Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 379

Search results for: fruits

379 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Yield and Nutritive Quality of Tomato Fruits

Authors: Narjes Dashti, Nida Ali, Magdy Montasser, Vineetha Cherian

Abstract:

The influence of two PGPR strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas rhizophilia, on fruit yields, pomological traits and chemical contents of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits were studied. The study was conducted separately on two different cultivar varieties of tomato, namely Supermarmande and UC82B. The results indicated that the presence of the PGPR almost doubled the average yield per plant. There was a significant improvement in the pomological qualities of the PGPR treated tomato fruits compared to the corresponding healthy treatments especially in traits such as the average fruit weight, height, and fruit volume. The chemical analysis of tomato fruits revealed that the presence of the PGPRs increased the total protein, lycopene, alkalinity and phenol content of the tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls. They had no influence on the reduced sugar, total soluble solids or the titerable acid content of fruits. However their presence reduced the amount of ascorbic acid in tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls.

Keywords: PGPR, tomato, fruit quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
378 Storage Durations Affect the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Physalis Minima L.

Authors: Norhanizan U., S. H. Ahmad, N. A. P. Abdullah, G. B. Saleh

Abstract:

Physalis minima from the family of Solanaceae is one of the promising fruits which contains the high amount of vitamin C and other antioxidants as well. However, it is a perishable fruit where the deterioration process will commence if the fruits are not stored in proper conditions. There is not much work has been carried out to study the effects of storage durations on Physalis fruit. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of 0, 3, 6, and 9 days of storage on postharvest quality of Physalis minima fruits. Total of 120g of uniform sizes of fruits (2.3 to 2.5g) were used for each replication and the experiment was repeated thrice. The fruits were divided equally into four groups with each group labeled according to the days of storage. The fruits were then stored in the cool room for nine days with temperature maintain at 12 ° C. The fruits were analyzed for weight loss, firmness, color (L*, C* and hue angle), titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids concentrations (SSC), pH and ascorbic acids. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and means was separated using least significant difference (LSD). The storage durations affect the quality characteristics of the fruits. On the day 9, the average of fruit weight loss and fruit firmness decreased about 21 and 24% respectively. The level of ascorbic acids and titrable acidity were also decreased while the soluble solids concentration increased during storage. Thus, in order to retain the quality of the fruits, it is recommended that the Physalis fruit can be stored only up to 6 days at 12 ° C.

Keywords: fruit quality, Physalis minima, Solanaceae, storage durations

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
377 Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) Fruits

Authors: Ngoc Minh Quynh Pham, Quan V. Vuong, Michael C. Bowyer, Christopher J. Scarlett

Abstract:

Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) is an Australian native plant and is grown in the coastal regions in New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. Its fruits have been eaten by birds; however there is no information on phytochemical and antioxidant capacity of these fruits. This study aimed to determine the phenolic compounds (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), proanthocyanidins (TPro) and antioxidant capacity in the whole or different parts of tuckeroo fruit including skin, flesh and seed. Whole and partly tuckeroo fruits were collected and immediately freeze dried to constant weight and then ground to small particle sizes (<1mm mesh). Samples were extracted in 50% methanol using an ultrasonic bath set at temperature 40 °C for 30 minutes. TPC, TFC, TPro and antioxidant capacity were measured by spectrophotometric analysis. The results showed that the whole fruits contained 106.23 mg GAE/g of TPC, 67.67 mg CAE/g of TFC and 56.74 mg CAE/g of TPro. These fruits also possessed high antioxidant capacity (DPPH: 263.78 mg TroE/g, ABTS: 346.98 mg TroE/g, CUPRAC: 370.12 mg TroE/g and FRAP: 176.30 mg TroE/g), revealing that these fruits are rich source of antioxidants. The results also showed that distribution of the antioxidants was varied in different parts of the fruits. Skin had the highest levels of TPC, TFC, and TPro as well as antioxidant properties, followed by the seed and flesh had the lowest levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Of note, levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of the skin were significantly higher than those of the whole fruits. Therefore, the skin of tuckeroo fruits is recommended as a starting material for extraction and purification of phenolic compounds as potential antioxidants for further utilisation in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, Cupaniopsis anacardioides, phenolic compounds, tuckeroo fruit

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
376 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Tomato Fruits: Experimental and Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mallikarjunachari G., Venkata Ravi M.

Abstract:

The objective of this research work is to evaluate the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and critical rupture load of tomato fruits. Determination of mechanical properties of tomato fruits is essential in various material handling applications, especially as related to robot harvesting, packaging, and transportation. However, extracting meaningful mechanical properties of tomato fruits are extremely challenging due to its layered structure, i.e., the combination of exocarp, mesocarp, and locular gel tissues. Apart from this layered structure, other physical parameters such as diameter, sphericity, locule number, and, the surface to volume ratio also influence the mechanical properties. In this research work, tomato fruits are cultivated in two different ways, namely organic and inorganic farming. Static compression tests are performed to extract the mechanical properties of tomato fruits. Finite element simulations are done to complement the experimental results. It is observed that the effective modulus decreases as the compression depth increase from 0.5 mm to 10 mm and also a critical load of fracture decreases as the locule number increases from 3 to 5. Significant differences in mechanical properties are observed between organically and inorganically cultivated tomato fruits. The current study significantly helps in the design of material handling systems to avoid damage of tomato fruits.

