Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Ashutosh Bagchi

35 Effects of Damper Locations and Base Isolators on Seismic Response of a Building Frame

Authors: Azin Shakibabarough, Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Ashutosh Bagchi


Structural vibration means repetitive motion that causes fatigue and reduction of the performance of a structure. An earthquake may release high amount of energy that can have adverse effect on all components of a structure. Therefore, decreasing of vibration or maintaining performance of structures such as bridges, dams, roads and buildings is important for life safety and reducing economic loss. When earthquake or any vibration happens, investigation on parts of a structure which sustain the seismic loads is mandatory to provide a safe condition for the occupants. One of the solutions for reducing the earthquake vibration in a structure is using of vibration control devices such as dampers and base isolators. The objective of this study is to investigate the optimal positions of friction dampers and base isolators for better seismic response of 2D frame. For this purpose, a two bay and six story frame with different distribution formats was modeled and some of their responses to earthquake such as inter-story drift, max joint displacement, max axial force and max bending moment were determined and compared using non-linear dynamic analysis.

Keywords: fast nonlinear analysis, friction damper, base isolator, seismic vibration control, seismic response

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34 Structural Health Monitoring of Buildings and Infrastructure

Authors: Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Ashutosh Bagchi, Osama Moselhi


Structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, wind turbines etc. need to be maintained against various factors such as deterioration, excessive loads, environment, temperature, etc. Choosing an appropriate monitoring system is important for determining any critical damage to a structure and address that to avoid any adverse consequence. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has emerged as an effective technique to monitor the health of the structures. SHM refers to an ongoing structural performance assessment using different kinds of sensors attached to or embedded in the structures to evaluate their integrity and safety to help engineers decide on rehabilitation measures. Ability of SHM in identifying the location and severity of structural damages by considering any changes in characteristics of the structures such as their frequency, stiffness and mode shapes helps engineers to monitor the structures and take the most effective corrective actions to maintain their safety and extend their service life. The main objective of this study is to review the overall SHM process specifically determining the natural frequency of an instrumented simply-supported concrete beam using modal testing and finite element model updating.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, natural frequency, modal analysis, finite element model updating

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33 Integrating Building Information Modeling into Facilities Management Operations

Authors: Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Azin Shakibabarough, Ashutosh Bagchi


Facilities such as residential buildings, office buildings, and hospitals house large density of occupants. Therefore, a low-cost facility management program (FMP) should be used to provide a satisfactory built environment for these occupants. Facility management (FM) has been recently used in building projects as a critical task. It has been effective in reducing operation and maintenance cost of these facilities. Issues of information integration and visualization capabilities are critical for reducing the complexity and cost of FM. Building information modeling (BIM) can be used as a strong visual modeling tool and database in FM. The main objective of this study is to examine the applicability of BIM in the FM process during a building’s operational phase. For this purpose, a seven-storey office building is modeled Autodesk Revit software. Authors integrated the cloud-based environment using a visual programming tool, Dynamo, for the purpose of having a real-time cloud-based communication between the facility managers and the participants involved in the project. An appropriate and effective integrated data source and visual model such as BIM can reduce a building’s operational and maintenance costs by managing the building life cycle properly.

Keywords: building information modeling, facility management, operational phase, building life cycle

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32 Seismic Performance of Concrete Moment Resisting Frames in Western Canada

Authors: Ali Naghshineh, Ashutosh Bagchi


Performance-based seismic design concepts are increasingly being adopted in various jurisdictions. While the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) is not fully performance-based, it provides some features of a performance-based code, such as displacement control and objective-based solutions. Performance evaluation is an important part of a performance-based design. In this paper, the seismic performance of a set of code-designed 4, 8 and 12 story moment resisting concrete frames located in Victoria, BC, in the western part of Canada at different hazard levels namely, SLE (Service Level Event), DLE (Design Level Event) and MCE (Maximum Considered Event) has been studied. The seismic performance of these buildings has been evaluated based on FEMA 356 and ATC 72 procedures, and the nonlinear time history analysis. Pushover analysis has been used to investigate the different performance levels of these buildings and adjust their design based on the corresponding target displacements. Since pushover analysis ignores the higher mode effects, nonlinear dynamic time history using a set of ground motion records has been performed. Different types of ground motion records, such as crustal and subduction earthquake records have been used for the dynamic analysis to determine their effects. Results obtained from push over analysis on inter-story drift, displacement, shear and overturning moment are compared to those from the dynamic analysis.

Keywords: seismic performance., performance-based design, concrete moment resisting frame, crustal earthquakes, subduction earthquakes

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31 System Identification of Timber Masonry Walls Using Shaking Table Test

Authors: Timir Baran Roy, Luis Guerreiro, Ashutosh Bagchi


Dynamic study is important in order to design, repair and rehabilitation of structures. It has played an important role in the behavior characterization of structures; such as bridges, dams, high-rise buildings etc. There had been a substantial development in this area over the last few decades, especially in the field of dynamic identification techniques of structural systems. Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and Time Domain Decomposition are most commonly used methods to identify modal parameters; such as natural frequency, modal damping, and mode shape. The focus of the present research is to study the dynamic characteristics of typical timber masonry walls commonly used in Portugal. For that purpose, a multi-storey structural prototypes of such walls have been tested on a seismic shake table at the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Portugal (LNEC). Signal processing has been performed of the output response, which is collected from the shaking table experiment of the prototype using accelerometers. In the present work signal processing of the output response, based on the input response has been done in two ways: FDD and Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI). In order to estimate the values of the modal parameters, algorithms for FDD are formulated, and parametric functions for the SSI are computed. Finally, estimated values from both the methods are compared to measure the accuracy of both the techniques.

