Search results for: Iran
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1122

Search results for: Iran

1122 The Law of Treaties and National Security of Islamic Republic of Iran

Authors: S. M. Tavakoli Sani, M. Sabbet Moghadam, Y. Khorram Farhadi, Iraj Rezayi Nejad


The concept of national security in Iran is a permanently effective factor in acceptance or rejection of many international obligations. These obligations had been defined according to the type of legislation of Iran in many aspects. Therefore, there are several treaties at international level which requires Iran’s security to come in contact with obligations in these treaties in a way that an obstacle to join to them and their passage in parliament. This issue is a typical category which every country pays attention to be accepted in treaties or to include their national security in that treaties and also they can see the related treaties from this perspective, but this issue that 'what is the concept of Iran’s national security', and 'To what extent it is changed in recent years, especially after Islamic Revolution' are important issues that can be criticized. Thus, this study is trying to assess singed treaties from the perspective of Iran’s national security according of the true meaning of treaty and to investigate how the international treaties may be in conflict with Iran’s national security.

Keywords: treaties, national security, Iran, Islamic Revolution

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1121 An Analysis of Oil Price Changes and Other Factors Affecting Iranian Food Basket: A Panel Data Method

Authors: Niloofar Ashktorab, Negar Ashktorab


Oil exports fund nearly half of Iran’s government expenditures, since many years other countries have been imposed different sanctions against Iran. Sanctions that primarily target Iran’s key energy sector have harmed Iran’s economy. The strategic effects of sanctions might be reduction as Iran adjusts to them economically. In this study, we evaluate the impact of oil price and sanctions against Iran on food commodity prices by using panel data method. Here, we find that the food commodity prices, the oil price and real exchange rate are stationary. The results show positive effect of oil price changes, real exchange rate and sanctions on food commodity prices.

Keywords: oil price, food basket, sanctions, panel data, Iran

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1120 A Nuclear Negotiation Qualitative Case Study with Force Field Analysis

Authors: Onur Yuksel


In today’s complex foreign relations between countries, the nuclear enrichment and nuclear weapon have become a threat for all states in the world. There are couple isolated states which have capacity to produce nuclear weapons such as Iran and North Korea. In this article, Iran nuclear negotiation was analyzed in terms of its relations especially with The United States in order to find the important factors that affect the course of the ongoing nuclear negotiation. In this sense, the Force Field Analysis was used by determining and setting forth Driving and Restraining Forces of the nuclear negotiations in order to see the big picture and to develop strategies that may improve the long-term ongoing Iran nuclear negotiations. It is found that Iran nuclear negotiation heavily depends on breaking down the idea of Iran’s supporting terrorist organizations and being more transparent about nuclear and uranium enrichment. Also, it was found that Iran has to rebuild its relations with Western countries, especially with the United States. In addition, the counties— who contribute to Iran nuclear negotiations— will need to work on the dynamics and drivers of the Israel and Iran relations in order to peacefully transform the conflict between the two states.

Keywords: driving force, Iran nuclear negotiation, restraining force, the force field analysis

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1119 An Investigation on the Role of Iwan as a Sustainable Element in the Traditional Houses of Different Climatic Regions of Iran

Authors: H. Nejadriahi


This paper focuses on the performance of Iwan as one of the significant spaces in the traditional architecture of Iran. The aim of this study is to investigate on the role of Iwan in sustainability enhancement of traditional houses of different climatic regions of Iran. Iwan is considered as a semi-open space, which its form and location in the building highly depends to the climatic situation of that region. For that reason, Iwan is recognized as one of the sustainable elements in the traditional houses of Iran, which can provide more comfort with less use of energy. In this study, the history and emergence of Iwan in the traditional architecture of Iran as well as the concept of sustainability in architecture are explained briefly. Then, the change of performance or form of Iwan is analysed in different climatic regions of Iran in accordance to the sustainability concepts. The methods used in this study are descriptive and analytic. Results of this paper verify that studying the sustainability solutions in the traditional architecture of Iran, would be a valuable source of inspiration for the current designers to create an environmental and sustainable architecture for the future.

