Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1180

Search results for: tissue engineering

1180 Exposure to Radio Frequency Waves of Mobile Phone and Temperature Changes of Brain Tissue

Authors: Farhad Forouharmajd, Hossein Ebrahimi, Siamak Pourabdian

Abstract:

Introduction: Prevalent use of cell phones (mobile phones) has led to increasing worries about the effect of radiofrequency waves on the physiology of human body. This study was done to determine different reactions of the temperatures in different depths of brain tissue in confronting with radiofrequency waves of cell phones. Methodology: This study was an empirical research. A cow's brain tissue was placed in a compartment and the effects of radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was analyzed during confrontation and after confrontation, in three different depths of 2, 12, and 22 mm of the tissue, in 4 mm and 4 cm distances of the tissue to a cell phone, for 15 min. Lutron thermometer was used to measure the tissue temperatures. Data analysis was done by Lutron software. Findings: The rate of increasing the temperature at the depth of 22 mm was higher than 2 mm and 12mm depths, during confrontation of the brain tissue at the distance of 4 mm with the cell phone, such that the tissue temperatures at 2, 12, and 22 mm depths increased by 0.29 ˚C, 0.31 ˚C, and 0.37 ˚C, respectively, relative to the base temperature (tissue temperature before confrontation). Moreover, the temperature of brain tissue at the distance of 4 cm by increasing the tissue depth was more than other depths. Increasing the tissue temperature also existed by increasing the brain tissue depth after the confrontation with the cell phone. The temperature of the 22 mm depth increased with higher speed at the time confrontation. Conclusion: Not only radiofrequency waves of cell phones increased the tissue temperature in all the depths of the brain tissue, but also the temperature due to radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was more at the depths higher than 22 mm of the tissue. In fact, the thermal effect of radiofrequency waves was higher in higher depths.

Keywords: mobile phone, radio frequency waves, brain tissue, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
1179 Design and Fabrication of a Scaffold with Appropriate Features for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Authors: S. S. Salehi, A. Shamloo

Abstract:

Poor ability of cartilage tissue when experiencing a damage leads scientists to use tissue engineering as a reliable and effective method for regenerating or replacing damaged tissues. An artificial tissue should have some features such as biocompatibility, biodegradation and, enough mechanical properties like the original tissue. In this work, a composite hydrogel is prepared by using natural and synthetic materials that has high porosity. Mechanical properties of different combinations of polymers such as modulus of elasticity were tested, and a hydrogel with good mechanical properties was selected. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were also seeded into the pores of the sponge, and the results showed the adhesion and proliferation of cells within the hydrogel after one month. In comparison with previous works, this study offers a new and efficient procedure for the fabrication of cartilage like tissue and further cartilage repair.

Keywords: cartilage tissue engineering, hydrogel, mechanical strength, mesenchymal stem cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1178 Fabrication of Optical Tissue Phantoms Simulating Human Skin and Their Application

Authors: Jihoon Park, Sungkon Yu, Byungjo Jung

Abstract:

Although various optical tissue phantoms (OTPs) simulating human skin have been actively studied, their completeness is unclear because skin tissue has the intricate optical property and complicated structure disturbing the optical simulation. In this study, we designed multilayer OTP mimicking skin structure, and fabricated OTP models simulating skin-blood vessel and skin pigmentation in the skin, which are useful in Biomedical optics filed. The OTPs were characterized with the optical property and the cross-sectional structure, and analyzed by using various optical tools such as a laser speckle imaging system, OCT and a digital microscope to show the practicality. The measured optical property was within 5% error, and the thickness of each layer was uniform within 10% error in micrometer scale.

