Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 105

Search results for: nanofluid

105 Thermal Analysis of Automobile Radiator Using Nanofluids

Authors: S. Sumanth, Babu Rao Ponangi, K. N. Seetharamu

Abstract:

As the technology is emerging day by day, there is a need for some better methodology which will enhance the performance of radiator. Nanofluid is the one area which has promised the enhancement of the radiator performance. Currently, nanofluid has got a well effective solution for enhancing the performance of the automobile radiators. Suspending the nano sized particle in the base fluid, which has got better thermal conductivity value when compared to a base fluid, is preferably considered for nanofluid. In the current work, at first mathematical formulation has been carried out, which will govern the performance of the radiator. Current work is justified by plotting the graph for different parameters. Current work justifies the enhancement of radiator performance using nanofluid.

Keywords: nanofluid, radiator performance, graphene, gamma aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3), titanium dioxide (TiO2)

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
104 Flow and Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid over a Shrinking Sheet

Authors: N. Bachok, N. L. Aleng, N. M. Arifin, A. Ishak, N. Senu

Abstract:

The problem of laminar fluid flow which results from the shrinking of a permeable surface in a nanofluid has been investigated numerically. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. A similarity solution is presented which depends on the mass suction parameter S, Prandtl number Pr, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion number Nb and thermophoresis number Nt. It was found that the reduced Nusselt number is decreasing function of each dimensionless number.

Keywords: Boundary layer, nanofluid, shrinking sheet, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, similarity solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
103 Numerical Study of Natural Convection of a Localized Heat Source at the up of a Nanofluid-Filled Enclosure

Authors: Marziyeh Heydari, Hossein Shokouhmand

Abstract:

This article presents a numerical study of natural convection of a heat source embedded on the up wall of an enclosure filled with nanofluid. The bottom and vertical walls of the enclosure are maintained at a relatively low temperature. The type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticle on the heat transfer performance is studied. The results indicated that adding nanoparticle into pure paraffin improves heat transfer. The results are presented over a wide range of Rayleigh numbers(Ra=〖10〗^3 〖-10〗^5), the volume fraction of nanoparticles (0≤ɸ≤0.4%). For an enclosure, the Nusselt number of a cu-paraffin nanofluid was reduced by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles above 0.2%.

Keywords: nanofluid, heat transfer, heat source, enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
102 Prediction of Unsteady Heat Transfer over Square Cylinder in the Presence of Nanofluid by Using ANN

Authors: Ajoy Kumar Das, Prasenjit Dey

Abstract:

Heat transfer due to forced convection of copper water based nanofluid has been predicted by Artificial Neural network (ANN). The present nanofluid is formed by mixing copper nano particles in water and the volume fractions are considered here are 0% to 15% and the Reynolds number are kept constant at 100. The back propagation algorithm is used to train the network. The present ANN is trained by the input and output data which has been obtained from the numerical simulation, performed in finite volume based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial software Ansys Fluent. The numerical simulation based results are compared with the back propagation based ANN results. It is found that the forced convection heat transfer of water based nanofluid can be predicted correctly by ANN. It is also observed that the back propagation ANN can predict the heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid very quickly compared to standard CFD method.

Keywords: forced convection, square cylinder, nanofluid, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
101 Entropy Generation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Square Cavity Using Al2O3-Water Nanofluid

Authors: M. Alipanah, A. Ranjbar, E. Farnad, F. Alipanah

Abstract:

Entropy generation of an Al2O3-water nanofluid due to heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility has been investigated in a square cavity subject to different side wall temperatures using a nanofluid for natural convection flow. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number between 104 to 107 and volume fraction between 0 to 0.05. Based on the obtained dimensionless velocity and temperature values, the distributions of local entropy generation, average entropy generation and average Bejan number are determined. The results are compared for a pure fluid and a nanofluid. It is totally found that the heat transfer and entropy generation of the nanofluid is more than the pure fluid and minimum entropy generation and Nusselt number occur in the pure fluid at any Rayleigh number. Results depict that the addition of nanoparticles to the pure fluid has more effect on the entropy generation as the Rayleigh number goes up.

