Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Search results for: outsourcing

68 The Determinants and Effects of R&D Outsourcing in Korean Manufacturing Firm

Authors: Sangyun Han, Minki Kim

Abstract:

R&D outsourcing is a strategy for acquiring the competitiveness of firms as an open innovation strategy. As increasing total R&D investment of firms, the ratio of amount of R&D outsourcing in it is also increased in Korea. In this paper, we investigate the determinants and effects of R&D outsourcing of firms. Through analyzing the determinants of R&D outsourcing and effect on firm’s performance, we can find some academic and politic issues. Firstly, in the point of academic view, distinguishing the determinants of R&D outsourcing is linked why the firms do open innovation. It can be answered resource based view, core competence theory, and etc. Secondly, we can get some S&T politic implication for transferring the public intellectual properties to private area. Especially, for supporting the more SMEs or ventures, government can get the basement and the reason why and how to make the policies.

Keywords: determinants, effects, R&D, outsourcing

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
67 The Impact of Environmental Dynamism on Strategic Outsourcing Success

Authors: Mohamad Ghozali Hassan, Abdul Aziz Othman, Mohd Azril Ismail

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Adapting quickly to environmental dynamism is essential for an organization to develop outsourcing strategic and management in order to sustain competitive advantage. This research used the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) tool to investigate the factors of environmental dynamism impact on the strategic outsourcing success among electrical and electronic manufacturing industries in outsourcing management. Statistical results confirm that the inclusion of customer demand, technological change, and competition level as a new combination concept of environmental dynamism, has positive effects on outsourcing success. Additionally, this research demonstrates the acceptability of PLS-SEM as a statistical analysis to furnish a better understanding of environmental dynamism in outsourcing management in Malaysia. A practical finding contributes to academics and practitioners in the field of outsourcing management.

Keywords: environmental dynamism, customer demand, technological change, competition level, outsourcing success

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
66 Information Technology (IT) Outsourcing and the Challenges of Implementation in Financial Industries: A Case Study of Guarantee Trust Assurance PLC

Authors: Salim Ahmad, Ahamed Sani Kazaure, Haruna Musa

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Outsourcing had been the contractual relationship in which the responsibility for a function or task is handed over to an outside firm for a fixed period of time which is not the same as contracting where a specific one-off task is allocated to an external business; therefore in information technology a specialist area such as maintenance of web servers is controlled by an outside firm or if the department is not a critical factor the whole IT section may be outsourced. Organisation contracts is frequently a major area in successful outsourcing relationship, whereby the contracts specify the right, liability and expectation of the vendor and contracts are mostly of high value and last for very long. Therefore, in this research one particular project that is been outsourced for the financial industry (Guarantee Trust Assurance PlC) is been discussed along with the approach used and the various problems encountered, though Outsourcing is not necessarily a perfect and easy way out for business. It is extremely critical for a company to look at all the aspect of outsourcing before deciding to use it as an instrument for development. Moreover, critical analysis of the management issues encountered while implementing the outsourcing project have been fully discussed in the paper.

Keywords: outsourcing, techniques used in outsourcing, challenges of outsourcing implementation, management issues during implementation of outsourcing project

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
65 Exploratory Research on Outsourcing Practices and Benefits on Telecommunication Industry in Oman

Authors: Alyamama Alsaidi

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This research has been conducted in order to analyse the impact of outsourcing on telecommunication industry in Oman. The research is conducted by collecting qualitative and quantitative data in order to widen the area of comprehension. The data has been collected from genuine sources which showcased that results were reliable and possess validity. The outsourcing is very important because it helps the organisation in saving the cost and efforts of the workers. In Oman, the telecommunication industry largely uses the outsourcing service which is provided by the third party. The third party is responsible for providing outsourcing to the telecommunication companies. This research gives an overall view of the outsourcing in the telecommunication companies of Oman. The IT companies of Oman give their work to the outsourcing services as this will help in reducing the cost the project. Rather employing the experts to do the projects, the organization can easily give their products to the outsourcing services in which they complete the work for a cheaper rate for the telecommunication company of Oman. It will help in reducing the work load on the staffs and management of the telecommunication companies in Oman. The IT outsourcing in Oman is very common because some of the staff are not well experienced to do the IT work. The outsourcing has positive as well as negative impact on the telecommunication industry in Oman. The research has been done while considering ethical aspect in an effective and efficient manner. Furthermore, the literature is adequately reviewed so that views of various specialists can be considered for future guidance.