Keywords: climatic regions of Iran, Iwan, sustainability, traditional houses

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1118 Sanction Influences and Reconstruction Strategies for Iran Oil Market in Post-Sanctions

Authors: Mehrdad HassanZadeh Dugoori, Iman Mohammadali Tajrishi


Since Iran's nuclear program became public in 2002, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been unable to confirm Tehran's assertions that its nuclear activities are exclusively for peaceful purposes and that it has not sought to develop nuclear weapons. The United Nations Security Council has adopted six resolutions since 2006 requiring Iran to stop enriching uranium - which can be used for civilian purposes, but also to build nuclear bombs, which Iran never follow this strategy- and co-operate with the IAEA. Four resolutions have included progressively expansive sanctions to persuade Tehran to comply. The US and EU have imposed additional sanctions on Iranian oil exports and banks since 2012. In this article we reassess the sanction dimensions of Iran and the influences. Then according to the last agreement between P5+1 and Iran in 15 July 2015, we mention reconstruction strategies for oil export markets of Iran and the operational program for one million barrel of crude oil sales per day. These strategies are the conclusion of focus group and brain storming with Iran's oil and gas managers during content analysis.

Keywords: post-sanction, oil market, reconstruction, marketing, strategy

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1117 Performance of Environmental Efficiency of Energy Iran and Other Middle East Countries

Authors: Bahram Fathi, Mahdi Khodaparast Mashhadi, Masuod Homayounifar


According to 1404 forecasting documentation, among the most fundamental ways of Iran’s success in competition with other regional countries are innovations, efficiency enhancements and domestic productivity. Therefore, in this study, the energy consumption efficiency of Iran and the neighbor countries has been measured in the period between 2007-2012 considering the simultaneous economic activities, CO2 emission, and consumption of energy through data envelopment analysis of undesirable output. The results of the study indicated that the energy efficiency changes in both Iran and the average neighbor countries has been on a descending trend and Iran’s energy efficiency status is not desirable compared to the other countries in the region.

Keywords: energy efficiency, environmental, undesirable output, data envelopment analysis

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1116 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot–Humid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem


This paper concentrates on the sustainable traditional architecture and urban planning in hot-humid regions of Iran. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate traditional architecture in hot-humid climate of Iran as a sample of sustainable architecture. Iranian traditional architecture has been able to response to environmental problems for a long period of time. Its features are based on climatic factors, local construction materials of hot-humid regions and culture. This paper concludes that Iranian traditional architecture can be addressed as a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: hot-humid climate, Iran, sustainable traditional architecture, urban planning

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1115 Comparison of Buyback Contracts and Concession Regimes in the Regime of the Common Law System and the Islamic Legal Regime

Authors: Javid Zarei


International buyback contracts are a type of contract service. These kinds of contracts are the most important instrument for attracting foreign investors in accordance with Iran's laws. These contracts have been the basis of commercial and economic relations between Iran and foreign companies for about 30 years. The legal structure of this type of contract has gradually evolved, so today, an advanced generation of it under the title of Iran Petroleum Contract is being used in the industry of Iran. This article has analytically examined the issue of Iran's commercial contracts in the oil industry and contracting services and allocated sections to examine the strengths and weaknesses of these oil contracts. Also, this research is an attempt to examine and compare the Concession regime with the Buyback contracts, each of which is derived from the common law legal system and the Islamic legal system, respectively.

Keywords: buyback contracts, concession regime, ownership, common law legal system, Islamic legal system of Iran

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1114 The History of the Residential Care Environments for the Elderly in Iran

Authors: Saeed Haghnia


This paper traces the back history of environments in which the elderly who could not stay in private dwellings were accommodated and taken care of in Iran in the 19th century. It investigates the factors impacting on the establishment of the first nursing homes in Iran in 1973. Today in 2020, the nursing home is the only available model of residential care environment for the elderly who cannot stay in private dwellings in Iran. Understanding the evolution of these environments from a socio-political perspective is crucial before studying nursing homes’ response to the elderly and society in Iran and seeking any alternative model specific to the context. However, no study on the evolution of these environments in Iran was found. Thus, this paper, by going through primary and secondary resources and from a socio-political perspective, investigates how the elderly who could not stay in private dwellings were accommodated and taken care of in Iran in the 19th century. Maristan, in the early 19th century in Egypt as a part of Islamic territory, is an example of such spaces in which homeless elderly were kept and taken care of. This study suggests that in the 19th century in Iran in lack of significant governmental influence over people’s social affairs, any potential environments accommodating and taking care of the elderly who could not stay in private dwellings (mainly homeless) in Iran were probably regulated or supported by local figures, specifically clergies, as a response to the need for taking care of the vulnerable members of society.

