Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Search results for: newborn

90 Universal Screening for GBS and Efficacy of GBS Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis [IAP] an Al Rahba Experience

Authors: Ritu Nambiar, Shazia Tariq, Sumaira Jamil, Farida Munawar, Imelda Israell

Abstract:

GBS has emerged as a leading cause of neonatal infections worldwide and clinical trials have demonstrated that giving IAP was effective in reducing early onset GBS (EOGBS) disease of the newborn. There is no available data on the prevalence of GBS in the UAE, therefore, a retrospective chart analysis of our parturients were done to look at our prevalence. The aim of this study is: 1. To study the prevalence of GBS colonization of parturients at al Rahba Hospital following universal screening between 35-37 week. 2. To look at efficacy of GBS intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis by NICU admission for EO GBS disease of the newborn. 1) The prevalence of GBS in our patient population is 24.15%. 2) Incidence of EO GBS disease of the newborn was 0.6%.

Keywords: GBS Screening, universal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, parturients, newborn

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89 Need for a National Newborn Screening Programme in India: Pilot Study Data

Authors: Sudheer Moorkoth, Leslie Edward Lewis, Pragna Rao

Abstract:

Newborn screening (NBS) is a part of routine newborn care in many countries worldwide to detect early any rare treatable conditions and inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). India has not started this program yet. In an attempt to understand the challenges in implementing a national newborn screening program in India, we initiated a pilot newborn screening project funded by the Government of Canada. Along with initiating the newborn screening at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal in South India, for screening six disorders (Congenital Hypothyroidism(CH), Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), Galactosemia, Biotinidase deficiency, Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency (G-6PD) and Phenylketonurea), we also studied the awareness of various stakeholders on the newborn screening. In a period of nine months from August 2017 to March 2018 we could screen 1915 newborns (999 male and 916 female). The result showed that there were seven babies screened positive. This interim result points to an incidence rate of 1 in 270 children for these rare disorders collectively. This includes three confirmed cases of CH, two cases of G-6PD deficiency, and one case each for Galctosemia and CAH. A questionnaire based study to understand the awareness among various stakeholders revealed that there is little awareness among parents, adolescents and anganwadi workers (public health worker). The interim data points to the need for a national newborn screening programme in India. There is also an immediate need to undertake large-scale awareness programme to create knowledge on NBS among the various stakeholders.

Keywords: awareness, inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), newborn screening, rare disease

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88 Improving Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Assessments

Authors: Nancy Wilson

Abstract:

In utero, fetal drug exposure is prevalent amongst birthing facilities. Assessment tools for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are often cumbersome and ill-fitting, harboring immense subjectivity. This paradox often leads the clinical assessor to be hypervigilant when assessing the newborn for subtle symptoms of NAS, often mistaken for normal newborn behaviors. As a quality improvement initiative, this project led to a more adaptable NAS tool termed eat, sleep, console (ESC). This function-based NAS assessment scores the infant based on the ability to accomplish three basic newborn necessities- to sleep, to eat, and to be consoled. Literature supports that ESC methodology improves patient and family outcomes while providing more cost-effective care.

Keywords: neonatal abstinence syndrome, neonatal opioid withdrawal, maternal substance abuse, pregnancy, and addiction, Finnegan neonatal abstinence syndrome tool, eat, sleep, console

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87 Strengthening Facility-Based Systems to Improve Access to In-Patient Care for Sick Newborns in Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana

Authors: Paulina Clara Appiah, Kofi Issah, Timothy Letsa, Kennedy Nartey, Amanua Chinbuah, Adoma Dwomo-Fokuo, Jacqeline G. Asibey

Abstract:

Background: The Every Newborn Action Plan provides evidence–based interventions to end preventable deaths in high burden countries. Brong Ahafo Region is one of ten regions in Ghana with less than half of its district hospitals having sick newborn units. Facility-based neonatal care is not prioritized and under-funded, and there is also inadequate knowledge and competence to manage the sick. The aim of this intervention was to make available in–patient care for sick newborns in all 19 district hospitals through the strengthening of facility-based systems. Methods: With the development and dissemination of the National Newborn Strategy and Action Plan 2014-2018, the country was able to attract PATH which provided the region with basic resuscitation equipment, supported hospital providers’ capacity building in Helping Babies Breathe, Essential Care of Every Baby, Infection Prevention and Management and held a symposia on managing the sick newborn. Newborn advocacy was promoted through newborn champions at the facility and community levels. Hospital management was then able to mobilize resources from communities, corporate organizations and from internally generated funds; created or expanded sick newborn care units and provided essential medicines and equipment. Kangaroo Mother Care was initiated in 6 hospitals. Pediatric specialist outreach services initiated comprised telephone consultations, teaching ward rounds and participating in perinatal death audits meetings. Newborn data capture and management was improved through the provision and training on the use of standard registers provided from the national level. Results: From February 2015 to November 2017, hospitals with sick newborn units increased from 7 to 19 (37%-100%). 180 pieces each of newborn ventilation bags and masks size 0, 1 and penguin suction bulbs were distributed to the hospitals, in addition to 20 newborn mannequin sets and 90 small clinical reminder posters. 802 providers (96.9%) were trained in resuscitation, of which 96% were successfully followed up in 6 weeks, 91% in 6 months and 80% in 12 months post-training. 53 clinicians (65%) were trained and mentored to manage sick newborns. 56 specialist teaching ward rounds were conducted. Data completeness improved from 92.6% - 99.9%. Availability of essential medicines improved from 11% to 100%. Number of hospital cots increased from 116 to 248 (214%). Cot occupancy rate increased from 57.4% to 92.5%. Hospitals with phototherapy equipment increased from 0 to 12 (63%). Hospitals with incubators increased from 1 to 12 (5%-63%). Newborn deaths among admissions reduced from 6.3% to 5.4%. Conclusion: Access to in-patient care increased significantly. Newborn advocacy successfully mobilized resources required for strengthening facility –based systems.

Keywords: facility-based systems, Ghana, in-patient care, newborn advocacy

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86 Maternal and Newborn Health Care Program Implementation and Integration by Maternal Community Health Workers, Africa: An Integrative Review

Authors: Nishimwe Clemence, Mchunu Gugu, Mukamusoni Dariya

Abstract:

Background: Community health workers and extension workers can play an important role in supporting families to adopt health practices, encourage delivery in a health care facility, and ensure time referral of mothers and newborns if needed. Saving the lives of neonates should, therefore, be a significant health outcome in any maternal and newborn health program that is being implemented. Furthermore, about half of a million mothers die from pregnancy-related causes. Maternal and newborn deaths related to the period of postnatal care are neglected. Some authors emphasized that in developing countries, newborn mortality rates have been reduced much more slowly because of the lack of many necessary facility-based and outreach service. The aim of this review was to critically analyze the implementation and integration process of the maternal and newborn health care program by maternal community health workers, into the health care system, in Africa. Furthermore, it aims to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. We addressed the following review question: (1) what process is involved in the implementation and integration of the maternal and newborn health care program by maternal community health workers during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care into health system care in Africa? Methods: The database searched was from Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition through academic search complete via EBSCO Host. An iterative approach was used to go through Google scholarly papers. The reviewers considered adapted Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidance, and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used. Synthesis method in integrative review following elements of noting patterns and themes, seeing plausibility, clustering, counting, making contrasts and comparisons, discerning commons and unusual patterns, subsuming particulars into general, noting relations between variability, finding intervening factors and building a logical chain of evidence, using data–based convergent synthesis design. Results: From the seventeen of studies included, results focused on three dimensions inspired by the literature on antenatal, delivery, and postnatal interventions. From this, further conceptual framework was elaborated. The conceptual framework process of implementation and integration of maternal and newborn health care program by maternal community health workers was elaborated in order to ensure the sustainability of community based intervention. Conclusions: the review revealed that the implementation and integration of maternal and newborn health care program require planning. We call upon governments, non-government organizations, the global health community, all stakeholders including policy makers, program managers, evaluators, educators, and providers to be involved in implementation and integration of maternal and newborn health program in updated policy and community-based intervention. Furthermore, emphasis should be placed on competence, responsibility, and accountability of maternal community health workers, their training and payment, collaboration with health professionals in health facilities, and reinforcement of outreach service. However, the review was limited in focus to the African context, where the process of maternal and newborn health care program has been poorly implemented.