Keywords: IT outsourcing, client company, services company, telecommunication

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
64 Telecom Infrastructure Outsourcing: An Innovative Approach

Authors: Irfan Zafar

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Over the years the Telecom Industry in the country has shown a lot of progress in terms of infrastructure development coupled with the availability of telecom services. This has however led to the cut throat completion among various operators thus leading to reduced tariffs to the customers. The profit margins have seen a reduction thus leading the operators to think of other avenues by adopting new models while keeping the quality of service intact. The outsourcing of the network and the resources is one such model which has shown promising benefits which includes lower costs, less risk, higher levels of customer support and engagement, predictable expenses, access to the emerging technologies, benefiting from a highly skilled workforce, adaptability, focus on the core business while reducing capital costs. A lot of research has been done on outsourcing in terms of reasons of outsourcing and its benefits. However this study is an attempt to analyze the effects of the outsourcing on an organizations performance (Telecommunication Sector) considering the variables (1) Cost Reduction (2) Organizational Performance (3) Flexibility (4) Employee Performance (5) Access to Specialized Skills & Technology and the (6) Outsourcing Risks.

Keywords: outsourcing, ICT, telecommunication, IT, networking

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
63 An Outsourcing System Model for the Thai Electrical Appliances Industry

Authors: Sudawan Somjai

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The purpose of this paper was to find an appropriate outsourcing system model for the Thai electrical appliances industry. The objective was to increase competitive capability of the industry with an outsourcing system. The population for this study was the staff in the selected 10 companies in Thai electrical appliances industry located in Bangkok and the eastern part of Thailand. Data collecting techniques included in-depth interviews, focus group and storytelling techniques. The data was collected from 5 key informants from each company, making a total of 50 informants. The findings revealed that an outsourcing model would consist of important factors including outsourcing system, labor flexibility, capability of business process, manpower management efficiency, cost reduction, business risk elimination, core competency and competitiveness. Different suggestions were made as well in this research paper.

Keywords: outsourcing system, model, Thailand, electrical appliances industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
62 Offshore Outsourcing: Global Data Privacy Controls and International Compliance Issues

Authors: Michelle J. Miller

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In recent year, there has been a rise of two emerging issues that impact the global employment and business market that the legal community must review closer: offshore outsourcing and data privacy. These two issues intersect because employment opportunities are shifting due to offshore outsourcing and some States, like the United States, anti-outsourcing legislation has been passed or presented to retain jobs within the country. In addition, the legal requirements to retain the privacy of data as a global employer extends to employees and third party service provides, including services outsourced to offshore locations. For this reason, this paper will review the intersection of these two issues with a specific focus on data privacy.

Keywords: outsourcing, data privacy, international compliance, multinational corporations

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
61 Comparing Bestseller Books in Japanese Public Libraries Managed by Outsourcing and by Local Governments

Authors: Yuhiro Mizunuma, Keita Tsuji

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In Japan, local governments have long managed public libraries; however, organizations including private enterprises took over their management with the introduction of an outsourcing system in 2003. Now, whether local governments should apply this system to public libraries is under discussion, and many argue that it is inappropriate for public libraries. In this study, to provide basic data for such discussions, the differences between public libraries managed by outsourcing (henceforth, 'outsourcing libraries') and those managed directly by local governments (henceforth 'direct management libraries') were examined, focusing on bestsellers. We chose the 435 books on the top-20 bestseller lists published from 1996 to 2015 inclusive, as our sample bestseller books; and 413 outsourcing libraries' and 2,619 direct management libraries' holdings of them were investigated using the Calil API (a free Web service that can perform cross-library searches on libraries in Japan). Results show that outsourcing libraries tend to hold fewer bestsellers than direct management libraries. It was also found that direct management libraries tend to hold many duplicates of bestsellers, and that, in many cases, many of those were not being borrowed in direct management libraries.

Keywords: bestseller books, book collection, Japanese public libraries, outsourcing

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
60 SeCloudBPMN: A Lightweight Extension for BPMN Considering Security Threats in the Cloud

Authors: Somayeh Sobati Moghadam

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Business processes are crucial for organizations and help businesses to evaluate and optimize their performance and processes against current and future-state business goals. Outsourcing business processes to the cloud becomes popular due to a wide varsity of benefits and cost-saving. However, cloud outsourcing raises enterprise data security concerns, which must be incorporated in Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN). This paper, presents SeCloudBPMN, a lightweight extension for BPMN which extends the BPMN to explicitly support the security threats in the cloud as an outsourcing environment. SeCloudBPMN helps business’s security experts to outsource business processes to the cloud considering different threats from inside and outside the cloud. In this way, appropriate security countermeasures could be considered to preserve data security in business processes outsourcing to the cloud.