Keywords: blood vessel, optical tissue phantom, optical property, skin tissue, pigmentation

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1177 Ultrasonic Densitometry of Bone Tissue of Jaws and Phalanges of Fingers in Patients after Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Margarita Belousova

Abstract:

The ultrasonic densitometry (RU patent № 2541038) was used to assess the density of the bone tissue in the jaws of patients after orthodontic treatment. In addition, by ultrasonic densitometry assessed the state of the bone tissue in the region III phalanges of middle fingers in above mentioned patients. A comparative study was carried out in healthy volunteers of same age. It was established a significant decrease of the ultrasound wave speed and bone mineral density after active period of orthodontic treatment. Statistically, significant differences in bone mineral density of the fingers by ultrasonic densitometry in both groups of patients were not detected.

Keywords: intraoral ultrasonic densitometry, bone tissue density of jaws, bone tissue density of phalanges of fingers, orthodontic treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
1176 The Use of Gelatin in Biomedical Engineering: Halal Perspective

Authors: Syazwani Ramli, Norhidayu Muhamad Zain

Abstract:

Nowadays, the use of gelatin as biomaterials in tissue engineering are evolving especially in skin graft and wound dressing applications. Towards year 2018, Malaysia is in the way of planning to get the halal certification for biomedical device in order to cater the needs of Muslims and non-Muslims in Malaysia. However, the use of gelatins in tissue engineering are mostly derived from non-halal sources. Currently, gelatin production mostly comes from mammalian gelatin sources. Moreover, within these past years, just a few studies of the uses of gelatin in tissue engineering from halal perspective has been studied. Thus, this paper aims to give overview of the use of gelatin from different sources from halal perspectives. This review also discussing the current status of halal for the emerging biomedical devices. In addition, the different sources of gelatin used in tissue engineering are being identified and provides better alternatives for halal gelatin. Cold- water fish skin gelatin could be an effective alternative to substitute the mammalian sources. Therefore, this review is important because the information about the halal biomedical devices will delighted Muslim consumers and give better insight of halal gelatin in tissue engineering application.

Keywords: biomedical device, gelatin, halal, skin graft, tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
1175 Measurement of Rheologic Properties of Soft Tissue (Muscle Tissue) by Device Called Myotonometer

Authors: Petr Sifta, Vaclav Bittner, Martin Kysela, Matej Kolar

Abstract:

The purpose of the research described in this work is to answer how to measure the rheologic (viscoelastic) properties tendo–deformational characteristics of soft tissue. The method would also resemble muscle palpation examination as it is known in clinical practice. For this purpose, an instrument with the working name “myotonometer” has been used. At present, there is lack of objective methods for assessing the muscle tone by viscous and elastic properties of soft tissue. That is why we decided to focus on creating or finding quantitative and qualitative methodology capable of specifying muscle tone.

Keywords: rheologic properties, tendo–deformational characteristics, viscosity, elasticity, hypertonus

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
1174 Application of Bioreactors in Regenerative Dentistry: Literature Review

Authors: Neeraj Malhotra

Abstract:

Background: Bioreactors in tissue engineering are used as devices that apply mechanical means to influence biological processes. They are commonly employed for stem cell culturing, growth and expansion as well as in 3D tissue culture. Contemporarily there use is well established and is tested extensively in the medical sciences, for tissue-regeneration and tissue engineering of organs like bone, cartilage, blood vessels, skin grafts, cardiac muscle etc. Methodology: Literature search, both electronic and hand search, was done using the following MeSH and keywords: bioreactors, bioreactors and dentistry, bioreactors & dental tissue engineering, bioreactors and regenerative dentistry. Articles published only in English language were included for review. Results: Bioreactors like, spinner flask-, rotating wall-, flow perfusion-, and micro-bioreactors and in-vivo bioreactor have been employed and tested for the regeneration of dental and like-tissues. These include gingival tissue, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, mucosa, cementum and blood vessels. Based on their working dynamics they can be customized in future for regeneration of pulp tissue and whole tooth regeneration. Apart from this, they have been successfully used in testing the clinical efficacy and biological safety of dental biomaterials. Conclusion: Bioreactors have potential use in testing dental biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches aimed at regenerative dentistry.

