Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: dysphagia

21 Estimating and Forecasting the Prevalence and Incidence of Dysphagia in New Zealand

Authors: Shnece Duncan, Andrea Menclova, Philip Gunby, Maggie-Lee Huckabee

Abstract:

The incidence and prevalence of dysphagia in New Zealand havenot been well researched and are the focus of this paper. In 2020, 1.5% of the general New Zealand population were estimated to be living withdysphagia, while 9,300 individuals newly developed the condition. By 2073, this prevalence is projected to increase to 2.6% and incidence to 24,500 individuals. Our results indicate a significant number of New Zealanders are likely living with dysphagia. This number is predicted to increase in the future, indicating an increased burden on thepopulation and the healthcare system. Objectives: This paper aims to estimate the prevalence and incidence of dysphagia in the New Zealand general population and to use these estimates to predict the future number and demographic composition of individuals affected by dysphagia. Methods: Prevalence and incidence rates of dysphagia within medical conditions causing the disorder were sourced from existing literature. Median population estimates from Statistics New Zealand, by age and ethnicity, were used to project estimates to 2073. Contributions: Our work provides a useful starting point to assess future healthcare resource demands associated with dysphagia, assisting with healthcare provision planning, and to analyse the cost-effectiveness of new interventions for dysphagic patients.

Keywords: dysphagia, prevalence, incidence, New Zealand

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20 Association Between Swallowing Disorders and Cognitive Disorders in Adults: Systematic Review and Metaanalysis

Authors: Shiva Ebrahimian Dehaghani, Afsaneh Doosti, Morteza Zare

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Background: There is no consensus regarding the association between dysphagia and cognition. Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the available evidence on the direction and strength of association between dysphagia and cognition. Methodology: PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science were searched about the association between dysphagia and cognition. A random-effects model was used to determine weighted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of each individual study on the pooled results. Results: A total of 1427 participants showed that some cognitive disorders were significantly associated with dysphagia (OR = 3.23; 95% CI, 2.33–4.48). Conclusion: The association between cognition and swallowing disorders suggests that multiple neuroanatomical systems are involved in these two functions.

Keywords: adult, association, cognitive impairment, dysphagia, systematic review

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19 Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia

Authors: Ehsan Kaviani, Azin Golmoradizade

Abstract:

Introduction: Traditionally, tendons are considered to only contain tenocytes that are responsible for the maintenance, repair, and remodeling of tendons. Stem cells, which are termed tendon-derived stem cells, so this study we investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with swallowing training on post-stroke dysphagia. Methods: This review article is about effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on post-stroke dysphagia that were extracted from Science Direct, Pro quest, and Pub med Data Bases. 15 articles had been selected according to inclusion criteria from 2014 to 2019, and 6 of them had been deleted by exclusion criteria. Results: The results of our systematic review suggest that tDCS may represent a promising novel treatment for post-stroke dysphagia. However, to date, little is known about the optimal parameters of tDCS for relieving post-stroke dysphagia. Further studies are warranted to refine this promising intervention by exploring the optimal parameters of tDCS. Conclusion: anodal tDCS over the affected hemisphere may be as effective as cathodal tDCS on the unaffected hemisphere to enhance recovery after subacute ischemic stroke and anodal tdcs applied over the affected pharyngeal motor cortex can enhance the outcome of swallowing training in post-stroke dysphagia.

Keywords: dysphagia, stroke, cortical stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation

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18 Long-Term Outcomes of Dysphagia in Children with Severe Cerebral Palsy Using Videofluoroscopic Evaluation

Authors: Eun Jae Ko, In Young Sung, Eui Soo Joeng

Abstract:

Oropharyngeal dysphagia is prevalent in children with cerebral palsy (CP). There are many studies concerning this problem, however, studies examining long term outcomes of dysphagia using videofluoroscopic study (VFSS) are very rare. The Aim of this study is to investigate long-term outcomes of dysphagia in children with severe CP using initial VFSS. It was a retrospective study and chart review was done from January 2000 to December 2013. Thirty one patients under 18 years who have been diagnosed as CP in outpatient clinic of Rehabilitation Medicine, and who did VFSS were included. Long-term outcomes such as feeding method, height percentile, weight percentile, and body mass index (BMI) were tracked up for at least 3 years by medical records. Significant differences between initial and follow-up datas were investigated. The patients consisted of 18 males and 13 females, and the mean age was 31.0±18.0 months old. 64.5% of patients were doing oral diet, and 25.8% of patients were doing non-oral diet. When comparing VFSS findings among oral feeding patients, oral and non-oral feeding patients, and non-oral feeding patients at initial period, dysphagia severity, supraglottic penetration, and subglottic aspiration showed significant differences. Most of the patients who could feed orally at initial period were found to have the same feeding method at follow-up. But among eight patients who required non-oral feeding initially, three patients became possible to feed orally, and one patient was doing oral and non-oral feeding method together at follow-up. Follow up feeding method showed correlation with dysphagia severity by initial VFSS. Weight percentile was decreased in patients with GMFCS level V at follow up, which may represent poor nutritional status due to severe dysphagia compared to other patients. Initial VFSS severity would play a significant role in making an assumption about future diet in children with severe CP. Patients with GMFCS level V seem to have serious dysphagia at follow up and have nutritional deficiency over time, therefore, more careful nutritional support is needed in children with severe CP are suggested.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, child, dysphagia, videofluoroscopic study