Keywords: entropy generation, natural convection, bejan number, nuselt number, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
100 Numerical Study of a Nanofluid in a Truncated Cone

Authors: B. Mahfoud, A. Bendjaghlouli

Abstract:

Natural convection is simulated in a truncated cone filled with nanofluid. Inclined and top walls have constant temperature where the heat source is located on the bottom wall of the conical container which is thermally insulated. A finite volume approach is used to solve the governing equations using the SIMPLE algorithm for different parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle of inclined walls of the enclosure and heat source length. The results showed an enhancement in cooling system by using a nanofluid, when conduction regime is assisted. The inclination angle of inclined sidewall and heat source length affect the heat transfer rate and the maximum temperature.

Keywords: heat source, truncated cone, nanofluid, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
99 Natural Convection of a Nanofluid in a Conical Container

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud, Ali Bendjaghlouli

Abstract:

Natural convection is simulated in a truncated cone filled with nanofluid. Inclined and top walls have constant temperature where the heat source is located on the bottom wall of the conical container which is thermally insulated. A finite volume approach is used to solve the governing equations using the SIMPLE algorithm for different parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle of inclined walls of the enclosure and heat source length. The results showed an enhancement in cooling system by using a nanofluid, when conduction regime is assisted. The inclination angle of inclined sidewall and heat source length affect the heat transfer rate and the maximum temperature.

Keywords: heat source, truncated cone, nanofluid, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
98 Stability and Rheological Study of Carbon Nanotube Water Based Nanofluid

Authors: S. Rashidi, L. C. Abdullah, R. Walvekar, K. Mohammad, F-R. Ahmadun, M. Y. Faizah

Abstract:

In this research, stability and rheology behavior of Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanofluids by using Xanthan Gum as a dispersant were measured. This paper addresses the effects of Xanthan Gum (XG) concentration and nanoparticle loading on stability and viscosity of nanofluids. The stability of nanofluids is measured by Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS (Malvern Instruments, ZEN 3600). The zeta potential of the stable samples was analyzed. The rheological behavior of carbon nanotube CNT nanofluids was analyzed using rheometer (Model AR G2, TA Instrument). Both stability and viscosity of the nanofluids increased with increasing CNT and XG concentration. The experimental results indicated that the zeta potential of nanofluid samples is stable. The results demonstrated that the zeta potential was affected by the CNT concentration and is augmented in parallel with increasing CNT concentration. The rheology results showed that the viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid was increased. The escalated viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid is owing to the higher van der Waals interaction between the CNT nanoparticles. On the other hand, the viscosity of the CNT/XG nanofluid decreases with increasing temperature. In summary, this research provides useful insight into the behavior of CNT nanofluids.

Keywords: nanofluid, carbon nanotube, stability, rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
97 Conjugate Free Convection in a Square Cavity Filled with Nanofluid and Heated from Below by Spatial Wall Temperature

Authors: Ishak Hashim, Ammar Alsabery

Abstract:

The problem of conjugate free convection in a square cavity filled with nanofluid and heated from below by spatial wall temperature is studied numerically using the finite difference method. Water-based nanofluid with copper nanoparticles are chosen for the investigation. Governing equations are solved over a wide range of nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.2), wave number ((0 ≤ λ ≤ 4) and thermal conductivity ratio (0.44 ≤ Kr ≤ 6). The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. It is found that the flow behavior and the heat distribution are clearly enhanced with the increment of the non-uniform heating.

Keywords: conjugate free convection, square cavity, nanofluid, spatial temperature

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96 Thermal Instability in Rivlin-Ericksen Elastico-Viscous Nanofluid with Connective Boundary Condition: Effect of Vertical Throughflow

Authors: Shivani Saini

Abstract:

The effect of vertical throughflow on the onset of convection in Rivlin-Ericksen Elastico-Viscous nanofluid with convective boundary condition is investigated. The flow is stimulated with modified Darcy model under the assumption that the nanoparticle volume fraction is not actively managed on the boundaries. The heat conservation equation is formulated by introducing the convective term of nanoparticle flux. A linear stability analysis based upon normal mode is performed, and an approximate solution of eigenvalue problems is obtained using the Galerkin weighted residual method. Investigation of the dependence of the Rayleigh number on various viscous and nanofluid parameter is performed. It is found that through flow and nanofluid parameters hasten the convection while capacity ratio, kinematics viscoelasticity, and Vadasz number do not govern the stationary convection. Using the convective component of nanoparticle flux, critical wave number is the function of nanofluid parameters as well as the throughflow parameter. The obtained solution provides important physical insight into the behavior of this model.

