock samples with deionized water while following their colloidal stability. The diluted samples were investigated using SMB measurements to assess the average sizes of the self-assembled and suspended mesoscopic structures whereas the TEM micrographs provide the morphology of the as-suspended units. The SMB data were analyzed using a model that includes the particle-particle interaction within the mean field model picture.

Keywords: biocompatible magnetic fluid, maghemite nanoparticles, self-assembling

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168 Cranioplasty with Custom Implant Realized Using 3D Printing Technology

Authors: Trad Khodja Rafik, Mahtout Amine, Ghoul Rachid, Benbouali Amine, Boulahlib Amine, Hariza Abdelmalik

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Cranioplasty with custom implant realized using 3D printing technology. Cranioplasty is a surgical act that aims restoring cranial bone losses in order to protect the brain from external aggressions and to improve the patient aesthetic appearance. This objective can be achieved with taking advantage of the current technological development in computer science and biomechanics. The objective of this paper it to present an approach for the realization of high precision biocompatible cranial implants using new 3D printing technologies at the lowest cost. The proposed method is to reproduce the missing part of the skull by referring to its healthy contralateral part. Once the model is validated by the neurosurgeons, a mold is 3D printed for the production of a biocompatible implant in Poly-Methyl-Methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic cement. Using this procedure four patients underwent this procedure with excellent aesthetic results.

Keywords: cranioplasty, cranial bone loss, 3D printing technology, custom-made implants, PMMA

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167 Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Highly Porous Scaffold for Biomedicine

Authors: Neda Sinaei, Davood Zare, Mehrdad Azin

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Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biocompatible and biodegradable polymers produced by a wide range of bacterial strains. These biopolymers are significantly studied for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications because of their fascinating physicochemical properties. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) scaffold that has been extracted from a novel bacteria using oil wastewater was selected to study. Some physical parameters affecting scaffold properties such as PHB concentration, solvent evaporation speed, and ultrasonic time were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the porosity. Afterward, the biocompatibility of PHB scaffold was assessed. Initial results showed the highly porous PHB scaffold structure with a variety of pore sizes. Subsequent results indicated that more unique pore sizes can be obtained by optimizing physical factors. It would be noticed that the morphology of the pore structure was accordingly affected by ultrasonic time. Hence, In vitro cell viability tests on the PHB scaffold using human foreskin fibroblasts revealed strong cell attachment and proliferation supports. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cost-effective PHB scaffold has the potential using as a biomaterial cell adhesion substrate in therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Polyhydroxybutyrate, biocompatible, scaffold, porous, tissue engineering

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166 Biological Activity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Surface of Implants

Authors: Saimir Heta, Ilma Robo, Dhimiter Papakozma, Eduart Kapaj, Vera Ostreni

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Introduction: The biocompatible materials applied to the implant surfaces are the target of recent literature studies. Methodologies: Modification of implant surfaces in different ways such as application of additional ions, surface microstructure change, surface or laser ultrasound alteration, or application of various substances such as recombinant proteins are among the most affected by articles published in the literature. The study is of review type with the main aim of finding the different ways that the mesenchymal cell reaction to these materials is, according to the literature, in the same percentage positive to the osteointegration process. Results: It is emphasized in the literature that implant success as a key evaluation key has more to implement implant treatment protocol ranging from dental health amenity and subsequent of the choice of implant type depending on the alveolar shape of the ridge level. Conclusions: Osteointegration is a procedure that should initially be physiologically independent of the type of implant pile material. With this physiological process, it can not "boast" for implant success or implantation depending on the brand of the selected implant, as the breadth of synthetic or natural materials that promote osteointegration is relatively large.