Keywords: BPMN, security threats, cloud computing, business processes outsourcing, privacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
59 The Effect of Outsourcing Strategies on Performance of Manufacturing Firms: A Study of Selected Firms in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: Hyacinth Dawam Dakwang

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Outsourcing is growing at a rapid rate throughout the world because organizations view it as a way to achieve strategic goals, improve customer satisfaction and provide other efficiency and effectiveness improvements. With the increasing globalization, outsourcing has become an important business approach, and a competitive advantage may be gained as products or services are produced more effectively and efficiently by outside suppliers. Several organizations have embarked on outsourcing strategies over the years but many still suffer in terms of their goal achievement; some have experienced low productivity both in terms of quality and quantity, their profitability has not been stable, and their capacities are grossly underutilized. This research work determined the effect of outsourcing strategies on the performance of manufacturing firms in Kaduna State. The study adopted descriptive research design. The questionnaire for the study was subjected to test- re-test reliability assessment. The data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20). Results were presented on frequency distribution tables and graphs. The findings reveal that firms that outsourcing strategy reduce average cost, increased productivity and profitability improved quality, improves customer satisfaction and save time for core activities. This study therefore recommended that firms should embark more on outsourcing strategies to attain the benefits of cost savings/restructuring which results in better customer service at profit; also, outsourcing strategy should come from the workers themselves. Also, organisations should ensure that, the costs of managing the outsourcing process is not greater than the benefits generated by the outsourcing program.

Keywords: Manufacturing Firms, Outsourcing , Performance, Strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
58 Determinants of Successful Accounting Information System Outsourcing for the Egyptian Small and Medium Enterprises: An Empirical Study

Authors: Maram Elkady

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Purpose: The purpose behind this study is to determine the impact of some factors on achieving successful accounting information systems (AIS) outsourcing in Egypt, taking into account two factors: the selection of an effective accounting service provider and the quality relationships between the client firm and the accounting service provider. The researcher measured outsourcing success through the perceived benefits, including (strategic, technological, and economic benefits). Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey was carried out by means of questionnaires answered by 152 small and medium Egyptian firms outsourcing their accounting activities. The researcher targeted the personnel in the client firms who were in direct contact with the accounting outsourcer. The hypotheses were tested through multiple regression analysis using SPSS 24 and AMOS 22. Findings: Building a quality relationship with the provider is found to have more impact than the effective selection of the AIS provider on the success of the AIS outsourcing process. Originality/Value: The researcher found that some proxies of each success determinant can be more influential than others based on type of benefits perceived from AIS outsourcing (strategic, technological, and economic).

Keywords: accounting information system, AIS, outsourcing, successful outsourcing, AIS service provider selection, relationship with the accounting service provider

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
57 Green It-Outsourcing Assurance Model for It-Outsourcing Vendors

Authors: Siffat Ullah Khan, Rahmat Ullah Khan, Rafiq Ahmad Khan, Habibullah Khan

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Green IT or green computing has emerged as a fast growing business paradigm in recent years in order to develop energy-efficient Software and peripheral devices. With the constant evolution of technology and the world critical environmental status, all private and public information technology (IT) businesses are moving towards sustainability. We identified, through systematic literature review and questionnaire survey, 9 motivators, in total, faced by vendors in IT-Outsourcing relationship. Amongst these motivators 7 were ranked as critical motivators. We also identified 21, in total, practices for addressing these critical motivators. Based on these inputs we have developed Green IT-Outsourcing Assurance Model (GITAM) for IT-Outsourcing vendors. The model comprises four different levels. i.e. Initial, White, Green and Grey. Each level comprises different critical motivators and their relevant practices. We conclude that our model, GITAM, will assist IT-Outsourcing vendors in gauging their level in order to manage IT-Outsourcing activities in a green and sustainable fashion to assist the environment and to reduce the carbon emission. The model will assist vendors in improving their current level by suggesting various practices. The model will contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of Green IT.

Keywords: Green IT-outsourcing Assurance Model (GITAM), Systematic Literature Review, Empirical Study, Case Study

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
56 Measurement Tools of the Maturity Model for IT Service Outsourcing in Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Victoriano Valencia García, Luis Usero Aragonés, Eugenio J. Fernández Vicente

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Nowadays, the successful implementation of ICTs is vital for almost any kind of organization. Good governance and ICT management are essential for delivering value, managing technological risks, managing resources and performance measurement. In addition, outsourcing is a strategic IT service solution which complements IT services provided internally in organizations. This paper proposes the measurement tools of a new holistic maturity model based on standards ISO/IEC 20000 and ISO/IEC 38500, and the frameworks and best practices of ITIL and COBIT, with a specific focus on IT outsourcing. These measurement tools allow independent validation and practical application in the field of higher education, using a questionnaire, metrics tables, and continuous improvement plan tables as part of the measurement process. Guidelines and standards are proposed in the model for facilitating adaptation to universities and achieving excellence in the outsourcing of IT services.

