Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: SPARQL

9 Parallel Querying of Distributed Ontologies with Shared Vocabulary

Authors: Sharjeel Aslam, Vassil Vassilev, Karim Ouazzane


Ontologies and various semantic repositories became a convenient approach for implementing model-driven architectures of distributed systems on the Web. SPARQL is the standard query language for querying such. However, although SPARQL is well-established standard for querying semantic repositories in RDF and OWL format and there are commonly used APIs which supports it, like Jena for Java, its parallel option is not incorporated in them. This article presents a complete framework consisting of an object algebra for parallel RDF and an index-based implementation of the parallel query engine capable of dealing with the distributed RDF ontologies which share common vocabulary. It has been implemented in Java, and for validation of the algorithms has been applied to the problem of organizing virtual exhibitions on the Web.

Keywords: distributed ontologies, parallel querying, semantic indexing, shared vocabulary, SPARQL

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8 Ontology-Based Representation of Islamic Rules to Perform Salah

Authors: Hamza Zafar, Quratulain Rajput


Salah (نماز ) is one of five pillars of Islam and obligatory for every Muslims. However, due to the lack of Islamic knowledge it might be very difficult for a layperson to perform it correctly. This paper presents an ontology based representation of Islamic rules to perform Salah. The Salah ontology has been built under the guidance of domain expert in light of Quran and Hadith. The ontology consists of basic concepts as well as relationship among concepts and constraints on them. The basic concepts include cleanness, body cover, Salah timing and steps to perform Salah. The SWRL rule language has been used to represent rule to determine whether the Salah performed correctly or it should be repeated. Finally, we evaluate the use of the Salat ontology through user’s example queries using SPARQL queries.

Keywords: prayer, salah, ontology, SPARQL queries, reasoning

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7 Validation of Mapping Historical Linked Data to International Committee for Documentation (CIDOC) Conceptual Reference Model Using Shapes Constraint Language

Authors: Ghazal Faraj, András Micsik


Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL), a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) language, provides well-defined shapes and RDF graphs, named "shape graphs". These shape graphs validate other resource description framework (RDF) graphs which are called "data graphs". The structural features of SHACL permit generating a variety of conditions to evaluate string matching patterns, value type, and other constraints. Moreover, the framework of SHACL supports high-level validation by expressing more complex conditions in languages such as SPARQL protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). SHACL includes two parts: SHACL Core and SHACL-SPARQL. SHACL Core includes all shapes that cover the most frequent constraint components. While SHACL-SPARQL is an extension that allows SHACL to express more complex customized constraints. Validating the efficacy of dataset mapping is an essential component of reconciled data mechanisms, as the enhancement of different datasets linking is a sustainable process. The conventional validation methods are the semantic reasoner and SPARQL queries. The former checks formalization errors and data type inconsistency, while the latter validates the data contradiction. After executing SPARQL queries, the retrieved information needs to be checked manually by an expert. However, this methodology is time-consuming and inaccurate as it does not test the mapping model comprehensively. Therefore, there is a serious need to expose a new methodology that covers the entire validation aspects for linking and mapping diverse datasets. Our goal is to conduct a new approach to achieve optimal validation outcomes. The first step towards this goal is implementing SHACL to validate the mapping between the International Committee for Documentation (CIDOC) conceptual reference model (CRM) and one of its ontologies. To initiate this project successfully, a thorough understanding of both source and target ontologies was required. Subsequently, the proper environment to run SHACL and its shape graphs were determined. As a case study, we performed SHACL over a CIDOC-CRM dataset after running a Pellet reasoner via the Protégé program. The applied validation falls under multiple categories: a) data type validation which constrains whether the source data is mapped to the correct data type. For instance, checking whether a birthdate is assigned to xsd:datetime and linked to Person entity via crm:P82a_begin_of_the_begin property. b) Data integrity validation which detects inconsistent data. For instance, inspecting whether a person's birthdate occurred before any of the linked event creation dates. The expected results of our work are: 1) highlighting validation techniques and categories, 2) selecting the most suitable techniques for those various categories of validation tasks. The next plan is to establish a comprehensive validation model and generate SHACL shapes automatically.

