Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 390

Search results for: cortical stimulation

390 Investigation of Different Stimulation Patterns to Reduce Muscle Fatigue during Functional Electrical Stimulation

Authors: R. Ruslee, H. Gollee


Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a commonly used technique in rehabilitation and often associated with rapid muscle fatigue which becomes the limiting factor in its applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects on the onset of fatigue of conventional synchronous stimulation, as well as asynchronous stimulation that mimic voluntary muscle activation targeting different motor units which are activated sequentially or randomly via multiple pairs of stimulation electrodes. We investigate three different approaches with various electrode configurations, as well as different patterns of stimulation applied to the gastrocnemius muscle: Conventional Synchronous Stimulation (CSS), Asynchronous Sequential Stimulation (ASS) and Asynchronous Random Stimulation (ARS). Stimulation was applied repeatedly for 300 ms followed by 700 ms of no-stimulation with 40 Hz effective frequency for all protocols. Ten able-bodied volunteers (28±3 years old) participated in this study. As fatigue indicators, we focused on the analysis of Normalized Fatigue Index (NFI), Fatigue Time Interval (FTI) and pre-post Twitch-Tetanus Ratio (ΔTTR). The results demonstrated that ASS and ARS give higher NFI and longer FTI confirming less fatigue for asynchronous stimulation. In addition, ASS and ARS resulted in higher ΔTTR than conventional CSS. In this study, we proposed a randomly distributed stimulation method for the application of FES and investigated its suitability for reducing muscle fatigue compared to previously applied methods. The results validated that asynchronous stimulation reduces fatigue, and indicates that random stimulation may improve fatigue resistance in some conditions.

Keywords: asynchronous stimulation, electrode configuration, functional electrical stimulation (FES), muscle fatigue, pattern stimulation, random stimulation, sequential stimulation, synchronous stimulation

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389 Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia

Authors: Ehsan Kaviani, Azin Golmoradizade


Introduction: Traditionally, tendons are considered to only contain tenocytes that are responsible for the maintenance, repair, and remodeling of tendons. Stem cells, which are termed tendon-derived stem cells, so this study we investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with swallowing training on post-stroke dysphagia. Methods: This review article is about effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on post-stroke dysphagia that were extracted from Science Direct, Pro quest, and Pub med Data Bases. 15 articles had been selected according to inclusion criteria from 2014 to 2019, and 6 of them had been deleted by exclusion criteria. Results: The results of our systematic review suggest that tDCS may represent a promising novel treatment for post-stroke dysphagia. However, to date, little is known about the optimal parameters of tDCS for relieving post-stroke dysphagia. Further studies are warranted to refine this promising intervention by exploring the optimal parameters of tDCS. Conclusion: anodal tDCS over the affected hemisphere may be as effective as cathodal tDCS on the unaffected hemisphere to enhance recovery after subacute ischemic stroke and anodal tdcs applied over the affected pharyngeal motor cortex can enhance the outcome of swallowing training in post-stroke dysphagia.

Keywords: dysphagia, stroke, cortical stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation

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388 Isolated Contraction of Deep Lumbar Paraspinal Muscle with Magnetic Nerve Root Stimulation: A Pilot Study