Keywords: Africa, implementation of integration, maternal, newborn

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85 Negative RT-PCR in a Newborn Infected with Zika Virus: A Case Report

Authors: Vallejo Michael, Acuña Edgar, Roa Juan David, Peñuela Rosa, Parra Alejandra, Casallas Daniela, Rodriguez Sheyla

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Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome is an entity composed by a variety of birth defects presented in newborns that have been exposed to the Zika Virus during pregnancy. The syndrome characteristic features are severe microcephaly, cerebral tissue abnormalities, ophthalmological abnormalities such as uveitis and chorioretinitis, arthrogryposis, clubfoot deformity and muscular tone abnormalities. The confirmatory test is the Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) associated to the physical findings. Here we present the case of a newborn with microcephaly whose mother presented a confirmed Zika Virus infection during the third trimester of pregnancy, despite of the evident findings and the history of Zika infection the RT-PCR in amniotic and cerebrospinal fluid of the newborn was negative. RT-PCR has demonstrated a low sensibility in samples with low viral loads, reason why, we propose a clinical diagnosis in patients with clinical history of Zika Virus infection during pregnancy accompanied by evident clinical manifestations of the child.

Keywords: congenital, Zika virus, microcephaly, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

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84 Perinatal and Postnatal Counseling as Determinants of Early Newborn Sepsis in Rural Bangladesh

Authors: Sajia Islam, T. Tahsina, S. Raihana, M. M. Rahman, Q. S. Rahman, T. M. Huda, S. E. Arifeen, M. J. Dibley

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Early neonatal sepsis accounts for more than two-thirds of all deaths in the first year of life. This study assessed the counseling during antenatal, perinatal, post natal periods and its association with possible sepsis in rural Bangladesh. Method: Data were collected from a large community-based trial in Bangladesh where pregnant women were enrolled from 2013-2015 covering 29,497 newborns. Sepsis was defined using neonatal danger signs reported by 'The Young-Infants Clinical Science Study Group. 'Result: Signs of sepsis was found among 15% of the neonates. Neonatal sepsis was higher among those who did not receive advice on TT vaccinations (15.4% vs. 11%, p < 0.05) and danger signs (14.8% vs. 12.8%, p < 0.05) during pregnancy. Advice on delivering in well-lit place was significantly associated with lower incidence of sepsis (12.7% vs. 14.8% p < 0.05). Sepsis was lower among neonates whose mothers were counseled on immediate newborn care for bathing after 3 days of delivery (13.4% vs. 15.2% p=0), breastfeeding within 1hr of birth (13.82 % vs. 15.28% p=0), apply nothing on the cord (11.54 vs. 15.06 p=0), immediate drying of child (12.62% vs. 14.89%, p=0). Neonatal sepsis was lower among children whose mothers received 2-4 advice [OR=0.91(95% CI: 0.85-0.97)] compared to neonates whose mothers received only 1 or none. Overall, children to mothers who received ≥ 5 advice had lowest incidence of sepsis [OR=0.83 (95% CI: 0.71-0.97)] Conclusion: Advice on antenatal, prenatal and post natal is significantly reduced with early newborn sepsis. Further research is required to identify specific type of counseling messages that translate into practices and reduce pathways towards early-newborn morbidities.

Keywords: ante natal care, counseling, neonatal sepsis, post natal care

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83 Evaluation on the Compliance of Essential Intrapartum Newborn Care among Nurses in Selected Government Hospital in Manila

Authors: Eliza Torrigue, Efrelyn Iellamo

Abstract:

Maternal death is one of the rising health issues in the Philippines. It is alarming to know that in every hour of each day, a mother gives birth to a child who may not live to see the next day. Statistics shows that intrapartum period and third stage of labor are the very crucial periods for the expectant mother, as well as the first six hours of life for the newborn. To address the issue, The Essential Intrapartum Newborn Care (EINC) was developed. Through this, Obstetric Delivery Room (OB-DR) Nurses shall be updated with the evidence-based maternal and newborn care to ensure patient safety, thus, reducing maternal and child mortality. This study aims to describe the compliance of hospitals, especially of OB-DR nurses, to the EINC Protocols. The researcher aims to link the profile variables of the respondents in terms of age, length of service and formal training to their compliance on the EINC Protocols. The outcome of the study is geared towards the development of appropriate training program for OB-DR Nurses assigned in the delivery room of the hospitals based on the study’s results to sustain the EINC standards. A descriptive correlational method was used. The sample consists of 75 Obstetric Delivery Room (OB-DR) Nurses from three government hospitals in the City of Manila namely, Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center, Tondo Medical Center, and Gat Andres Bonifacio Memorial Medical Center. Data were collected using an evaluative checklist. Ranking, weighted mean, Chi-square and Pearson’s R were used to analyze data. The level of compliance to the EINC Protocols by the respondents was evaluated with an overall mean score of 4.768 implying that OB-DR Nurses have a high regard in complying with the step by step procedure of the EINC. Furthermore, data shows that formal training on EINC have a significant relationship with OB-DR Nurses’ level of compliance during cord care, AMTSL, and immediate newborn care until the first ninety minutes to six hours of life. However, the respondents’ age and length of service do not have a significant relationship with the compliance of OB-DR Nurses on EINC Protocols. In the pursuit of decreasing the maternal mortality in the Philippines, EINC Protocols have been widely implemented in the country especially in the government hospitals where most of the deliveries happen. In this study, it was found out that OB-DR Nurses adhere and are highly compliant to the standards in order to assure that optimum level of care is delivered to the mother and newborn. Formal training on EINC, on the other hand, create the most impact on the compliance of nurses. It is therefore recommended that there must be a structured enhancement training program to plan, implement and evaluate the EINC protocols in these government hospitals.