Keywords: nursing home, ageing, Iran, middle east, Qajar, Pahlavi

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1113 The Relationship between Organizational Culture and the Establishment of Knowledge Management in the Central Insurance of Iran

Authors: Alireza Assareh, Fatemeh Havas Beigi, Mohammad Vafaee Yeganeh


The present study is conducted to investigate the relationship between organizational culture and the establishment of knowledge management in the Central Insurance of Iran. The research results revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between organizational culture and its elements that include management support, organizational belonging, individual innovation, and leadership style and the establishment of knowledge management in the central insurance of Iran and that there isn’t any significant relationship between conflict resolution and the establishment of knowledge management in the central insurance of Iran.

Keywords: organizational culture, knowledge management, central insurance of Iran, individual innovation

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1112 Turkey’s Ideological and Identity Politics towards Iran in the Arab Uprising: The Case of Syrian Civil War

Authors: Cangul Altundas Akcay


With the beginning of the mass movement called as the Arab Uprising, Middle Eastern politics has demonstrated an influential shift which has been threatening the existence of the ruling regimes. In this environment, in particular, regional powers have desired to control regional politics, and to expand their regional influence. Bearing that in mind, Turkey and Iran, two significant regional powers, have engaged in competition so as to affect the shifted regional geopolitics. In this context, this paper aims to investigate how regional powers, especially non-Arab ones, have viewed each other in the Arab Uprising, whereby focusing on Turkish perspectives towards Iran. In other words, it will shed light on how Turkey has conducted foreign policy towards Iran during the Arab Uprising. To analyse this, Turkey’s ideological and identity politics towards Iran will be examined as one of its foreign policy approaches. The question is thus that how ideological and identity politics have determined Turkish foreign policy towards Iran in the Arab Uprising. To answer that, the Syrian civil war will be analysed as the case study in this qualitative study, hypothesising that Turkey, which has both Turkish identity and Sunni sect, has competed with Iran, which has both Farsi identity and Shia sect, over the Syrian civil war.

Keywords: Arab uprising, ideological and identity politics, Iran, Turkey, Syrian civil war

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1111 The Roots of the Robust and Looting Economy (poverty and inequality) in Iran after the 1979 Revolution, From the Perspective of Acem Oglu & Robinson theory

Authors: Vorya Shabrandi


The study factors of poverty and inequality causes in countries is the subject of many scholars and economists in the last century, theorists in various areas of economic science know different factors as the roots of poverty and inequality in Iran after the 1979 revolution. Economists have emphasized political elements and political scientists on political elements. This research reviews the political economy of poverty and corruption in Iran after the revolution. The findings of this research, based on AcemOgluand Robinson theory, show how the institutional structural dependence of Iran's economy to raw has led to the growth of its non-economic economic institutions and its consequence of the continuity of the release and looting economy and poverty and inequality in Iran's political economy Is. This research was carried out using descriptive-analytical and comparative methods. Many economists try to justify the conditions of the country based on war, sanctions; And the external factors, and ... knows. In this study, we tried to examine the roots of poverty and the looting economy of Iran by implementing Research AcemOgluand Robinson on the institutions and roots of poverty. Looking for a framework for understanding why countries, such as Iran, the reason for the difference in revenue in different countries, as well as the poor or wealth of countries, regardless of the non-effective and non-professional institutions, and why inefficient institutions in some countries, such as Iran, such as Iran It remains and does not have a voluntary political powers to change these institutions. Findings The research shows that institutions are broadly the main reason for the roots of the robust and looting economy (poverty and inequality) in Iran.

Keywords: Iran, plunderable (Loot) economy, raw shopping, poverty and inequality, acem oglu and robinson, non-inclusive institutions

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1110 Framing Mahsa Amini and Iran Protest: A Comparative Analysis of Tehran times and the Wall Street Journal