Keywords: elastic modulus, critical load of fracture, locule number, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
375 Increasing Added-Value of Salak Fruit by Freezing Frying to Improve the Welfare of Farmers: Case Study of Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta-Indonesia

Authors: Sucihatiningsih Dian Wisika Prajanti, Himawan Arif Susanto

Abstract:

Fruits are perishable products and have relatively low price, especially at harvest time. Generally, farmers only sell the products shortly after the harvest time without any processing. Farmers also only play role as price takers leading them to have less power to set the price. Sometimes, farmers are manipulated by middlemen, especially during abundant harvest. Therefore, it requires an effort to cultivate fruits and create innovation to make them more durable and have higher economic value. The purpose of this research is how to increase the added- value of fruits that have high economic value. The research involved 60 farmers of Salak fruit as the sample. Then, descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data in this study. The results showed the selling price of Salak fruit is very low. Hence, to increase the added-value of the fruits, fruit processing is carried out by freezing - frying which can cause the fruits last longer. In addition to increase these added-value, the products can be accommodated for further processed without worrying about their crops rotted or unsold.

Keywords: fruits processing, Salak fruit, freezing frying, farmer’s welfare, Sleman, Yogyakarta

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
374 In Vivo Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitory Activities of Five Underutilized Nigerian Edible Fruits

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Isa Yunusa, Nafisa Kabir, Shazali Ali Baba, Amina Muhammad Yushau, Suraj Suraj Ibrahim, Zaharaddeen Idris Bello, Suleiman Haruna Suleiman, Murtala Bindawa Isah

Abstract:

Background: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which are beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. Objective: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum, Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. Methods: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. Results: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0-120)for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase.The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15-1118.35 and 942.44-1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. Conclusion: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, fruits, α-glucosidases, maltase, sucrase

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373 Nutritional Composition of Selected Wild Fruits from Minna Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: John O. Jacob, Abdullahi Mann, Olanrewaju I. Adeshina, Mohammed M. Ndamitso

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Strychnos spinosa, Detarium microcarpum, Diospyros mespiliformis, Dialium guineese and Gardenia ternifolia are some of the wild fruits consume in the villages around Minna, Niger State. This investigation was conducted to assess the nutritional potentials of these fruits both for human consumption and for possible application in animal feed formulations. Standard analytical methods were employed in the determination of the various nutritional parameters. The proximate analysis results showed that the moisture contents ranged between (6.17-10.70%); crude fat (2.04-8.85%); crude protein (5.16-6.80%); crude fibre (7.23-19.65%); Ash (3.46-5.56%); carbohydrate (57.77-69.79%); energy value (284.49-407 kcal/mg); Vitamin C (7.2-39.93 mg/100g). The mineral analysis shows that the selected wild fruits could contribute considerable amount of both micro and macro elements to human nutrition potassium, sodium and calcium range between; potassium (343.27-764.71%); sodium (155.04-348.44%); calcium (52.47-101%). The macro element for the fruits pulp were in the order K>Na>Mg>Ca, hence, they could be included in diet to supplement daily nutrient requirement and in animal feed formulations. The domestication of these fruits is also encouraged.

Keywords: mineral, micro-elements, macro-elements, feed suppleme

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
372 Surface Sterilization Retain Postharvest Quality and Shelf Life of Strawberry and Cherry Tomato during Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Authors: Ju Young Kim, Mohammad Zahirul Islam, Mahmuda Akter Mele, Su Jeong Han, Hyuk Sung Yoon, In-Lee Choi, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

Strawberry and tomato fruits were harvested at the red ripens maturity stage in the Republic of Korea. The fruits were dipped in fungi solution and afterwards were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas. Some fruits were dipped in 150μL/L NaOCl solution for 10 minutes, and others were treated with 5μL/L ClO2 gas for 12 hours and packed with 20,000 cc OTR (oxygen transmission rate) film, the rest were packed in 10,000 cc OTR film inserted with 5μL/L ClO2 gas. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed the lowest carbon dioxide and ethylene, and the highest oxygen concentration was on the final storage day (15th day) in both strawberry and tomato fruits. Tomato fruits showed the lowest fresh weight loss in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. The visual quality as well as shelf life showed the highest in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment of both strawberry and tomato fruits. In addition, the fungal incidence of strawberry and tomato fruits were the most suppressed in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed higher firmness and soluble solids in both strawberry and tomato fruits. So, 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment may be useful to prevent the fungal incidence as well as retaining the postharvest quality, and increase the shelf life of strawberry and tomato fruits for long term storage. This study was supported by Export Promotion Technology Development Program (314027-03), IPET, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Republic of Korea.