Keywords: frequency domain decomposition (fdd), modal parameters, signal processing, stochastic subspace identification (ssi), time domain decomposition

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30 Condition Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Azin Shakibabarough, Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Ashutosh Bagchi


Catastrophic bridge failure happens due to the lack of inspection, lack of design and extreme events like flooding, an earthquake. Bridge Management System (BMS) is utilized to diminish such an accident with proper design and frequent inspection. Visual inspection cannot detect any subsurface defects, so using Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques remove these barriers as far as possible. Among all NDE techniques, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been proved as a highly effective device for detecting internal defects in a reinforced concrete bridge deck. GPR is used for detecting rebar location and rebar corrosion in the reinforced concrete deck. GPR profile is composed of hyperbola series in which sound hyperbola denotes sound rebar and blur hyperbola or signal attenuation shows corroded rebar. Interpretation of GPR images is implemented by numerical analysis or visualization. Researchers recently found that interpretation through visualization is more precise than interpretation through numerical analysis, but visualization is time-consuming and a highly subjective process. Automating the interpretation of GPR image through visualization can solve these problems. After interpretation of all scans of a bridge, condition assessment is conducted based on the generated corrosion map. However, this such a condition assessment is not objective and precise. Condition assessment based on structural integrity and strength parameters can make it more objective and precise. The main purpose of this study is to present an automated interpretation method of a reinforced concrete bridge deck through a visualization technique. In the end, the combined analysis of the structural condition in a bridge is implemented.

Keywords: bridge condition assessment, ground penetrating radar, GPR, NDE techniques, visualization

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29 Frequency Domain Decomposition, Stochastic Subspace Identification and Continuous Wavelet Transform for Operational Modal Analysis of Three Story Steel Frame

Authors: Ardalan Sabamehr, Ashutosh Bagchi


Recently, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on the vibration of structures has attracted the attention of researchers in different fields such as: civil, aeronautical and mechanical engineering. Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) have been developed to identify modal properties of infrastructure such as bridge, building and so on. Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) are the three most common methods in output only modal identification. FDD, SSI, and CWT operate based on the frequency domain, time domain, and time-frequency plane respectively. So, FDD and SSI are not able to display time and frequency at the same time. By the way, FDD and SSI have some difficulties in a noisy environment and finding the closed modes. CWT technique which is currently developed works on time-frequency plane and a reasonable performance in such condition. The other advantage of wavelet transform rather than other current techniques is that it can be applied for the non-stationary signal as well. The aim of this paper is to compare three most common modal identification techniques to find modal properties (such as natural frequency, mode shape, and damping ratio) of three story steel frame which was built in Concordia University Lab by use of ambient vibration. The frame has made of Galvanized steel with 60 cm length, 27 cm width and 133 cm height with no brace along the long span and short space. Three uniaxial wired accelerations (MicroStarin with 100mv/g accuracy) have been attached to the middle of each floor and gateway receives the data and send to the PC by use of Node Commander Software. The real-time monitoring has been performed for 20 seconds with 512 Hz sampling rate. The test is repeated for 5 times in each direction by hand shaking and impact hammer. CWT is able to detect instantaneous frequency by used of ridge detection method. In this paper, partial derivative ridge detection technique has been applied to the local maxima of time-frequency plane to detect the instantaneous frequency. The extracted result from all three methods have been compared, and it demonstrated that CWT has the better performance in term of its accuracy in noisy environment. The modal parameters such as natural frequency, damping ratio and mode shapes are identified from all three methods.

Keywords: ambient vibration, frequency domain decomposition, stochastic subspace identification, continuous wavelet transform

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28 Policy Compliance in Information Security

Authors: R. Manjula, Kaustav Bagchi, Sushant Ramesh, Anush Baskaran


In the past century, the emergence of information technology has had a significant positive impact on human life. While companies tend to be more involved in the completion of projects, the turn of the century has seen importance being given to investment in information security policies. These policies are essential to protect important data from adversaries, and thus following these policies has become one of the most important attributes revolving around information security models. In this research, we have focussed on the factors affecting information security policy compliance in two models : The theory of planned behaviour and the integration of the social bond theory and the involvement theory into a single model. Finally, we have given a proposal of where these theories would be successful.