Keywords: bioreactors, biological process, mechanical stimulation, regenerative dentistry, stem cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
1173 A Review on Bone Grafting, Artificial Bone Substitutes and Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Kasun Gayashan Samarawickrama

Abstract:

Bone diseases, defects, and fractions are commonly seen in modern life. Since bone is regenerating dynamic living tissue, it will undergo healing process naturally, it cannot recover from major bone injuries, diseases and defects. In order to overcome them, bone grafting technique was introduced. Gold standard was the best method for bone grafting for the past decades. Due to limitations of gold standard, alternative methods have been implemented. Apart from them artificial bone substitutes and bone tissue engineering have become the emerging methods with technology for bone grafting. Many bone diseases and defects will be healed permanently with these promising techniques in future.

Keywords: bone grafting, gold standard, bone substitutes, bone tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
1172 Numerical Modelling of Effective Diffusivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Anila Asif, Haroon Ahmad

Abstract:

The field of tissue engineering is an active area of research. Bone tissue engineering helps to resolve the clinical problems of critical size and non-healing defects by the creation of man-made bone tissue. We will design and validate an efficient numerical model, which will simulate the effective diffusivity in bone tissue engineering. Our numerical model will be based on the finite element analysis of the diffusion-reaction equations. It will have the ability to optimize the diffusivity, even at multi-scale, with the variation of time. It will also have a special feature, with which we will not only be able to predict the oxygen, glucose and cell density dynamics, more accurately, but will also sort the issues arising due to anisotropy. We will fix these problems with the help of modifying the governing equations, by selecting appropriate spatio-temporal finite element schemes, by adaptive grid refinement strategy and by transient analysis.

Keywords: scaffolds, porosity, diffusion, transient analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
1171 Analysis of Patent Protection of Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffold Technology

Authors: Yunwei Zhang, Na Li, Yuhong Niu

Abstract:

Bone tissue engineering scaffold was regarded as an important clinical technology of curing bony defect. The patent protection of bone tissue engineering scaffold had been paid more attention and strengthened all over the world. This study analyzed the future development trends of international technologies in the field of bone tissue engineering scaffold and its patent protection. This study used the methods of data classification and classification indexing to analyze 2718 patents retrieved in the patent database. Results showed that the patents coming from United States had a competitive advantage over other countiries in the field of bone tissue engineering scaffold. The number of patent applications by a single company in U.S. was a quarter of that of the world. However, the capability of R&D in China was obviously weaker than global level, patents mainly coming from universities and scientific research institutions. Moreover, it would be predicted that synthetic organic materials as new materials would be gradually replaced by composite materials. The patent technology protections of composite materials would be more strengthened in the future.

Keywords: bone tissue engineering, patent analysis, Scaffold material, patent protection

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1170 The Application of FSI Techniques in Modeling of Realist Pulmonary Systems

Authors: Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Hassan Athari, Dogan Ciloglu

Abstract:

The modeling lung respiratory system which has complex anatomy and biophysics presents several challenges including tissue-driven flow patterns and wall motion. Also, the lung pulmonary system because of that they stretch and recoil with each breath, has not static walls and structures. The direct relationship between air flow and tissue motion in the lung structures naturally prefers an FSI simulation technique. Therefore, in order to toward the realistic simulation of pulmonary breathing mechanics the development of a coupled FSI computational model is an important step. A simple but physiologically-relevant three dimensional deep long geometry is designed and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling technique is utilized for simulating the deformation of the lung parenchyma tissue which produces airflow fields. The real understanding of respiratory tissue system as a complex phenomenon have been investigated with respect to respiratory patterns, fluid dynamics and tissue visco-elasticity and tidal breathing period.