Authors: Shi-Uk Lee, Chae Young Lim


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of lumbar deep muscle thickness and cross-sectional area using ultrasonography with magnetic stimulation. Methods: To evaluate the changes of lumbar deep muscle by using magnetic stimulation, 12 healthy volunteers (39.6±10.0 yrs) without low back pain during 3 months participated in this study. All the participants were checked with X-ray and electrophysiologic study to confirm that they had no problems with their back. Magnetic stimulation was done on the L5 and S1 root with figure-eight coil as previous study. To confirm the proper motor root stimulation, the surface electrode was put on the tibialis anterior (L5) and abductor hallucis muscles (S1) and the hot spots of magnetic stimulation were found with 50% of maximal magnetic stimulation and determined the stimulation threshold lowering the magnetic intensity by 5%. Ultrasonography was used to assess the changes of L5 and S1 lumbar multifidus (superficial and deep) cross-sectional area and thickness with maximal magnetic stimulation. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness was evaluated with image acquisition program, ImageJ software (National Institute of Healthy, USA). Wilcoxon signed-rank was used to compare outcomes between before and after stimulations. Results: The mean minimal threshold was 29.6±3.8% of maximal stimulation intensity. With minimal magnetic stimulation, thickness of L5 and S1 deep multifidus (DM) were increased from 1.25±0.20, 1.42±0.23 cm to 1.40±0.27, 1.56±0.34 cm, respectively (P=0.005, P=0.003). CSA of L5 and S1 DM were also increased from 2.26±0.18, 1.40±0.26 cm2 to 2.37±0.18, 1.56±0.34 cm2, respectively (P=0.002, P=0.002). However, thickness of L5 and S1 superficial multifidus (SM) were not changed from 1.92±0.21, 2.04±0.20 cm to 1.91±0.33, 1.96±0.33 cm (P=0.211, P=0.199) and CSA of L5 and S1 were also not changed from 4.29±0.53, 5.48±0.32 cm2 to 4.42±0.42, 5.64±0.38 cm2. With maximal magnetic stimulation, thickness of L5, S1 of DM and SM were increased (L5 DM, 1.29±0.26, 1.46±0.27 cm, P=0.028; L5 SM, 2.01±0.42, 2.24±0.39 cm, P=0.005; S1 DM, 1.29±0.19, 1.67±0.29 P=0.002; S1 SM, 1.90±0.36, 2.30±0.36, P=0.002). CSA of L5, S1 of DM and SM were also increased (all P values were 0.002). Conclusions: Deep lumbar muscles could be stimulated with lumbar motor root magnetic stimulation. With minimal stimulation, thickness and CSA of lumbosacral deep multifidus were increased in this study. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the similar results in chronic low back pain patients are represented. Lumbar magnetic stimulation might have strengthening effect of deep lumbar muscles with no discomfort.

Keywords: magnetic stimulation, lumbar multifidus, strengthening, ultrasonography

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387 Bio-Heat Transfer in Various Transcutaneous Stimulation Models

Authors: Trevor E. Davis, Isaac Cassar, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu


This study models the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on skin with a disk electrode in order to simulate tissue damage. The current density distribution above a disk electrode is known to be a dynamic and non-uniform quantity that is intensified at the edges of the disk. The non-uniformity is subject to change through using various electrode geometries or stimulation methods. One of these methods known as edge-retarded stimulation has shown to reduce this edge enhancement. Though progress has been made in modeling the behavior of a disk electrode, little has been done to test the validity of these models in simulating the actual heat transfer from the electrode. This simulation uses finite element software to couple the injection of current from a disk electrode to heat transfer described by the Pennesbioheat transfer equation. An example application of this model is studying an experimental form of stimulation, known as edge-retarded stimulation. The edge-retarded stimulation method will reduce the current density at the edges of the electrode. It is hypothesized that reducing the current density edge enhancement effect will, in turn, reduce temperature change and tissue damage at the edges of these electrodes. This study tests this hypothesis as a demonstration of the capabilities of this model. The edge-retarded stimulation proved to be safer after this simulation. It is shown that temperature change and the fraction of tissue necrosis is much greater in the square wave stimulation. These results bring implications for changes of procedures in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation as well.

Keywords: bioheat transfer, electrode, neuroprosthetics, TENS, transcutaneous stimulation

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386 A Survey and Theory of the Effects of Various Hamlet Videos on Viewers’ Brains

Authors: Mark Pizzato


How do ideas, images, and emotions in stage-plays and videos affect us? Do they evoke a greater awareness (or cognitive reappraisal of emotions) through possible shifts between left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical networks? To address these questions, this presentation summarizes the research of various neuroscientists, especially Bernard Baars and others involved in Global Workspace Theory, Matthew Lieberman in social neuroscience, Iain McGilchrist on left and right cortical functions, and Jaak Panksepp on the subcortical circuits of primal emotions. Through such research, this presentation offers an ‘inner theatre’ model of the brain, regarding major hubs of neural networks and our animal ancestry. It also considers recent experiments, by Mario Beauregard, on the cognitive reappraisal of sad, erotic, and aversive film clips. Finally, it applies the inner-theatre model and related research to survey results of theatre students who read and then watched the ‘To be or not to be’ speech in 8 different video versions (from stage and screen productions) of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Findings show that students become aware of left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical brain functions—and shifts between them—through staging and movie-making choices in each of the different videos.