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17 The Evaluation of Caustic and Corrosive Poisoning in Children

Authors: Sabiha Sahin

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Introduction: We have planned this study because of the increasing number of corrosive substance poisoning who admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department. Method: 636 corrosive substance poisoning cases applied to the Osmangazi University PED between 1 January 2015 - 31 December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 438 (69%) cases were male.The poisoning rate of groups 0-4 was significantly higher and occurred by accident. A total of 616 cases (96.9%) were poisoned by the oral route, and 20 cases were poisoned by inhalation.462 Patients were admitted to the hospital within an hour (72.8%). Of the 134 patients who had only erosion and redness around the mouth, 24 patients had salivation and dysphagia symptoms besides these. Of the 28 cases of 158 patients with symptoms, eusaphegeal stenosis was detected. on third day examination. Although there was no statistically significant correlation between esophageal stenosis and erosion and redness around the mouth, there was a statistically significant correlation between dysphagia and salivation between esophageal stenosis Conclusion: The increased salivation and the dysphagia are important signs of risk of devoloping esophageal stenosis at first examination corrosive poisoning in children.

Keywords: caustic, corrosive, poisoning, children

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16 Swallowing Outcomes in Supraglottic Cancer Patients after Trans-Oral Robotic Surgery (TORS) Provided with Early Dysphagia Management Using Standardized Functional and Objective Measures

Authors: Hitesh Gupta, Surender Dabas

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TORS is increasingly gaining widespread use and has been explored as minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of supraglottic cancer (SGC). Being a central critical role of Supraglottis in deglutition, swallowing outcomes post TORS remain a most important factor. Available published studies show inconsistent swallowing outcomes and are deficient in standardized outcome measures, description of swallowing recovery and rehabilitation. So, the objective of this study is to find out swallowing outcomes in SGC patients after TORS provided with early dysphagia management using standardized measures. Prospectively 16 patients were recruited in the study who underwent TORS for primary tumor of Supraglottis, involving one or more sub-sites or invading to sites other than Supraglottis at the BLK Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi from March 2019 to June 2020. All patients were evaluated for dysphagia with subsequent swallowing rehabilitation on post operative day 3 in the hospital or at the time of discharge, whichever was earlier. Functional oral intake scale (FOIS) and penetration-aspiration score (PAS) were used as outcome measures to quantify swallowing recovery at one month and six month post operatively. Post TORS, patients achieved functional swallow in less than one month, where resection was limited to Supraglottis, while the recovery was delayed in patients with extended resection to tongue base or hypopharynx. Overall, out of Total 16 cases including all supraglottis sub-catagories, 13 (81%) could remove their NG tube (FOIS ≥5 and PAS=1 ) within 6 months. In which 8 cases(62%) achieved functional swallow in less than one month. Swallowing outcomes post TORS supraglottic laryngectomy are favorable if provided with early dysphagia management (or swallowing rehabilitation).

Keywords: dysphagia, supraglottic cancer, swallowing, TORS

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15 Mannequin Evaluation of 3D-Printed Intermittent Oro-Esophageal Tube Guide for Dysphagia

Authors: Yujin Jeong, Youkyung Son, Myounghwan Choi, Sanghyub Lee, Sangyeol Lee, Changho Hwang, Kyo-in Koo

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Dysphasia is difficulty in swallowing food because of oral cavity impairments induced by stroke, muscle damage, tumor. Intermittent oro-esophageal (IOE) tube feeding is one of the well-known feeding methods for the dysphasia patients. However, it is hard to insert at the proper position in esophagus. In this study, we design and fabricate the IOE tube guide using 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The printed IOE tube is tested in a mannequin (Airway Management Trainer, Co., Ltd., Copenhagen, Denmark) mimicking human’s esophagus. The gag reflex point is measured as the design point in the mannequin. To avoid the gag reflex, we design various shapes of IOE tube guide. One structure is separated into three parts; biting part, part through oral cavity, connecting part to oro-esophageal. We designed 6 types of IOE tube guide adjusting length and angle of these three parts. To evaluate the IOE tube guide, it is inserted in the mannequin, and through the inserted guide, an endoscopic camera successfully arrived at the oro-esophageal. We had planned to apply this mannequin-based design experience to patients in near future.