Keywords: lung deformation and mechanics; Tissue mechanics; Viscoelasticity; Fluid-structure interactions; ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
1169 Enhancing of Laser Imaging by Using Ultrasound Effect

Authors: Hayder Raad Hafuze, Munqith Saleem Dawood, Jamal Abdul Jabbar

Abstract:

The effect of using both ultrasounds with laser in medical imaging of the biological tissue has been studied in this paper. Different wave lengths of incident laser light (405 nm, 532 nm, 650 nm, 808 nm and 1064 nm) were used with different ultrasound frequencies (1MHz and 3.3MHz). The results showed that, the change of acoustic intensity enhance the laser penetration of the tissue for different thickness. The existence of the ideal Raman-Nath diffraction pattern were investigated in terms of phase delay and incident angle.

Keywords: tissue, laser, ultrasound, effect, imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1168 Analysis of the Internal Mechanical Conditions in the Lower Limb Due to External Loads

Authors: Kent Salomonsson, Xuefang Zhao, Sara Kallin

Abstract:

Human soft tissue is loaded and deformed by any activity, an effect known as a stress-strain relationship, and is often described by a load and tissue elongation curve. Several advances have been made in the fields of biology and mechanics of soft human tissue. However, there is limited information available on in vivo tissue mechanical characteristics and behavior. Confident mechanical properties of human soft tissue cannot be extrapolated from e.g. animal testing. Thus, there is need for non invasive methods to analyze mechanical characteristics of soft human tissue. In the present study, the internal mechanical conditions of the lower limb, which is subject to an external load, is studied by use of the finite element method. A detailed finite element model of the lower limb is made possible by use of MRI scans. Skin, fat, bones, fascia and muscles are represented separately and the material properties for them are obtained from literature. Previous studies have been shown to address macroscopic deformation features, e.g. indentation depth, to a large extent. However, the detail in which the internal anatomical features have been modeled does not reveal the critical internal strains that may induce hypoxia and/or eventual tissue damage. The results of the present study reveals that lumped material models, i.e. averaging of the material properties for the different constituents, does not capture regions of critical strains in contrast to more detailed models.

Keywords: FEM, tissue, indentation, properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
1167 Suitability Evaluation of CNW as Scaffold for Osteoblast

Authors: Hoo Cheol Lee, Dae Seung Kim, Sang Myung Jung, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Loss of bone tissue can occur due to a bone tissue disease and aging or fracture. Renewable formation of bone is mainly made by its differentiation and metabolism. For this reason, osteoblasts have been studied for regeneration of bone tissue. So, tissue engineering has attracted attention as a recovery means. In tissue engineering, a particularly important factor is a scaffold that supports cell growth. For osteoblast scaffold, we used the cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) extracted from marine organism. CNW is one of an abundant material obtained from a number of plants and animals. CNW is polymer consisting of monomer cellulose and this composition offers biodegradability and biocompatibility to CNW. Mechanical strength of CNW is superior to the existing natural polymers. In addition, substances of marine origin have a low risk of secondary infection by bacteria and pathogen in contrast with those of land-derived. For evaluating its suitability as an osteoblast scaffold, we fabricate CNW film for osteoblast culture and performed the MTT assay and ALP assay to confirm its cytotoxicity and effect on differentiation. Taking together these results, we assessed CNW is a potential candidate of a material for bone tissue regeneration.

Keywords: bone regeneration, cellulose nanowhisker, marine derived material, osteoblast

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1166 The Effect of 8 Weeks Endurance Training and L-NAME on Apelin in Adipose Tissue, Glucose and Insulin in Elderly Male's Rats

Authors: Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Fatemeh Fani, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks endurance training and L-NAME on apelin in adipose tissue, glucose and insulin in elderly male’s rats. Methods: For this purpose, 24 vistar elderly rats with average 20 months old purchased from Razi Institute and transferred to Research Center were randomly divided into four groups: 1. control, 2. training, 3.training and L-NAME and 4. L-NAME. Training protocol performed for 8 weeks and 5 days a week with 75-80 VO2 max. All rats were killed 72 hours after the final training session and after 24 hours of fasting adipose tissue samples were collected and kept in -80. Also, Data was analyzed with One way ANOVA and Tucky in p < 0/05. Results: The results showed that the inhibition of nitric oxide on apelin in adipose tissue of adult male rats after eight weeks of endurance training increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.00). Also, the results showed no significant difference between the levels of insulin and glucose groups. Conclusion: It is likely that the increased apelin in adipose tissue in mice independent of insulin and glucose.