Keywords: Darcy model, nanofluid, porous layer, throughflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
95 Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Flow of Cu-Water Nanofluid Due to a Rotating Disk with Partial Slip

Authors: Tasawar Hayat, Madiha Rashid, Maria Imtiaz, Ahmed Alsaedi

Abstract:

This problem is about the study of flow of viscous fluid due to rotating disk in nanofluid. Effects of magnetic field, slip boundary conditions and thermal radiations are encountered. An incompressible fluid soaked the porous medium. In this model, nanoparticles of Cu is considered with water as the base fluid. For Copper-water nanofluid, graphical results are presented to describe the influences of nanoparticles volume fraction (φ) on velocity and temperature fields for the slip boundary conditions. The governing differential equations are transformed to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by suitable transformations. Convergent solution of the nonlinear system is developed. The obtained results are analyzed through graphical illustrations for different parameters. Moreover, the features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed. It is found that the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate at the surface are highest in copper-water nanofluid.

Keywords: MHD nanofluid, porous medium, rotating disk, slip effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
94 CFD Simulation of Forced Convection Nanofluid Heat Transfer in the Automotive Radiator

Authors: Sina Movafagh, Younes Bakhshan

Abstract:

Heat transfer of coolant flow through the automobile radiators is of great importance for the optimization of fuel consumption. In this study, the heat transfer performance of the automobile radiator is evaluated numerically. Different concentrations of nanofluids have been investigated by the addition of Al2O3 nano-particles into the water. Also, the effect of the inlet temperature of nanofluid on the performance of radiator is studied. Results show that with an increase of inlet temperature the outlet temperature and pressure drop along the radiator increase. Also, it has been observed that increase of nono-particle concentration will result in an increase in heat transfer rate within the radiator.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, car radiator, CFD simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
93 Comparative Analysis of Water-Based Alumina Nanoparticles with Water-Based Cupric Nanoparticles Past an Exponentially Accelerated Vertical Radiative Riga Plate with Heat Transfer

Authors: Kanayo Kenneth Asogwa

Abstract:

The influence of the flow of nanoparticles in nanofluids across a vertical surface is significant, and its application in medical sciences, engineering, pharmaceutical, and food industries is enormous & widely published. However, the comparative examination of alumina nanoparticles with cupric nanoparticles past a rapid progressive Riga plate remains unknown. Thus, this report investigates water-based alumina and cupric nanoparticles passing through an exponentially accelerated Riga plate. Nanofluids containing copper (II) oxide (CuO) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles are considered. The Laplace transform technique is used to solve the partial differential equations guiding the flow. The effect of various factors on skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles is investigated and reported in tabular and graphical form. The upsurge of Modified Hartmann number and radiative impact improves copper (II) oxide nanofluid compared to aluminum oxide nanofluid due to Lorentz force and since CuO is a better heat conductor. At the same time, heat absorption and reactive species favor a slight decline in Alumina nanofluid than Cupric nanofluid in the thermal and velocity fields. The higher density of Cupric nanofluid is enhanced by increasing nanoparticle volume fraction over Alumina nanofluid with a decline in velocity distribution.

Keywords: alumina, cupric, nanoparticles, water-based

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92 Experimental on Free and Forced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Horizontal and Inclined Microfin Tube

Authors: F. Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, B. Sajadi

Abstract:

In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar, and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated with the Richardson number which is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlations are suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, CuO-HTO nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.

Keywords: nanofluid, heat transfer oil, mixed convection, inclined tube, laminar flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
91 Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Vertical Tube

Authors: Farhad Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, Farzad Hekmatipour

Abstract:

In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2´105 and 6.8´106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.