Keywords: dysphagia, feeding method, IOE tube guide, 3-D printer

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14 A Profile of the Patients at the Hearing and Speech Clinic at the University of Jordan: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Maisa Haj-Tas, Jehad Alaraifi

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The significance of the study: This retrospective study examined the speech and language profiles of patients who received clinical services at the University of Jordan Hearing and Speech Clinic (UJ-HSC) from 2009 to 2014. The UJ-HSC clinic is located in the capital Amman and was established in the late 1990s. It is the first hearing and speech clinic in Jordan and one of first speech and hearing clinics in the Middle East. This clinic provides services to an annual average of 2000 patients who are diagnosed with different communication disorders. Examining the speech and language profiles of patients in this clinic could provide an insight about the most common disorders seen in patients who attend similar clinics in Jordan. It could also provide information about community awareness of the role of speech therapists in the management of speech and language disorders. Methodology: The researchers examined the clinical records of 1140 patients (797 males and 343 females) who received clinical services at the UJ-HSC between the years 2009 and 2014 for the purpose of data analysis for this study. The main variables examined in the study were disorder type and gender. Participants were divided into four age groups: children, adolescents, adults, and older adults. The examined disorders were classified as either speech disorders, language disorders, or dysphagia (i.e., swallowing problems). The disorders were further classified as childhood language impairments, articulation disorders, stuttering, cluttering, voice disorders, aphasia, and dysphagia. Results: The results indicated that the prevalence for language disorders was the highest (50.7%) followed by speech disorders (48.3%), and dysphagia (0.9%). The majority of patients who were seen at the JU-HSC were diagnosed with childhood language impairments (47.3%) followed consecutively by articulation disorders (21.1%), stuttering (16.3%), voice disorders (12.1%), aphasia (2.2%), dysphagia (0.9%), and cluttering (0.2%). As for gender, the majority of patients seen at the clinic were males in all disorders except for voice disorders and cluttering. Discussion: The results of the present study indicate that the majority of examined patients were diagnosed with childhood language impairments. Based on this result, the researchers suggest that there seems to be a high prevalence of childhood language impairments among children in Jordan compared to other types of speech and language disorders. The researchers also suggest that there is a need for further examination of the actual prevalence data on speech and language disorders in Jordan. The fact that many of the children seen at the UJ-HSC were brought to the clinic either as a result of parental concern or teacher referral indicates that there seems to an increased awareness among parents and teachers about the services speech pathologists can provide about assessment and treatment of childhood speech and language disorders. The small percentage of other disorders (i.e., stuttering, cluttering, dysphasia, aphasia, and voice disorders) seen at the UJ-HSC may indicate a little awareness by the local community about the role of speech pathologists in the assessment and treatment of these disorders.

Keywords: clinic, disorders, language, profile, speech

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13 Compression-Extrusion Test to Assess Texture of Thickened Liquids for Dysphagia

Authors: Jesus Salmeron, Carmen De Vega, Maria Soledad Vicente, Mireia Olabarria, Olaia Martinez

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Dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing affects mostly elder people: 56-78% of the institutionalized and 44% of the hospitalized. Liquid food thickening is a necessary measure in this situation because it reduces the risk of penetration-aspiration. Until now, and as proposed by the American Dietetic Association in 2002, possible consistencies have been categorized in three groups attending to their viscosity: nectar (50-350 mPa•s), honey (350-1750 mPa•s) and pudding (>1750 mPa•s). The adequate viscosity level should be identified for every patient, according to her/his impairment. Nevertheless, a systematic review on dysphagia diet performed recently indicated that there is no evidence to suggest that there is any transition of clinical relevance between the three levels proposed. It was also stated that other physical properties of the bolus (slipperiness, density or cohesiveness, among others) could influence swallowing in affected patients and could contribute to the amount of remaining residue. Texture parameters need to be evaluated as possible alternative to viscosity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the instrumental extrusion-compression test as a possible tool to characterize changes along time in water thickened with various products and in the three theoretical consistencies. Six commercial thickeners were used: NM® (NM), Multi-thick® (M), Nutilis Powder® (Nut), Resource® (R), Thick&Easy® (TE) and Vegenat® (V). All of them with a modified starch base. Only one of them, Nut, also had a 6,4% of gum (guar, tara and xanthan). They were prepared as indicated in the instructions of each product and dispensing the correspondent amount for nectar, honey and pudding consistencies in 300 mL of tap water at 18ºC-20ºC. The mixture was stirred for about 30 s. Once it was homogeneously spread, it was dispensed in 30 mL plastic glasses; always to the same height. Each of these glasses was used as a measuring point. Viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer (ST-2001, Selecta, Barcelona). Extrusion-compression test was performed using a TA.XT2i texture analyzer (Stable Micro Systems, UK) with a 25 mm diameter cylindrical probe (SMSP/25). Penetration distance was set at 10 mm and a speed of 3 mm/s. Measurements were made at 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes from the moment samples were mixed. From the force (g)–time (s) curves obtained in the instrumental assays, maximum force peak (F) was chosen a reference parameter. Viscosity (mPa•s) and F (g) showed to be highly correlated and had similar development along time, following time-dependent quadratic models. It was possible to predict viscosity using F as an independent variable, as they were linearly correlated. In conclusion, compression-extrusion test could be an alternative and a useful tool to assess physical characteristics of thickened liquids.