Keywords: mesenchymal cells, implants, review, biocompatible materials

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165 Controlled Size Synthesis of ZnO and PEG-ZnO NPs and Their Biological Evaluation

Authors: Mahnoor Khan, Bashir Ahmad, Khizar Hayat, Saad Ahmad Khan, Laiba Ahmad, Shumaila Bashir, Abid Ali Khan

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The objective of this study was to synthesize the smallest possible size of ZnO NPs using a modified wet chemical synthesis method and to prepare core shell using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as shell material. Advanced and sophisticated techniques were used to confirm the synthesis, size, and shape of these NPs. Rounded, clustered NPs of size 5.343 nm were formed. Both the plain and core shell NPs were tested against MDR bacteria (E. cloacae, E. amnigenus, Shigella, S. odorifacae, Citrobacter, and E. coli). Both of the NPs showed excellent antibacterial properties, whereas E. cloacae showed maximum zone of inhibition of 16 mm, 27 mm, and 32 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml, and 1500 μg/ml, respectively for plain ZnO NPs and 18 mm, 28 mm and 35 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml and 1500 μg/ml for core shell NPs. These NPs were also biocompatible on human red blood cells showing little hemolysis of only 4% for 70 μg/ml for plain NPs and 1.5% for 70 μg/ml for core shell NPs. Core shell NPs were highly biocompatible because of the PEG. Their therapeutic effect as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer treatment was also monitored. The cytotoxicity of ZnO and PEG-ZnO was evaluated using MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that these NPs could generate ROS inside tumor cells after irradiation which in turn initiates an apoptotic pathway leading to cell death hence proving to be an effective candidate for PDT.

Keywords: ZnO, hemolysis, cytotoxiciy assay, photodynamic therapy, antibacterial

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164 Biocompatible Beta Titanium Alloy Ti36Nb6Ta as a Suitable Material for Bone Regeneration

Authors: Vera Lukasova, Eva Filova, Jana Dankova, Vera Sovkova, Matej Daniel, Michala Rampichova

Abstract:

Proper bone implants should promote fast adhesion of cells, stimulate cell differentiation and support the formation of bone tissue. Nowadays titanium is used as a biocompatible material capable of bone tissue integration. This study was focused on comparison of bioactive properties of two titanium alloys - beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta and standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. The advantage of beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta is mainly that this material does not contain adverse elements like vanadium or aluminium. Titanium alloys were sterilized in ethanol, placed into 48 well plates and seeded with porcine mesenchymal stem cells. Cells were cultivated for 14 days in standard growth cultivation media with osteogenic supplements. Cell metabolic activity was quantified using MTS assay (Promega). Cell adhesion on day 1 and cell proliferation on further days were verified immunohistochemically using beta-actin monoclonal antibody and secondary antibody conjugated with AlexaFluor®488. Differentiation of cells was evaluated using alkaline phosphatase assay. Additionally, gene expression of collagen I was measured by qRT-PCR. Porcine mesenchymal stem cells adhered and spread well on beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta on day 1. During the 14 days’ time period the cells were spread confluently on the surface of the beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta. The metabolic activity of cells increased during the whole cultivation period. In comparison to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V, we did not observe any differences. Moreover, the expression of collagen I gene revealed no statistical differences between both titanium alloys. Therefore, a beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta promotes cell adhesion, metabolic activity, proliferation and collagen I expression equally to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. Thus, beta titanium is a suitable material that provides sufficient biocompatible properties. This project was supported by the Czech Science Foundation: grant No. 16-14758S.

Keywords: beta titanium alloy, biocompatibility, differentiation, mesenchymal stem cells

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163 Biocompatible Porous Titanium Scaffolds Produced Using a Novel Space Holder Technique

Authors: Yunhui Chen, Damon Kent, Matthew Dargusch

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Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 39 GPa, 16 GPa and 9 GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30 GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 315 MPa and 175 MPa are superior to that of human bone (130-180 MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: scaffolds, MG-63 cell culture, titanium, space holder

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162 Chitosan Doped Curcumin Gold Clusters Flexible Nanofiber for Wound Dressing and Anticancer Activities