Authors: Nimmy Maria Joseph, Muhammed Hafiludheen


On September 16, a 22-year-old Iranian woman, Mahsa Amini, died in Tehran after she was arrested by the ‘Morality police’ for an accusation of not wearing a hijab according to the standards laid down by the Iran Government. Suspicions aroused as the incident happened while Mahsa Amini was under the custody of Iran police. People of Iran accused that she was severely beaten up by the police, which led to her death. This initiated an array of women-led protests in Iran, leading to the ignition of massive uproars in the country. The Law Enforcement Command of Iran reported that she collapsed due to a heart attack and not due to police brutality. However, as a result, Iran faced a series of conflicts between the Government of Iran and the civilians, especially women. The research paper presents the framing analysis of online news stories on Mahsa Amini’s death and the resultant protest in Iran. The researcher analysed the online news stories of two popular newspapers, Tehran Times (Iran) and The Wall Street Journal (USA). The focus of the study is to have a comparative analysis of the frames of the news stories used and find out their agenda-setting pattern. It helps to comprehend how the news stories of popular news organisations try to channelise the perception of their audience on social issues. The researcher analysed the news stories considering their frames, valence, polysemy, rhetoric devices, and technical devices.

Keywords: mahsa amini, iran protest, framing analysis, valence, rhetoric device, tehran times, the wall street journal

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1109 Video on Demand (VOD) Industry in Iran: Study of Reasons of Increasing Film and Series Platforms

Authors: Narges Hamidipour


VOD, which stands for "video on demand", is one kind of watching movies and series on web platforms that, by using them, individuals can access lots of video content by paying abonnement. The first platform in Iran was funded in 2014, and in the last 10 years, it has become the main part of the movie and series industry. There are 374 VOD platforms in Iran, but just three of them are in the mainstream. However, in these years, they have been developed and famed in different ways. This article focuses on the reasons for this development in the past years. For the framework, "digital economy", "media industries," and "political economy" have been used with the interview method. In this research, some experts in SATRA (regulatory organization of inclusive audio and video media in Iran), owners or managers of VODs and some others who directly have been in the system conveyed their opinions. By the way, some documents and analysis statistics are invoked to reach complete results.

Keywords: digital economy, political economy, VOD, interview, iran

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1108 Artemisia Species from Iran as Valuable Resources for Medicinal Uses

Authors: Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Farzad Alaeimoghadam, Hossein Ghafoori


Artemisia species, which are medically beneficial, are widespread in temperate regions of both Northern and Southern hemispheres among which Iran is located. About 35 species of Artemisia are indigenous in Iran among them some are widespread in all or most provinces, yet some are restricted to some specific regions. In this review paper, initially, GC-Mass results of some experiments done in different provinces of Iran are mentioned among them some compounds are common among species, some others are mostly restricted to other species; after that, medical advantages based on some researches on species of this genus are reviewed; different qualities such as anti-leishmania, anti-bacteria, antiviral as well as anti-proliferative could be mentioned.

Keywords: artemisia, GC-Mass analysis, medical advantage, antiviral

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1107 The Effect of Microfinance on Labor Productivity of SME - The Case of Iran

Authors: Sayyed Abdolmajid Jalaee Esfand Abadi, Sepideh Samimi


Since one of the major difficulties to develop small manufacturing enterpriser in developing countries is the limitations of financing activities, this paper want to answer the question: “what is the role and status of micro finance in improving the labor productivity of small industries in Iran?” The results of panel data estimation show that micro finance in Iran has not yet been able to work efficiently and provide the required credit and investment. Also, reducing economy’s dependence on oil revenues reduced and increasing its reliance on domestic production and exports of industrial production can increase the productivity of workforce in Iranian small industries.

Keywords: microfinance, small manufacturing enterprises (SME), workforce productivity, Iran, panel data

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1106 The Correlation Between the Rise of China and the US-Iranian Conflict: An American Perspective

Authors: Ranj Tofik


This article aims to demonstrate a link and/or correlation between the rise of China and the US-Iranian conflict, from a US point of view. To demonstrate this link, the article relies on the content analysis method by analyzing American reports and official data. This article concludes that this correlation indicates that the more China rises and the greater the Chinese threat to America, the more changes will occur in the US-Iranian conflict and the US actions regarding this conflict will increase – in the form of imposing sanctions and using means of pressure on Iran, or trying to reach an agreement and settlement with Iran. This article, via noting and observing that correlation, also claims that before 2012, Iran was a regional threat to US interests in the Middle East. However, after 2012 when the rise of China became one of the major threats to America, Iran, because of its rapprochement with China, became also part of the Chinese threat, which is a threat to America's global standing. In addition, observing this correlation indicates the possibility that the rise of China and its threat to the USA has become one of the main drivers in the US-Iranian conflict. Consequently, it can be said that Iran has become a vital issue in the US-China rivalry, as it has become an appropriate gateway for China to enter the Middle East and undermine US hegemony there.