Keywords: compression-extrusion test, dysphagia, texture analyzer, thickener

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12 Management of Dysphagia after Supra Glottic Laryngectomy

Authors: Premalatha B. S., Shenoy A. M.

Abstract:

Background: Rehabilitation of swallowing is as vital as speech in surgically treated head and neck cancer patients to maintain nutritional support, enhance wound healing and improve quality of life. Aspiration following supraglottic laryngectomy is very common, and rehabilitation of the same is crucial which requires involvement of speech therapist in close contact with head and neck surgeon. Objectives: To examine the functions of swallowing outcomes after intensive therapy in supraglottic laryngectomy. Materials: Thirty-nine supra glottic laryngectomees were participated in the study. Of them, 36 subjects were males and 3 were females, in the age range of 32-68 years. Eighteen subjects had undergone standard supra glottis laryngectomy (Group1) for supraglottic lesions where as 21 of them for extended supraglottic laryngectomy (Group 2) for base tongue and lateral pharyngeal wall lesion. Prior to surgery visit by speech pathologist was mandatory to assess the sutability for surgery and rehabilitation. Dysphagia rehabilitation started after decannulation of tracheostoma by focusing on orientation about anatomy, physiological variation before and after surgery, which was tailor made for each individual based on their type and extent of surgery. Supraglottic diet - Soft solid with supraglottic swallow method was advocated to prevent aspiration. The success of intervention was documented as number of sessions taken to swallow different food consistency and also percentage of subjects who achieved satisfactory swallow in terms of number of weeks in both the groups. Results: Statistical data was computed in two ways in both the groups 1) to calculate percentage (%) of subjects who swallowed satisfactorily in the time frame of less than 3 weeks to more than 6 weeks, 2) number of sessions taken to swallow without aspiration as far as food consistency was concerned. The study indicated that in group 1 subjects of standard supraglottic laryngectomy, 61% (n=11) of them were successfully rehabilitated but their swallowing normalcy was delayed by an average 29th post operative day (3-6 weeks). Thirty three percentages (33%) (n=6) of the subjects could swallow satisfactorily without aspiration even before 3 weeks and only 5 % (n=1) of the needed more than 6 weeks to achieve normal swallowing ability. Group 2 subjects of extended SGL only 47 %( n=10) of them could achieved satisfactory swallow by 3-6 weeks and 24% (n=5) of them of them achieved normal swallowing ability before 3 weeks. Around 4% (n=1) needed more than 6 weeks and as high as 24 % (n=5) of them continued to be supplemented with naso gastric feeding even after 8-10 months post operative as they exhibited severe aspiration. As far as type of food consistencies were concerned group 1 subject could able to swallow all types without aspiration much earlier than group 2 subjects. Group 1 needed only 8 swallowing therapy sessions for thickened soft solid and 15 sessions for liquids whereas group 2 required 14 sessions for soft solid and 17 sessions for liquids to achieve swallowing normalcy without aspiration. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of dysphagia intervention in supraglottic laryngectomees by speech pathologist.

Keywords: dysphagia management, supraglotic diet, supraglottic laryngectomy, supraglottic swallow

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11 Effectiveness of the New Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA™) in Comparison with the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA™) to Improve Airway Sealing Pressures among Obese and Overweight Patients

Authors: Siamak Yaghoubi, Mohammad Reza Abootorabi, Hamid Kayalha

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Objective: The study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (Cobra PLATM) for patients under general anesthesia and also compare result with the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA). Methods: Seventy three obese and overweight patients were included in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to either LMA or Cobra PLATM. Time required for intubation, successful intubation attempt, airway sealing pressure, the incidences of complications including blood staining, sore throat and dysphagia were assessed and noted. Results: Thirty six and thirty seven patients were allocated randomly to either LMA or Cobra PLATM, respectively. Most of the patients were male and were in Mallampati Class II airway in both groups. The first attempt and overall insertion success for the Cobra PLATM was significantly more frequent compared to the LMA (p<0.05). Tube insertion was more successful (Cobra PLATM, 94%; LMA™, 77%; P = 0.027) with the Cobra PLATM. The insertion times were similar with the Cobra PLATM and LMA™ (Cobra PLATM, 29.94±16.35s; LMA™, 27.00±7.88s). The airway sealing pressure in the Cobra PLATM (24.80±0.90 H2O) was significantly more than LMA™ (19.13 ±0.58 H2O, p<0.001). Sore throat was more frequent in the LMA™ groups that did not reach statistical significance (Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.33). Incidences of blood staining on airway tube were seen for both groups that was higher in the Cobra PLATM group (Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.02). Incidence of dysphagia was not different between the two groups. Conclusion: The CobraPLA™ was found to be safe and low complications, better airway sealing and high rate of the first insertion success for suing in obese and overweight patients. The study recommended using the CobraPLA™ as a rescue device in an emergency situation among obese and overweight patients.