Authors: Saravanan Govindaraju, Kyusik Yun

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The purpose of this study is to develop the chitosan doped curcumin gold cluster nanofiber for wound healing and skin cancer drug delivery applications. Chitosan is a typical marine polysaccharide composed of glucosamine and n-acetyl glucosamine biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. Curcumin is a natural bioactive molecule obtained from Curcuma longo, it mostly occurs in some Asian countries like India and China. It has naturally antioxidant, antimicrobial, wound healing and anticancer property. Due to this advantage, we prepared a combination of natural polymer chitosan with Curcumin and gold nanocluster nanofiber (CH-CUR-AuNCs nanofibers). The prepared nanofiber was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antibacterial studies were performed with E.coli and S.aureus. Antioxidant assay, drug release test, and cytotoxicity will be evaluated. Prepared nanofiber emits low intensity of red fluorescent. The FTIR confirm the presence of chitosan and Curcumin in the nanofiber. In vitro study clearly shows the antibacterial activity against the gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Particularly, synthesised nanofibers provide better antibacterial activity against gram negative than gram positive. Cytotoxicity study also provides better killing rate in cancer cell, biocompatible with normal cell. Prepared CH-CUR-AuNCs nanofibers provide the better killing rate to bacterial strains and cancer cells. Finally, prepared nanofiber can be possible to use for wound healing dressing, patch for skin cancer and other biomedical applications.

Keywords: curcumin, chitosan, gold clusters, nanofibers

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161 Development and Characterization of Multiphase Hydrogel Systems for Wound Healing

Authors: Rajendra Jangde, Deependra Singh

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Present work was based with objective to release of the antimicrobial and debriding agent in sustained manner at the wound surface. In order to provide a long-lasting antimicrobial action and moist environment on wound space, Biocompatible moist system was developed for complete healing. In the present study, a biocompatible moist system of PVA-gelatin hydrogel was developed capable of carrying multiple drugs- Quercetin and Cabopol in controlled manner for effective and complete wound healing. Carbopol and Quercetin were prepared by thin film hydration techniques and optimized system was incorporated in PVA-Gelatin slurry. PVA-Gelatin hydrogels were prepared by freeze thaw method. The prepared dispersion was casted into films to prepare multiphase hydrogel system and characterized by in vitro and in vivo studies. Results revealed the uniform dispersion of microspheres in a three-dimensional matrix of the PVA-Gelatin hydrogel observed at different magnifications. The in vitro release data showed typical biphasic release pattern, i.e., a burst release followed by a slower sustained release for 5 days. Prepared system was found to be stable under both normal and accelerated conditions. Histopathological study showed significant (p<0.05) increase in fibroblast cells, collagen fibres and blood vessels formation. All parameters such as wound contraction, tensile strength, histopathological and biochemical parameters- hydroxyproline content, protein level, etc. were observed significant (p<0.05) in comparison to control group. Present results suggest an accelerated re-epithelialization under moist wound environment with delivery of multiple drugs effective at different stages of wound healing cascade with minimum disturbance of wound bed.

Keywords: multiphase hydrogel, optimization quercetin, wound healing

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160 Finite Element Analysis of Shape Memory Alloy Stents in Coronary Arteries

Authors: Amatulraheem Al-Abassi, K. Khanafer, Ibrahim Deiab

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The coronary artery stent is a promising technology that can treat various coronary diseases. Materials used for manufacturing medical stents should have high biocompatible properties. Stent alloys, in particular, are remarkably promising good clinical outcomes, however, there is threaten of restenosis (reoccurring of artery narrowing due to fatty plaque), stent recoiling, or in long-term the occurrence of stent fracture. However, stents that are made of Nickel-titanium (Nitinol) can bare extensive plastic deformation and resist restenosis. This shape memory alloy has outstanding mechanical properties. Nitinol is a unique shape memory alloy as it has unique mechanical properties such as; biocompatibility, super-elasticity, and recovery to original shape under certain loads. Stent failure may cause complications in vascular diseases and possibly blockage of blood flow. Thus, studying the behaviors of the stent under different medical conditions will help the doctors and cardiologists to predict when it is necessary to change the stent in order to prevent any severe morbidity outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited published papers that analyze the stent behavior with regards to the contact surfaces of plaque layer and blood vessel. Thus, stent material properties will be discussed in this investigation to highlight the mechanical and clinical differences between various stents. This research analyzes the performance of Nitinol stent in well-known stent design to determine its bearing with stress and its dislocation in blood vessels, in comparison to stents made of different biocompatible materials. In addition, a study of its performance will be represented in the system. Finite Element Analysis is the core of this study. Thus, a physical representative model will be discussed to show the distribution of stress and strain along the interaction surface between the stent and the artery. The reaction of vascular tissue to the stent will be evaluated to predict the possibility of restenosis within the treated area.