Keywords: compliance, intrapartum, newborn care, nurses

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82 Rumen Epithelium Development of Bovine Fetuses and Newborn Calves

Authors: Juliana Shimara Pires Ferrão, Letícia Palmeira Pinto, Francisco Palma Rennó, Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez

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The ruminant stomach is a complex and multi-chambered organ. Although the true stomach (abomasum) is fully differentiated and functional at birth, the same does not occur with the rumen chamber. At this moment, rumen papillae are small or nonexistent. The papillae only fully develop after weaning and during calf growth. Papillae development and ruminal epithelium specialization during the fetus growth and at birth must be two interdependent processes that will prepare the rumen to adapt to ruminant adult feeding. The microscopic study of rumen epithelium at these early phases of life is important to understand how this structure prepares the rumen to deal with the following weaning processes and its functional activation. Samples of ruminal mucosa of bovine fetuses (110- and 150 day-old) and newborn calves were collected (dorsal and ventral portions) and processed for light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The basal cell layer of the stratified pavimentous epithelium present in different ruminal portions of the fetuses was thicker than the same portions of newborn calves. The superficial and intermediate epithelial layers of 150 day-old fetuses were thicker than those found in the other 2 studied ages. At this age (150 days), dermal papillae begin to invade the intermediate epithelial layer which gradually disappears in newborn calves. At birth, the ruminal papillae project from the epithelial surface, probably by regression of the epithelial cells (transitory cells) surrounding the dermal papillae. The PCNA cell proliferation index (%) was calculated for all epithelial samples. Fetuses 150 day-old showed increased cell proliferation in basal cell layer (Dorsal Portion: 84.2%; Ventral Portion: 89.8%) compared to other ages studied. Newborn calves showed an intermediate index (Dorsal Portion: 65.1%; Ventral Portion: 48.9%), whereas 110 day-old fetuses had the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.2%; Ventral Portion: 20.6%). Regarding the transitory epithelium, 110 day-old fetuses showed the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 44.6%; Ventral Portion: 20.1%), 150 day-old fetuses showed an intermediate proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.5%; Ventral Portion: 71.1%) and newborn calves presented a higher proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 75.1%; Ventral Portion: 19.6%). Under TEM, the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses presented thicker and poorly organized basal cell layer, with large nuclei and dense cytoplasm. In newborn calves, the basal cell layer was more organized and with fewer layers, but typically similar in both regions of the rumen. For the transitory epithelium, fetuses displayed larger cells than those found in newborn calves with less electrondense cytoplasm than that found in the basal cells. The ruminal dorsal portion has an overall higher cell proliferation rate than the ventral portion. Thus we can infer that the dorsal portion may have a higher cell activity than the ventral portion during ruminal development. Moreover, the basal cell layer is thicker in the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses than in the newborn calves. The transitory epithelium, which is much reduced, at birth may have a structural support function of the developing dermal papillae. When it regresses or is sheared off, the papillae are “carved out” from the surrounding epithelial layer.

Keywords: bovine, calf, epithelium, fetus, hematoxylin-eosin, immunohistochemistry, TEM, Rumen

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81 Lessons Learned from Implementation of Remote Pregnant and Newborn Care Service for Vulnerable Women and Children During COVID-19 and Political Crisis in Myanmar

Authors: Wint Wint Thu, Htet Ko Ko Win, Myat Mon San, Zaw Lin Tun, Nandar Than Aye, Khin Nyein Myat, Hayman Nyo Oo, Nay Aung Lin, Kusum Thapa, Kyaw Htet Aung

Abstract:

Background: In Myanmar, the intense political instability happened to start in Feb-2021, while the COVID-19 pandemic waves are also threatening the public health system, which subsequently led to severe health sector crisis, including difficulties in accessing maternal and newborn health care for vulnerable women and children. The Remote Pregnant and Newborn Care (RPNC) uses a telehealth approach United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Essential Health Project. Implementation: The Remote Pregnant and Newborn Care (RPNC) service has adapted to the MNCH needs of vulnerable pregnant women and was implemented to mitigate the risk of limited access to essential quality MNH care in Yangon, Myanmar, under women, and the project trained 13 service providers on a telehealth care package for pregnancy and newborn developed Jhpiego to ensure understanding of evidence-based MNCH care practices. The phone numbers of the pregnant women were gathered through the preexisting and functioning community volunteers, who reach the most vulnerable pregnant women in the project's targeted area. A total of 212 pregnant women have been reached by service providers for RPNC during the implementation period. The trained service providers offer quality antenatal and postnatal care, including newborn care, via telephone calls. It includes 24/7 incoming calls and time-allotted outgoing calls to the pregnant women during antenatal and postnatal periods, including the newborn care. The required data were collected daily in time with the calls, and the quality of the medical services is made assured with the track of the calls, ensuring data privacy and patient confidentiality. Lessons learned: The key lessons are 1) cost-effectiveness: RPNC service could reduce out of pocket expenditure of pregnant women as it only costs 1.6 United States dollars (USD) per one telehealth call while it costs 8 to 10 USD per one time in-person care service at private service providers, including transportation cost, 2) network of care: telehealth call could not replace the in-person antenatal and postnatal care services, and integration of telehealth calls with in-person care by local healthcare providers with the support of the community is crucial for accessibility to essential MNH services by poor and vulnerable women, and 3) sharing information on health access points: most of the women seem to have financial barriers in accessing private health facilities while public health system collapse and telehealthcare could provide information on low-cost facilities and connect women to relevant health facilities. These key lessons are important for future efforts regarding the implementation of remote pregnancy and newborn care in Myanmar, especially during the political crisis and COVID-19 pandemic situation.

Keywords: telehealth, accessibility, maternal care, newborn care

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80 Pathways and Mechanisms of Lymphocytes Emigration from Newborn Thymus

Authors: Olena Grygorieva

Abstract:

Nowadays mechanisms of thymocytes emigration from the thymus to the periphery are investigated actively. We have proposed a hypothesis of thymocytes’ migration from the thymus through lymphatic vessels during periodical short-term local edema. By morphological, hystochemical methods we have examined quantity of lymphocytes, epitelioreticulocytes, mast cells, blood and lymphatic vessels in morpho-functional areas of rats’ thymuses during the first week after birth in 4 hours interval. In newborn and beginning from 8 hour after birth every 12 hours specific density of the thymus, absolute quantity of microcirculatory vessels, especially of lymphatic ones, lymphcyte-epithelial index, quantity of mast cells and their degranulative forms increase. Structure of extracellular matrix, intrathymical microenvironment and lymphocytes’ adhesive properties change. Absolute quantity of small lymphocytes in thymic cortex changes wavy. All these changes are straightly expressed from 0 till 2, from 12 till 16, from 108 till 120 hours of postnatal life. During this periods paravasal lymphatic vessels are stuffed with lymphocytes, i.e. discrete migration of lymphocytes from the thymus occurs. After rapid edema reduction, quantity of lymphatic vessels decrease, they become empty. Therefore, in the thymus of newborn periodical short-term local edema is observed, on its top discrete migration of lymphocytes from the thymus occurs.

Keywords: lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, mast cells, thymus

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79 Immunoglobulins and Importance in Ruminants

Authors: M. Akoz, O. B. Citil, I. Aydin

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Colostrum secreted by the mammary glands after birth in the early days, a high proportion of fat, protein and ash containing a secretion containing low amounts of casein and lactose. Especially immunoglobulins contain high proportions. Maternal immunoglobulins own immune system to protect the newborn against neonatal disease until development are very important matter. However, colostrum is transferred to the offspring due to placental barrier in ruminants. Immunoglobulins are absorbed through the intestinal epithelium but absorption can vary under the influence of some factors. These factors are among the priority ones taking colostrum first time, amount, concentration, the metabolic status of the newborn. intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins occurs over the first 24 h high. Absorption from the gut after nine hours, 50% after 24 hours was only 11%. On the other hand pup's digestive system degrade the enzymes after 24 hours immunoglobulins. Bovine colostrum in the composition while basic immune IgG, IgA and IgM are also available. Total IgG in colostrum of ruminants, while in other species is a greater amount in blood serum.