Keywords: IT governance, IT management, IT services, outsourcing, maturity model, measurement tools

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55 The Outsourcing System and Competitiveness Enhancement in the Thai Electricity and Electronic Industries

Authors: Sudawan Somjai

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This paper aims to find out level of influences of factors that affected core competency and competitiveness of Thai electricity and electronics, and to indentify factors that affected core competency and competitiveness of Thai electricity and electronics. Using systematic random sampling technique, the samples of this study were 400 employees in the selected 10 medium enterprises in the electricity and electronic industries of Thailand that applied an outsourcing system. All selected companies were located in Bangkok and the eastern part of Thailand. Interviews were also utilized with managing directors. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were both applied. Questionnaires were employed in data collection, whereas in-depth interviews and focus groups were used with key informants in management. The findings unveiled a high level of influence of the outsourcing system on labor flexibility, manpower management efficiency, capability of business processes, cost reduction, business risk elimination and core competency. These factors were found to have a relationship with business core competency for competitiveness in the Thai electricity and electronic industry. Suggestions of this paper were also presented.

Keywords: competitiveness, core competency, outsourcing, Thai electricity and electronic industry

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54 A Multi-Criteria Model for Scheduling of Stochastic Single Machine Problem with Outsourcing and Solving It through Application of Chance Constrained

Authors: Homa Ghave, Parmis Shahmaleki

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This paper presents a new multi-criteria stochastic mathematical model for a single machine scheduling with outsourcing allowed. There are multiple jobs processing in batch. For each batch, all of job or a quantity of it can be outsourced. The jobs have stochastic processing time and lead time and deterministic due dates arrive randomly. Because of the stochastic inherent of processing time and lead time, we use the chance constrained programming for modeling the problem. First, the problem is formulated in form of stochastic programming and then prepared in a form of deterministic mixed integer linear programming. The objectives are considered in the model to minimize the maximum tardiness and outsourcing cost simultaneously. Several procedures have been developed to deal with the multi-criteria problem. In this paper, we utilize the concept of satisfaction functions to increases the manager’s preference. The proposed approach is tested on instances where the random variables are normally distributed.

Keywords: single machine scheduling, multi-criteria mathematical model, outsourcing strategy, uncertain lead times and processing times, chance constrained programming, satisfaction function

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
53 Information Technology Outsourcing and Knowledge Transfer: Achieving Strategic Alignment through Organizational Learning

Authors: M. Kolotylo, H. Zheng, R. Parente, R. Dahiya

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Large number of organizations, frequently motivated by budget and cost cuts, outsource their Information Technology (IT) positions every year. Although the objective of reduction in financial obligations is often not accomplished, many buyer companies still manage to benefit from outsourcing projects. Knowledge Transfer (KT), being one of the major processes that take place during IT outsourcing partnership, may exert a strong impact on the performance of the parties involved, particularly that of the buyer. Research, however, lacks strong conceptual basis for the possible benefits that KT from supplier may bring to the buyer; and for the mechanisms that may be adopted by the buyer to maximize such benefit. This paper aims to fill this gap by proposing a conceptual framework of organizational learning and development of dynamic capabilities enabled by KT from the supplier to the buyer. The study examines buyer-supplier relationships in the context of IT outsourcing transactions, and theorizes how KT from the supplier to the buyer helps the performance of the buyer. It warrants that more research is carried out in order to explicate and provide evidence regarding the role that KT plays in strategic improvements for the buyer. The paper proposes to take up a two-fold approach to the research: conceptual development that utilizes logical argumentation and interpretive historical research, as well as a qualitative case study which aims to capture and understand the complex processes involved. Thus, the study provides a comprehensive visualization of the dynamics of the conditions under which participation in IT outsourcing partnership might be of benefit to the buyer company. The framework demonstrates the mechanisms involved in buyer’s achievement of strategic alignment through organizational learning enabled by KT from the supplier. It highlights that organizational learning involves a balance between exploitation of assets and exploration of new possibilities, and further notes that the dynamic capabilities mediate the effect of organizational learning on firm performance. The paper explicates in what ways managers can leverage outsourcing projects to execute strategy, which would enable their organization achieve better performance. The study concludes that organizational learning enables the firm to develop IT capabilities of strategic planning, IT integration, and IT relationships in the outsourcing context, and that IT capabilities developed through the organizational learning would help the firm in achieving strategic alignment.