Keywords: shape memory alloy, stent, coronary artery, finite element analysis

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159 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of MnxZnO1-X Nanocrystals Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: K. C. Gayithri, S. K. Naveen Kumar

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ZnO is one of the most important semiconductor materials, non toxic, biocompatible, antibacterial properties for research and it is used in many biomedical applications. MnxZn1-xO nano thin films were prepared by a spin coating sol-gel method on silicon substrate. The structural, optical, electrical properties of Mn Doped ZnO are studied by using X-rd, FESEM, UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The X-rd reveals that the sample shows hexagonal wurtzits structure. Surface morphology and thickness of the sample are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Absorption and transmission spectra are studied by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The electrical properties are measured by TCR meter.

Keywords: transition metals, Mn doped ZnO, Sol-gel, x-ray diffraction

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158 Control of Doxorubicin Release Rate from Magnetic PLGA Nanoparticles Using a Non-Permanent Magnetic Field

Authors: Inês N. Peça , A. Bicho, Rui Gardner, M. Margarida Cardoso

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Inorganic/organic nanocomplexes offer tremendous scope for future biomedical applications, including imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The combination of Fe3O4 with biocompatible polymers to produce smart drug delivery systems for use in pharmaceutical formulation present a powerful tool to target anti-cancer drugs to specific tumor sites through the application of an external magnetic field. In the present study, we focused on the evaluation of the effect of the magnetic field application time on the rate of drug release from iron oxide polymeric nanoparticles. Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, was selected as the model drug loaded into the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles composed of poly(d-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), a biocompatible polymer already approved by FDA, containing iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) for magnetic targeting and doxorubicin (DOX) were synthesized by the o/w solvent extraction/evaporation method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by dynamic light scattering (DLS), by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The produced particles yielded smooth surfaces and spherical shapes exhibiting a size between 400 and 600 nm. The effect of the magnetic doxorubicin loaded PLGA nanoparticles produced on cell viability was investigated in mammalian CHO cell cultures. The results showed that unloaded magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were nontoxic while the magnetic particles without polymeric coating show a high level of toxicity. Concerning the therapeutic activity doxorubicin loaded magnetic particles cause a remarkable enhancement of the cell inhibition rates compared to their non-magnetic counterpart. In vitro drug release studies performed under a non-permanent magnetic field show that the application time and the on/off cycle duration have a great influence with respect to the final amount and to the rate of drug release. In order to determine the mechanism of drug release, the data obtained from the release curves were fitted to the semi-empirical equation of the the Korsmeyer-Peppas model that may be used to describe the Fickian and non-Fickian release behaviour. Doxorubicin release mechanism has shown to be governed mainly by Fickian diffusion. The results obtained show that the rate of drug release from the produced magnetic nanoparticles can be modulated through the magnetic field time application.