Keywords: China-Iran relations, China's rise, JCPOA, US-Chinese competition, US-Iranian conflict

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1105 Evaluation of Illegal Hunting of Red Deer and Conservation Policy of Department of Environment in Iran

Authors: Tahere Fazilat


Caspian red deer or maral (Cervus elaphus maral) is the largest type of deer in iran. Maral in the past has lived in the north forests of Iran from the Caspian sea coast, Alborz mountains chain and oak forest of Zagros margin from the Azarbaijan up to fars province. However, the generation of them was completely destroyed in the north west and west of Iran. According to reports about 50 years and out of reach of humans. In the present studies, data were collected from 2004 to 2014 in the Mazandaran state Hyrcanian forest by means of guard of environment and justiciary office of department of environment of Mazandaran in this process the all arrested illegal hunting of red deer and the population census, estimation and the correlation of these data was assayed. We provide a first evaluation of how suitable these methods are by comparing the results with population estimates obtained using cohort analysis, and by analyzing the within-season variation in number of seen deer. The data gave us the future of red deer in northern forest of Iran and the results of policy of department of environment in Iran in red deer conservation.

Keywords: illegal hunting, red deer, census, concervation

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1104 Iran and the Security of the Gulf Cooperation Council States

Authors: Ibrahim Alshalan


The Islamic Republic of Iran is one of the greatest and most powerful countries, not only in the Arabian Gulf but in the entire Middle East region. However, the Iranian regime, which came to power as a result of the 1979 revolution that resulted in overthrowing the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, has been the biggest source of threat to the stability of the Middle East since the revolution until this day. It has ambitions to dominate the neighboring Arab countries, especially Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Yemen and Bahrain. Iran has bad relationships with countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which includes Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain. The main objective of this paper is to shed light on the deteriorating political relations between the Iranian regime on one hand and the GCC on the other, especially Saudi Arabia which is witnessing more challenges as a result of Iran's determination to develop its nuclear program. Another important objective of this paper is to identify the Iranian role in the creation of the hotbeds of conflict in addition to its responsibility for some of the region's problems. It also aims to answer the question; why does Iran insist on developing its controversial nuclear program?

Keywords: Iran, GCC, Gulf, Saudi Arabia

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1103 Some Aspects of Water Resources Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions, Case Study of Western Iran

Authors: Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi


Water resource management is of global significance as it plays a key role in the socioeconomic development of all nations. On account of the fact that Iran is situated in a highly pressurized belt in the world, precipitation is limited, so that the average annual precipitation in the country is about 250 mm, only about one third to one quarter of the world average for rainfall. Karkheh basin is located in the semiarid and arid regions of Western Iran, an area with severe water scarcity. 70 % of rainfall is directly evaporated. The potential annual evaporation of the southern and northern regions is 3,600 mm 1,800 mm, respectively. In this paper, Some aspects of water resources management for this region, the specifications of the Karkheh reservoir dam & hydroelectric power plant as the biggest dam in history of Iran with total volume of reservoir 7.3 Bm3 are illustrated. Also the situation of water availability in the basin, surface and groundwater potential are considered.

Keywords: Iran, water availability, water resources, Zagros

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1102 The Modified WBS Based on LEED Rating System in Decreasing Energy Consumption and Cost of Buildings

Authors: Mehrab Gholami Zangalani, Siavash Rajabpour


In compliance with the Statistical Centre of Iran (SCI)’s results, construction and housing section in Iran is consuming 40% of energy, which is 5 times more than the world average consumption. By considering the climate in Iran, the solutions in terms of design, construction and exploitation of the buildings by utilizing the LEED rating system (LRS) is presented, regarding to the reasons for the high levels of energy consumption during construction and housing in Iran. As a solution, innovative Work Break Structure (WBS) in accordance with LRS and Iranian construction’s methods is unveiled in this research. Also, by amending laws pertaining to the construction in Iran, the huge amount of energy and cost can be saved. Furthermore, with a scale-up of these results to the scale of big cities such as Tehran (one of the largest metropolitan areas in the middle east) in which the license to build more than two hundred and fifty units each day is issued, the amount of energy and cost that can be saved is estimated.