Keywords: information technology, information security, involvement theory, policies, social bond theory

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27 Estimation of Maximum Earthquake for Gujarat Region, India

Authors: Ashutosh Saxena, Kumar Pallav, Ramji Dwivedi


The present study estimates the seismicity parameter 'b' and maximum possible magnitude of an earthquake (Mmax) for Gujarat region with three well-established methods viz. Kijiko parametric model (KP), Kijiko-Sellevol-Bayern (KSB) and Tapered Gutenberg-Richter (TGR), as a combined seismic source regime. The earthquake catalogue is prepared for a period of 1330 to 2013 in the region Latitudes 20o N to 250 N and Longitudinally extending from 680 to 750 E for earthquake moment magnitude (Mw) ≥4.0. The ’a’ and 'b' value estimated for the region as 4.68 and 0.58. Further, Mmax estimated as 8.54 (± 0.29), 8.69 (± 0.48), and 8.12 with KP, KSB, and TGR, respectively.

Keywords: Mmax, seismicity parameter, Gujarat, Tapered Gutenberg-Richter

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26 The Effects of Dual-Enrollment Programs on Students’ Post-Secondary Academic Performance

Authors: Cody Kirby, Kaustav Misra, Arundhati Bagchi Misra, Sharon P. Cox


This paper focuses on the relationship that dual-enrollment programs have on academic performance and retention. Both performance and retention are significant issues in higher education. The first, performance, is a goal of higher education, having an impact on students’ lives. The second, retention, is key to the viability of any college or university. This paper uses survey research methodology to examine factors that lead to positive student academic performance, which leads to retention, specifically in dual-enrollment programs. The data show several characteristics that lead to a positive impact on GPA. These include the following; age, Caucasian race, full-time status, students in STEM programs, and finally dual enrollment participation.

Keywords: dual enrollment, early college, retention, undergraduate education

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25 Burden of Dengue in Northern India

Authors: Ashutosh Biswas, Poonam Coushic, Kalpana Baruah, Paras Singla, A. C. Dhariwal, Pawana Murthy


Burden of Dengue in Northern India Ashutosh Biswas, Poonam Coushic, Kalpana Baruah, Paras Singla, AC Dhariwal, Pawana Murthy. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, NVBDCP,WHO New Delhi, India Aim: This study was conducted to estimate the burden of dengue in capital region of India. Methodology:Seropositivity of Dengue for IgM Ab, NS1 Ag and IgG Ab were performed among the blood donors’ samples from blood bank, those who were coming to donate blood for the requirement of blood for the admitted patients in hospital. Blood samplles were collected through out the year to estimate seroprevalance of dengue with or without outbreak season. All the subjects were asymptomatic at the time of blood donation. Results: A total of 1558 donors were screened for the study. On the basis of inclusion/ exclusion criteria, we enrolled 1531subjects for the study.Twenty seven donors were excluded from the study, out of which 6 were detected HIV +ve, 11 were positive for HBsAg and 10 were found positive for HCV.Mean age was 30.51 ± 7.75 years.Of 1531subjects, 18 (1.18%) had a past history of typhoid fever, 28 (1.83%) had chikungunya fever, 9 (0.59%) had malaria and 43 subjects (2.81%) had a past history of symptomatic dengue infection.About 2.22% (34) of subjects were found to have sero-positive for NS1 Ag with a peak point prevalence of 7.14% in the month of October and sero-positive of IgM Ab was observed about 5.49% (84)with a peak point prevalence of 14.29% in the month of October. Sero-prevalnce of IgGwas detected in about 64.21% (983) of subjects. Conclusion: Acute asymptomatic dengue (NS1 Ag+ve) was observed in 7.14%, as the subjects were having no symptoms at the time of sampling. This group of subjects poses a potential public health threat for transmitting dengue infection through blood transfusion (TTI) in the community as evident by presence of active viral infection due to NS1Ag +VE. Therefore a policy may be implemented in the blood bank for testing NS1 Ag to look for active dengue infection for preventing dengue transmission through blood transfusion (TTI). Acute or Subacute dengue infection ( IgM Ab+ve) was observed from 5.49% to 14.29% which is a peak point prevalence in the month of October. About 64.21% of the population were immunized by natural dengue infection ( IgG Ab+ve) in theNorthern province of India. This might be helpful for implementing the dengue vaccine in a region. Blood samples in blood banks should be tested for dengue before transfusion to any other person to prevent transfusion transmitted dengue infection as we estimated upto 7.14% positivity of NS1 Ag in our study which indicates presence of dengue virus in blood donors’ samples.

Keywords: Dengue Burden, Seroprevalance, Asymptomatic dengue, Dengue transmission through blood transfusion

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24 Facial Emotion Recognition Using Deep Learning

Authors: Ashutosh Mishra, Nikhil Goyal


A 3D facial emotion recognition model based on deep learning is proposed in this paper. Two convolution layers and a pooling layer are employed in the deep learning architecture. After the convolution process, the pooling is finished. The probabilities for various classes of human faces are calculated using the sigmoid activation function. To verify the efficiency of deep learning-based systems, a set of faces. The Kaggle dataset is used to verify the accuracy of a deep learning-based face recognition model. The model's accuracy is about 65 percent, which is lower than that of other facial expression recognition techniques. Despite significant gains in representation precision due to the nonlinearity of profound image representations.