Keywords: drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles, PLGA nanoparticles, controlled release rate

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157 Diselenide-Linked Redox Stimuli-Responsive Methoxy Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-b-Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide) Micelles for the Delivery of Doxorubicin in Cancer Cells

Authors: Yihenew Simegniew Birhan, Hsieh Chih Tsai

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The recent advancements in synthetic chemistry and nanotechnology fostered the development of different nanocarriers for enhanced intracellular delivery of pharmaceutical agents to tumor cells. Polymeric micelles (PMs), characterized by small size, appreciable drug loading capacity (DLC), better accumulation in tumor tissue via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and the ability to avoid detection and subsequent clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) system, are convenient to improve the poor solubility, slow absorption and non-selective biodistribution of payloads embedded in their hydrophobic cores and hence, enhance the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, redox-responsive polymeric micelles have gained significant attention for the delivery and controlled release of anticancer drugs in tumor cells. In this study, we synthesized redox-responsive diselenide bond containing amphiphilic polymer, Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ from mPEG-PLGA, and 3,3'-diselanediyldipropanoic acid (DSeDPA) using DCC/DMAP as coupling agents. The successful synthesis of the copolymers was verified by different spectroscopic techniques. Above the critical micelle concentration, the amphiphilic copolymer, Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂, self-assembled into stable micelles. The DLS data indicated that the hydrodynamic diameter of the micelles (123.9 ± 0.85 nm) was suitable for extravasation into the tumor cells through the EPR effect. The drug loading content (DLC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DOX-loaded micelles were found to be 6.61 wt% and 54.9%, respectively. The DOX-loaded micelles showed initial burst release accompanied by sustained release trend where 73.94% and 69.54% of encapsulated DOX was released upon treatment with 6mM GSH and 0.1% H₂O₂, respectively. The biocompatible nature of Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ copolymer was confirmed by the cell viability study. In addition, the DOX-loaded micelles exhibited significant inhibition against HeLa cells (44.46%), at a maximum dose of 7.5 µg/mL. The fluorescent microscope images of HeLa cells treated with 3 µg/mL (equivalent DOX concentration) revealed efficient internalization and accumulation of DOX-loaded Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ micelles in the cytosol of cancer cells. In conclusion, the intelligent, biocompatible, and the redox stimuli-responsive behavior of Bi(mPEG-PLGA)-Se₂ copolymer marked the potential applications of diselenide-linked mPEG-PLGA micelles for the delivery and on-demand release of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells.

Keywords: anticancer drug delivery, diselenide bond, polymeric micelles, redox-responsive

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156 Layersomes for Oral Delivery of Amphotericin B

Authors: A. C. Rana, Abhinav Singh Rana

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Layer by layer coating of biocompatible polyelectrolytes converts the liposomes into stable version i.e 'layersomes'. This system was further used to deliver the Amphotericin B through the oral route. Extensive optimization of different process variables resulted in the formation of layersomes with the particle size of 238.4±5.1, PDI of 0.24±0.16, the zeta potential of 34.6±1.3, and entrapment efficiency of 71.3±1.2. TEM analysis further confirmed the formation of spherical particles. Trehalose (10% w/w) resulted in the formation of fluffy and easy to redisperse cake in freeze dried layersomes. Controlled release up to 50 % within 24 h was observed in the case of layersomes. The layersomes were found stable in simulated biological fluids and resulted in the 3.59 fold higher bioavailability in comparison to free Amp-B. Furthermore, the developed formulation was found to be safe in comparison to Fungizone as indicated by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine level.

Keywords: amphotericin B, layersomes, liposomes, toxicity

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155 In Vitro Evaluation of a Chitosan-Based Adhesive to Treat Bone Fractures

Authors: Francisco J. Cedano, Laura M. Pinzón, Camila I. Castro, Felipe Salcedo, Juan P. Casas, Juan C. Briceño