Keywords: cognitive reappraisal, Hamlet, neuroscience, Shakespeare, theatre

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385 A Self-Adaptive Stimulus Artifacts Removal Approach for Electrical Stimulation Based Muscle Rehabilitation

Authors: Yinjun Tu, Qiang Fang, Glenn I. Matthews, Shuenn-Yuh Lee


This paper reports an efficient and rigorous self-adaptive stimulus artifacts removal approach for a mixed surface EMG (Electromyography) and stimulus signal during muscle stimulation. The recording of EMG and the stimulation of muscles were performing simultaneously. It is difficult to generate muscle fatigue feature from the mixed signal, which can be further used in closed loop system. A self-adaptive method is proposed in this paper, the stimulation frequency was calculated and verified firstly. Then, a mask was created based on this stimulation frequency to remove the undesired stimulus. 20 EMG signal recordings were analyzed, and the ANOVA (analysis of variance) approach illustrated that the decreasing trend of median power frequencies was successfully generated from the 'cleaned' EMG signal.

Keywords: EMG, FES, stimulus artefacts, self-adaptive

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384 Hydrogen Peroxide: A Future for Well Stimulation and Heavy Oil Recovery

Authors: Meet Bhatia


Well stimulation and heavy oil recovery continue to be a hot topic in our industry, particularly with formation damage and viscous oil respectively. Cyclic steam injection has been recognised for most of the operations related to heavy oil recovery. However, the cost of implementation is high and operation is time-consuming, moreover most of the viscous oil reservoirs such as oil sands, Bitumen deposits and oil shales require additional treatment of well stimulation. The use of hydrogen peroxide can efficiently replace the cyclic steam injection process as it can be used for both well stimulation and heavy oil recovery simultaneously. The decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide produces oxygen, superheated steam and heat. The increase in temperature causes clays to shrink, destroy carbonates and remove emulsion thus it can efficiently remove the near wellbore damage. The paper includes mechanisms, parameters to be considered and the challenges during the treatment for the effective hydrogen peroxide injection for both conventional and heavy oil reservoirs.

Keywords: hydrogen peroxide, well stimulation, heavy oil recovery, steam injection

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383 Effect of Naphtha on the Composition of a Heavy Crude, in Addition to a Cycle Steam Stimulation Process

Authors: A. Guerrero, A. Leon, S. Munoz, M. Sandoval


The addition of solvent to cyclic steam stimulation is done in order to reduce the solvent-vapor ratio at late stages of the process, the moment in which this relationship increases significantly. The study of the use of naphtha in addition to the cyclic steam stimulation has been mainly oriented to the effect it achieves on the incremental recovery compared to the application of steam only. However, the effect of naphtha on the reactivity of crude oil components under conditions of cyclic steam stimulation or if its effect is the only dilution has not yet been considered, to author’s best knowledge. The present study aims to evaluate and understand the effect of naphtha and the conditions of cyclic steam stimulation, on the remaining composition of the improved oil, as well as the main mechanisms present in the heavy crude - naphtha interaction. Tests were carried out with the system solvent (naphtha)-oil (12.5° API, 4216 cP @ 40° C)- steam, in a batch micro-reactor, under conditions of cyclic steam stimulation (250-300 °C, 400 psi). The characterization of the samples obtained was carried out by MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) techniques. The results indicate that there is a rearrangement of the microstructure of asphaltenes, resulting in a decrease in these and an increase in lighter components such as resins.