Keywords: dynamic capabilities, it outsourcing, knowledge transfer, organizational learning, strategic alignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
52 Protection of the Rights of Outsourced Employees and the Effect on Job Performance in Nigerian Banking Sector

Authors: Abiodun O. Ibude

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Several organizations have devised the strategy of engaging the services of staff not directly employed by them in their production and service delivery. Some organizations also engage on contracting another organization to carry out a part of service or production process on their behalf. Outsourcing is becoming an important alternative employment option for most organizations. This paper attempts an exposition on the rights of workers within the more specific context of outsourcing as a human resource management phenomenon. Outsourced employees and their rights are treated conceptually and analytically in a generic sense as a mere subset of the larger whole, that is, labor. Outsourced employees derive their rights, like all workers, from their job context as well as the legal environment (municipal and global) in which they operate. The dynamics of globalization and the implications of this development for labor practices receive considerable attention in this exposition. In this regard, a guarded proposition is made, to examine the practice and effect of engaging outsourcing as an economic decision designed primarily to cut down on operational costs rather than a Human Resources Management decision to improve worker welfare. The population of the study was selected from purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Data obtained were analyzed through a simple percentage, Pearson product-moment correlation, and cross-tabulation. From the research conducted, it was discovered that, although outsourcing possesses opportunities for organizations, there are drawbacks arising from its implementation of job securities. It was also discovered that some employees are being exploited through this strategy. This gives rise to lower motivation and thereby decline in performance. In conclusion, there is need for examination of Human Resource Managers’ strategies that can serve as management policy tools for the protection of the rights of outsourced employees.

Keywords: legal environment, operational cost, outsourcing, protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
51 The Anti-Globalization Movement, Brexit, Outsourcing and the Current State of Globalization

Authors: Alexis Naranjo

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In the current global stage, a new sense and mix feelings against the globalization has started to take shape thanks to events such as Brexit and the 2016 US election. The perceptions towards the globalization have started to focus in a resistance movement called the 'anti-globalization movement'. This paper examines the current global stage vs. leadership decisions in a time when market integrations are not longer seeing as an opportunity for an economic growth buster. The biggest economy in the world the United States of America has started to face a new beginning of something called 'anti-globalization', in the current global stage starting with the United Kingdom to the United States a new strategy to help local economies has started to emerge. A new nationalist movement has started to focus on their local economies which now represents a direct threat to the globalization, trade agreements, wages and free markets. Business leaders of multinationals now in our days face a new dilemma, how to address the feeling that globalization and outsourcing destroy and take away jobs from local economies. The initial perception of the literature and data rebels that companies in Western countries like the US sees many risks associate with outsourcing, however, saving cost associated with outsourcing is greater than the firm’s local reputation. Starting with India as a good example of a supplier of IT developers, analysts and call centers we can start saying that India is an industrialized nation which has not yet secured its spot and title. India has emerged as a powerhouse in the outsource industry, which makes India hold the number one spot in the world to outsource IT services. Thanks to the globalization of economies and markets around the globe that new ideas to increase productivity at a lower cost has been existing for years and has started to offer new ideas and options to businesses in different industries. The economic growth of the information technology (IT) industry in India is an example of the power of the globalization which in the case of India has been tremendous and significant especially in the economic arena. This research paper concentrates in understand the behavior of business leaders: First, how multinational’s leaders will face the new challenges and what actions help them to lead in turbulent times. Second, if outsourcing or withdraw from a market is an option what are the consequences and how you communicate and negotiate from the business leader perspective. Finally, is the perception of leaders focusing on financial results or they have a different goal? To answer these questions, this study focuses on the most recent data available to outline and present the findings of the reason why outsourcing is and option and second, how and why those decisions are made. This research also explores the perception of the phenomenon of outsourcing in many ways and explores how the globalization has contributed to its own questioning.

Keywords: anti-globalization, globalization, leadership, outsourcing

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50 Application of Facilities Management Practice in High Rise Commercial Properties: Jos in Perpective

Authors: Aliyu Ahmad Aliyu, Abubakar Ahmad, Muhammad Umar Bello, Rozilah Kasim, David Martin

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The article studied the application of facilities management practice in high rise commercial properties. Convenience sampling technique was used in administering questionnaires to the 60 respondents who responded to the survey. It was found out that the extent of application of facilities management in the subject properties is better described as below average. Similarly, the most frequently tools of facilities management in use and employed in the properties were outsourcing and in-house sourcing. This was influenced by the level of their familiarity with the tools. Planned and Preventive maintenance should be taken regularly in other to enhance the effectiveness of the facilities management and to satisfy both the owner and customers of the organization.