Keywords: chlorine dioxide, ethylene, fungi, sodium hypochlorite

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
371 Effect of Fermentation on the Bioavailability of Some Fruit Extracts

Authors: Kubra Ozkan, Osman Sagdic

Abstract:

To better understand the benefits of these fresh and fermented fruits on human health, the consequences of human metabolism and the bioavailability must be known. In this study, brine with 10% salt content, sugar, and vinegar (5% acetic acid) was added to fruits (Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch) in different formulations. Samples were stored at 20±2˚C for their fermentation for 21 days. The effects of in vitro digestion were determined on the bioactive compounds in fresh and fermented fruits ((Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch). Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of post gastric (PG), IN (with small intestinal absorbers) and OUT (without small intestine absorbers) samples obtained as gastric and intestinal digestion in vitro were measured. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity were determined by spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant capacity was tested by the CUPRAC methods, the total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total flavonoid content (TFC) determined by Aluminium trichloride (AlCl3) method. While the antioxidant capacity of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 2.21±0.05 mg TEAC/g, 4.39±0.02mg TEAC/g; these values for fermented fruits were found 2.37±0.08mg TEAC/g, 5.38±0.07mg TEAC/g respectively. While the total phenolic contents of fresh fruits namely, Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.51±0.01mg GAE/g, 5.56±0.01mg GAE/g; these values for fermented fruits were found as 0.52±0.01mg GAE/g, 6.81±0.03mg GAE/g, respectively. While the total flavonoid amounts of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.19±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.68±0.02mg CAE/g, these values for fermented fruits were found 0.20±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.93±0.02mg CAE/g, respectively. This study showed that phenolic, flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of the samples were increased during the fermantation process. As a result of digestion, the amounts of bioactive components decreased in the stomach and intestinal environment. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 40.89% and 43.28%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 4.27% and 3.82%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 5.32% and 19.98%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 2.22% and 1.53%, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 33.06% and 33.51, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 14.50% and 15.31%, respectively. Fermentation process; Prunus amygdalus Batsch decreased bioavailability while Prunus domestica increased bioavailability. When two fruits are compared; Prunus domestica bioavailability is more than Prunus amygdalus Batsch.

Keywords: bioactivity, bioavailability, fermented, fruit, nutrition

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
370 Biofertilization of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Using Trichoderma longibrachiatum

Authors: Kehinde T. Kareem

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The need to increase the production of cucumber has led to the use of inorganic fertilizers. This chemical affects the ecological balance of nature by increasing the nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the soil. Surface runoffs into rivers and streams cause eutrophication which affects aquatic organisms as well as the consumers of aquatic animals. Therefore, this study was carried out in the screenhouse to investigate the use of a plant growth-promoting fungus; Trichoderma longibrachiatum for the growth promotion of conventional and in-vitro propagated Ashley and Marketmoor cucumber. Before planting of cucumber, spore suspension (108 cfu/ml) of Trichoderma longibrachiatum grown on Potato dextrose agar (PDA) was inoculated into the soil. Fruits were evaluated for the presence of Trichoderma longibrachiatum using a species-specific primer. Results revealed that the highest significant plant height produced by in-vitro propagated Ashley was 19 cm while the highest plant height of in-vitro propagated Marketmoor was 19.67 cm. The yield of the conventional propagated Ashley cucumber showed that the number of fruit/plant obtained from T. longibrachiatum-fertilized plants were significantly more than those of the control. The in-vitro Ashely had 7 fruits/plant while the control produced 4 fruits/plant. In-vitro Marketmoor had ten fruits/plant, and the control had a value of 4 fruits/plant. There were no traces of Trichoderma longibrachiatum genes in the harvested cucumber fruits. Therefore, the use of Trichoderma longibrachiatum as a plant growth-promoter is safe for human health as well as the environment.

Keywords: biofertilizer, cucumber, genes, growth-promoter, in-vitro, propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
369 Comparative Assessment of Organo-Chlorine Pesticides Residue in Fruits and Fruit Juices

Authors: Saidu Garba Okereafor Stella

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The presence of 15 organochlorine pesticides residue was assessed from 29 different fruits and fruit juice samples from selected farms in Kaduna and Niger States using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS), followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The results showed the presence of varying concentrations of ten (10) organochlorine pesticide residues in all the samples with Endrin ketone showing the highest concentration in 3 samples from Kaduna (guava juice 1 and 2 0.099 to 0.145 mg/kg) and Niger States (orange juice J19 0.102 mg/kg). The heptachlor was detected at high concentration in 11 samples, 7 samples from Kaduna State (mango juice 0.011 mg/kg, Washington orange 0.014 mg/kg, Valencia orange fruit 0.020 mg/kg, orange juice 0.011, white guava fruit 0.024 mg/kg, guava juice 0.023 mg/kg, guava juice 2 0.024 mg/kg) and 4 samples from (mango juice 1 0.015 mg/kg, pineapple juice 1 0.0120 mg/kg pineapple juice 2 011 mg/kg and mix juice 2 0.012 mg/kg) from Niger State. Dieldrine and endosulfansulfate were detected at high levels in one sample each from Niger (guava fruit 0.019 mg/kg and mixed juice1 0.011mg/kg), respectively. However, all were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by WHO/FAO which suggest that people consuming these type of contaminated fruits and fruits juices may contact diseases associated with those organochlorine pesticides residue. Minute concentrations of other organochlorines (α- BHC, δ- BHC, β- BHC, Lindane, and p’p DDT) ranged from 0.003 to 0.015 were recorded below the MRLs.