Keywords: mixed convection, heat transfer, nanofluid, vertical tube, microfin tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
90 Study of Laminar Convective Heat Transfer, Friction Factor, and Pumping Power Advantage of Aluminum Oxide-Water Nanofluid through a Channel

Authors: M. Insiat Islam Rabby, M. Mahbubur Rahman, Eshanul Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul Islam

Abstract:

The numerical and simulative analysis of laminar heat exchange convection of aluminum oxide (Al₂O₃) - water nanofluid for the developed region through two parallel plates is presented in this present work. The second order single phase energy equation, mass and momentum equation are solved by using finite volume method with the ANSYS FLUENT 16 software. The distance between two parallel plates is 4 mm and length is 600 mm. Aluminum oxide (Al₂O₃) is used as nanoparticle and water is used as the base/working fluid for the investigation. At the time of simulation 1% to 5% volume concentrations of the Al₂O₃ nanoparticles are used for mixing with water to produce nanofluid and a wide range of interval of Reynolds number from 500 to 1100 at constant heat flux 500 W/m² at the channel wall has also been introduced. The result reveals that for increasing the Reynolds number the Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient are increased linearly and friction factor decreased linearly in the developed region for both water and Al₂O₃-H₂O nanofluid. By increasing the volume fraction of Al₂O₃-H₂O nanofluid from 1% to 5% the value of Nusselt number increased rapidly from 0.7 to 7.32%, heat transfer coefficient increased 7.14% to 31.5% and friction factor increased very little from 0.1% to 4% for constant Reynolds number compared to pure water. At constant heat transfer coefficient 700 W/m2-K the pumping power advantages have been achieved 20% for 1% volume concentration and 62% for 3% volume concentration of nanofluid compared to pure water.

Keywords: convective heat transfer, pumping power, constant heat flux, nanofluid, nanoparticles, volume concentration, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
89 CFD Studies on Forced Convection Nanofluid Flow Inside a Circular Conduit

Authors: M. Khalid, W. Rashmi, L. L. Kwan

Abstract:

This work provides an overview on the experimental and numerical simulations of various nanofluids and their flow and heat transfer behavior. It was further extended to study the effect of nanoparticle concentration, fluid flow rates and thermo-physical properties on the heat transfer enhancement of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a turbulent flow circular conduit using ANSYS FLUENT™ 14.0. Single-phase approximation (homogeneous model) and two-phase (mixture and Eulerian) models were used to simulate the nanofluid flow behavior in the 3-D horizontal pipe. The numerical results were further validated with experimental correlations reported in the literature. It was found that heat transfer of nanofluids increases with increasing particle volume concentration and Reynolds number, respectively. Results showed good agreement (~9% deviation) with the experimental correlations, especially for a single-phase model with constant properties. Among two-phase models, mixture model (~14% deviation) showed better prediction compared to Eulerian-dispersed model (~18% deviation) when temperature independent properties were used. Non-drag forces were also employed in the Eulerian two-phase model. However, the two-phase mixture model with temperature dependent nanofluid properties gave slightly closer agreement (~12% deviation).

Keywords: nanofluid, CFD, heat transfer, forced convection, circular conduit

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88 Estimation of Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids Using MD-Stochastic Simulation-Based Approach

Authors: Sujoy Das, M. M. Ghosh

Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of a fluid can be significantly enhanced by dispersing nano-sized particles in it, and the resultant fluid is termed as "nanofluid". A theoretical model for estimating the thermal conductivity of a nanofluid has been proposed here. It is based on the mechanism that evenly dispersed nanoparticles within a nanofluid undergo Brownian motion in course of which the nanoparticles repeatedly collide with the heat source. During each collision a rapid heat transfer occurs owing to the solid-solid contact. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the collision of nanoparticles with the heat source has shown that there is a pulse-like pick up of heat by the nanoparticles within 20-100 ps, the extent of which depends not only on thermal conductivity of the nanoparticles, but also on the elastic and other physical properties of the nanoparticle. After the collision the nanoparticles undergo Brownian motion in the base fluid and release the excess heat to the surrounding base fluid within 2-10 ms. The Brownian motion and associated temperature variation of the nanoparticles have been modeled by stochastic analysis. Repeated occurrence of these events by the suspended nanoparticles significantly contributes to the characteristic thermal conductivity of the nanofluids, which has been estimated by the present model for a ethylene glycol based nanofluid containing Cu-nanoparticles of size ranging from 8 to 20 nm, with Gaussian size distribution. The prediction of the present model has shown a reasonable agreement with the experimental data available in literature.