Keywords: commercial properties, facilities management, high-rise buildings, Jos metropolis and outsourcing

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49 The Interaction and Relations Between Civil and Military Logistics

Authors: Cumhur Cansever, Selcuk Er

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There is an increasing cooperation and interaction between the military logistic systems and civil organizations operating in today's market. While the scope and functions of civilian logistics have different characteristics, military logistics tries to import some applications that are conducted by private sectors successfully. Also, at this point, the determination of the optimal point of integration and interaction between civilian and military logistics has emerged as a key issue. In this study, the mutual effects between military and civilian logistics and their most common integration areas, (Supply Chain Management (SCM), Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) and Outsourcing) will be examined with risk analysis and determination of basic skills evaluation methods for determining the optimum point in the integration.

Keywords: core competency, integrated logistics support, outsourcing, supply chain management

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48 Conceptual Study on 4PL and Activities in Turkey

Authors: Berna Kalkan, Kenan Aydin

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Companies give importance customer satisfaction to compete the developing and changing market. This is possible when customer reaches the right product, right quality, place, time and cost. In this regard, the extension of logistics services has played active role on formation and development of the different logistics services concept. The concept of logistics services has played important role involved in the healing of economic indicators today. Companies can use logistics providers, thus have competitive advantage and low cost, reducing time, tobe flexibility. In recent years, Fourth Party Logistics (4PL) has emerged as a new concept that includes relationship between suppliers and firms in outsourcing. 4PL provider is an integrator that offers comprehensive supply chain solutions with the technology, resources and capabilities that it possesses. Also, 4PL has attracted as a popular research topic attention in the recent past. In this paper, logistics outsourcing and 4PL concepts are analyzed and a literature review on 4PL activities is given. Also, the previous studies in literature and the approaches that are used in previous studies in literature is presented by analysing on 4PL activities. In this context, a field study will be applied to 4PL providers and service buyer in Turkey. If necessary, results related to this study will be shared in scientific areas.

Keywords: fourth party logistics, literature review, outsourcing, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
47 Empirical Study of Health Behaviors of Employees in Information Technology and Business Process Outsourcing

Authors: Yogesh Pawar

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the behaviors of information technology (IT) and business process outsourcing (BPO) employees in relation to diet, exercise, sleep, stress, and social habits. This was a qualitative research study, using in-depth,semi-structured interviews. Descriptive data were collected from a two-stage purposive sample of 28 IT-BPO employees from two IT companies and one BPOs in Pune. The majority of interviewees reported having an unhealthy diet and/or sedentary lifestyle. Lack of time due to demanding work schedules was the largest barrier to diet and exercise. Given the qualitative study design and limited sampling frame, results may not be generalizable. However, the qualitative data suggests that Pune’s young IT-BPO employees may be at greater risk of lifestyle-related diseases than the general population. The data also suggests that interventions incorporating social influence may be a promising solution, particularly at international call centers. The results from this study provide qualitative insight on the motives for health behaviors of IT-BPO employees, as well as the barriers and facilitators for leading a healthy lifestyle in this industry. The findings provide the framework for future workplace wellness interventions.

Keywords: exercise, information technology, qualitative research, wellness

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
46 Supplier Selection in a Scenario Based Stochastic Model with Uncertain Defectiveness and Delivery Lateness Rates

Authors: Abeer Amayri, Akif A. Bulgak

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Due to today’s globalization as well as outsourcing practices of the companies, the Supply Chain (SC) performances have become more dependent on the efficient movement of material among places that are geographically dispersed, where there is more chance for disruptions. One such disruption is the quality and delivery uncertainties of outsourcing. These uncertainties could lead the products to be unsafe and, as is the case in a number of recent examples, companies may have to end up in recalling their products. As a result of these problems, there is a need to develop a methodology for selecting suppliers globally in view of risks associated with low quality and late delivery. Accordingly, we developed a two-stage stochastic model that captures the risks associated with uncertainty in quality and delivery as well as a solution procedure for the model. The stochastic model developed simultaneously optimizes supplier selection and purchase quantities under price discounts over a time horizon. In particular, our target is the study of global organizations with multiple sites and multiple overseas suppliers, where the pricing is offered in suppliers’ local currencies. Our proposed methodology is applied to a case study for a US automotive company having two assembly plants and four potential global suppliers to illustrate how the proposed model works in practice.