Keywords: fruits and fruits juices, organochlorine pesticide residue, comparative studies, gc-ms spectrophometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
368 Influence of Maturation Degree of Arbutus (Arbutus unedo L.) Fruits in Spirit Composition and Quality

Authors: Goreti Botelho, Filomena Gomes, Fernanda M. Ferreira, Ilda Caldeira

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The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) is a small tree or shrub from botanical Ericaceae family that grows spontaneously nearby the Mediterranean basin and produce edible red fruits. A traditional processed fruit application, in Mediterranean countries, is the production of a spirit (known as aguardente de medronho, in Portugal) obtained from the fermented fruit. The main objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge about the influence of the degree of maturation of fruits in the volatile composition and quality of arbutus spirit. The major volatiles in the three distillates fractions (head, heart and tail) obtained from fermentation of two different fruit maturation levels were quantified by GC-FID analysis and ANOVA one-way was performed. Additionally, the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds of both arbutus fruit spirits were determined, by ABTS and Folin-Ciocalteau method, respectively. The methanol concentration is superior (1022.39 g/hL a.a.) in the spirit made from fruits with highest total soluble solids, which is a value above the legal limit (1000 g/hL a.a.). Overall, our study emphasizes, for the first time, the influence of maturation degree of arbutus fruits in the spirit volatile composition and quality.

Keywords: arbutus fruit, maturation, quality, spirit

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
367 Antioxidant Activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Fruits at Three Different Stages of Maturity in Food Systems

Authors: Deena Ramful-Baboolall, Eshana B. N. Bhatoo

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Morinda citrifolia L., commonly known as noni fruit, is rich in phytochemicals. This study investigated the phytophenolics content and antioxidant activity of green, mature green and ripe noni fruits. The vitamin C content ranged from 41.12 ± 0.083 to 143.63 ± 0.146 mg / 100 ml in fresh noni fruits. Ripe fruits contained the highest level of ascorbic acid followed by mature green and green fruits (p < 0.05). The total phenol content ranged from 0.909 (green) to 2.305 (ripe) mg / g of FW whilst the total flavonoid content ranged from 1.054 (green) to 2.116 (ripe) mg/g of FW. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the Morinda citrifolia L. extracts was also analysed using FRAP and TEAC assays. The reducing power of the fruit extracts as assessed by the FRAP assay decreased in the following order: ripe > mature green > green (p < 0.05). The TEAC values ranged from 0.2631 to 0.8921 µmol / g FW, with extracts of fruits at the mature green stage having highest values followed by fruits at the ripe and green stage respectively (p < 0.05). High correlation values were obtained between total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid contents and the TEAC and FRAP assays (r > 0.8). Noni fruit extracts (0.2 and 0.4 % m / m) were compared with BHT (0.02 % m / m) on their ability to protect canola oil and mayonnaise, prepared with canola oil, against lipid oxidation during storage at 40°C. Mature green and ripe extracts, at both concentrations, were more effective than BHT in retarding oxidation in both food systems as evidenced by peroxide value and conjugated diene value determinations. Noni extracts were also very effective in inhibiting lipid peroxidation in tuna fish homogenates, assessed using TBARS assay. Noni fruits at the mature green and ripe stages represent a potential source of natural antioxidants for use a food additive.

Keywords: antioxidant, canola oil, mayonnaise, Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extracts, total flavonoids, total phenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
366 Exploring the Effect of Cellulose Based Coating Incorporated with CaCl2 and MgSO4 on Shelf Life Extension of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata blanco) Cultivar

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Muhammad Nadeem

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Kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco) is nutritious and perishable fruit with high juice content, and also rich source of vitamin-C. In Pakistan, kinnow export is limited due to inadequate post-harvest handling and lack of satisfactory storage practices. Considering these issues, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coating in combination with CaCl2 and MgSO4 on shelf life extension of kinnow. Fruits were treated with different levels of CaCl2 and MgSO4 followed by HPMC coating (3 and 5%) and stored at 10°C with 80% relative humidity for 6 weeks. Fruits were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters on weekly basis. During this study lower fruit firmness (0.24Nm-2), loss in weight (0.64%) and ethylene production (0.039 µL•kg-1•hr-1) was observed in fruits treated with 1% CaCl2 + 1% MgSO4 + 5% HPMC (T6) during storage of 42 days. Minimum chilling injury indexes 0.22% and 0.61% were recorded in treatments T4 and T6, respectively. T6 showed higher values of titerable acidity (0.29%) and ascorbic acid contents (39.82mg/100g). Minimum TSS (9.62°Brix) was found in fruits of T6. Overall T6 showed significantly better results for various parameters, as compared to all other treated and control fruits.