Keywords: brownian dynamics, molecular dynamics, nanofluid, thermal conductivity

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87 Magneto-Convective Instability in a Horizontal Power-Law Nanofluid Saturated Porous Layer

Authors: Norazuwin Najihah Mat Tahir, Fuziyah Ishak, Seripah Awang Kechil

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The onset of the convective instability in the horizontal through flow of a power-law nanofluid saturated by porous layer heated from below under the influences of magnetic field are investigated in this study. The linear stability theory is used for the transformation of the partial differential equations to system of ordinary differential equations through infinitesimal perturbations, scaling, linearization and method of normal modes with two-dimensional periodic waves. The system is solved analytically for the closed form solution of the Rayleigh number by using the Galerkin-type weighted residuals method to investigate the onset of both traveling wave and oscillatory convection. The effects of the power-law index, Lewis number and Peclet number on the stability of the system were investigated. The Lewis number stabilizes while the power-law index and Peclet number destabilize the nanofluid system. The system in the presence of magnetic field is more stable than the system in the absence of magnetic field.

Keywords: convection, instability, magnetic field, nanofluid, power-law

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
86 Experimental Analysis on Heat Transfer Enhancement in Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Using Al2O3/Water Nanofluid and Baffled Twisted Tape Inserts

Authors: Ratheesh Radhakrishnan, P. C. Sreekumar, K. Krishnamoorthy

Abstract:

Heat transfer augmentation techniques ultimately results in the reduction of thermal resistance in a conventional heat exchanger by generating higher convective heat transfer coefficient. It also results in reduction of size, increase in heat duty, decrease in approach temperature difference and reduction in pumping power requirements for heat exchangers. Present study deals with compound augmentation technique, which is not widely used. The study deals with the use of Alumina (Al2O3)/water nanofluid and baffled twisted tape inserts in double pipe heat exchanger as compound augmentation technique. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor for the flow through the inner tube of heat exchanger in turbulent flow range (8000Keywords: enhancement, heat transfer coefficient, friction factor, twisted tape, nanofluid

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85 Evaluation of Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation by Al2O3-Water Nanofluid

Authors: Houda Jalali, Hassan Abbassi

Abstract:

In this numerical work, natural convection and entropy generation of Al2O3–water nanofluid in square cavity have been studied. A two-dimensional steady laminar natural convection in a differentially heated square cavity of length L, filled with a nanofluid is investigated numerically. The horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. Vertical walls corresponding to x=0 and x=L are respectively maintained at hot temperature, Th and cold temperature, Tc. The resolution is performed by the CFD code "FLUENT" in combination with GAMBIT as mesh generator. These simulations are performed by maintaining the Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, while the solid volume fraction varied from 1% to 5%, the particle size is fixed at dp=33 nm and a range of the temperature from 20 to 70 °C. We used models of thermophysical nanofluids properties based on experimental measurements for studying the effect of adding solid particle into water in natural convection heat transfer and entropy generation of nanofluid. Such as models of thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity which are dependent on solid volume fraction, particle size and temperature. The average Nusselt number is calculated at the hot wall of the cavity in a different solid volume fraction. The most important results is that at low temperatures (less than 40 °C), the addition of nanosolids Al2O3 into water leads to a decrease in heat transfer and entropy generation instead of the expected increase, whereas at high temperature, heat transfer and entropy generation increase with the addition of nanosolids. This behavior is due to the contradictory effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. These effects are discussed in this work.