Keywords: immunoglobulin, ruminants, colostrum, immune system

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78 Newborn Hearing Screening: Experience from a Center in South part of Iran

Authors: Marzieh Amiri, Zahra Iranpour Mobarakeh, Fatemeh Mehrbakhsh, Mehran Amiri

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Introduction: Early diagnosis and intervention of congenital hearing loss is necessary to minimize the adverse effects of hearing loss. The aim of the present study was to report the results of newborn hearing screening in a centerin the south part of Iran, Fasa. Material and methods: In this study, the data related to 6,144 newbornsduring September 2018 up to September2021, was analyzed. Hearing screening was performed using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) tests. Results: From all 6144 newborns,3752 and 2392referred to the center from urban and rural part of Fasa, respectively. There were 2958 female and 3186 male in this study. Of 6144 newborns, 6098 ones passed the screening tests, and 46 neonates were referred to a diagnostic audiology clinic. Finally, nine neonates were diagnosed with congenital hearing loss (seven with sensorineural hearing loss and two with conductive hearing loss). The severity of all the hearing impaired neonates was moderate and above. The most important risk factors were family history of hearing loss, low gestational age, NICU hospitalization, and hyperbilirubinemia. Conclusion: Our results showed that the prevalence of hearing loss was 1.46 per 1000 infants. Boosting public knowledge by providing families with proper education appears to be helpful in preventing the negative effects of delayed implementation of health screening programs.

Keywords: newborn hearing screening, hearing loss, risk factor, prevalence

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77 The Uptake of Reproductive Maternal Newborn and Child Healthcare in Gonji Kolela, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Qualitative Exploration of What Is on the Ground and What Could Be Helpful

Authors: Yan Ding, Fei Yan, Ji Liang, Hong Jiang, Xiaoguang Yang, Xu Qian

Abstract:

The health status of GonjiKolela District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia is below its national average, and a sub-project of China UK Global Health Support Programme (GHSP) is expected to increase the uptake of a suite of reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions there. To explore what is on the ground and what could be helpful for the uptake of RMNCH services in GonjiKolela, a qualitative study was performed as part of the baseline assessment before the implementation of the project. Nine key informants from GonjiKolela were interviewed with self-designed interview guides and they were from the district Health Office, health centers, health posts, women health development army (community volunteer groups), mothers of newborns, and also a gynecologist from the maternal and child health center which is the referral center for pregnant women for this project. The interview were transcribed into words and sorted with qualitative analysis software MAXqda. Content analysis was mainly used to analyze the data. The district health office, the health centers and the health posts all had focal persons taking care of the management and provision of RMNCH services, and RMNCH related indicators were recorded and reported at each level routinely. In addition, district government and administration at community/administrative village level kept a close eye on the reduction of maternal, neonatal and child mortality. Women Health Development Amy at household level supported health workers at community/administrative village level (called health extension workers) in tracing, recording and reporting pregnant women, newborn and under-five children,organizing events for health education, demonstrating and leading health promotion activities, and stimulating the utilization of RMNCH.

Keywords: Reproductive Maternal Newborn and Child Health, Health Care Utilization, Qualitative Study, Ethiopia

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76 Postmortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging as an Objective Method for the Differential Diagnosis of a Stillborn and a Neonatal Death

Authors: Uliana N. Tumanova, Sergey M. Voevodin, Veronica A. Sinitsyna, Alexandr I. Shchegolev

Abstract:

An important part of forensic and autopsy research in perinatology is the answer to the question of life and stillbirth. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an objective non-invasive research method that allows to store data for a long time and not to exhume the body to clarify the diagnosis. The purpose of the research is to study the possibilities of a postmortem MRI to determine the stillbirth and death of a newborn who had spontaneous breathing and died on the first day after birth. MRI and morphological data of a study of 23 stillborn bodies, prenatally dead at a gestational age of 22-39 weeks (Group I) and the bodies of 16 newborns who died from 2 to 24 hours after birth (Group II) were compared. Before the autopsy, postmortem MRI was performed on the Siemens Magnetom Verio 3T device in the supine position of the body. The control group for MRI studies consisted of 7 live newborns without lung disease (Group III). On T2WI in the sagittal projection was measured MR-signal intensity (SI) in the lung tissue (L) and shoulder muscle (M). During the autopsy, a pulmonary swimming test was evaluated, and macro- and microscopic studies were performed. According to the postmortem MRI, the highest values of mean SI of the lung (430 ± 27.99) and of the muscle (405.5 ± 38.62) on T2WI were detected in group I and exceeded the corresponding value of group II by 2.7 times. The lowest values were found in the control group - 77.9 ± 12.34 and 119.7 ± 6.3, respectively. In the group II, the lung SI was 1.6 times higher than the muscle SI, whereas in the group I and in the control group, the muscle SI was 2.1 times and 1.8 times larger than the lung. On the basis of clinical and morphological data, we calculated the formula for determining the breathing index (BI) during postmortem MRI: BI = SIL x SIM / 100. The mean value of BI in the group I (1801.14 ± 241.6) (values ranged from 756 to 3744) significantly higher than the corresponding average value of BI in the group II (455.89 ± 137.32, p < 0.05) (305-638.4). In the control group, the mean BI value was 91.75 ± 13.3 (values ranged from 53 to 154). The BI with the results of pulmonary swimming tests and microscopic examination of the lungs were compared. The boundary value of BI for the differential diagnosis of stillborn and newborn death was 700. Using the postmortem MRI allows to differentiate the stillborn with the death of the breathing newborn.

Keywords: lung, newborn, postmortem MRI, stillborn

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75 Development of NO-Ergic Synaptic Transmission in Sympathetic Neurons of Mammals: Immunohistochemical Study

Authors: Konstantin Yu. Moiseev, Antonina F. Budnik, Andrey I. Emanuilov, Petr M. Masliukov

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The vast majority of sympathetic ganglionic neurons are catecholaminergic. Some sympathetic neurons lack catecholamines and mostly use acetylcholine as their main neurotransmitter. Some cholinergic postganglionic neurons also express neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Preganglionic sympathetic neurons are cholinergic and most of them are also nNOS-immunoreactive (IR). The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the neuroplasticity of sympathetic neurons during postnatal ontogenesis by comparing the development of pre- and postganglionic neurons expressing nNOS in different mammals. nNOS was investigated by immunohistochemistry in the sympathetic superior cervical ganglion (SCG), stellate ganglion (SG), celiac ganglion (CG) and spinal cord from rats, mice and cats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 2-month-old and 2-year-old). In rats and mice, nNOS-positive neurons were not found in sympathetic ganglia from birth onwards. In cats, non-catecholaminergic nNOS-IR sympathetic ganglionic neurons are present from the moment of birth. In all studied age groups, substantial populations of nNOS-IR cells (up to 8.3%) was found in the SG, with a much smaller population found in the SCG (<1%) and only few cells observed in the CG. The percentage of nNOS-IR neurons in the CG and SCG did not significantly change during development. The proportion of nNOS-IR neuron profiles in the SG increased in first 20 days of life from 2.3±0.15% to 8.3±0.56%. In the SG, percentages of nNOS-IR sympathetic neurons colocalizing vasoactive intestinal peptide increased in the first 20 days of life. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IR and calcitonin gene-related peptide-IR neurons were not observed in the sympathetic ganglia of newborn animals and did not appear until 10 days after birth. In the SG of newborn and 10-day-old kittens, the majority of NOS-IR neurons were calbindin (CB)-IR, whereas in the SCG and CG of cats of all age groups and in the SG of 30-day-old and older kittens, the vast majority of NOS-IR neurons lacked CB. In newborn mammals, the most of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the nucleus intermediolateralis thoracolumbalis pars principalis (nucl.ILp) were nNOS-IR. The percentage of nNOS-IR neurons decreased and the same parameter of ChAT-IR neurons increased during the development. We conclude that the development of nNOS-IR preganglionic and ganglionic sympathetic neurons in different mammals has time and species differences.