Keywords: firmness, kinnow coating, physicochemical, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
365 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Potential, and Mineral Composition of Dried Abelmoschus esculentus L. Fruits Consume in Gada Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, I. M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

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Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is very common especially in northern part of Nigeria, but people are ignorant of its medicinal and pharmacological benefits. Preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant potential and mineral composition of the dried form of this fruit were determined. The Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard methods. Antioxidant potential screening was carried out using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay (FRAP) method, while, the mineral compositions were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer by wet digest method. The result of the qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that the fruits contain saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and terpenoids, while, anthraquinone, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, and phlobatannins were not detected. The quantitative analysis revealed that the fruits contain saponnins (380 ± 0.020 mg/g), flavonoids (240±0.01 mg/g), and tannins (21.71 ± 0.66 mg/ml). The antioxidant potential was determined to be 54.1 ± 0.19%. The mineral composition revealed that 100 g of the fruits contains 97.52 ± 1.04 mg of magnesium (Mg), 94.53 ± 3.21 mg of calcium (Ca), 77.10 ± 0.79 mg of iron (Fe), 47.14 ± 0.41 mg of zinc (Zn), 43.96 ± 1.49 mg of potassium (K), 42.02 ± 1.09 mg of sodium (Na), 0.47 ± 0.08 mg of copper (Cu) and 0.10 ± 0.02 mg of lead (Pb). These results showed that the Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is a good source of antioxidants, and contains an appreciable amount of phytochemicals, therefore, it has some pharmacological attributes. On the other side, the fruit can serve as a nutritional supplement for Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, K, and Na, but a poor source of Cu, and contains no significant amount of Pb.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus Fruits, antioxidant potential, mineral composition, phytochemical screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
364 Interspecific Competition among Three Fruit Fly Species Infesting Watermelon and Zucchini (Cucurbitaceae)

Authors: Gbenonsi A. Fabrice, Mama Sambo Sahadatou, Layode B. F. Rodolphe, Totin A. Felicien, Onzo Alexis, Karlsson M. Frida

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Interspecific competition occurs among arthropod pest species that share hosts, thereby influencing their population dynamics. In sub-Saharan Africa, the native fruit fly species Dacus vertebratus (Bezzi) and Dacus ciliatus (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the exotic Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) are concurrent pests in the same host fruits; hence competition among them is likely to occur. We explored interspecific competition among these three fruit fly species on zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb) (Cucurbitaceae) to improve our understanding of the interaction between the species and their capacity to coexist. We exposed the vegetable fruits to different densities of fruit fly species and studied their behavioural activities, evaluating the extrinsic competition. To assess intrinsic competition and understand the effect of co-occurrence inside the fruits, eggs of the three fruit flies were pairwise inoculated into the same fruits. Results showed that the behaviour on the fruits differed between the species and that the interspecific competition affected their developmental time and larval survival in both watermelon and zucchini. Z. cucurbitae were more aggressive than the other species and managed to oviposit more frequently. Emergence was reduced for D. ciliatus and D. vertebratus when inoculated together with Z. cucurbitae in watermelon but not in zucchini. Physical confrontations were more common in zucchini than in watermelon and were more frequently won by Z. cucurbitae than D. vertebratus and D. ciliatus. Interspecific competition information obtained about behavioural differences and interaction effects, providing background for explaining the present fruit fly guild on certain Cucurbitaceae fruits in West Africa.

Keywords: behavioural activities, extrinsic competition, intrinsic competition, Tephritidae

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
363 Evaluation of Hancornia speciosa Gomes Lyophilization at Different Stages of Maturation

Authors: D. C. Soares, J. T. S. Santos, D. G. Costa, A. K. S. Abud, T. P. Nunes, A. V. D. Figueiredo, A. M. de Oliveira Junior

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Mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), a native plant in Brazil, is found growing spontaneously in various regions of the country. The high perishability of tropical fruits such as mangaba, causes it to be necessary to use technologies that promote conservation, aiming to increase the shelf life of this fruit and add value. The objective of this study was to compare the mangabas lyophilisation curves behaviours with different sizes and maturation stages. The fruits were freeze-dried for a period of approximately 45 hours at lyophilizer Liotop brand, model L -108. It has been considered large the fruits between 38 and 58 mm diameter and small, between 23 and 28 mm diameter and the two states of maturation, intermediate and mature. Large size mangabas drying curves in both states of maturation were linear behaviour at all process, while the kinetic drying curves related to small fruits, independent of maturation state, had a typical behaviour of drying, with all the well-defined steps. With these results it was noted that the time of lyophilisation was suitable for small mangabas, a fact that did not happen with the larger one. This may indicate that the large mangabas require a longer time to freeze until reaches the equilibrium level, as it happens with the small fruits, going to have constant moisture at the end of the process. For both types of fruit were analysed water activity, acidity, protein, lipid, and vitamin C before and after the process.

Keywords: freeze dryer, mangaba, conservation, chemical characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
362 Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Iranian Native Fresh Barberry Fruit

Authors: Samira Berenji Ardestani, Hamid Reza Akhavan

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Gamma irradiation greatly reduces the potential microbiological risk of fresh fruits, resulting in improved microbial safety as well as extending their shelf life. The effects of 0.5-2 kGy gamma doses on some physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of fresh barberry fruits (Berberis vulgaris) during refrigerated storage for 40 days were evaluated. The total anthocyanin and total phenolic contents of barberry fruits decreased in a dose-dependent manner immediately after irradiation and after subsequent storage. In general, it is recommended that, according to the effect of gamma radiation on physicochemical, microbial and sensorial characteristics, doses of 1.25-2 kGy could be used.