Keywords: endurance training, L-NAME, apelin in adipose tissue, elderly male rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
1165 Non-Invasive Imaging of Human Tissue Using NIR Light

Authors: Ashwani Kumar

Abstract:

Use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function.

Keywords: NIR light, tissue, blurring, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
1164 Low Cost Technique for Measuring Luminance in Biological Systems

Authors: N. Chetty, K. Singh

Abstract:

In this work, the relationship between the melanin content in a tissue and subsequent absorption of light through that tissue was determined using a digital camera. This technique proved to be simple, cost effective, efficient and reliable. Tissue phantom samples were created using milk and soy sauce to simulate the optical properties of melanin content in human tissue. Increasing the concentration of soy sauce in the milk correlated to an increase in melanin content of an individual. Two methods were employed to measure the light transmitted through the sample. The first was direct measurement of the transmitted intensity using a conventional lux meter. The second method involved correctly calibrating an ordinary digital camera and using image analysis software to calculate the transmitted intensity through the phantom. The results from these methods were then graphically compared to the theoretical relationship between the intensity of transmitted light and the concentration of absorbers in the sample. Conclusions were then drawn about the effectiveness and efficiency of these low cost methods.

Keywords: tissue phantoms, scattering coefficient, albedo, low-cost method

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1163 The Influence of Alginate Microspheres Modified with DAT on the Proliferation and Adipogenic Differentiation of ASCs

Authors: Shin-Yi Mao, Jiashing Yu

Abstract:

Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has received lots of attention as biological scaffolds recently. DAT that extracted from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipose tissues holds great promise as a xenogeneic biomaterial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In our study, 2-D DATsol film was fabricated to enhance cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs in vitro. DAT was also used to modify alginate for improvement of cell adhesion. Alginate microspheres modified with DAT were prepared by Nisco. These microspheres could provide a highly supportive 3-D environment for ASCs. In our works, ASCs were immobilized in alginate microspheres modified with DAT to promoted cell adhesion and adipogenic differentiation. Accordingly, we hypothesize that tissue regeneration in vivo could be promoted with the aid of modified microspheres in future.

Keywords: adipose stem cells, decellularize adipose tissue, Alginate, microcarries

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
1162 Finite Element Method as a Solution Procedure for Problems in Tissue Biomechanics

Authors: Momoh Omeiza Sheidu

Abstract:

Finite element method as a method of providing solutions to problems in computational bio mechanics provides a framework for modeling the function of tissues that integrates structurally from cell to organ system and functionally across the physiological processes that affect tissue mechanics or are regulated by mechanical forces. In this paper, we present an integrative finite element strategy for solution to problems in tissue bio mechanics as a case study.

Keywords: finite element, biomechanics, modeling, computational biomechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
1161 Levels of Toxic Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf, Atiq A. Mian

Abstract:

In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.

Keywords: lethrinus miniatus, arabian gulf, heavy metals, atomic absorption spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1160 Levels of Heavy Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf

Abstract:

In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS). Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found to be 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus Miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.