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Complex fractures located in articular surfaces are challenging to treat and their reduction with conventional treatments could compromise the functionality of the affected limb. An adhesive material to treat those fractures is desirable for orthopedic surgeons. This adhesive must be biocompatible and have a high adhesion to bone surface in an aqueous environment. The proposed adhesive is based on chitosan, given its adhesive and biocompatibility properties. Chitosan is mixed with calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite, which contribute to structural support and a gel like behavior, and glutaraldehyde is used as a cross-linking agent to keep the adhesive mechanical performance in aqueous environment. This work aims to evaluate the rheological, adhesion strength and biocompatibility properties of the proposed adhesive using in vitro tests. The gelification process of the adhesive was monitored by oscillatory rheometry in an ARG-2 TA Instruments rheometer, using a parallel plate geometry of 22 mm and a gap of 1 mm. Time sweep experiments were conducted at 1 Hz frequency, 1% strain and 37°C from 0 to 2400 s. Adhesion strength is measured using a butt joint test with bovine cancellous bone fragments as substrates. The test is conducted at 5 min, 20min and 24 hours after curing the adhesive under water at 37°C. Biocompatibility is evaluated by a cytotoxicity test in a fibroblast cell culture using MTT assay and SEM. Rheological results concluded that the average gelification time of the adhesive is 820±107 s, also it reaches storage modulus magnitudes up to 106 Pa; The adhesive show solid-like behavior. Butt joint test showed 28.6 ± 9.2 kPa of tensile bond strength for the adhesive cured for 24 hours. Also there was no significant difference in adhesion strength between 20 minutes and 24 hours. MTT showed 70 ± 23 % of active cells at sixth day of culture, this percentage is estimated respect to a positive control (only cells with culture medium and bovine serum). High vacuum SEM observation permitted to localize and study the morphology of fibroblasts presented in the adhesive. All captured fibroblasts presented in SEM typical flatted structure with filopodia growth attached to adhesive surface. This project reports an adhesive based on chitosan that is biocompatible due to high active cells presented in MTT test and these results were correlated using SEM. Also, it has adhesion properties in conditions that model the clinical application, and the adhesion strength do not decrease between 5 minutes and 24 hours.

Keywords: bioadhesive, bone adhesive, calcium carbonate, chitosan, hydroxyapatite, glutaraldehyde

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154 Biocompatible Ionic Liquids in Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lactic Acid: A Comparative Study

Authors: Konstantza Tonova, Ivan Svinyarov, Milen G. Bogdanov

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Ionic liquids consisting of pairs of imidazolium or phosphonium cation and chloride or saccharinate anion were synthesized and compared with respect to their extraction efficiency towards the fermentative L-lactic acid. The acid partitioning in the equilibrated biphasic systems of ionic liquid and water was quantified through the extraction degree and the partition coefficient. The water transfer from the aqueous into the ionic liquid-rich phase was also always followed. The effect of pH, which determines the state of lactic acid in the aqueous source was studied. The effect of other salting-out substances that modify the ionic liquid/water equilibrium was also investigated in view to reveal the best liquid-liquid system with respect to low toxicity, high extraction and back extraction efficiencies and performance simplicity.

Keywords: ionic liquids, biphasic system, extraction, lactic acid

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153 The Biocompatibility and Osteogenic Potential of Experimental Calcium Silicate Based Root Canal Sealer, Capseal

Authors: Seok Woo Chang

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Aim: Capseal I and Capseal II are calcium silicate and calcium phosphate based experimental root canal sealer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and mineralization potential of Capseal I and Capseal II. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibility and mineralization-related gene expression (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OCN)) of Capseal I and Capseal II were compared using methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction analysis, respectively. The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: Both Capseal I and Capseal II were favorable in biocompatibility and influenced the messenger RNA expression of ALP and BSP. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, Capseal is biocompatible and have mineralization promoting potential, and thus could be a promising root canal sealer.

Keywords: biocompatibility, mineralization-related gene expression, Capseal I, Capseal II

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152 Systematic Exploration and Modulation of Nano-Bio Interactions

Authors: Bing Yan

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Nanomaterials are widely used in various industrial sectors, biomedicine, and more than 1300 consumer products. Although there is still no standard safety regulation, their potential toxicity is a major concern worldwide. We discovered that nanoparticles target and enter human cells1, perturb cellular signaling pathways2, affect various cell functions3, and cause malfunctions in animals4,5. Because the majority of atoms in nanoparticles are on the surface, chemistry modification on their surface may change their biological properties significantly. We modified nanoparticle surface using nano-combinatorial chemistry library approach6. Novel nanoparticles were discovered to exhibit significantly reduced toxicity6,7, enhance cancer targeting ability8, or re-program cellular signaling machineries7. Using computational chemistry, quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship (QNAR) is established and predictive models have been built to predict biocompatible nanoparticles.