Keywords: costs reduction, energy statistics, leed rating system (LRS), work brake structure (WBS)

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1101 The First Report of Fresh Water Crab Potamon Potamios (Decapoda: brachyura) in Chahnimeh’s Water Reservoirs from Sistan, Iran

Authors: Ahmad Gharaei, Javad Mirdar Harijani


The freshwater crab family (Potamidae Ortmann, 1896) is a big group and varies over 500 species in 74 genuses. This family distributed in South Europe, South Africa, East and South-east Asian. Iran's Sistan region located in the South East and recently after a decade of drought in the international wetland of Hamoon, in fact, the aquatic fauna in the Chahnimeh’s water reservoirs had taken refuge. This paper reports the second site for Potamon Potamios, in the southern half of the Iran. The specimens were collected from the shallow water in reservoir banks with muddy bottom in July 2010. The morphological features, habitat and systematic, are described.

Keywords: freshwater crab, potamon potamios, sistan, Iran

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1100 Isolation of the Leptospira spp. from the Rice Farming Lands in the North of Iran by EMJH Media

Authors: S. Rostampour Yasouri, M. Ghane


Leptospirosis is one the most important common diseases between human and live stock occurred by different species of Leptospira. This disease has been construed as the native in the northern provinces of Iran and risk of the infection with pathogenic is high. One hundred fifteen samples of water (67), soil (36) and feces of rodents (12) were collected from the rice fields of the suburbs of Tonekabon Township situated in northern part of Iran in 2012. The samples, after passage from membranous filters, were cultured in the liquid and solid EMJH medium and incubated at 30°C for 1 month. Leptospira spp. were isolated using culture technique, and the plates were studied from viewpoint of colony formation, microscopic observations and then identified by phenotyping tests. Finally, the identification of Leptospira genus was verified by PCR technique and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of 115 samples totally, 55 samples (47.82%) became positive by use of the culture technique which the positive cases included 47 water samples (70.14%) and 8 soil samples (22.22%), while the isolation was not accomplished from the sample of the rodents feces. Overall, according to these data, Leptospira spp. exists with high frequency in North Iran. Hence, based on foregoing evidence environments in the north of Iran are vehicles of Leptospira spp.

Keywords: EMJH Medium, Leptospira, Northern of Iran, rice fields

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1099 Sustainable Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings in Iran: Harnessing Sunlight and Navigating Limited Water Resources

Authors: Amin Khamoosh, Hamed Faramarzifar


In the capital of Iran, Tehran, numerous buildings constructed when extreme climates were not prevalent now face the need for rehabilitation, typically within their first decade. Our data delves into the performance metrics and economic advantages of sustainable rehabilitation practices compared to traditional methods. With a focus on the scarcity of water resources, we specifically scrutinize water-efficient techniques throughout construction, rehabilitation, and usage. Examining design elements that optimize natural light while efficiently managing heat transmission is crucial, given the reliance on water for cooling devices in this region. The data aims to present a comprehensive strategy, addressing immediate structural concerns while harmonizing with Iran's unique environmental conditions.

Keywords: sustainable rehabilitation, concrete buildings, iran, solar energy, water-efficient techniques

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1098 Ranking the Elements of Relationship Market Orientation Banks (Case Study: Saderat Bank of Iran)

Authors: Sahar Jami, Iman Valizadeh


Today banks not only should seek for new customers but also should consider previous maintenance and retention and establish a stable relationship with them. In this term, relationship-manner marketing seeks to make, maintain, and promote the relationship between customers and other stakeholders in benefits to fulfill all involved parties. This fact is possible just by interactive transaction and promises fulfillment. According to the importance of relationship-manner marketing in banks, making context to make relationship-manner marketing has high importance. Therefore, the present study aims at exploring intention condition to relationship-manner marketing in Iran Province Iran Limited bank, and also prioritizing its variables using hierarchical analysis (AHP). There is questionnaire designed in this research to paired comparison of relationship-manner marketing elements. After distributing this questionnaire among statistical society members who are 20 of Iran Limited bank experts, data analysis has been done by Expert Choice software.