Keywords: Arabian gulf, Lethrinus miniatus, heavy metals, atomic absorption spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
1159 Ultrasound Therapy: Amplitude Modulation Technique for Tissue Ablation by Acoustic Cavitation

Authors: Fares A. Mayia, Mahmoud A. Yamany, Mushabbab A. Asiri

Abstract:

In recent years, non-invasive Focused Ultrasound (FU) has been utilized for generating bubbles (cavities) to ablate target tissue by mechanical fractionation. Intensities >10 kW/cm² are required to generate the inertial cavities. The generation, rapid growth, and collapse of these inertial cavities cause tissue fractionation and the process is called Histotripsy. The ability to fractionate tissue from outside the body has many clinical applications including the destruction of the tumor mass. The process of tissue fractionation leaves a void at the treated site, where all the affected tissue is liquefied to particles at sub-micron size. The liquefied tissue will eventually be absorbed by the body. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive treatment modality. This paper presents a technique for generating inertial cavities at lower intensities (< 1 kW/cm²). The technique (patent pending) is based on amplitude modulation (AM), whereby a low frequency signal modulates the amplitude of a higher frequency FU wave. Cavitation threshold is lower at low frequencies; the intensity required to generate cavitation in water at 10 kHz is two orders of magnitude lower than the intensity at 1 MHz. The Amplitude Modulation technique can operate in both continuous wave (CW) and pulse wave (PW) modes, and the percentage modulation (modulation index) can be varied from 0 % (thermal effect) to 100 % (cavitation effect), thus allowing a range of ablating effects from Hyperthermia to Histotripsy. Furthermore, changing the frequency of the modulating signal allows controlling the size of the generated cavities. Results from in vitro work demonstrate the efficacy of the new technique in fractionating soft tissue and solid calcium carbonate (Chalk) material. The technique, when combined with MR or Ultrasound imaging, will present a precise treatment modality for ablating diseased tissue without affecting the surrounding healthy tissue.

Keywords: focused ultrasound therapy, histotripsy, inertial cavitation, mechanical tissue ablation

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1158 Effect of Interaction between Different Concentrations of Colchicine, Time Duration and Two Verities of Crepis capillaris on Chromosome Polyploidy in vitro Culture

Authors: Mosleh M. S. Duhoky, Payman A. A. Zibari

Abstract:

These experiments were conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory/ Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry/ University of Duhok during the period from January 2011 to May 2013. The objectives of this study were to study the effects of interaction between three different factors on percentage of polyploidy of Crepis capillaris by using Tissue culture technology. Concerning the data it is obvious that shaking of Crepis capillaris with 2B chromosome with 0.15 mM for ten days inscribed a high percentage of polyploidy within most fifteen passages.

Keywords: crepis capillaris, 2B chromosome, tissue culture, polyploidy

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1157 Determining the Electrospinning Parameters of Poly(ε-Caprolactone)

Authors: M. Kagan Keler, Sibel Daglilar, Isil Kerti, Oguzhan Gunduz

Abstract:

Electrospinning is a versatile way to occur fibers at nano-scale and polycaprolactone is a biomedical material which has a wide usage in cartilage defects and tissue regeneration. PCL is biocompatible and durable material which can be used in bio-implants. Therefore, electrospinning process was chosen as a fabrication method to get PCL fibers in an effective way because of its significant adjustments. In this research study, electrospinning parameters was evaluated during the producing of polymer tissue scaffolds. Polycaprolactone’s molecular weight was 80.000 Da and was employed as a tissue material in the electrospinning process. PCL was decomposed in dimethylformamid(DMF) and chloroform(CF) with the weight ratio of 1:1. Different compositions (1%, 3%, 5%, 10% and 20 %) of PCL was prepared in the laboratory conditions. All solvents with different percentages of PCL have been taken into the syringe and loaded into the electrospinning system. In electrospinning dozens of trial were applied to get homogeneously uniform scaffold samples. Taylor cone which is crucial point for electrospinning characteristic was occurred and changed in different voltages up to the material compositions’ conductivity. While the PCL percentages were increasing in the electrospinning, structure started to arise with droplets, which was an expressive problem for tissue scaffold. The vertical and horizontal layouts were applied to produce non-woven structures at all.