Keywords: SHACL, CIDOC-CRM, SPARQL, validation of ontology mapping

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6 Graph-Oriented Summary for Optimized Resource Description Framework Graphs Streams Processing

Authors: Amadou Fall Dia, Maurras Ulbricht Togbe, Aliou Boly, Zakia Kazi Aoul, Elisabeth Metais


Existing RDF (Resource Description Framework) Stream Processing (RSP) systems allow continuous processing of RDF data issued from different application domains such as weather station measuring phenomena, geolocation, IoT applications, drinking water distribution management, and so on. However, processing window phase often expires before finishing the entire session and RSP systems immediately delete data streams after each processed window. Such mechanism does not allow optimized exploitation of the RDF data streams as the most relevant and pertinent information of the data is often not used in a due time and almost impossible to be exploited for further analyzes. It should be better to keep the most informative part of data within streams while minimizing the memory storage space. In this work, we propose an RDF graph summarization system based on an explicit and implicit expressed needs through three main approaches: (1) an approach for user queries (SPARQL) in order to extract their needs and group them into a more global query, (2) an extension of the closeness centrality measure issued from Social Network Analysis (SNA) to determine the most informative parts of the graph and (3) an RDF graph summarization technique combining extracted user query needs and the extended centrality measure. Experiments and evaluations show efficient results in terms of memory space storage and the most expected approximate query results on summarized graphs compared to the source ones.

Keywords: centrality measures, RDF graphs summary, RDF graphs stream, SPARQL query

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5 Challenges over Two Semantic Repositories - OWLIM and AllegroGraph

Authors: Paria Tajabor, Azin Azarbani


The purpose of this research study is exploring two kind of semantic repositories with regards to various factors to find the best approaches that an artificial manager can use to produce ontology in a system based on their interaction, association and research. To this end, as the best way to evaluate each system and comparing with others is analysis, several benchmarking over these two repositories were examined. These two semantic repositories: OWLIM and AllegroGraph will be the main core of this study. The general objective of this study is to be able to create an efficient and cost-effective manner reports which is required to support decision making in any large enterprise.

Keywords: OWLIM, allegrograph, RDF, reasoning, semantic repository, semantic-web, SPARQL, ontology, query

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4 Enhancing Cultural Heritage Data Retrieval by Mapping COURAGE to CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model

Authors: Ghazal Faraj, Andras Micsik


The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) is an extensible ontology that provides integrated access to heterogeneous and digital datasets. The CIDOC-CRM offers a “semantic glue” intended to promote accessibility to several diverse and dispersed sources of cultural heritage data. That is achieved by providing a formal structure for the implicit and explicit concepts and their relationships in the cultural heritage field. The COURAGE (“Cultural Opposition – Understanding the CultuRal HeritAGE of Dissent in the Former Socialist Countries”) project aimed to explore methods about socialist-era cultural resistance during 1950-1990 and planned to serve as a basis for further narratives and digital humanities (DH) research. This project highlights the diversity of flourished alternative cultural scenes in Eastern Europe before 1989. Moreover, the dataset of COURAGE is an online RDF-based registry that consists of historical people, organizations, collections, and featured items. For increasing the inter-links between different datasets and retrieving more relevant data from various data silos, a shared federated ontology for reconciled data is needed. As a first step towards these goals, a full understanding of the CIDOC CRM ontology (target ontology), as well as the COURAGE dataset, was required to start the work. Subsequently, the queries toward the ontology were determined, and a table of equivalent properties from COURAGE and CIDOC CRM was created. The structural diagrams that clarify the mapping process and construct queries are on progress to map person, organization, and collection entities to the ontology. Through mapping the COURAGE dataset to CIDOC-CRM ontology, the dataset will have a common ontological foundation with several other datasets. Therefore, the expected results are: 1) retrieving more detailed data about existing entities, 2) retrieving new entities’ data, 3) aligning COURAGE dataset to a standard vocabulary, 4) running distributed SPARQL queries over several CIDOC-CRM datasets and testing the potentials of distributed query answering using SPARQL. The next plan is to map CIDOC-CRM to other upper-level ontologies or large datasets (e.g., DBpedia, Wikidata), and address similar questions on a wide variety of knowledge bases.