Keywords: entropy generation, heat transfer, nanofluid, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
84 Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Natural Convective Nanofluid Flow within a Trapezoidal Enclosure Using Meshfree Method

Authors: S. Nandal, R. Bhargava

Abstract:

The paper contains a numerical study of the unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic natural convection flow of nanofluids within a symmetrical wavy walled trapezoidal enclosure. The length and height of enclosure are both considered equal to L. Two-phase nanofluid model is employed. The governing equations of nanofluid flow along with boundary conditions are non-dimensionalized and are solved using one of Meshfree technique (EFGM method). Meshfree numerical technique does not require a predefined mesh for discretization purpose. The bottom wavy wall of the enclosure is defined using a cosine function. Element free Galerkin method (EFGM) does not require the domain. The effects of various parameters namely time t, amplitude of bottom wavy wall a, Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt is examined on rate of heat and mass transfer to get a visualization of cooling and heating effects. Such problems have important applications in heat exchangers or solar collectors, as wavy walled enclosures enhance heat transfer in comparison to flat walled enclosures.

Keywords: heat transfer, meshfree methods, nanofluid, trapezoidal enclosure

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83 Stability Analysis of Three-Dimensional Flow and Heat Transfer over a Permeable Shrinking Surface in a Cu-Water Nanofluid

Authors: Roslinda Nazar, Amin Noor, Khamisah Jafar, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

In this paper, the steady laminar three-dimensional boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a copper (Cu)-water nanofluid in the vicinity of a permeable shrinking flat surface in an otherwise quiescent fluid is studied. The nanofluid mathematical model in which the effect of the nanoparticle volume fraction is taken into account is considered. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation which is then solved numerically using the function bvp4c from Matlab. Dual solutions (upper and lower branch solutions) are found for the similarity boundary layer equations for a certain range of the suction parameter. A stability analysis has been performed to show which branch solutions are stable and physically realizable. The numerical results for the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are obtained, presented and discussed in detail for a range of various governing parameters.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, shrinking surface, stability analysis, three-dimensional flow

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82 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid

Authors: Zeeshan Ahmed, Ajinkya Sarode, Pratik Basarkar, Atul Bhargav, Debjyoti Banerjee

Abstract:

The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.

Keywords: copper-CO2 nanofluid, molecular dynamics simulation, molecular interfacial layer, thermal conductivity

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81 Entropy Generation Analysis of Cylindrical Heat Pipe Using Nanofluid

Authors: Morteza Ghanbarpour, Rahmatollah Khodabandeh

Abstract:

In this study, second law of thermodynamic is employed to evaluate heat pipe thermal performance. In fact, nanofluids potential to decrease the entropy generation of cylindrical heat pipes are studied and the results are compared with experimental data. Some cylindrical copper heat pipes of 200 mm length and 6.35 mm outer diameter were fabricated and tested with distilled water and water based Al2O3 nanofluids with volume concentrations of 1-5% as working fluids. Nanofluids are nanotechnology-based colloidal suspensions fabricated by suspending nanoparticles in a base liquid. These fluids have shown potential to enhance heat transfer properties of the base liquids used in heat transfer application. When the working fluid undergoes between different states in heat pipe cycle the entropy is generated. Different sources of irreversibility in heat pipe thermodynamic cycle are investigated and nanofluid effect on each of these sources is studied. Both experimental and theoretical studies reveal that nanofluid is a good choice to minimize the entropy generation in heat pipe thermodynamic cycle which results in higher thermal performance and efficiency of the system.

Keywords: heat pipe, nanofluid, thermodynamics, entropy generation, thermal resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
80 Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter of Nano-Fluid on Average Nusselt Number in the Chamber

Authors: A. Ghafouri, N. Pourmahmoud, I. Mirzaee

Abstract:

In this numerical study, effects of using Al2O3-water nanofluid on the rate of heat transfer have been investigated numerically. The physical model is a square enclosure with insulated top and bottom horizontal walls while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures. Two appropriate models are used to evaluate the viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The governing stream-vorticity equations are solved using a second order central finite difference scheme, coupled to the conservation of mass and energy. The study has been carried out for the nanoparticle diameter 30, 60, and 90 nm and the solid volume fraction 0 to 0.04. Results are presented by average Nusselt number and normalized Nusselt number in the different range of φ and D for mixed convection dominated regime. It is found that different heat transfer rate is predicted when the effect of nanoparticle diameter is taken into account.