Keywords: facial recognition, computational intelligence, convolutional neural network, depth map

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23 Photoluminescence Spectroscopy to Probe Mixed Valence State in Eu-Doped Nanocrystalline Glass-Ceramics

Authors: Ruchika Bagga, Mauro Falconieri, Venu Gopal Achanta, José M. F. Ferreira, Ashutosh Goel, Gopi Sharma


Mixed valence Eu-doped nanocrystalline NaAlSiO4/NaY9Si6O26 glass-ceramics have been prepared by controlled crystallization of melt quenched bulk glasses. XRD and SEM techniques were employed to characterize the crystallization process of the precursor glass and their resultant glass-ceramics. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to analyze the formation of divalent europium (Eu2+) from Eu3+ ions during high temperature synthesis under ambient atmosphere and is explained on the basis of optical basicity model. The observed luminescence properties of Eu: NaY9Si6O26 are compared with that of well explored Eu: β-PbF2 nanocrystals and their marked differences are discussed.

Keywords: rare earth, oxyfluoride glasses, nano-crystalline glass-ceramics, photoluminescence spectroscopy

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22 Multilingual Chatbot for Indian Languages

Authors: Usneek Singh, Nisarg Vora, Punit Lohia, Yashvardhan Sharma, Ashutosh Bhatia, Kamlesh Tiwari


Chatbots are user-friendly interfaces that emulate human dialogue. With the rise of technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and natural language processing (NLP), chatbots have become an effective tool in the majority of conversational applications of companies. India is a multiverse country that demands making the chatbot functional in different languages. We build a multilingual chatbot that provides fixed responses for questions asked in multiple Indian languages using BERT embeddings. To remove the limitation of fixed responses, we fine-tune the transformer model for the downstream task of question-answering that makes the chatbot context-aware. MuRIL BERT model provides the best results for correct response prediction among major multilingual BERT models.

Keywords: BERT, Chatbot, Indian languages, MuRIL, NLP

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21 Estimation of Desktop E-Wastes in Delhi Using Multivariate Flow Analysis

Authors: Sumay Bhojwani, Ashutosh Chandra, Mamita Devaburman, Akriti Bhogal


This article uses the Material flow analysis for estimating e-wastes in the Delhi/NCR region. The Material flow analysis is based on sales data obtained from various sources. Much of the data available for the sales is unreliable because of the existence of a huge informal sector. The informal sector in India accounts for more than 90%. Therefore, the scope of this study is only limited to the formal one. Also, for projection of the sales data till 2030, we have used regression (linear) to avoid complexity. The actual sales in the years following 2015 may vary non-linearly but we have assumed a basic linear relation. The purpose of this study was to know an approximate quantity of desktop e-wastes that we will have by the year 2030 so that we start preparing ourselves for the ineluctable investment in the treatment of these ever-rising e-wastes. The results of this study can be used to install a treatment plant for e-wastes in Delhi.

Keywords: e-wastes, Delhi, desktops, estimation

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20 Dealing with Neighbors: River Water Sharing between India, Pakistan and Bangladesh

Authors: Ashutosh Pujari


The sharing of natural resources is one of the most important aspects of relations between two neighboring countries, especially when it is a resource that has a presence in both the countries in question. River water is an important resource that is shared between India and its neighbors, namely Pakistan and Bangladesh. India shares Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum rivers with Pakistan, while with Bangladesh, it shares Ganges and Brahmaputra. However, it is interesting to note how does India deals with her sharing of water with these two countries. Although water sharing with both the countries has been dotted by irritants over the years, relations with Bangladesh is undoubtedly better in this respect. Given the common history of the region, this paper analyses the reasons behind this difference in the relationship between India and her neighbors and its implications for the present times. Through critical analysis of literature and the official policy of all the governments involved and the narratives present, this paper tries to present understand how India’s relations with its neighbors are a function of geopolitics, culture, and perceptions on both sides.

Keywords: geopolitics, river water sharing, India-Pakistan relations, India-Bangladesh relations

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19 Clothes Identification Using Inception ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2

Authors: Subodh Chandra Shakya, Badal Shrestha, Suni Thapa, Ashutosh Chauhan, Saugat Adhikari


To tackle our problem of clothes identification, we used different architectures of Convolutional Neural Networks. Among different architectures, the outcome from Inception ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2 seemed promising. On comparison of the metrices, we observed that the Inception ResNet V2 slightly outperforms MobileNet V2 for this purpose. So this paper of ours proposes the cloth identifier using Inception ResNet V2 and also contains the comparison between the outcome of ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2. The document here contains the results and findings of the research that we performed on the DeepFashion Dataset. To improve the dataset, we used different image preprocessing techniques like image shearing, image rotation, and denoising. The whole experiment was conducted with the intention of testing the efficiency of convolutional neural networks on cloth identification so that we could develop a reliable system that is good enough in identifying the clothes worn by the users. The whole system can be integrated with some kind of recommendation system.