Keywords: sympathetic neuron, nitric oxide synthase, immunohistochemistry, development

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74 Biomechanical Assessment of Esophageal Elongation

Authors: Marta Kozuń, Krystian Toczewski, Sylwester Gerus, Justyna Wolicka, Kamila Boberek, Jarosław Filipiak, Dariusz Patkowski

Abstract:

Long gap esophageal atresia is a congenital defect and is a challenge for pediatric surgeons all over the world. There are different surgical techniques in use to treat atresia. One of them is esophageal elongation but the optimal suture placement technique to achieve maximum elongation with low-risk complications is still unknown. The aim of the study was to characterize the process of esophageal elongation from the biomechanical point of view. Esophagi of white Pekin Duck was used as a model based on the size of this animal which is similar to a newborn (2.5-4kg). The specimens were divided into two groups: the control group (CG) and the group with sutures (SG). The esophagi of the control group were mounted in the grips of the MTS Tytron 250 testing machine and tensile test until rupture was performed. The loading speed during the test was 10mm/min. Then the SG group was tested. Each esophagus was cut into two equal parts and that were fused together using surgical sutures. The distance between both esophagus parts was 20mm. Ten both ends were mounted on the same testing machine and the tensile test with the same parameters was conducted. For all specimens, force and elongation were recorded. The biomechanical properties, i.e., the maximal force and maximal elongation, were determined on the basis of force-elongation curves. The maximal elongation was determined at the point of maximal force. The force achieved with the suture group was 10.1N±1.9N and 50.3N±11.6N for the control group. The highest elongation was also obtained for the control group: 18mm±3mm vs. 13.5mm ±2.4mm for the suture group. The presented study expands the knowledge of elongation of esophagi. It is worth emphasizing that the duck esophagus differs from the esophagus of a newborn, i.e., its wall lacks striated muscle cells. This is why the parts of animal esophagi used in the research are may characterized by different biomechanical properties in comparison with newborn tissue.

Keywords: long gap atresia treatment, esophageal elongation, biomechanical properties, soft tissue

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73 Impact of Maternal Nutrition on Newborn Anthropometry and Hemoglobin

Authors: Vinay Mishra, Meena Malkani

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Objectives: To study the effect of physical maternal nutritional markers (viz. weight, height, gestational weight gain, BMI) and third-trimester haemoglobin concentration on anthropometry and cord blood haemoglobin of their newborn. Methods: Study area: Post-natal ward of a tertiary care hospital in an urban area. Study population: All post-partum women and their newborns. Sample size: 100. Maternal and neonatal data and anthropometric measurements were recorded in semi-structured case proforma. Data analysis: The data obtained was analysed using SPSS 20 software.The comparison between the groups was done using One-Way Analysis of Variance for two groups. For more than two groups comparisons further posthoc analysis was done using Tukey test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for correlating the variables. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 1. Out of the 100 studied mothers, 52% were anaemic. 2. Cord blood haemoglobin values decreased significantly with the order of birth. 3. Cord blood haemoglobin of normal-weight newborns is significantly higher as compared to that of LBW newborns. 4. Cord blood haemoglobin has strong statistical significance with maternal anaemia. 5. Pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain significantly influence the neonates anthropometry. Conclusions: 1. Birth order has a prominent inverse effect on the cord blood haemoglobin. 2. Majority of the expectant mothers are anaemic and give birth to LBW babies with reduced anthropometric markers. 3. Pre-pregnancy weight, height and gestational weight gain has a very significant impact on the neonatal anthropometry. 4. Thus, maternal nutrition during gestation and during the crucial periods of growth in the pre-child bearing age group has a very significant impact on foetal development.

Keywords: maternal nutrition, anthropometry, cord blood hemoglobin, newborn

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72 Antenatal Factors Associated with Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis among Neonates 0-7 Days at Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital

Authors: Moses Balina, Archbald Bahizi

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Introduction: Early onset neonatal sepsis is a systemic infection in a newborn baby during the first week after birth and contributes to 50% of neonatal deaths each year. Risk factors for early onset neonatal sepsis, which can be maternal, health care provider, or health care facility associated, can be prevented with access to quality antenatal care. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess early onset neonatal sepsis and antenatal factors associated with Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital. Methodology: A cross sectional study design was used. The study involved 60 respondents who were mothers of breastfeeding neonates being treated for early onset neonatal sepsis at Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital neonatal intensive care unit. Simple random sampling was used to select study participants. Data were collected using questionnaires, entered in Stata 16, and analysed using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis at Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital was 25%. Multivariate analysis revealed that institutional factors were the only antenatal factors found to be significantly associated with early onset neonatal sepsis at Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital (p < 0.01). Bivariate analysis revealed that attending antenatal care at a health centre III or IV instead of a hospital (p = 0.011) and attending antenatal care in health care facilities with no laboratory investigations (p = 0.048) were risk factors for early onset neonatal sepsis in the newborn at Fort Portal Regional Referral Hospital. Conclusion: Antenatal factors were associated with early onset neonatal sepsis, and health care facility factors like lower level health centre and unavailability of quality laboratory investigations to pregnant women contributed to early onset neonatal sepsis in the newborn. Mentorships, equipping/stocking laboratories, and improving staffing levels were necessary to reduce early onset neonatal sepsis.

Keywords: antenatal factors, early onset neonatal sepsis, neonates 0-7 days, fort portal regional referral hospital

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71 Early Initiation of Breastfeeding and Its Determinants among Non-Caesarean Deliveries at Primary and Secondary Health Facilities: A Case Observational Study

Authors: Farhana Karim, Abdullah N. S. Khan, Mohiuddin A. K. Chowdhury, Nabila Zaka, Alexander Manu, Shams El Arifeen, Sk Masum Billah

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Breastfeeding, an integral part of newborn care, can reduce 55-87% of all-cause neonatal mortality and morbidity. Early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth can avert 22% of newborn mortality. Only 45% of world’s newborns and 42% of newborns in South-Asia are put to the breast within one hour of birth. In Bangladesh, only a half of the mothers practice early initiation of breastfeeding which is less likely to be practiced if the baby is born in a health facility. This study aims to generate strong evidence for early initiation of breastfeeding practices in the government health facilities and to explore the associated factors influencing the practice. The study was conducted in selected health facilities in three neighbouring districts of Northern Bangladesh. Total 249 normal vaginal delivery cases were observed for 24 hours since the time of birth. The outcome variable was initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour while the explanatory variables included type of health facility, privacy, presence of support person, stage of labour at admission, need for augmentation of labour, complications during delivery, need for episiotomy, spontaneous cry of the newborn, skin-to-skin contact with mother, post-natal contact with the service provider, receiving a post-natal examination and counselling on breastfeeding during postnatal contact. The simple descriptive statistics were employed to see the distribution of samples according to socio-demographic characteristics. Kruskal-Wallis test was carried out for testing the equality of medians among two or more categories of each variable and P-value is reported. A series of simple logistic regressions were conducted with all the potential explanatory variables to identify the determining factors for breastfeeding within 1 hour in a health facility. Finally, multiple logistic regression was conducted including the variables found significant at bi-variate analyses. Almost 90% participants initiated breastfeeding at the health facility and median time to initiate breastfeeding was 38 minutes. However, delivering in a sub-district hospital significantly delayed the breastfeeding initiation in comparison to delivering in a district hospital. Maintenance of adequate privacy and presence of separate staff for taking care of newborn significantly reduced the time in early breastfeeding initiation. Initiation time was found longer if the mother had an augmented labour, obstetric complications, and the newborn needed resuscitation. However, the initiation time was significantly early if the baby was put skin-to-skin on mother’s abdomen and received a postnatal examination by a provider. After controlling for the potential confounders, the odds of initiating breastfeeding within one hour of birth is higher if mother gives birth in a district hospital (AOR 3.0: 95% CI 1.5, 6.2), privacy is well-maintained (AOR 2.3: 95% CI 1.1, 4.5), babies cry spontaneously (AOR 7.7: 95% CI 3.3, 17.8), babies are put to skin-to-skin contact with mother (AOR 4.6: 95% CI 1.9, 11.2) and if the baby is examined by a provider in the facility (AOR 4.4: 95% CI 1.4, 14.2). The evidence generated by this study will hopefully direct the policymakers to identify and prioritize the scopes for creating and supporting early initiation of breastfeeding in the health facilities.