Keywords: global supply chains, quality, stochastic programming, supplier selection

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45 Supply Chains Resilience within Machine-Made Rug Producers in Iran

Authors: Malihe Shahidan, Azin Madhi, Meisam Shahbaz

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In recent decades, the role of supply chains in sustaining businesses and establishing their superiority in the market has been under focus. The realization of the goals and strategies of a business enterprise is largely dependent on the cooperation of the chain, including suppliers, distributors, retailers, etc. Supply chains can potentially be disrupted by both internal and external factors. In this paper, resilience strategies have been identified and analyzed in three levels: sourcing, producing, and distributing by considering economic depression as a current risk factor for the machine-made rugs industry. In this study, semi-structured interviews for data gathering and thematic analysis for data analysis are applied. Supply chain data has been gathered from seven rug factories before and after the economic depression through semi-structured interviews. The identified strategies were derived from literature review and validated by collecting data from a group of eighteen industry and university experts, and the results were analyzed using statistical tests. Finally, the outsourcing of new products and products in the new market, the development and completion of the product portfolio, the flexibility in the composition and volume of products, the expansion of the market to price-sensitive, direct sales, and disintermediation have been determined as strategies affecting supply chain resilience of machine-made rugs' industry during an economic depression.

Keywords: distribution, economic depression, machine-made rug, outsourcing, production, sourcing, supply chain, supply chain resilience

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
44 A Controlled Natural Language Assisted Approach for the Design and Automated Processing of Service Level Agreements

Authors: Christopher Schwarz, Katrin Riegler, Erwin Zinser

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The management of outsourcing relationships between IT service providers and their customers proofs to be a critical issue that has to be stipulated by means of Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Since service requirements differ from customer to customer, SLA content and language structures vary largely, standardized SLA templates may not be used and an automated processing of SLA content is not possible. Hence, SLA management is usually a time-consuming and inefficient manual process. For overcoming these challenges, this paper presents an innovative and ITIL V3-conform approach for automated SLA design and management using controlled natural language in enterprise collaboration portals. The proposed novel concept is based on a self-developed controlled natural language that follows a subject-predicate-object approach to specify well-defined SLA content structures that act as templates for customized contracts and support automated SLA processing. The derived results eventually enable IT service providers to automate several SLA request, approval and negotiation processes by means of workflows and business rules within an enterprise collaboration portal. The illustrated prototypical realization gives evidence of the practical relevance in service-oriented scenarios as well as the high flexibility and adaptability of the presented model. Thus, the prototype enables the automated creation of well defined, customized SLA documents, providing a knowledge representation that is both human understandable and machine processable.

Keywords: automated processing, controlled natural language, knowledge representation, information technology outsourcing, service level management

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
43 Need of Trained Clinical Research Professionals Globally to Conduct Clinical Trials

Authors: Tambe Daniel Atem

Abstract:

Background: Clinical Research is an organized research on human beings intended to provide adequate information on the drug use as a therapeutic agent on its safety and efficacy. The significance of the study is to educate the global health and life science graduates in Clinical Research in depth to perform better as it involves testing drugs on human beings. Objectives: to provide an overall understanding of the scientific approach to the evaluation of new and existing medical interventions and to apply ethical and regulatory principles appropriate to any individual research. Methodology: It is based on – Primary data analysis and Secondary data analysis. Primary data analysis: means the collection of data from journals, the internet, and other online sources. Secondary data analysis: a survey was conducted with a questionnaire to interview the Clinical Research Professionals to understand the need of training to perform clinical trials globally. The questionnaire consisted details of the professionals working with the expertise. It also included the areas of clinical research which needed intense training before entering into hardcore clinical research domain. Results: The Clinical Trials market worldwide worth over USD 26 billion and the industry has employed an estimated 2,10,000 people in the US and over 70,000 in the U.K, and they form one-third of the total research and development staff. There are more than 2,50,000 vacant positions globally with salary variations in the regions for a Clinical Research Coordinator. R&D cost on new drug development is estimated at US$ 70-85 billion. The cost of doing clinical trials for a new drug is US$ 200-250 million. Due to an increase trained Clinical Research Professionals India has emerged as a global hub for clinical research. The Global Clinical Trial outsourcing opportunity in India in the pharmaceutical industry increased to more than $2 billion in 2014 due to increased outsourcing from U.S and Europe to India. Conclusion: Assessment of training need is recommended for newer Clinical Research Professionals and trial sites, especially prior the conduct of larger confirmatory clinical trials.