Keywords: inception ResNet, convolutional neural net, deep learning, confusion matrix, data augmentation, data preprocessing

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18 Unique NiO Based 1 D Core/Shell Nano-Heterostructure Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitor

Authors: Gobinda Gopal Khan, Ashutosh K. Singh, Debasish Sarkar


Unique one-dimensional (1D) Ni-NiO and Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures are fabricated by combining the electrochemical deposition and annealing. The high-performance pseudo-capacitor electrode based on the Ni-NiO and Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures is designed and demonstrated. The Co-Ni/Co3O4-NiO core/shell nano-heterostructures exhibit high specific capacitance (2013 Fg-1 at 2.5 Ag-1), high energy and power density (23 Wh kg-1 and 5.5 kW kg-1, at the discharge current density of 20.8 A g-1.), good capacitance retention, and long cyclicality. The remarkable electrochemical property of the large surface area nano-heterostructures is demonstrated based on the novel nano-architectural design of the electrode with the coexistence of the two highly redox active materials at the surface supported by highly conducting metal alloy channel at the core for faster charge transport.

Keywords: nano-heterostructures, energy storage, supercapacitors, electrochemical deposition

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17 Parkinson's Disease Gene Identification Using Physicochemical Properties of Amino Acids

Authors: Priya Arora, Ashutosh Mishra


Gene identification, towards the pursuit of mutated genes, leading to Parkinson’s disease, puts forward a challenge towards proactive cure of the disorder itself. Computational analysis is an effective technique for exploring genes in the form of protein sequences, as the theoretical and manual analysis is infeasible. The limitations and effectiveness of a particular computational method are entirely dependent on the previous data that is available for disease identification. The article presents a sequence-based classification method for the identification of genes responsible for Parkinson’s disease. During the initiation phase, the physicochemical properties of amino acids transform protein sequences into a feature vector. The second phase of the method employs Jaccard distances to select negative genes from the candidate population. The third phase involves artificial neural networks for making final predictions. The proposed approach is compared with the state of art methods on the basis of F-measure. The results confirm and estimate the efficiency of the method.

Keywords: disease gene identification, Parkinson’s disease, physicochemical properties of amino acid, protein sequences

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16 miCoRe: Colorectal Cancer miRNAs Database

Authors: Rahul Agarwal, Ashutosh Singh


Colorectal cancer (CRC) also refers as bowel cancer or colon cancer. It involves the development of abnormal growth of cells in colon or rectum part of the body. This work leads to the development of a miRNA database in colorectal cancer. We named this database- miCoRe. This database comprises of all validated colon-rectal cancer miRNAs information from various published literature with an effectual knowledge based information retrieval system. miRNAs have been collected from various published literature reports. MySQL is used for main-framework of miCoRe while the front-end was developed in PHP script. The aim of developing miCoRe is to create a comprehensive central repository of colorectal carcinoma miRNAs with all germane information of miRNAs and their target genes. The current version of miCoRe consists of 238 miRNAs which are known to be implicated in malignancy of CRC. Alongside with miRNA information, miCoRe also contains the information related to the target genes of these miRNA. miCoRe furnishes the information about the mechanism of incidence and progression of the disease, which would further help the researchers to look for colorectal specific miRNAs therapies and CRC specific targeted drug designing. Moreover, it will also help in development of biomarkers for the better and early detection of CRC and will help in better clinical management of the disease.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, database, miCoRe, miRNAs

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15 In silico Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion and Squamous Cell Carcinomas Stages of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Rahul Agarwal, Ashutosh Singh


Cervical cancer is one of the women related cancers which starts from the pre-cancerous cells and a fraction of women with pre-cancers of the cervix will develop cervical cancer. Cervical pre-cancers if treated in pre-invasive stage can prevent almost all true cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The present study investigates the genes and pathways that are involved in the progression of cervical cancer and are responsible in transition from pre-invasive stage to other advanced invasive stages. The study used GDS3292 microarray data to identify the stage specific genes in cervical cancer and further to generate the network of the significant genes. The microarray data GDS3292 consists of the expression profiling of 10 normal cervices, 7 HSILs and 21 SCCs samples. The study identifies 70 upregulated and 37 downregulated genes in HSIL stage while 95 upregulated and 60 downregulated genes in SCC stages. Biological process including cell communication, signal transduction are highly enriched in both HSIL and SCC stages of cervical cancer. Further, the ppi interaction of genes involved in HSIL and SCC stages helps in identifying the interacting partners. This work may lead to the identification of potential diagnostic biomarker which can be utilized for early stage detection.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HSIL, microarray, SCC

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14 Multifunctional 1D α-Fe2O3/ZnO Core/Shell Semiconductor Nano-Heterostructures: Heterojunction Engineering

Authors: Gobinda Gopal Khan, Ashutosh K. Singh, Debasish Sarkar


This study reports the facile fabrication of 1D ZnO/α-Fe2O3 semiconductor nano-heterostructures (SNHs), and we investigate the strong interfacial interactions at the heterojunction, resulting in novel multifunctionality in the hybrid structure. ZnO-coated α-Fe2O3 nanowires (NWs) have been prepared by combining electrodeposition and wet chemical methods. Significant improvement in electrical conductivity, photoluminescence, and room temperature magnetic properties have been observed for the ZnO/α-Fe2O3 SNHs over the pristine α-Fe2O3 NWs because of the contribution of the ZnO nanolayer. The increase in electrical conductivity in ZnO/α-Fe2O3 SNHs is because of the increase in free electrons in the conduction band of the SNHs due to the formation of type-II n-n band configuration at the heterojunction. The SNHs are found to exhibit enhanced visible green photoluminescence along with the UV emission at room temperature. The band-gap emission of the α-Fe2O3 NWs coupled to the defect emissions of the ZnO in SNHs can be attributed to the profound enhancement of the visible green luminescence. Ferromagnetism of the SNHs is found to be increased nearly five times in magnitude over the primeval α-Fe2O3 NWs, which can be ascribed to the exchange coupling of the interfacial spin at ZnO/α-Fe2O3 interface, the surface spin of ZnO nanolayer, along with the structural defects like the cation vacancies (VZn) and the singly ionized oxygen vacancies (Vo•) present in SNHs.