Keywords: Bangladesh, early initiation of breastfeeding, health facility, normal vaginal delivery, skin to skin contact

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70 The Developmental Model of Teaching and Learning Clinical Practicum at Postpartum Ward for Nursing Students by Using VARK Learning Styles

Authors: Wanwadee Neamsakul

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VARK learning style is an effective method of learning that could enhance all skills of the students like visual (V), auditory (A), read/write (R), and kinesthetic (K). This learning style benefits the students in terms of professional competencies, critical thinking and lifelong learning which are the desirable characteristics of the nursing students. This study aimed to develop a model of teaching and learning clinical practicum at postpartum ward for nursing students by using VARK learning styles, and evaluate the nursing students’ opinions about the developmental model. A methodology used for this study was research and development (R&D). The model was developed by focus group discussion with five obstetric nursing instructors who have experiences teaching Maternal Newborn and Midwifery I subject. The activities related to practices in the postpartum (PP) ward including all skills of VARK were assigned into the matrix table. The researcher asked the experts to supervise the model and adjusted the model following the supervision. Subsequently, it was brought to be tried out with the nursing students who practiced on the PP ward. Thirty third year nursing students from one of the northern Nursing Colleges, Academic year 2015 were purposive sampling. The opinions about the satisfaction of the model were collected using a questionnaire which was tested for its validity and reliability. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The developed model composed of 27 activities. Seven activities were developed as enhancement of visual skills for the nursing students (25.93%), five activities as auditory skills (18.52%), six activities as read and write skills (22.22%), and nine activities as kinesthetic skills (33.33%). Overall opinions about the model were reported at the highest level of average satisfaction (mean=4.63, S.D=0.45). In the aspects of visual skill (mean=4.80, S.D=0.45) was reported at the highest level of average satisfaction followed by auditory skill (mean=4.62, S.D=0.43), read and write skill (mean=4.57, S.D=0.46), and kinesthetic skill (mean=4.53, S.D=0.45) which were reported at the highest level of average satisfaction, respectively. The nursing students reported that the model could help them employ all of their skills during practicing and taking care of the postpartum women and newborn babies. They could establish self-confidence while providing care and felt proud of themselves by the benefits of the model. It can be said that using VARK learning style to develop the model could enhance both nursing students’ competencies and positive attitude towards the nursing profession. Consequently, they could provide quality care for postpartum women and newborn babies effectively in the long run.

Keywords: model, nursing students, postpartum ward, teaching and learning clinical practicum

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69 Assessment of Very Low Birth Weight Neonatal Tracking and a High-Risk Approach to Minimize Neonatal Mortality in Bihar, India

Authors: Aritra Das, Tanmay Mahapatra, Prabir Maharana, Sridhar Srikantiah

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In the absence of adequate well-equipped neonatal-care facilities serving rural Bihar, India, the practice of essential home-based newborn-care remains critically important for reduction of neonatal and infant mortality, especially among pre-term and small-for-gestational-age (Low-birth-weight) newborns. To improve the child health parameters in Bihar, ‘Very-Low-Birth-Weight (vLBW) Tracking’ intervention is being conducted by CARE India, since 2015, targeting public facility-delivered newborns weighing ≤2000g at birth, to improve their identification and provision of immediate post-natal care. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, 200 public health facilities were randomly selected from all functional public-sector delivery points in Bihar and various outcomes were tracked among the neonates born there. Thus far, one pre-intervention (Feb-Apr’2015-born neonates) and three post-intervention (for Sep-Oct’2015, Sep-Oct’2016 and Sep-Oct’2017-born children) follow-up studies were conducted. In each round, interviews were conducted with the mothers/caregivers of successfully-tracked children to understand outcome, service-coverage and care-seeking during the neonatal period. Data from 171 matched facilities common across all rounds were analyzed using SAS-9.4. Identification of neonates with birth-weight ≤ 2000g improved from 2% at baseline to 3.3%-4% during post-intervention. All indicators pertaining to post-natal home-visits by frontline-workers (FLWs) improved. Significant improvements between baseline and post-intervention rounds were also noted regarding mothers being informed about ‘weak’ child – at the facility (R1 = 25 to R4 = 50%) and at home by FLW (R1 = 19%, to R4 = 30%). Practice of ‘Kangaroo-Mother-Care (KMC)’– an important component of essential newborn care – showed significant improvement in postintervention period compared to baseline in both facility (R1 = 15% to R4 = 31%) and home (R1 = 10% to R4=29%). Increasing trend was noted regarding detection and birth weight-recording of the extremely low-birth-weight newborns (< 1500 g) showed an increasing trend. Moreover, there was a downward trend in mortality across rounds, in each birth-weight strata (< 1500g, 1500-1799g and >= 1800g). After adjustment for the differential distribution of birth-weights, mortality was found to decline significantly from R1 (22.11%) to R4 (11.87%). Significantly declining trend was also observed for both early and late neonatal mortality and morbidities. Multiple regression analysis identified - birth during immediate post-intervention phase as well as that during the maintenance phase, birth weight > 1500g, children of low-parity mothers, receiving visit from FLW in the first week and/or receiving advice on extra care from FLW as predictors of survival during neonatal period among vLBW newborns. vLBW tracking was found to be a successful and sustainable intervention and has already been handed over to the Government.

Keywords: weak newborn tracking, very low birth weight babies, newborn care, community response

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68 A Sui Generis Technique to Detect Pathogens in Post-Partum Breast Milk Using Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Yogesh Karunakar, Praveen Kandaswamy

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Mother’s milk provides the most superior source of nutrition to a child. There is no other substitute to the mother’s milk. Postpartum secretions like breast milk can be analyzed on the go for testing the presence of any harmful pathogen before a mother can feed the child or donate the milk for the milk bank. Since breast feeding is one of the main causes for transmission of diseases to the newborn, it is mandatory to test the secretions. In this paper, we describe the detection of pathogens like E-coli, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Zika and Ebola virus through an innovative method, in which we are developing a unique chip for testing the mother’s milk sample. The chip will contain an antibody specific to the target pathogen that will show a color change if there are enough pathogens present in the fluid that will be considered dangerous. A smart-phone camera will then be acquiring the image of the strip and using various image processing techniques we will detect the color development due to antigen antibody interaction within 5 minutes, thereby not adding to any delay, before the newborn is fed or prior to the collection of the milk for the milk bank. If the target pathogen comes positive through this method, then the health care provider can provide adequate treatment to bring down the number of pathogens. This will reduce the postpartum related mortality and morbidity which arises due to feeding infectious breast milk to own child.