Keywords: clinical research, clinical trials, clinical research professionals

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42 Analysis of the Advent of Multinational Corporations in Developing Countries: Case Study of Nike Factories Expansion in Vietnam

Authors: Khue Do Phan

Abstract:

Nike has been confronted by the press with their harsh working conditions, underpayment and highly-labor intensive requirement to their manufacturing workers and hiring of underage workers in Vietnam, Nike's largest production center. To analyze this topic critically through an international relations perspective, theory of dependency will be used to criticize the notion of exploitation of resources from developed countries towards developing countries. Theory of economic liberalism will be used to support the notion private property, the free market and generally capitalism as beneficial to both developing and developed countries. Workers are mentally, physically and sexually abused in the factories. In addition to this, their working conditions consist of improper training, lack of safety equipment, exposure of chemicals (glues and pants), their average wage is below the minimum wage in their country; the workers have to work around 60 hours or more a week. Even Nike says that the conditions are regulated often to make sure the workers get a voice to have their work rights and safe working environment. The monitors come to analyze the factories but in the end talk to the employers, whom are the direct abusers to the employees. Health benefits are rarely granted to the employees; they are forced to pay their bills first then the company will reimburse them later. They would also get in trouble for using the bathroom, taking a lunch break or sick days off because this would mean it would decrease their hours of work, leading to an even lower wage and a really angry employer. Of course with the press criticizing Nike’s lack of respect for human rights and working rights, Nike has been working on policy making and implementation to deal with the abuses. Due to its large chains and a great number of outsourcing host countries, the changes that Nike wish or attempt to make have not be in effect as quickly nor spreading to all countries it holds accountable for in its outsourcing factories.

Keywords: dependency theory, economic liberalism, human rights, outsource

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41 Future of the Supply Chain Management

Authors: Mehmet Şimşek

Abstract:

In the rapidly changing market conditions, it is getting harder to survive without adapting new abilities. Technology and globalization have enabled foreign producers to enter into national markets, even local ones. For this reason there is now big competition among production companies for market share. Furthermore, competition has provided customer with broad range of options to choose from. To be able to survive in this environment, companies need to produce at low price and at high quality. The best way to succeed this is the efficient use of supply chain management that has started to get shaped by the needs of customers and the environment.

Keywords: cycle time, logistics, outsourcing, production, supply chain

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40 Optimization of Bills Assignment to Different Skill-Levels of Data Entry Operators in a Business Process Outsourcing Industry

Authors: M. S. Maglasang, S. O. Palacio, L. P. Ogdoc

Abstract:

Business Process Outsourcing has been one of the fastest growing and emerging industry in the Philippines today. Unlike most of the contact service centers, more popularly known as "call centers", The BPO Industry’s primary outsourced service is performing audits of the global clients' logistics. As a service industry, manpower is considered as the most important yet the most expensive resource in the company. Because of this, there is a need to maximize the human resources so people are effectively and efficiently utilized. The main purpose of the study is to optimize the current manpower resources through effective distribution and assignment of different types of bills to the different skill-level of data entry operators. The assignment model parameters include the average observed time matrix gathered from through time study, which incorporates the learning curve concept. Subsequently, a simulation model was made to duplicate the arrival rate of demand which includes the different batches and types of bill per day. Next, a mathematical linear programming model was formulated. Its objective is to minimize direct labor cost per bill by allocating the different types of bills to the different skill-levels of operators. Finally, a hypothesis test was done to validate the model, comparing the actual and simulated results. The analysis of results revealed that the there’s low utilization of effective capacity because of its failure to determine the product-mix, skill-mix, and simulated demand as model parameters. Moreover, failure to consider the effects of learning curve leads to overestimation of labor needs. From 107 current number of operators, the proposed model gives a result of 79 operators. This results to an increase of utilization of effective capacity to 14.94%. It is recommended that the excess 28 operators would be reallocated to the other areas of the department. Finally, a manpower capacity planning model is also recommended in support to management’s decisions on what to do when the current capacity would reach its limit with the expected increasing demand.

Keywords: optimization modelling, linear programming, simulation, time and motion study, capacity planning

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39 CMMI Key Process Areas and FDD Practices

Authors: Rituraj Deka, Nomi Baruah

Abstract:

The development of information technology during the past few years resulted in designing of more and more complex software. The outsourcing of software development makes a higher requirement for the management of software development project. Various software enterprises follow various paths in their pursuit of excellence, applying various principles, methods and techniques along the way. The new research is proving that CMMI and Agile methodologies can benefit from using both methods within organizations with the potential to dramatically improve business performance. The paper describes a mapping between CMMI key process areas (KPAs) and Feature-Driven Development (FDD) communication perspective, so as to increase the understanding of how improvements can be made in the software development process.

Keywords: Agile, CMMI, FDD, KPAs

Procedia PDF Downloads 347