Keywords: CobraPLA™, flexible laryngeal mask airway, obese patients, perilaryngeal airway

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10 An Exploration Survival Risk Factors of Stroke Patients at a General Hospital in Northern Taiwan

Authors: Hui-Chi Huang, Su-Ju Yang, Ching-Wei Lin, Jui-Yao Tsai, Liang-Yiang

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Background: The most common serious complication following acute stroke is pneumonia. It has been associated with the increased morbidity, mortality, and medical cost after acute stroke in elderly patients. Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between stroke patients, risk factors of pneumonia, and one-year survival rates in a group of patients, in a tertiary referal center in Northern Taiwan. Methods: From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1730 consecutively administered stroke patients were recruited. The Survival analysis and multivariate regression analyses were used to examine the predictors for the one-year survival in stroke patients of a stroke registry database from northern Taiwan. Results: The risk of stroke mortality increased with age≧ 75 (OR=2.305, p < .0001), cancer (OR=3.221, p=<.0001), stayed in intensive care unit (ICU) (OR=2.28, p <.0006), dysphagia (OR=5.026, p<.0001), without speech therapy(OR=0.192, p < .0001),serum albumin < 2.5(OR=0.322, p=.0053) , eGFR > 60(OR=0.438, p <. 0001), admission NIHSS >11(OR=1.631, p=.0196), length of hospitalization (d) > 30(OR=0.608, p=.0227), and stroke subtype (OR=0.506, p=.0032). After adjustment of confounders, pneumonia was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality. However, it is most likely to develop in patients who are age ≧ 75, dyslipidemia , coronary artery disease , albumin < 2.5 , eGFR <60 , ventilator use , stay in ICU , dysphagia, without speech therapy , urinary tract infection , Atrial fibrillation , Admission NIHSS > 11, length of hospitalization > 30(d) , stroke severity (mRS=3-5) ,stroke Conclusion: In this study, different from previous research findings, we found that elderly age, severe neurological deficit and rehabilitation therapy were significantly associated with Post-stroke Pneumonia. However, specific preventive strategies are needed to target the high risk groups to improve their long-term outcomes after acute stroke. These findings could open new avenues in the management of stroke patients.

Keywords: stroke, risk, pneumonia, survival

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9 Chemical, Physical and Microbiological Characteristics of a Texture-Modified Beef- Based 3D Printed Functional Product

Authors: Elvan G. Bulut, Betul Goksun, Tugba G. Gun, Ozge Sakiyan Demirkol, Kamuran Ayhan, Kezban Candogan

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Dysphagia, difficulty in swallowing solid foods and thin liquids, is one of the common health threats among the elderly who require foods with modified texture in their diet. Although there are some commercial food formulations or hydrocolloids to thicken the liquid foods for dysphagic individuals, there is still a need for developing and offering new food products with enriched nutritional, textural and sensory characteristics to safely nourish these patients. 3D food printing is an appealing alternative in creating personalized foods for this purpose with attractive shape, soft and homogenous texture. In order to modify texture and prevent phase separation, hydrocolloids are generally used. In our laboratory, an optimized 3D printed beef-based formulation specifically for people with swallowing difficulties was developed based on the research project supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK Project # 218O017). The optimized formulation obtained from response surface methodology was 60% beef powder, 5.88% gelatin, and 0.74% kappa-carrageenan (all in a dry basis). This product was enriched with powders of freeze-dried beet, celery, and red capia pepper, butter, and whole milk. Proximate composition (moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents), pH value, CIE lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*), and color difference (ΔE*) values were determined. Counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mold and yeast, total coliforms were conducted, and detection of coagulase positive S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella spp. were performed. The 3D printed products had 60.11% moisture, 16.51% fat, 13.68% protein, and 1.65% ash, and the pH value was 6.19, whereas the ΔE* value was 3.04. Counts of TMAB, LAB, mold and yeast and total coliforms before and after 3D printing were 5.23-5.41 log cfu/g, < 1 log cfu/g, < 1 log cfu/g, 2.39-2.15 log EMS/g, respectively. Coagulase positive S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella spp. were not detected in the products. The data obtained from this study based on determining some important product characteristics of functional beef-based formulation provides an encouraging basis for future research on the subject and should be useful in designing mass production of 3D printed products of similar composition.