Keywords: nanofluid, nanoparticle diameter, heat transfer enhancement, square enclosure, Nusselt number

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79 Unsteady Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluid from Circular Tube in Cross-Flow

Authors: H. Bayat, M. Majidi, M. Bolhasani, A. Karbalaie Alilou, A. Mirabdolah Lavasani

Abstract:

Unsteady flow and heat transfer from a circular cylinder in cross-flow is studied numerically. The governing equations are solved by using finite volume method. Reynolds number varies in range of 50 to 200, in this range flow is considered to be laminar and unsteady. Al2O3 nanoparticle with volume fraction in range of 5% to 20% is added to pure water. Effects of adding nanoparticle to pure water on lift and drag coefficient and Nusselt number is presented. Addition of Al2O3 has inconsiderable effect on the value of drags and lift coefficient. However, it has significant effect on heat transfer; results show that heat transfer of Al2O3 nanofluid is about 9% to 36% higher than pure water.

Keywords: nanofluid, heat transfer, unsteady flow, forced convection, cross-flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
78 Effect of Thermal Radiation on Flow, Heat, and Mass Transfer of a Nanofluid over a Stretching Horizontal Cylinder Embedded in a Porous Medium with Suction/Injection

Authors: Elsayed M. A. Elbashbeshy, T. G. Emam, M. S. El-Azab, K. M. Abdelgaber

Abstract:

The effect of thermal radiation on flow, heat and mass transfer of an incompressible viscous nanofluid over a stretching horizontal cylinder embedded in a porous medium with suction/injection is discussed numerically. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations. Mathematica has been used to solve such system after obtaining the missed initial conditions. Comparison of obtained numerical results is made with previously published results in some special cases, and found to be in a good agreement.

Keywords: laminar flow, boundary layer, stretching horizontal cylinder, thermal radiation, suction/injection, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
77 Numerical Study of Entropy Generation Due to Hybrid Nano-Fluid Flow through Coaxial Porous Disks

Authors: Muhammad Bilal Ameen, M. Zubair Akbar Qureshi

Abstract:

The current investigation of two-dimensional hybrid nanofluid flows with two coaxial parallel disks has been presented. Consider the hybrid nanofluid has been taken as steady-state. Consider the coaxial disks that have been porous. Consider the heat equation to examine joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. Nonlinear partial differential equations have been solved numerically. For shear stress and heat transfer, results are tabulated. Hybrid nanoparticles and Eckert numbers are increasing for heat transfer. Entropy generation is expanded with radiation parameters Eckert, Reynold, Prandtl, and Peclet numbers. A set of ordinary differential equations is obtained to utilize the capable transformation variables. The numerical solution of the continuity, momentum, energy, and entropy generation equations is obtaining using the command bvp4c of Matlab as a solver. To explore the impact of main parameters like suction/infusion, Prandtl, Reynold, Eckert, Peclet number, and volume fraction parameters, various graphs have been plotted and examined. It is concluded that a convectional nanofluid is highly compared by entropy generation with the boundary layer of hybrid nanofluid.

Keywords: entropy generation, hybrid nano fluid, heat transfer, porous disks

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76 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Nanofluid-Filled Vertical Cylinder under an External Magnetic Field

Authors: M. Maache, R. Bessaih

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of the magnetic field direction on the free convection heat transfer in a vertical cylinder filled with an Al₂O₃ nanofluid is investigated numerically. The external magnetic field is applied in either direction axial and radial on a cylinder having an aspect ratio H/R0=5, bounded by the top and the bottom disks at temperatures Tc and Th and by an adiabatic side wall. The equations of continuity, Navier Stocks and energy are non-dimensionalized and then discretized by the finite volume method. A computer program based on the SIMPLER algorithm is developed and compared with the numerical results found in the literature. The numerical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely: The Hartmann number (Ha=0, 5, 10, …, 40), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ=0, 0.025, …,0.1) and Rayleigh number (Ra=103, Ra=104 and Ra=105). The behavior of average Nusselt number, streamlines and temperature contours are illustrated. The results revel that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number but it decreases with an increase in the Hartmann number. Depending on the magnetic field direction and on the values of Hartmann and Rayleigh numbers, an increase of the solid volume fraction may result enhancement or deterioration of the heat transfer performance in the nanofluid.

Keywords: natural convection, nanofluid, magnetic field, vertical cylinder

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