Keywords: postpartum, fluids, camera, HIV, HCV, CMV, Zika, Ebola, smart-phones, breast milk, pathogens, image processing techniques

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67 Effect of Parenteral Administration of Vitamin A in Pregnant Dry Cows, on Vitamin A Status of Neonatal Calves

Authors: Samad Lotfollahzadeh

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To evaluate the effect of intramuscular administration of vitamin A during dry period in pregnant dairy cows, which already received it in their daily ration, on vitamin A status of neonatal calves, a total of 30 cows were randomly selected and divided to two main groups; treatment and control group. Animals in the treatment group were subdivided into two groups. Single intramuscular injection of 2000000 IU vitamin A; was carried in 10 dairy cows at 7 months of pregnancy (group 1). In the second group of treated animals (10 cows) the injection was performed in 8 months of pregnancy (group 2). Ten pregnant dairy cows were received saline injection as placebo and selected as the control group. Blood samples were collected from experimental dairy cows at 7 and 8 months of pregnancy as well as their newborn calves’ pre and after colostrum intake. There was no significant difference between vitamin A and β- carotene concentration of dairy cows of three groups in two last months of pregnancy (P > 0.05). Vitamin A concentration of calves of two treatment groups before and after receiving of colostrum were significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between serum concentrations of vitamin A in calves of two treated groups (P > 0.05). β- Carotene concentration of serum samples of dairy cows and neonatal calves of three groups were not significantly different as compared with together. From results of the present study it can be concluded that daily supplementation of vitamin A in late pregnancy in dairy cows may not compensate the calves need for vitamin A and single injection of this vitamin A during dry either in 7 or 8 months of pregnancy can significantly increase level of vitamin A in their colostrum and neonatal calves.

Keywords: dry cow, beta carotene, newborn calves, vitamin A, dry cows

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66 A Case of Iatrogenic Esophageal Perforation in an Extremely Low Birth Weight Neonate

Authors: Ya-Ching Fu, An-Kuo Chou, Boon-Fatt Tan, Chi-Nien Chen, Wen-Chien Yang, Pou-Leng Cheong

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Blind oro-/naso-pharyngeal suction and feeding tube placement are very common practices in neonatal intensive care unit. Though esophageal perforation is a rare complication of these instrumentations, its prevalence is highest in extremely premature neonates. Due to its association with significant morbidity (including respiratory deterioration, pneumothorax, and sepsis) and even mortality, it is an important issue to prevent this iatrogenic complication in the field of premature care. We demonstrate an esophageal perforation in an extreme-low-birth-weight neonate after oro-gastric tube placement. This female baby weighing 680 grams was delivered by caesarean section at 25 weeks of gestational age. She initially received oro-tracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation which was smoothly weaned to non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation at 7-day-old. However, after insertion of a 5-French oro-gastric tube, the baby’s condition suddenly worsened with apnea requiring mechanical ventilation. Her chest radiogram showed the oro-gastric tube in right pleural space, and thus another oro-gastric tube was replaced, and its position was radiographically confirmed. The malpositioned tube was then removed. The baby received 2-week course of intravenous antibiotics for her esophageal perforation. Feeding was then reintroduced and increased to full feeds in a smooth course. She was discharged at 107-day-old. Esophageal perforation in newborn is very rare. Sudden respiratory deterioration in a neonate after naso-/oro-gastric tube placement should alarm us to consider esophageal perforation, and further radiological investigation is required for the diagnosis. Tube materials, patient condition, and age are major risk factors of esophageal perforation. The use of softer tube material, such as silicone, in extreme premature baby might prevent this fetal complication.

Keywords: esophageal perforation, preterm, newborn, feeding tube

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65 Mentoring of Health Professionals to Ensure Better Child-Birth and Newborn Care in Bihar, India: An Intervention Study

Authors: Aboli Gore, Aritra Das, Sunil Sonthalia, Tanmay Mahapatra, Sridhar Srikantiah, Hemant Shah

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AMANAT is an initiative, taken in collaboration with the Government of Bihar, aimed at improving the Quality of Maternal and Neonatal care services at Bihar’s public health facilities – those offering either the Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal care (BEmONC) or Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal care (CEmONC) services. The effectiveness of this program is evaluated by conducting cross-sectional assessments at the concerned facilities prior to (baseline) and following completion (endline) of intervention. Direct Observation of Delivery (DOD) methodology is employed for carrying out the baseline and endline assessments – through which key obstetric and neonatal care practices among the Health Care Providers (especially the nurses) are assessed quantitatively by specially trained nursing professionals. Assessment of vitals prior to delivery improved during all three phases of BEmONC and all four phases of CEmONC training with statistically significant improvement noted in: i) pulse measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (9% to 68%), 3 (4% to 57%) & 4 (14% to 59%) and CEmONC phase 2 (7% to 72%) and 3 (0% to 64%); ii) blood pressure measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (27% to 84%), 3 (21% to 76%) & 4 (36% to 71%) and CEmONC phase 2 (23% to 76%) and 3 (2% to 70%); iii) fetal heart rate measurement in BEmONC phase 2 (10% to 72%), 3 (11% to 77%) & 4 (13% to 64%) and CEmONC phase 1 (24% to 38%), 2 (14% to 82%) and 3 (1% to 73%); and iv) abdominal examination in BEmONC phase 2 (14% to 59%), 3 (3% to 59%) & 4 (6% to 56%) and CEmONC phase 1 (0% to 24%), 2 (7% to 62%) & 3 (0% to 62%). Regarding infection control, wearing of apron, mask and cap by the delivery conductors improved significantly in all BEmONC phases. Similarly, the practice of handwashing improved in all BEmONC and CEmONC phases. Even on disaggregation, the handwashing showed significant improvement in all phases but CEmONC phase-4. Not only the positive practices related to handwashing improved but also negative practices such as turning off the tap with bare hands declined significantly in the aforementioned phases. Significant decline was also noted in negative maternal care practices such as application of fundal pressure for hastening the delivery process and administration of oxytocin prior to delivery. One of the notable achievement of AMANAT is an improvement in active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL). The overall AMTSL (including administration of oxytocin or other uterotonics uterotonic in proper dose, route and time along with controlled cord traction and uterine massage) improved in all phases of BEmONC and CEmONC mentoring. Another key area of improvement, across phases, was in proper cutting/clamping of the umbilical cord. AMANAT mentoring also led to improvement in important immediate newborn care practices such as initiation of skin-to-skin care and timely initiation of breastfeeding. The next phase of the mentoring program seeks to institutionalize mentoring across the state that could potentially perpetuate improvement with minimal external intervention.

Keywords: capacity building, nurse-mentoring, quality of care, pregnancy, newborn care

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64 A Qualitative Study of Parents' Recommendations for Improving the Notification Process and Communication between Health Professionals and Families for New Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Mohammad S. Razai, Jan Williams, Rachel Nestel, Dermot Dalton

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Purpose: This descriptive qualitative study aimed to obtain parents recommendations for improving the notification process and communication of positive newborn screening result for cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: Thematic analysis of semi-structured open-ended interviews with 11 parents of 7 children with confirmed diagnosis of CF between 2 months — 2 years of age. Results: Parents preferred face to face disclosure of positive NBS results by a pediatrician with CF professional qualification. They trusted a pediatrician more than any other professional in providing accurate, credible and comprehensive information about the diagnosis and its implications. Parents recommended that health professionals be knowledgeable and provide clear, succinct and understandable information. Providers should also explore parents concerns and acknowledge feelings and emotions. Most parents reported that they preferred to be notified immediately as soon as the results were available. Several parents preferred to be told once the diagnosis was certain. Most parents regarded open access to CF team as the most significant part of care coordination. In addition to health professionals, most parents used internet as an important source of information, interaction and exchange of experiences. Most parents also used social networking sites such as Facebook groups and smart phone apps. Conclusion: This study provides significant new evidence from parental perspective in emphasizing the pivotal role of good communication skills deployed by a knowledgeable CF specialist in person. Parents use of social media and internet has replaced some traditional methods of information exchange and may reduce the need for professional input for newly diagnosed CF patients.