Keywords: beef, dysphagia, product characteristics, texture-modified foods, 3D food printing

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8 Anaesthetic Management of a Huge Oropharyngeal Mass

Authors: Vasudha Govil, Suresh Singhal

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Introduction: Patients with oropharyngeal masses pose a challenge for an anaesthetist in terms of ventilation and tracheal intubation. Thus, preoperative assessment and preparation become an integral part of managing such anticipated difficult airway cases. Case report: A 45- year old female presented with growth in the oropharynx causing dysphagia and hoarseness of voice. Clinical examination and investigations predicted a difficult airway. It was managed with fibreoptic nasotracheal intubation with a successful perioperative outcome. Tracheostomy was kept as plan B in case of the CVCI situation. Conclusion: Careful preoperative examination and assessment is required to prepare oneself for difficult airway. Fibreoptic bronchoscope-guided nasotracheal intubation in a spontaneously breathing patient is a safe and successful airway management technique in difficult airway cases.

Keywords: airway, difficult, mass, oropharyngeal

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7 Functional Outcome of Speech, Voice and Swallowing Following Excision of Glomus Jugulare Tumor

Authors: B. S. Premalatha, Kausalya Sahani

Abstract:

Background: Glomus jugulare tumors arise within the jugular foramen and are commonly seen in females particularly on the left side. Surgical excision of the tumor may cause lower cranial nerve deficits. Cranial nerve involvement produces hoarseness of voice, slurred speech, and dysphagia along with other physical symptoms, thereby affecting the quality of life of individuals. Though oncological clearance is mainly emphasized on while treating these individuals, little importance is given to their communication, voice and swallowing problems, which play a crucial part in daily functioning. Objective: To examine the functions of voice, speech and swallowing outcomes of the subjects, following excision of glomus jugulare tumor. Methods: Two female subjects aged 56 and 62 years had come with a complaint of change in voice, inability to swallow and reduced clarity of speech following surgery for left glomus jugulare tumor were participants of the study. Their surgical information revealed multiple cranial nerve palsies involving the left facial, left superior and recurrent branches of the vagus nerve, left pharyngeal, left soft palate, left hypoglossal and vestibular nerves. Functional outcomes of voice, speech and swallowing were evaluated by perceptual and objective assessment procedures. Assessment included the examination of oral structures and functions, dysarthria by Frenchey dysarthria assessment, cranial nerve functions and swallowing functions. MDVP and Dr. Speech software were used to evaluate acoustic parameters of voice and quality of voice respectively. Results: The study revealed that both the subjects, subsequent to excision of glomus jugulare tumor, showed a varied picture of affected oral structure and functions, articulation, voice and swallowing functions. The cranial nerve assessment showed impairment of the vagus, hypoglossal, facial and glossopharyngeal nerves. Voice examination indicated vocal cord paralysis associated with breathy quality of voice, weak voluntary cough, reduced pitch and loudness range, and poor respiratory support. Perturbation parameters as jitter, shimmer were affected along with s/z ratio indicative of voice fold pathology. Reduced MPD(Maximum Phonation Duration) of vowels indicated that disturbed coordination between respiratory and laryngeal systems. Hypernasality was found to be a prominent feature which reduced speech intelligibility. Imprecise articulation was seen in both the subjects as the hypoglossal nerve was affected following surgery. Injury to vagus, hypoglossal, gloss pharyngeal and facial nerves disturbed the function of swallowing. All the phases of swallow were affected. Aspiration was observed before and during the swallow, confirming the oropharyngeal dysphagia. All the subsystems were affected as per Frenchey Dysarthria Assessment signifying the diagnosis of flaccid dysarthria. Conclusion: There is an observable communication and swallowing difficulty seen following excision of glomus jugulare tumor. Even with complete resection, extensive rehabilitation may be necessary due to significant lower cranial nerve dysfunction. The finding of the present study stresses the need for involvement of as speech and swallowing therapist for pre-operative counseling and assessment of functional outcomes.

Keywords: functional outcome, glomus jugulare tumor excision, multiple cranial nerve impairment, speech and swallowing

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6 Analysis of Vocal Pathologies Through Subglottic Pressure Measurement

Authors: Perla Elizabeth Jimarez Rocha, Carolina Daniela Tejeda Franco, Arturo Minor Martínez, Annel Gomez Coello

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One of the biggest problems in developing new therapies for the management and treatment of voice disorders is the difficulty of objectively evaluating the results of each treatment. A system was proposed that captures and records voice signals, in addition to analyzing the vocal quality (fundamental frequency, zero crossings, energy, and amplitude spectrum), as well as the subglottic pressure (cm H2O) during the sustained phonation of the vowel / a /; a recording system is implemented, as well as an interactive system that records information on subglottic pressure. In Mexico City, a control group of 31 patients with phoniatric pathology is proposed; non-invasive tests were performed for these most common vocal pathologies (Nodules, Polyps, Irritative Laryngitis, Ventricular Dysphonia, Laryngeal Cancer, Dysphonia, and Dysphagia). The most common pathology was irritative laryngitis (32%), followed by vocal fold paralysis (unilateral and bilateral,19.4 %). We take into consideration men and women in the pathological groups due to the physiological difference. They were separated in gender by the difference in the morphology of the respiratory tract.