Keywords: tissue engineering, artificial scaffold, electrospinning, biocomposites

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
1156 Spatial Distribution of Cellular Water in Pear Fruit: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Md. Imran H. Khan, T. Farrell, M. A. Karim

Abstract:

Highly porous and hygroscopic characteristics of pear make it complex to understand the cellular level water distribution. In pear tissue, water is mainly distributed in three different spaces namely, intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water. Understanding of these three types of water in pear tissue is crucial for predicting actual heat and mass transfer during drying. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the proportion of intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water inside the pear tissue. During this study, Green Anjou Pear was taken for the investigation. The experiment was performed using 1H-NMR- T2 relaxometry. Various types of water component were calculated by using multi-component fits of the T2 relaxation curves. The experimental result showed that in pear tissue 78-82% water exist in intracellular space; 12-16% water in intercellular space and only 2-4% water exist in the cell wall space. The investigated results quantify different types of water in plant-based food tissue. The highest proportion of water exists in intracellular spaces. It was also investigated that the physical properties of pear and the proportion of the different types of water has a strong relationship. Cell wall water depends on the proportion of solid in the sample tissue whereas free water depends on the porosity of the material.

Keywords: intracellular water, intercellular water, cell wall water, physical property, pear

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
1155 mRNA Biomarkers of Mechanical Asphyxia-Induced Death in Cardiac Tissue

Authors: Yan Zeng, Li Tao, Liujun Han, Tianye Zhang, Yongan Yu, Kaijun Ma, Long Chen

Abstract:

Mechanical asphyxia is one of the main cause of death; however, death by mechanical asphyxia may be difficult to prove in court, particularly in cases in which corpses exhibit no obvious signs of asphyxia. To identify a credible biomarker of asphyxia, we first examined the expression levels of all the mRNAs in human cardiac tissue specimens subjected to mechanical asphyxia and compared these expression levels with those of the corresponding mRNAs in specimens subjected to craniocerebral injury. A total of 119 differentially expressed mRNAs were selected and the expression levels of these mRNAs were examined in 44 human cardiac tissue specimens subjected to mechanical asphyxia, craniocerebral injury, hemorrhagic shock and other causes of death. We found that DUSP1 and KCNJ2 were up-regulated in tissue specimens of mechanical asphyxia compared with control tissues, with no significant correlation between age, environmental temperature and PMI, indicating that DUSP1 and KCNJ2 may associate with mechanical asphyxia-induced death and can thus serve as useful biomarkers of death by mechanical asphyxia.

Keywords: mechanical asphyxia, biomarkers, DUSP1, KCNJ2, cardiac tissue

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1154 Synchrotron X-Ray Based Investigation of As and Fe Bonding Environment in Collard Green Tissue Samples at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Sunil Dehipawala, Aregama Sirisumana, stephan Smith, P. Schneider, G. Tremberger Jr, D. Lieberman, Todd Holden, T. Cheung

Abstract:

The arsenic and iron environments in different growth stages have been studied with EXAFS and XANES using Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. Collard Greens plants were grown and tissue samples were harvested. The project studied the EXAFS and XANES of tissue samples using As and Fe K-edges. The Fe absorption and the Fourier transform bond length information were used as a control comparison. The Fourier transform of the XAFS data revealed the coexistence of As (III) and As (V) in the As bonding environment inside the studied plant tissue samples, although the soil only had As (III). The data suggests that Collard Greens has a novel pathway to handle arsenic absorption in soil.