Keywords: relationship marketing, relationship market orientation, Saderat Bank of Iran, hierarchical analysis

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1097 The Effect of Iran's Internet Filtering on Active Digital Marketing Businesses

Authors: Maryam Sheikhzadeh Noshabadi


There is no doubt that the Internet has connected the entire world. As a result of this flexible environment, virtual businesses have grown in importance and become one of the most important types of businesses. Although many governments use the internet and have free access to it, some are not happy with the free space and wide accessibility. As a result of recent events and civil protests in Iran, the country's government leaders have decided to once again cut off and filter its free and global Internet. Several issues were impacted by this decision; this includes the lives of businesses that were formed in virtual spaces platform. In this study, we explored the definitive impact of the Internet in Iran in September 1401, using semi-structured interviews with 20 digital marketing activists. This group was discussed in detail in terms of their financial and psychological damages. As a result of these conditions, this group has experienced a crisis of livelihood.

Keywords: internet, Iran, filtering, digital marketing.

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1096 Identifying the Factors Influencing the Success of the Centers for Distance Knowledge Sharing in Iran

Authors: Abdolreza Noroozi Chakoli


This study aims to examine the impact of five effective factors on the success of the managers of distance knowledge sharing centers in Iran. To conduct it, 3 centers, including the National Library and Archives of Iran (NLAI), Scientific Information Database Center (SID), and Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC), were selected to study the effect of five factors 'infrastructure of information technology', 'experienced staff', 'specialized staff', 'employee public relations' and 'the geographical location of the establishment' on the success of the centers. ANOVA test, Scheffe test, and Pearson's correlation test were used to analyze the data. The findings confirmed the effect of all 5 factors on the success of these centers. However, their effects are not the same on each factor. The results show each of these factors is not only individually but also together affect the success of centers for distance knowledge sharing. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there is a correlation between these factors. The results of this study show what factors determine the success of the centers and their efficiency in distance knowledge sharing in Iran.

Keywords: distance knowledge sharing centers, Iran’s knowledge centers, knowledge sharing centers, staff success

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1095 The Effects of Globalization on the Foreign Policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the 21st Century

Authors: Pouriya Angosht Baft, Farzan Safari Sabet


Globalization should be considered as a process that has affected all areas of human activity, including the foreign policy of countries. The phenomenon of globalization has created tremendous changes in the economic, political and cultural fields. Obviously, no country can keep itself away from the new global consequences and globalization process. Dealing with the world requires formulating a realistic and intelligent foreign policy. By examining the phenomenon of globalization and its impact on foreign policy, this article aims to provide solutions for formulating a more active and effective foreign policy. The conclusion of this research is that Iran's foreign policy has gradually moved towards more realism and maintaining and strengthening national interests in the changing world has been the focus of foreign policy makers and decision makers. Strengthening the course of more realism in the future should be at the center of formulating Iran's foreign policy.

Keywords: globalization, foreign policy, international relations, realism, iran

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1094 Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition of Two Ecotypes of Achillea wilhelmsii in Iran

Authors: L. Amjad, M. Torki, F. Yazdani


The genus Achillea belongs to Asteraceae family. This plant is widely found in different regions of Iran and used for treatment of different diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of Achillea wilhelmsii in Iran. The aerial parts of A. wilhelmsii collected from Shahrekord and Mazandaran Province, Iran and they were analyzed by using GC/MS. The 23, 13 compounds were identified in dried aerial parts of A. wilhelmsii from Shahrekord and Mazandaran, respectively. The major components in Shahrekord were: 1,8-Cineole (35.532%), α-pinene (22.885%), Camphor (12.238%), Camphene (8.691%), Piperitol (3.748%), Ethanone (2.274%) and The major components in Mazandaran were: 1,8-Cineole (52.951%), α-pinene (13.985%), Camphor (11.824%), Camphene (8.531%), Terpineol (2.533%), α-Thujone (2.330%). According to the results, difference in essential oil components of Achillea species in different regions may be due to the several factors that leads to change in compositions of plant.

Keywords: achillea wilhelmsii, essential oils, GC/MS

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1093 Applied Theory Building to Achieve Success in Iran Municipalities

Authors: Morteza Rahiminejad


There are over 1200 cities and municipalities all around Iran, including 30 mega cities, which municipal organizations, Interior ministries, and city councils supervise. Even so, there has been neither any research about the process of success nor performance assessment in municipalities. In this research an attempt is made to build a comprehensive theory (or model) to show the reasons or success process among the local governments. The present research is based on the contingency approach in which the relevant circumstances are important, and both environment and situations call for their own management methods. The methodology of research is grounded theory, which uses Atlas.ti software as a tool.

Keywords: success, municipality, Iran, theory building

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