Keywords: amplitude spectrum, energy, fundamental frequency, subglottic pressure, zero crossings

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5 Extrapulmonary Gastrointestinal Small Cell Carcinoma: A Single Institute Experience of 14 Patients from a Low Middle Income Country

Authors: Awais Naeem, Osama Shakeel, Faizan Ullah, Abdul Wahid Anwer

Abstract:

Introduction: To study the clinic-pathological factors, diagnostic factors and survival of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma. Methodology: From 1995 to 2017 all patients with a diagnosis of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma were included in the study. Demographic variables and clinic-pathological factors were collected. Management of disease was recorded. Short and long term oncological outcomes were recorded. All data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 14 patients were included in the study. Median age was 53.42 +/- 16.1 years. There were 5 male and 9 female patients. Most common presentation was dysphagia in 16 patient among esophageal small cell carcinoma and while other patient had pain in abdomen. Mean duration of symptoms was 4.23+/-2.91 months .Most common site is esophagus (n=6) followed by gall bladder(n=3). Almost all of the patients received chemo-radiotherapy. Majority of the patient presented with extensive disease. Five patients (35.7%) died during the follow up period, two (14.3%) were alive and rest of the patients were lost to follow up. Mean follow up period was 22.92 months and median follow up was 15 months. Conclusion: Extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma is rare and needs to be managed aggressively. All patients should be treated with both systemic and local therapies.

Keywords: small cell carcinoma of esophagus, extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma of gall bladder, small cell carcinoma of rectum, small cell carcinoma of stomach

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4 Effects of Body Positioning on Videofluoroscopic Barium Esophagram in Healthy Cats

Authors: Hyeona Kim, Kichang Lee, Seunghee Lee, Jeongsu An, Kyungjun Min

Abstract:

Contrast videofluoroscopy is the diagnostic imaging technique for evaluating cat with dysphagia. Generally, videofluoroscopic studies have been done with the cat restrained in lateral recumbency. It is different from the neutral position such as standing or sternal recumbency which is actual swallowing posture. We hypothesized that measurement of esophageal transit and peristalsis would be affected by body position. This experimental study analyzed the imaging findings of barium esophagram in 5 cats. Each cat underwent videofluoroscopy during swallowing of liquid barium and barium-soaked kibble in standing position and lateral recumbency. Esophageal transit time and the number of esophageal peristaltic waves were compared among body positions. Transit time in the cervical esophagus (0.57s), cranial thoracic esophagus (2.5s), and caudal thoracic esophagus(1.10s) was delayed when cats were in lateral recumbency for liquid barium. For kibble, transit time was more delayed than that of liquid through the entire esophagus in lateral recumbency. Liquid and kibble frequently started to delay at thoracic inlet region, transit time in the thoracic esophagus was significantly delayed than the cervical esophagus. In standing position, 60.2% of liquid swallows stimulated primary esophageal peristalsis. In lateral recumbency, 50.5% of liquid swallows stimulated primary esophageal peristalsis. Other variables were not significantly different. Lateral body positioning increases entire esophageal transit time and thoracic esophageal transit time is most significantly delayed. Thus, lateral recumbency decreases the number of primary esophageal peristalsis.

Keywords: barium esophagram, body positioning, cat, videofluoroscopy

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3 Effect of Flour Concentration and Retrogradation Treatment on Physical Properties of Instant Sinlek Brown Rice

Authors: Supat Chaiyakul, Direk Sukkasem, Patnachapa Natthapanpaisith

Abstract:

Sinlek rice flour beverage or instant product is a dietary supplement for dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. It is also consumed by individuals who need to consume supplements to maintain their calorific needs. This product provides protein, fat, iron, and a high concentration of carbohydrate from rice flour. However, the application of native flour is limited due to its high viscosity. Starch modification by controlling starch retrogradation was used in this study. The research studies the effects of rice flour concentration and retrogradation treatment on the physical properties of instant Sinlek brown rice. The native rice flour, gelatinized rice flour, and flour gels retrograded under 4 °C for 3 and 7 days were investigated. From the statistical results, significant differences between native and retrograded flour were observed. The concentration of rice flour was the main factor influencing the swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties. With the increase in rice flour content from 10 to 15%, swelling power, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased; but, solubility, pasting temperature, peak time, breakdown, and setback increased. The peak time, pasting temperature, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased as the storage period increased from 3 to 7 days. The retrograded rice flour powders had lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and final viscosity than the gelatinized and native flour powders. Reduction of starch viscosity by gelatinization and controlling starch retrogradation could allow for increased quantities of rice flour in instant rice beverages. Also, the treatment could increase the energy and nutrient densities of rice beverages without affecting the viscosity of this product.