Keywords: nanoparticle, nanotoxicity, nano-bio, nano-combinatorial chemistry, nanoparticle library

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151 Nano Gold and Silver for Control of Mosquitoes Manipulating Nanogeometries

Authors: Soam Prakash, Namita Soni

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The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an active area of academic and more significantly, applied research in nanotechnology. Currently, nanoparticle research is an area of intense scientific interest. Silver (Ag) and Gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) have been the focus of fungi and plant based syntheses. Silver and gold nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver and gold. These particles are of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size. Silver and gold have been use in the wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, electronic field, treatment of burns, wounds, and several bacterial infections. There is a crucial need to produce new insecticides due to resistance and high-cost of organic insecticides which are more environmentally-friendly, safe, and target-specific. Synthesizing nanoparticles using plants and microorganisms can eliminate this problem by making the nanoparticles more biocompatible. Here we reviewed the mosquitocidal and antimicrobials activity of silver and gold nanoparticles using fungi, plants as well as bacteria.

Keywords: nano gold, nano silver, Malaria, Chikengunia, dengue control

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150 Enhancement of Mechanical and Biological Properties in Wollastonite Bioceramics by MgSiO3 Addition

Authors: Jae Hong Kim, Sang Cheol Um, Jong Kook Lee

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Strong and biocompatible wollastonite (CaSiO3) was fabricated by pressureless sintering at temperature range of 1250~ 1300 ℃ and phase transition of to β-wollastonite with an addition of MgSiO3. Starting pure α-wollastonite powder were prepared by solid state reaction, and MgSiO3 powder was added to α-wollastonite powder to induce the phase transition α to β-wollastonite over 1250℃. Sintered wollastonite samples at 1250℃ with 5 and 10 wt% MgSiO3 were α+β phase and β phase respectively, and showed higher densification rate than that of α or β-wollastonite, which are almost the same as the theoretical density. Hardness and Young’s modulus of sintered wollastonite were dependent on the apparent density and the amount of β-wollastonite. Young’s modulus (78GPa) of β-wollastonite added 10 wt% MgSiO3 was almost double time of sintered α-wollastonite. From the in-vitro test, biphasic (α+β) wollastonite with 5wt% MgSiO3 addition had good bioactivity in simulated body fluid solution.

Keywords: β-wollastonite, high density, MgSiO3, phase transition

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149 Calcium Phosphate Cement/Gypsum Composite as Dental Pulp Capping

Authors: Jung-Feng Lin, Wei-Tang Chen, Chung-King Hsu, Chun-Pin Lin, Feng-Huei Lin

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One of the objectives of operative dentistry is to maintain pulp health in compromised teeth. Mostly used methods for this purpose are direct pulp capping and pulpotomy, which consist of placement of biocompatible materials and bio-inductors on the exposed pulp tissue to preserve its health and stimulate repair by mineralized tissue formation. In this study, we developed a material (calcium phosphate cement (CPC)/gypsum composite) as the dental pulp capping material for shortening setting time and improving handling properties. We further discussed the influence of five different ratio of gypsum to CPC on HAP conversion, microstructure, setting time, weight loss, pH value, temperature difference, viscosity, mechanical properties, porosity, and biocompatibility.