Keywords: care coordination, cystic fibrosis, newborn screening, notification process, parental preferences, professional-paren communication

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63 Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Neonates in Pokhara, Nepal: A Hospital Based Case Control Study

Authors: Dipendra Kumar Yadav, Nabaraj Paudel, Anjana Yadav

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Background: Low Birth weight (LBW) is defined as the weight at birth less than 2500 grams, irrespective of the period of their gestation. LBW is an important indicator of general health status of population and is considered as the single most important predictors of infant mortality especially of deaths within the first month of life that is birth weight determines the chances of newborn survival. Objective of this study was to identify the maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight neonates. Materials and Methods: A hospital based case-control study was conducted in maternity ward of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal from 23 September 2014 to 12 November 2014. During study period 59 cases were obtained and twice number of control group were selected with frequency matching of the mother`s age with ± 3 years and total controls were 118. Interview schedule was used for data collection along with record review. Data were entered in Epi-data program and analysis was done with help of SPSS software program. Results: From bivariate logistic regression analysis, eighteen variables were found significantly associated with LBW and these were place of residence, family monthly income, education, previous still birth, previous LBW, history of STD, history of vaginal bleeding, anemia, ANC visits, less than four ANC visits, de-worming status, counseling during pregnancy, CVD, physical workload, stress, extra meal during pregnancy, smoking and alcohol consumption status. However after adjusting confounding variables, only six variables were found significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who had family monthly income up to ten thousand rupees were 4.83 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.5-40.645) and p value 0.014 compared to mothers whose family income NRs.20,001-60,000. Mothers who had previous still birth were 2.01 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (0.69-5.87) and p value 0.02 compared to mothers who did not has previous still birth. Mothers who had previous LBW were 5.472 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.2-24.93) and p value 0.028 compared to mothers who did not has previous LBW. Mothers who had anemia during pregnancy were 3.36 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (0.77-14.57) and p value 0.014 compared to mothers who did not has anemia. Mothers who delivered female newborn were 2.96 times more likely to have LBW with 95% CI (1.27-7.28) and p value 0.01 compared to mothers who deliver male newborn. Mothers who did not get extra meal during pregnancy were 6.04 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.11-32.7) and p value 0.037 compared to mothers who getting the extra meal during pregnancy. Mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy were 4.83 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.57-14.83) and p value 0.006 compared to mothers who did not consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Conclusions: To reduce low birth weight baby through economic empowerment of family and individual women. Prevention and control of anemia during pregnancy is one of the another strategy to control the LBW baby and mothers should take full dose of iron supplements with screening of haemoglobin level. Extra nutritional food should be provided to women during pregnancy. Health promotion program will be focused on avoidance of alcohol and strengthen of health services that leads increasing use of maternity services.

Keywords: low birth weight, case-control, risk factors, hospital based study

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62 Concentrations of Leptin, C-Peptide and Insulin in Cord Blood as Fetal Origins of Insulin Resistance and Their Effect on the Birth Weight of the Newborn

Authors: R. P. Hewawasam, M. H. A. D. de Silva, M. A. G. Iresha

Abstract:

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance. Insulin resistance often progresses to type-2 diabetes mellitus and is linked to a wide variety of other pathophysiological features including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis (metabolic syndrome) and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Macrosomia is common in infants born to not only women with gestational diabetes mellitus but also non-diabetic obese women. During the past two decades, obesity in children and adolescents has risen significantly in Asian populations including Sri Lanka. There is increasing evidence to believe that infants who are born large for gestational age (LGA) are more likely to be obese in childhood. It is also established from previous studies that Asian populations have higher percentage body fat at a lower body mass index compared to Caucasians. High leptin levels in cord blood have been reported to correlate with fetal adiposity at birth. Previous studies have also shown that cord blood C-peptide and insulin levels are significantly and positively correlated with birth weight. Therefore, the objective of this preliminary study was to determine the relationship between parameters of fetal insulin resistance such as leptin, C-peptide and insulin and the birth weight of the newborn in a study population in Southern Sri Lanka. Umbilical cord blood was collected from 90 newborns and the concentration of insulin, leptin, and C-peptide were measured by ELISA technique. Birth weight, length, occipital frontal, chest, hip and calf circumferences of newborns were measured and characteristics of the mother such as age, height, weight before pregnancy and weight gain were collected. The relationship between insulin, leptin, C-peptide, and anthropometrics were assessed by Pearson’s correlation while the Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess the differences in cord blood leptin, C-peptide, and insulin levels between groups. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the insulin levels of infants born LGA (18.73 ± 0.64 µlU/ml) and AGA (13.08 ± 0.43 µlU/ml). Consistently, A significant increase in concentration (p < 0.001) was observed in C-peptide levels of infants born LGA (9.32 ± 0.77 ng/ml) compared to AGA (5.44 ± 0.19 ng/ml). Cord blood leptin concentration of LGA infants (12.67 ng/mL ± 1.62) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to the AGA infants (7.10 ng/mL ± 0.97). Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were observed among cord leptin levels and the birth weight, pre-pregnancy maternal weight and BMI between the infants of AGA and LGA. Consistently, a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between the birth weight and the C peptide concentration. Significantly high concentrations of leptin, C-peptide and insulin levels in the cord blood of LGA infants suggest that they may be involved in regulating fetal growth. Although previous studies suggest comparatively high levels of body fat in the Asian population, values obtained in this study are not significantly different from values previously reported from Caucasian populations. According to this preliminary study, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and weight may contribute as significant indicators of cord blood parameters of insulin resistance and possibly the birth weight of the newborn.

Keywords: large for gestational age, leptin, C-peptide, insulin

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61 Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition Indicators in Miagao, Iloilo and Sibunag, Guimaras, Philippines

Authors: Franco Miguel Nodado, Adrienne Marie Bugayong Janagap, Allen Claire Arances, Kirsten Anne Gerez, Frances Catherine Rosario, Charise Alvyne Samaniego, Matt Andrew Secular, Rommel Gestuveo, Marilyn Sumayo, Joseph Arbizo, Philip Ian Padilla

Abstract:

COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected the delivery of health care services, but its impacts on Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) programs in rural municipalities in the Philippines remains understudied. Thus, this study explored the effects of the pandemic on MNCHN indicators in the municipalities of Miagao, Iloilo and Sibunag, Guimaras. A cross-sectional design was employed to compare the MNCHN indicators before and during the pandemic, and between Miagao and Sibunag. Key informant interviews (KII) were performed to identify the factors affecting access to MNCHN programs. During the pandemic, Miagao had a significant increase in positive outcomes of eight out of ten maternal health indicators, while Sibunag showed a significant decrease in six indicators. For child health and nutrition, Miagao obtained significant improvements in five of seven indicators, while Sibunag showed a significant increase in positive outcomes for six. KII data showed that the primary concern of mothers in Miagao is accessibility, while mothers in Sibunag raised concerns on accessibility, availability, and affordability of these MNCHN services. Miagao MHO employed various strategies such as telemedicine, activation of barangay health workers, and decentralization of health services to Barangay Health Centers, which can explain the improvements in MNCHN indicators. Sibunag also decentralized its health services, but its limited resources might have led them to prioritize child health and nutrition services. The findings suggest that the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on MNCHN depend on local health measures employed by the municipality, while telemedicine is a very useful tool in mitigating the negative effects of disrupted health services.

Keywords: maternal, child, COVID-19, Miagao, Sibunag, nutrition

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