Keywords: antioxidant property, barberry fruit, chemical properties, gamma irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
361 The Effect of Soil Contamination on Chemical Composition and Quality of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Fruits

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Sava G. Tabakov, Aleksander B. Peltekov, Krasimir I. Ivanov

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A field study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and quality of the Aronia fruits, as well as the possibilities of Aronia cultivation on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study included four varieties of Aronia; Aron variety, Hugin variety, Viking variety and Nero variety. The Aronia was cultivated according to the conventional technology on areas at a different distance from the source of pollution NFMW- Plovdiv (1 km, 3.5 km, and 15 km). The concentrations of macroelements, microelements, and heavy metals in Aronia fruits were determined. The dry matter content, ash, sugars, proteins, and fats were also determined. Aronia is a crop that is tolerant to heavy metals and can successfully be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The increased content of heavy metals in the soil leads to less absorption of the nutrients (Ca, Mg and P) in the fruit of the Aronia. Soil pollution with heavy metals does not affect the quality of the Aronia fruit varieties.

Keywords: aronia, chemical composition, fruits, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
360 The Application of Karonda Friuts (Carissa carandas Linn.) for Ice Cream-Making

Authors: A. Pornpitakdumrong

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The aim of this research study was to develop recipe of Karanda ice cream as healthy promoting ice cream by high protein, low fat and naturally raw material, which found in local area. The results were found that appropriate condition for Karanda ice cream including incubation period, temperature and frozen time, which were 8-12 hours, -20 to -25 °C and 2-4 hours, respectively. Small fruit variety Karanda should selected only ripe fruits for Karanda ice cream made. Because of unripe fruits were contained resin and need to be air dried for reducing level of resin. Therefore, large fruit variety Karanda can be use both ripe and unripe fruits for Karanda ice cream made by without any astringent and bitter taste. However, small fruit variety Karanda was proper to made ice cream for trade, because occurring of industry to select the ripe fruits and commercially frozen, which be providing for the whole year compared with large variety fruits were rarely, low harvesting amount and short shelf life. Karanda ice cream produced from flesh part was attractive but was not accepted by consumers. It may due to resin contained with Karanda pulp, which led to be rough texture of ice cream. We were choose only Karanda juice, which was more appropriated and used Karanda juice with water by 1:1 ratio, because undiluted juice was sour taste. Most acceptance recipe of karanda ice cream product was sixth recipe by 91% of consumers, which was contained soy protein to made ice cream was delicate and swell, milk powder (little amount) to made ice cream was greasy, corn powder as stabilizer and undiluted coconut milk (little amount) to improve ice cream odor and similar to apricot odor.

Keywords: karonda fruits, Carissa carandas Linn, ice cream, healthy ice cream

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
359 Survey for Mango Seed Weevils and Pulp Weevil Sternochetus Species (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) on Mango, Mangifera indica in Shan State-South, Myanmar

Authors: Khin Nyunt Yee, Mu Mu Thein

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Detection survey of mango seed and Pulp weevils was undertaken at major mango production areas, Yat Sauk, Taunggyi, Nyaung Shwe and Hopong Townships, in Shan State (South) of Myanmar on two mango cultivars of Sein Ta Lone and Yinkwe from May to August 2016 to coincide with fruiting season to conduct a survey of mango seed and pulp weevils population. The total numbers of 6300 fruits of both mango cultivars were sampled. Among them, 2900 fruits from 5674 fruit bearing plants were collected for Sein Ta Lone cultivar of five well managed, one unmanaged orchards and Urban in Yatsauk Twonship, 400 fruits from only one well managed orchard in Taunggyi Township, 400 fruits from two managed orchards in Nyaung Shwe Township and 400 fruits from one managed orchard in Hopong Township from May to June. 2200 fruits were collected from 4043 fruit bearing plants for Yinkwe Cultivar of four well managed orchards, one unmanaged orchards and one wild tree only in Yat Sauk Township from July to August, 2016. Fruit sample size was 200 fruits /orchard, / wild or /volunteer trees as minimum number. The pulps of all randomly sampling fruits were longitudinal cut open into three slices on each side of fruit and seed were cut longitudinally to inspect the presence of mango weevils. The collected weevils were identified up to species level at Plant Quarantine Laboratory, Plant Protection Division, Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation, Yangon, Myanmar. Mango Pulp and Seed weevils were found on Sein Ta Lone Mango Cultivar in three out of four surveyed Townships except Hopong with the level of infestation ranged from 0.0% to 3.5% of fruits per Township with 0.0% to 39.0% of fruits per orchard. The highest infestation rate per township was 3.5% of fruits (n=400 fruits) in Nyaung Shwe, then, at Yat Suak, the rate was 2.47% (n=2900 fruits). A well-managed orchard at Taung Gyi had 0.75% (n=400 fruits) whereas Hopong was free 0.0% (n=400). The weevils were also recorded on Yinkwe Mango Cultivar in Yatsauk Township where the infestation level was 12.63% of fruits (n=2200) with 0.0% to 67.0% of fruits per orchard. This high level of infestation was obtained by including an absolutely non Integrated Pest Management (non IPM) orchards in both survey with the infestation rates 63.0% of fruits (n=200) and 67.0% of fruits (n=200) respectively on Yinkwe cultivar. Two different species; mango pulp weevil, Sternochetus frigitus, and mango seed weevil Sternochetus olivieri (Faust) of family Curculionidae under the order Coleoptera were recorded. Sternochetus mangiferae was not found during these surveys. Three different developmental stages of mango seed and pulp weevils: larva, pupa and adult were first detected since the first survey in 3rd week of May and mostly were recorded as adult stages in the following surveys in June, July and August The number of Mango pulp weevil was statistically higher than that of mango seed weevils at P < 0.001%. More precise surveys should be carried out national wide to detect the mango weevils.