Keywords: calcium phosphate cement, calcium sulphate hemihydrate, pulp capping, fast setting time

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148 Reinforcement of Calcium Phosphate Cement with E-Glass Fibre

Authors: Kanchan Maji, Debasmita Pani, Sudip Dasgupta

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Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) due to its high bioactivity and optimum bioresorbability shows excellent bone regeneration capability. Despite it has limited applications as bone implant due to its macro-porous microstructure causing its poor mechanical strength. The reinforcement of apatitic CPCs with biocompatible fibre glass phase is an attractive area of research to improve its mechanical strength. Here we study the setting behaviour of Si-doped and un-doped alpha tri-calcium phosphate (α-TCP) based CPC and its reinforcement with the addition of E-glass fibre. Alpha tri-calcium phosphate powders were prepared by solid state sintering of CaCO3, CaHPO4 and tetra ethyl ortho silicate (TEOS) was used as silicon source to synthesise Si doped α-TCP powders. Alpha tri-calcium phosphate based CPC hydrolyzes to form hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals having excellent osteoconductivity and bone-replacement capability thus self-hardens through the entanglement of HA crystals. Setting time, phase composition, hydrolysis conversion rate, microstructure, and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of un-doped CPC and Si-doped CPC were studied and compared. Both initial and final setting time of the developed cement was delayed because of Si addition. Crystalline phases of HA (JCPDS 9-432), α-TCP (JCPDS 29-359) and β-TCP (JCPDS 9-169) were detected in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern after immersion of CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0 hours to 10 days. The intensities of the α-TCP peaks of (201) and (161) at 2θ of 22.2°and 24.1° decreased when the time of immersion of CPC in SBF increased from 0 hours to 10 days, due to its transformation into HA. As Si incorporation in the crystal lattice stabilised the TCP phase, Si doped CPC showed a little slower rate of conversion into HA phase as compared to un-doped CPC. The SEM image of the microstructure of hardened CPC showed lower grain size of HA in un-doped CPC because of premature setting and faster hydrolysis of un-doped CPC in SBF as compared that in Si-doped CPC. Premature setting caused generation of micro and macro porosity in un-doped CPC structure which resulted in its lower mechanical strength as compared to that in Si-doped CPC. This lower porosity and greater compactness in the microstructure attributes to greater DTS values observed in Si-doped CPC. E-glass fibres of the average diameter of 12 μm were cut into approximately 1 mm in length and immersed in SBF to deposit carbonated apatite on its surface. This was performed to promote HA crystal growth and entanglement along the fibre surface to promote stronger interface between dispersed E-glass fibre and CPC matrix. It was found that addition of 10 wt% of E-glass fibre into Si-doped α-TCP increased the average DTS of CPC from 8 MPa to 15 MPa as the fibres could resist the propagation of crack by deflecting the crack tip. Our study shows that biocompatible E-glass fibre in optimum proportion in CPC matrix can enhance the mechanical strength of CPC without affecting its bioactivity.

Keywords: Calcium phosphate cement, biocompatibility, e-glass fibre, diametral tensile strength

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147 Synthesis of Solid Polymeric Materials by Maghnite-H⁺ as a Green Catalyst

Authors: Draoua Zohra, Harrane Amine

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The Solid Polymeric Materials have been successfully prepared by the copolymerization of e-caprolactone (CL) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) employing Maghnite-H+ at 80°C. Maghnite-H+ is a solid catalyst non-toxic. The presence of PEG chains leads to a break in the growth of PCL chains and consequently leads to the copolymer tri-block PCL-PEG-PCL. The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize of Solid Polymeric Materials. The highly hydrophilic nature of polyethylene glycol has sparked our interest in developing a Solid Polymeric based e-caprolactone and poly (ethylene glycol). PCL and PEG are biocompatible materials. Their ring-opening copolymerization using Maghnite H+ makes to the Solid Polymeric Materials. The morphology and structure of Solid polymeric Materials were characterized by ¹H and ¹³C-NMR spectra and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). This paper developed the application of Maghnite-H+ as an efficient catalyst by an easy-to-handle procedure to get solid polymeric materials. A cationic mechanism for the copolymerization reaction was proposed.

Keywords: block copolymers, maghnite, montmorillonite, poly(e-caprolactone)

Procedia PDF Downloads 94