Keywords: nano-heterostructures, photoluminescence, electrical property, magnetism

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13 Testing a Flexible Manufacturing System Facility Production Capacity through Discrete Event Simulation: Automotive Case Study

Authors: Justyna Rybicka, Ashutosh Tiwari, Shane Enticott


In the age of automation and computation aiding manufacturing, it is clear that manufacturing systems have become more complex than ever before. Although technological advances provide the capability to gain more value with fewer resources, sometimes utilisation of the manufacturing capabilities available to organisations is difficult to achieve. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) provide a unique capability to manufacturing organisations where there is a need for product range diversification by providing line efficiency through production flexibility. This is very valuable in trend driven production set-ups or niche volume production requirements. Although FMS provides flexible and efficient facilities, its optimal set-up is key in achieving production performance. As many variables are interlinked due to the flexibility provided by the FMS, analytical calculations are not always sufficient to predict the FMS’ performance. Simulation modelling is capable of capturing the complexity and constraints associated with FMS. This paper demonstrates how discrete event simulation (DES) can address complexity in an FMS to optimise the production line performance. A case study of an automotive FMS is presented. The DES model demonstrates different configuration options depending on prioritising objectives: utilisation and throughput. Additionally, this paper provides insight into understanding the impact of system set-up constraints on the FMS performance and demonstrates the exploration into the optimal production set-up.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, flexible manufacturing system, capacity performance, automotive

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12 Synthesis of Visible-Light-Driven Magnetically Recoverable [email protected]@Fe3O4 Nanophotocatalyst for Enhanced Degradation of Ibuprofen

Authors: Ashutosh Kumar, Irene M. C. Lo


Ever since the discovery of TiO2 for decomposition of cyanide in water, it has been investigated extensively for the photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants, and became the most practical and prevalent photocatalyst. The superiority of TiO2 is due to its chemical and biological inertness, nontoxicity, strong oxidizing power and cost-effectiveness. However, during degradation of pollutants in wastewater, it suffers from problems, such as (a) separation after use, and (b) its poor photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation (~45% of the solar spectrum). In order to bridge the research gaps, [email protected]@Fe3O4 nanophotocatalysts of average size 19 nm and effective surface area 47 m2 gm-1 were synthesized using sol-gel method. The characterization was performed using BET, TEM-EDX, VSM and XRD. The performance was improved by considering different factors involved during the synthesis, such as calcination temperature, amount of Fe3O4 nanoparticles used and amount of urea used for N-doping. The final nanophotocatalyst was calcined at 500 °C which was able to degrade 94% of the ibuprofen within 5 h of irradiation time. Under the influence of ~200 mT electromagnetic field, 95% nanophotocatalysts separation efficiency was achieved within 20-25 min. Moreover, the effect of different visible light source of similar irradiance, such as compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and light emitting diode (LED), is also investigated in this research. The performance of nanophotocatalysts was found to be comparatively higher under ~310 µW cm-2 irradiance with peak emissive wavelengths of 543 nm emitted by CFL. Therefore, a promising visible-light-driven magnetically separable TiO2-based nanophotocatalysts was synthesized for the efficient degradation of ibuprofen.

Keywords: ibuprofen, magnetic N-TiO2, photocatalysis, visible light sources

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11 Identification of Rurban Centres in Determining Regional Development in the Hinterland of Koch Bihar, West Bengal, India

Authors: Ballari Bagchi


The dynamism ingrained in the process of urban-rural integration is manifested in the emergence of rurban settlements, referring to areas that combine the characteristics of agricultural activities found in rural zones with those of suburban living areas and industrialised zones. The concept of rurbanisation refers to the idea of introducing urban conveniences and opportunities, to rural areas in an attempt to stem rural urban migration. In the backdrop of the worldwide problem of disharmonised urban-rural dependence and the associated problems in urban and rural areas, the present study seeks to explore the potentialities of few settlements having a blend of rural and urban characteristics in the urban field of Koch Bihar. The prime concern of the present paper is three-fold: (i) to identify the rurban centres, (ii) to analyse the spatial integration of these identified centres with the rural areas situated in the urban periphery, and (iii) to suggest the necessities to be introduced in these settlements. The methodology applied here includes rurban index, gravity model, and functional classification of rurban centres, correlation and regression analysis and cartographic representation of data collected through primary and secondary sources. The investigation has identified a number of settlements potentially viable to be termed as rurban centres which may render services to the other less equipped rural areas in all aspects of life and thereby would lessen the burden on Koch Bihar urban centre. The levels of infrastructure of these settlements should be such that it might even attract the urban population in a reverse direction. The villages belonging to the lower rung of these service settlements would require metalled road connection with these intermediate settlements in addition to their connection with the core town. That is to say, a proper policy needs to be adopted in this regard to furnish these settlements with required infrastructures for serving their own population as well as the population of other villages. As a consequence of that, the idea of a well-coordinated settlement hierarchy may emerge in future.