Keywords: mango pulp weevil, Sternochetus frigitus, mango seed weevil Sternochetus olivieri, faust, Sternochetus mangiferae, fabricius, Sein Ta Lone, Yinkwe mango cultivars, Shan State (South) Myanmar

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
358 Tomato Fruit Color Changes during Ripening of Vine

Authors: A.Radzevičius, P. Viškelis, J. Viškelis, R. Karklelienė, D. Juškevičienė

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Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hybrid 'Brooklyn' was investigated at the LRCAF Institute of Horticulture. For investigation, five green tomatoes, which were grown on vine, were selected. Color measurements were made in the greenhouse with the same selected tomato fruits (fruits were not harvested and were growing and ripening on tomato vine through all experiment) in every two days while tomatoes fruits became fully ripen. Study showed that color index L has tendency to decline and established determination coefficient (R2) was 0.9504. Also, hue angle has tendency to decline during tomato fruit ripening on vine and it’s coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9739. Opposite tendency was determined with color index a, which has tendency to increase during tomato ripening and that was expressed by polynomial trendline where coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9592.

Keywords: color, color index, ripening, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
357 Hedonic Price Analysis of Consumer Preference for Musa spp in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Yakubu Suleiman, S. A. Musa

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The research was conducted to determine the physical characteristics of banana fruits that influenced consumer preferences for the fruit in Northern Nigeria. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents were also identified. Simple descriptive statistics and Hedonic prices model were used to analyze the data collected for socio-economic and consumer preference respectively with the aid of 1000 structured questionnaires. The result revealed the value of R2 to be 0.633, meaning that, 63.3% of the variation in the banana price was brought about by the explanatory variables included in the model and the variables are: colour, size, degree of ripeness, softness, surface blemish, cleanliness of the fruits, weight, length, and cluster size of fruits. However, the remaining 36.7% could be attributed to the error term or random disturbance in the model. It could also be seen from the calculated result that the intercept was 1886.5 and was statistically significant (P < 0.01), meaning that about N1886.5 worth of banana fruits could be bought by consumers without considering the variables of banana included in the model. Moreover, consumers showed that they have significant preference for colours, size, degree of ripeness, softness, weight, length and cluster size of banana fruits and they were tested to be significant at either P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.1 . Moreover, the result also shows that consumers did not show significance preferences to surface blemish, cleanliness and variety of the banana fruit as all of them showed non-significance level with negative signs. Based on the findings of the research, it is hereby recommended that plant breeders and research institutes should concentrate on the production of banana fruits that have those physical characteristics that were found to be statistically significance like cluster size, degree of ripeness,’ softness, length, size, and skin colour.

Keywords: analysis, consumers, preference, variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
356 Study on Shelf Life and Textural Properties of Minimal Processed Mixed Fruits

Authors: Kaavya Rathnakumar

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Minimally processed fruits have the attributes of convenience and fresh like quality. In minimally processed products, the cells of the tissue are alive, and the essential nutrients and flavours are retained. Some of the procedures include washing, trimming, sorting, cutting, slicing and shredding. Fruits such as pineapple and guava were taken for the study of textural properties for a period of five days. After the performance of various unit operations 50g cubes of pineapple and guava has been weighed. For determining the textural properties, samples were taken in which set of 12 samples were treated by using 1% citric acid solution and dried for 5 minutes the remaining set of 12 samples were untreated. In set of treated samples 6 were vacuum packed and stored in the refrigerator, and the other sample was normally stored. For untreated samples was done in a similar way. In texture profile analysis the force required for 1cm penetration of 2mm cylindrical needle inside the fruits were recorded for all packages. It was observed that guava the fresh sample had a force of penetration of 3250mm and as the days increased the force decreased to 357.4 mm for vacuum packed refrigerated storage. In the case of pineapple, the force of penetration of the fresh sample was 2325mm which was decreased to 26.3mm on the fourth day and very low at the fifth day for vacuum packed refrigerated storage. But in case of untreated samples, the fruits were spoiled may be because of no pre-treatment and packaging. Comparatively, it was found that vacuum packed refrigerated samples had higher shelf life than normal packed samples in ambient conditions.