Keywords: CIDOC CRM, cultural heritage data, COURAGE dataset, ontology alignment

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3 An Ontology for Semantic Enrichment of RFID Systems

Authors: Haitham S. Hamza, Mohamed Maher, Shourok Alaa, Aya Khattab, Hadeal Ismail, Kamilia Hosny


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has become a key technology in the margining concept of Internet of Things (IoT). Naturally, business applications would require the deployment of various RFID systems that are developed by different vendors and use various data formats. This heterogeneity poses a real challenge in developing large-scale IoT systems with RFID as integration is becoming very complex and challenging. Semantic integration is a key approach to deal with this challenge. To do so, ontology for RFID systems need to be developed in order to annotated semantically RFID systems, and hence, facilitate their integration. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose ontology for RFID systems. The proposed ontology can be used to semantically enrich RFID systems, and hence, improve their usage and reasoning. The usage of the proposed ontology is explained through a simple scenario in the health care domain.

Keywords: RFID, semantic technology, ontology, sparql query language, heterogeneity

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2 A Novel Framework for User-Friendly Ontology-Mediated Access to Relational Databases

Authors: Efthymios Chondrogiannis, Vassiliki Andronikou, Efstathios Karanastasis, Theodora Varvarigou


A large amount of data is typically stored in relational databases (DB). The latter can efficiently handle user queries which intend to elicit the appropriate information from data sources. However, direct access and use of this data requires the end users to have an adequate technical background, while they should also cope with the internal data structure and values presented. Consequently the information retrieval is a quite difficult process even for IT or DB experts, taking into account the limited contributions of relational databases from the conceptual point of view. Ontologies enable users to formally describe a domain of knowledge in terms of concepts and relations among them and hence they can be used for unambiguously specifying the information captured by the relational database. However, accessing information residing in a database using ontologies is feasible, provided that the users are keen on using semantic web technologies. For enabling users form different disciplines to retrieve the appropriate data, the design of a Graphical User Interface is necessary. In this work, we will present an interactive, ontology-based, semantically enable web tool that can be used for information retrieval purposes. The tool is totally based on the ontological representation of underlying database schema while it provides a user friendly environment through which the users can graphically form and execute their queries.

Keywords: ontologies, relational databases, SPARQL, web interface

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1 Ontology based Fault Detection and Diagnosis system Querying and Reasoning examples

Authors: Marko Batic, Nikola Tomasevic, Sanja Vranes


One of the strongholds in the ubiquitous efforts related to the energy conservation and energy efficiency improvement is represented by the retrofit of high energy consumers in buildings. In general, HVAC systems represent the highest energy consumers in buildings. However they usually suffer from mal-operation and/or malfunction, causing even higher energy consumption than necessary. Various Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) systems can be successfully employed for this purpose, especially when it comes to the application at a single device/unit level. In the case of more complex systems, where multiple devices are operating in the context of the same building, significant energy efficiency improvements can only be achieved through application of comprehensive FDD systems relying on additional higher level knowledge, such as their geographical location, served area, their intra- and inter- system dependencies etc. This paper presents a comprehensive FDD system that relies on the utilization of common knowledge repository that stores all critical information. The discussed system is deployed as a test-bed platform at the two at Fiumicino and Malpensa airports in Italy. This paper aims at presenting advantages of implementation of the knowledge base through the utilization of ontology and offers improved functionalities of such system through examples of typical queries and reasoning that enable derivation of high level energy conservation measures (ECM). Therefore, key SPARQL queries and SWRL rules, based on the two instantiated airport ontologies, are elaborated. The detection of high level irregularities in the operation of airport heating/cooling plants is discussed and estimation of energy savings is reported.

Keywords: airport ontology, knowledge management, ontology modeling, reasoning

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