Keywords: instant rice, pasting properties, pregelatinization, retrogradation

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2 Dermatomyositis: It is Not Always an Allergic Reaction

Authors: Irfan Abdulrahman Sheth, Sohil Pothiawala

Abstract:

Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, traditionally characterized by a progressive, symmetrical proximal muscle weakness and pathognomonic or characteristic cutaneous manifestations. We report a case of a 60-year old Chinese female who was referred from polyclinic for allergic rash over the body after applying hair dye 3 weeks ago. It was associated with puffiness of face, shortness of breath and hoarse voice since last 2 weeks with decrease effort tolerance. She also complained of dysphagia/ myalgia with progressive weakness of proximal muscles and palpitations. She denied chest pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, orthopnea or fever. She had stable vital signs and appeared cushingoid. She was noted to have rash over the scalp/ face and ecchymosis over the right arm with puffiness of face and periorbital oedema. There was symmetrical muscle weakness and other neurological examination was normal. Initial impression was of allergic reaction and underlying nephrotic syndrome and Cushing’s syndrome from TCM use. Diagnostic tests showed high Creatinine kinase (CK) of 1463 u/l, CK–MB of 18.7 ug/l and Troponin –T of 0.09 ug/l. The Full blood count and renal panel was normal. EMG showed inflammatory myositis. Patient was managed by rheumatologist and discharged on oral prednisolone with methotrexate/ ergocalciferol capsule and calcium carb, vitamin D tablets and outpatient follow up. In some patients, cutaneous disease exists in the absence of objective evidence of muscle inflammation. Management of dermatomyositis begins with careful investigation for the presence of muscle disease or of additional systemic involvement, particularly of the pulmonary, cardiac or gastrointestinal systems, and for the possibility of an accompanying malignancy. Muscle disease and systemic involvement can be refractory and may require multiple sequential therapeutic interventions or, at times, combinations of therapies. Thus, we want to highlight to the physicians that the cutaneous disease of dermatomyositis should not be confused with allergic reaction. It can be particularly challenging to diagnose. Early recognition aids appropriate management of this group of patients.

Keywords: dermatomyositis, myopathy, allergy, cutaneous disease

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1 Thoughts Regarding Interprofessional Work between Nurses and Speech-Language-Hearing Therapists in Cancer Rehabilitation: An Approach for Dysphagia

Authors: Akemi Nasu, Keiko Matsumoto

Abstract:

Rehabilitation for cancer requires setting up individual goals for each patient and an approach that properly fits the stage of cancer when putting into practice. In order to cope with the daily changes in the patients' condition, the establishment of a good cooperative relationship between the nurses and the physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and speech-language-hearing therapists (therapists) becomes essential. This study will focus on the present situation of the cooperation between nurses and therapists, especially the speech-language-hearing therapists, and aim to elucidate what develops there. A semi-structured interview was conducted targeted at a physical therapist having practical experience in working in collaboration with nurses. The contents of the interview were transcribed and converted to data, and the data was encoded and categorized with sequentially increasing degrees of abstraction to conduct a qualitative explorative factor analysis of the data. When providing ethical explanations, particular care was taken to ensure that participants would not be subjected to any disadvantages as a result of participating in the study. In addition, they were also informed that their privacy would be ensured and that they have the right to decline to participate in the study. In addition, they were also informed that the results of the study would be announced publicly at an applicable nursing academic conference. This study has been approved following application to the ethical committee of the university with which the researchers are affiliated. The survey participant is a female speech-language-hearing therapist in her forties. As a result of the analysis, 6 categories were extracted consisting of 'measures to address appetite and aspiration pneumonia prevention', 'limitation of the care a therapist alone could provide', 'the all-inclusive patient- supportive care provided by nurses', 'expand the beneficial cooperation with nurses', 'providing education for nurses on the swallowing function utilizing videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing', 'enhancement of communication including conferences'. In order to improve the team performance, and for the teamwork competency necessary for the provision of safer care, mutual support is essential. As for the cooperation between nurses and therapists, this survey indicates that the maturing of the cooperation between professionals in order to improve nursing professionals' knowledge and enhance communication will lead to an improvement in the quality of the rehabilitation for cancer.

Keywords: cancer rehabilitation, nurses, speech-language-hearing therapists, interprofessional work

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