Keywords: 1% citric acid solution, normal packed, refrigerated storage, vacuum packed

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
355 Electronic Tongue as an Innovative Non-Destructive Tool for the Quality Monitoring of Fruits

Authors: Mahdi Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Ayat Mohammad-Razdari, Seyedeh-Hoda Yoosefian

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Taste is an important sensory property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. The advent of artificial sensorial systems as non-destructive tools able to mimic chemical senses such as those known as electronic tongue (ET) has open a variety of practical applications and new possibilities in many fields where the presence of taste is the phenomenon under control. In recent years, electronic tongue technology opened the possibility to exploit information on taste attributes of fruits providing real time information about quality and ripeness. Electronic tongue systems have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the last two decade because of numerous applications in diverse fields of applied sciences. This paper deals with some facets of this technology in the quality monitoring of fruits along with more recent its applications.

Keywords: fruit, electronic tongue, non-destructive, taste machine, horticultural

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
354 GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oil from the Leaves and Fruits of Artemesia Campestris from Algeria

Authors: B. Bakchiche, H. Guenane, M. Bireche, A. Noureddinne, A. Gherib

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The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Artemisia campestris L (family Asteraceae) collected in Djebel Amour (Sahara Atlas, Algeria). Aerial parts were also evaluated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analyses for leaves and fruits of A. campestris resulted in the identification of thirty-one compounds, representing 91.8 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.33% (v/dry weight). The main components were β-pinene and sabinene (25.6% and 17% respectively) followed by α-pinene (9.9%), limonene (6.6 %) and p-cymene (4.1%).

Keywords: essential oil, GC-MS, Artemesia campestris, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
353 Future Trends in Sources of Natural Antioxidants from Indigenous Foods

Authors: Ahmed El-Ghorab

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Indigenous foods are promising sources of various chemical bioactive compounds such as vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Therefore, the presence o different bioactive compounds in fruits could be used to retard or prevent various diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer. This is an update report on nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of different indigenous food . This different type of fruits and/ or other sources such as spices, aromatic plants, grains by-products, which containing bioactive compounds might be used as functional foods or for nutraceutical purposes. most common bioactive compounds are vitamin C, polyphenol, β- carotene and lycopene contents. In recent years, there has been a global trend toward the use of natural phytochemical as antioxidants and functional ingredients, which are present in natural resources such as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and herbs.. Our future trend the Use of Natural antioxidants as a promising alternative to use of synthetic antioxidants and the Production of natural antioxidant on commercial scale to maximize the value addition of indigenous food waste as a good source of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, antioxidants, by-product, indigenous foods, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
352 Using Deep Learning Real-Time Object Detection Convolution Neural Networks for Fast Fruit Recognition in the Tree

Authors: K. Bresilla, L. Manfrini, B. Morandi, A. Boini, G. Perulli, L. C. Grappadelli

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Image/video processing for fruit in the tree using hard-coded feature extraction algorithms have shown high accuracy during recent years. While accurate, these approaches even with high-end hardware are computationally intensive and too slow for real-time systems. This paper details the use of deep convolution neural networks (CNNs), specifically an algorithm (YOLO - You Only Look Once) with 24+2 convolution layers. Using deep-learning techniques eliminated the need for hard-code specific features for specific fruit shapes, color and/or other attributes. This CNN is trained on more than 5000 images of apple and pear fruits on 960 cores GPU (Graphical Processing Unit). Testing set showed an accuracy of 90%. After this, trained data were transferred to an embedded device (Raspberry Pi gen.3) with camera for more portability. Based on correlation between number of visible fruits or detected fruits on one frame and the real number of fruits on one tree, a model was created to accommodate this error rate. Speed of processing and detection of the whole platform was higher than 40 frames per second. This speed is fast enough for any grasping/harvesting robotic arm or other real-time applications.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, computer vision, deep learning, fruit recognition, harvesting robot, precision agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
351 Efficient Reduction of Organophosphate Pesticide from Fruits and Vegetables Using Cost Effective Neutralizer

Authors: Debjani Dasgupta, Aman Zalawadia, Anuj Thapa, Pranjali Sing, Ashish Dabade

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Organophosphate group pesticides are common pesticide group, which gain entry into food product due to incomplete removal of pesticide residues. The current food industry raw material handling process is not sufficient to eliminate pesticide residues. A neutralizer was used to neutralize the residues of pesticide on Vitis vinifera (Grapes). The water based dilution of neutralizer was demonstrated on fruits like grapes. Analysis for pesticides in water wash and neutralizer wash was carried out using GCMS. Fruits washed with neutralizer exhibited 72.95% removal of pesticides compared with normal water wash method. An economical chemical neutralizer can be used to remove such residues in raw material handling at industrial scale with minor modification in process to achieve minimum pesticide entry into final food products.

Keywords: GCMS, organophosphate, raw material handling, Vitis vinifera, pesticide neutralizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
350 Mechanical Characterization of Banana by Inverse Analysis Method Combined with Indentation Test

Authors: Juan F. P. Ramírez, Jésica A. L. Isaza, Benjamín A. Rojano

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This study proposes a novel use of a method to determine the mechanical properties of fruits by the use of the indentation tests. The method combines experimental results with a numerical finite elements model. The results presented correspond to a simplified numerical modeling of banana. The banana was assumed as one-layer material with an isotropic linear elastic mechanical behavior, the Young’s modulus found is 0.3Mpa. The method will be extended to multilayer models in further studies.

Keywords: finite element method, fruits, inverse analysis, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 201