Keywords: Hinterland, rurban, settlement hierarchy, urban-rural integration

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10 Measurement and Simulation of Axial Neutron Flux Distribution in Dry Tube of KAMINI Reactor

Authors: Manish Chand, Subhrojit Bagchi, R. Kumar


A new dry tube (DT) has been installed in the tank of KAMINI research reactor, Kalpakkam India. This tube will be used for neutron activation analysis of small to large samples and testing of neutron detectors. DT tube is 375 cm height and 7.5 cm in diameter, located 35 cm away from the core centre. The experimental thermal flux at various axial positions inside the tube has been measured by irradiating the flux monitor (¹⁹⁷Au) at 20kW reactor power. The measured activity of ¹⁹⁸Au and the thermal cross section of ¹⁹⁷Au (n,γ) ¹⁹⁸Au reaction were used for experimental thermal flux measurement. The flux inside the tube varies from 10⁹ to 10¹⁰ and maximum flux was (1.02 ± 0.023) x10¹⁰ n cm⁻²s⁻¹ at 36 cm from the bottom of the tube. The Au and Zr foils without and with cadmium cover of 1-mm thickness were irradiated at the maximum flux position in the DT to find out the irradiation specific input parameters like sub-cadmium to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and the epithermal neutron flux shape factor (α). The f value was 143 ± 5, indicates about 99.3% thermal neutron component and α value was -0.2886 ± 0.0125, indicates hard epithermal neutron spectrum due to insufficient moderation. The measured flux profile has been validated using theoretical model of KAMINI reactor through Monte Carlo N-Particle Code (MCNP). In MCNP, the complex geometry of the entire reactor is modelled in 3D, ensuring minimum approximations for all the components. Continuous energy cross-section data from ENDF-B/VII.1 as well as S (α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions are considered. The neutron flux has been estimated at the corresponding axial locations of the DT using mesh tally. The thermal flux obtained from the experiment shows good agreement with the theoretically predicted values by MCNP, it was within ± 10%. It can be concluded that this MCNP model can be utilized for calculating other important parameters like neutron spectra, dose rate, etc. and multi elemental analysis can be carried out by irradiating the sample at maximum flux position using measured f and α parameters by k₀-NAA standardization.

Keywords: neutron flux, neutron activation analysis, neutron flux shape factor, MCNP, Monte Carlo N-Particle Code

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9 Synthesis of Pd Nanoparticles Confined in Graphene Oxide Framework as Nano Catalyst with Improved Activity and Recyclability in Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

Authors: Thuy Phuong Nhat Tran, Ashutosh Thakur, Toshiaki Taniike


Recently, covalently linked graphene oxide frameworks (GOFs) have attracted considerable attention in gas absorbance and water purification as well-defined microporous materials. In spite of their potential advantages such as a controllable pore dimension, adjustable hydrophobicity, and structural stability, these materials have been scarcely employed in heterogeneous catalysis. Here we demonstrate a novel and facile method to synthesize Pd nanoparticles (NPs) confined in a GOF ([email protected]). The GOF with uniform interlayer space was obtained by the intercalation of diboronic acid between graphene oxide layers. It was found that Pd NPs were generated inside the graphitic gallery spaces of the GOF, and thus, formed Pd NPs were well-dispersed with a narrow particle size distribution. The synthesized [email protected] emerged as an efficient nanocatalyst based on its superior performance (product yield and recyclability) toward Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction in both polar and apolar solvents, which has been hardly observed for previously reported graphene-based Pd nanocatalysts. Furthermore, the rational comparison of the catalytic performance between two kinds of [email protected] (Pd NPs encapsulated in a diboronic ester-intercalated GOF and in a monoboronic ester-intercalated GOF) firmly confirmed the essential role of a rigid framework design in the stabilization of Pd NPs. Based on these results, the covalently assembled GOF was proposed as a promising scaffold for hosting noble metal NPs to construct desired [email protected] nanocatalysts with improved activity and durability.

Keywords: graphene oxide framework, palladium nanocatalyst, pore confinement, Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction

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8 Fabrication of Glucose/O₂ Microfluidic Biofuel Cell with Double Layer of Electrodes

Authors: Haroon Khan, Chul Min Kim, Sung Yeol Kim, Sanket Goel, Prabhat K. Dwivedi, Ashutosh Sharma, Gyu Man Kim


Enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) have drawn the attention of researchers due to its demanding application in medical implants. In EBFCs, electricity is produced with the help of redox enzymes. In this study, we report the fabrication of membraneless EBFC with new design of electrodes to overcome microchannel related limitations. The device consists of double layer of electrodes on both sides of Y-shaped microchannel to reduce the effect of oxygen depletion layer and diffusion of fuel and oxidant at the end of microchannel. Moreover, the length of microchannel was reduced by half keeping the same area of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) electrodes. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils were used to pattern MWCNT electrodes on etched Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass. PDMS casting was used to fabricate microchannel of the device. Both anode and cathode were modified with glucose oxidase and laccase. Furthermore, these enzymes were covalently bound to carboxyl MWCNTs with the help of EDC/NHS. Glucose used as fuel was oxidized by glucose oxidase at anode while oxygen was reduced to water at the cathode side. The resulted devices were investigated with the help of polarization curves obtained from Chronopotentiometry technique by using potentiostat. From results, we conclude that the performance of double layer EBFC is improved 15 % as compared to single layer EBFC delivering maximum power density of 71.25 µW cm-2 at a cell potential of 0.3 V and current density of 250 µA cm-2 at micro channel height of 450-µm and flow rate of 25 ml hr-1. However, the new device was stable only for three days after which its power output was rapidly dropped by 75 %. This work demonstrates that the power output of membraneless EBFC is improved comparatively, but still efforts will be needed to make the device stable over long period of time.

Keywords: EBFC, glucose, MWCNT, microfluidic

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7 Designing Stochastic Non-Invasively Applied DC Pulses to Suppress Tremors in Multiple Sclerosis by Computational Modeling

Authors: Aamna Lawrence, Ashutosh Mishra


Tremors occur in 60% of the patients who have Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the most common demyelinating disease that affects the central and peripheral nervous system, and are the primary cause of disability in young adults. While pharmacological agents provide minimal benefits, surgical interventions like Deep Brain Stimulation and Thalamotomy are riddled with dangerous complications which make non-invasive electrical stimulation an appealing treatment of choice for dealing with tremors. Hence, we hypothesized that if the non-invasive electrical stimulation parameters (mainly frequency) can be computed by mathematically modeling the nerve fibre to take into consideration the minutest details of the axon morphologies, tremors due to demyelination can be optimally alleviated. In this computational study, we have modeled the random demyelination pattern in a nerve fibre that typically manifests in MS using the High-Density Hodgkin-Huxley model with suitable modifications to account for the myelin. The internode of the nerve fibre in our model could have up to ten demyelinated regions each having random length and myelin thickness. The arrival time of action potentials traveling the demyelinated and the normally myelinated nerve fibre between two fixed points in space was noted, and its relationship with the nerve fibre radius ranging from 5µm to 12µm was analyzed. It was interesting to note that there were no overlaps between the arrival time for action potentials traversing the demyelinated and normally myelinated nerve fibres even when a single internode of the nerve fibre was demyelinated. The study gave us an opportunity to design DC pulses whose frequency of application would be a function of the random demyelination pattern to block only the delayed tremor-causing action potentials. The DC pulses could be delivered to the peripheral nervous system non-invasively by an electrode bracelet that would suppress any shakiness beyond it thus paving the way for wearable neuro-rehabilitative technologies.

Keywords: demyelination, Hodgkin-Huxley model, non-invasive electrical stimulation, tremor

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6 High Altitude Glacier Surface Mapping in Dhauliganga Basin of Himalayan Environment Using Remote Sensing Technique

Authors: Aayushi Pandey, Manoj Kumar Pandey, Ashutosh Tiwari, Kireet Kumar


Glaciers play an important role in climate change and are sensitive phenomena of global climate change scenario. Glaciers in Himalayas are unique as they are predominantly valley type and are located in tropical, high altitude regions. These glaciers are often covered with debris which greatly affects ablation rate of glaciers and work as a sensitive indicator of glacier health. The aim of this study is to map high altitude Glacier surface with a focus on glacial lake and debris estimation using different techniques in Nagling glacier of dhauliganga basin in Himalayan region. Different Image Classification techniques i.e. thresholding on different band ratios and supervised classification using maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) have been used on high resolution sentinel 2A level 1c satellite imagery of 14 October 2017.Here Near Infrared (NIR)/Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) ratio image was used to extract the glaciated classes (Snow, Ice, Ice Mixed Debris) from other non-glaciated terrain classes. SWIR/BLUE Ratio Image was used to map valley rock and Debris while Green/NIR ratio image was found most suitable for mapping Glacial Lake. Accuracy assessment was performed using high resolution (3 meters) Planetscope Imagery using 60 stratified random points. The overall accuracy of MLC was 85 % while the accuracy of Band Ratios was 96.66 %. According to Band Ratio technique total areal extent of glaciated classes (Snow, Ice ,IMD) in Nagling glacier was 10.70 km2 nearly 38.07% of study area comprising of 30.87 % Snow covered area, 3.93% Ice and 3.27 % IMD covered area. Non-glaciated classes (vegetation, glacial lake, debris and valley rock) covered 61.93 % of the total area out of which valley rock is dominant with 33.83% coverage followed by debris covering 27.7 % of the area in nagling glacier. Glacial lake and Debris were accurately mapped using Band ratio technique Hence, Band Ratio approach appears to be useful for the mapping of debris covered glacier in Himalayan Region.

Keywords: band ratio, Dhauliganga basin, glacier mapping, Himalayan region, maximum likelihood classifier (MLC), Sentinel-2 satellite image

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