Keywords: EXAFS, fourier transform, metalloproteins, XANES

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
1153 3D Printing of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treated Poly(ɛ-Caprolactone) for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Dong Nyoung Heo, Il Keun Kwon

Abstract:

Three-dimensional (3D) technology is a promising method for bone tissue engineering. In order to enhance bone tissue regeneration, it is important to have ideal 3D constructs with biomimetic mechanical strength, structure interconnectivity, roughened surface, and the presence of chemical functionality. In this respect, a 3D printing system combined with cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was developed to fabricate a 3D construct that has a rough surface with polar functional chemical groups. The CAP-etching process leads to oxidation of chemical groups existing on the polycaprolactone (PCL) surface without conformational change. The surface morphology, chemical composition, mean roughness of the CAP-treated PCL surfaces were evaluated. 3D printed constructs composed of CAP-treated PCL showed an effective increment in the hydrophilicity and roughness of the PCL surface. Also, an in vitro study revealed that CAP-treated 3D PCL constructs had higher cellular behaviors such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, a 3D printing system with CAP can be a highly useful fabrication method for bone tissue regeneration.

Keywords: bone tissue engineering, cold atmospheric plasma, PCL, 3D printing

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1152 Portable Palpation Probe for Diabetic Foot Ulceration Monitoring

Authors: Bummo Ahn

Abstract:

Palpation is widely used to measure soft tissue firmness or stiffness in the living condition in order to apply detection, diagnosis, and treatment of tumors, scar tissue, abnormal muscle tone, or muscle spasticity. Since these methods are subjective and depend on the proficiency level, it is concluded that there are other diagnoses depending on the condition of the experts and the results are not objective. The mechanical property obtained by using the elasticity of the tissue is important to calculate a predictive variable for monitoring abnormal tissues. If the mechanical load such as reaction force on the foot increases in the same region under the same conditions, the mechanical property of the tissue is changed. Therefore, objective diagnosis is possible not only for experts but also for patients using this quantitative information. Furthermore, the portable system also allows non-experts to easily diagnose at home, not in hospitals or institutions. In this paper, we introduce a portable palpation system that can be used to measure the mechanical properties of human tissue, which can be applied to monitor diabetic foot ulceration patients with measuring the mechanical property change of foot tissue. The system was designed to be smaller and portable in comparison with the conventional palpation systems. It is consists of the probe, the force sensor, linear actuator, micro control unit, the display module, battery, and housing. Using this system, we performed validation experiments by applying different palpations (3 and 5 mm) to soft tissue (silicone rubber) and measured reaction forces. In addition, we estimated the elastic moduli of the soft tissue against different palpations and compare the estimated elastic moduli that show similar value even if the palpation depths are different.

Keywords: palpation probe, portable, diabetic foot ulceration, monitoring, mechanical property

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1151 Investigation Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation Mineral Mercury in Rutilus frisii Kutum

Authors: A. Gharaei, R. Karami

Abstract:

Rutilus frisii Kutum was exposed to various concentrations of mercuric chloride in water to determine its acute toxicity and bioaccumulation. We carried out ten treatments with three replicates and one control for each of the chemicals using the static O. E. C. D. method in 55-liter-tanks each containing 14 fingerlings. During the experiments, the average pH was recorded as 7.8, total hardness was measured to be 255 mg/l, the average water temperature was 27±1 degrees centigrade and dissolved oxygen was 7.2 mg/l. Mean LC50 values of Hgcl2 for juvenile R. frisii kutum with mean weight 1±0.2 gr were 0.102 and 0.86 mgHg/l at 24h and 96h, respectively. The bioaccumulation values during 24h in tissue, kidney, and gill were 1.55, 16.1, and 22.7 mgHg/l, respectively. So, these values during 96h were 2.8, 16.8, and 26.65 mgHg/l, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in tissue, kidney, and gill during 24h were 14.75, 153.39, and 216.11 and so during 96h were 33.8, 198.1, and 313.5 times. These results show that bioaccumulation was highest in the gill and then kidney and tissue, respectively. This study suggested that between mercury concentrations of water with bioaccumulation in tissue more than kidney and gill.

Keywords: HgCl2, LC5096h, bioaccumulation, Rutilus frisii Kutum, Caspian Sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 408