Keywords: composition change, cyclic steam stimulation, interaction mechanism, naphtha

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382 Electromagnetic-Mechanical Stimulation on PC12 for Enhancement of Nerve Axonal Extension

Authors: E. Nakamachi, K. Matsumoto, K. Yamamoto, Y. Morita, H. Sakamoto


In recently, electromagnetic and mechanical stimulations have been recognized as the effective extracellular environment stimulation technique to enhance the defected peripheral nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, we developed a new hybrid bioreactor by adopting 50 Hz uniform alternative current (AC) magnetic stimulation and 4% strain mechanical stimulation. The guide tube for nerve regeneration is mesh structured tube made of biodegradable polymer, such as polylatic acid (PLA). However, when neural damage is large, there is a possibility that peripheral nerve undergoes necrosis. So it is quite important to accelerate the nerve tissue regeneration by achieving enhancement of nerve axonal extension rate. Therefore, we try to design and fabricate the system that can simultaneously load the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation and the stretch stimulation to cells for enhancement of nerve axonal extension. Next, we evaluated systems performance and the effectiveness of each stimulation for rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). First, we designed and fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field system and the stretch stimulation system. For the AC magnetic stimulation system, we focused on the use of pole piece structure to carry out in-situ microscopic observation. We designed an optimum pole piece structure using the magnetic field finite element analyses and the response surface methodology. We fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation system as a bio-reactor by adopting analytically determined design specifications. We measured magnetic flux density that is generated by the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation system. We confirmed that measurement values show good agreement with analytical results, where the uniform magnetic field was observed. Second, we fabricated the cyclic stretch stimulation device under the conditions of particular strains, where the chamber was made of polyoxymethylene (POM). We measured strains in the PC12 cell culture region to confirm the uniform strain. We found slightly different values from the target strain. Finally, we concluded that these differences were allowable in this mechanical stimulation system. We evaluated the effectiveness of each stimulation to enhance the nerve axonal extension using PC12. We confirmed that the average axonal extension length of PC12 under the uniform AC magnetic stimulation was increased by 16 % at 96 h in our bio-reactor. We could not confirm that the axonal extension enhancement under the stretch stimulation condition, where we found the exfoliating of cells. Further, the hybrid stimulation enhanced the axonal extension. Because the magnetic stimulation inhibits the exfoliating of cells. Finally, we concluded that the enhancement of PC12 axonal extension is due to the magnetic stimulation rather than the mechanical stimulation. Finally, we confirmed that the effectiveness of the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation for the nerve axonal extension using PC12 cells.

Keywords: nerve cell PC12, axonal extension, nerve regeneration, electromagnetic-mechanical stimulation, bioreactor

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381 Accurate Cortical Reconstruction in Narrow Sulci with Zero-Non-Zero Distance (ZNZD) Vector Field

Authors: Somojit Saha, Rohit K. Chatterjee, Sarit K. Das, Avijit Kar


A new force field is designed for propagation of the parametric contour into deep narrow cortical fold in the application of knowledge based reconstruction of cerebral cortex from MR image of brain. Designing of this force field is highly inspired by the Generalized Gradient Vector Flow (GGVF) model and markedly differs in manipulation of image information in order to determine the direction of propagation of the contour. While GGVF uses edge map as its main driving force, the newly designed force field uses the map of distance between zero valued pixels and their nearest non-zero valued pixel as its main driving force. Hence, it is called Zero-Non-Zero Distance (ZNZD) force field. The objective of this force field is forceful propagation of the contour beyond spurious convergence due to partial volume effect (PVE) in to narrow sulcal fold. Being function of the corresponding non-zero pixel value, the force field has got an inherent property to determine spuriousness of the edge automatically. It is effectively applied along with some morphological processing in the application of cortical reconstruction to breach the hindrance of PVE in narrow sulci where conventional GGVF fails.

Keywords: deformable model, external force field, partial volume effect, cortical reconstruction, MR image of brain

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380 Mechanical Cortical Bone Characterization with the Finite Element Method Based Inverse Method

Authors: Djamel Remache, Marie Semaan, Cécile Baron, Martine Pithioux, Patrick Chabrand, Jean-Marie Rossi, Jean-Louis Milan


Cortical bone is a complex multi-scale structure. Even though several works have contributed significantly to understanding its mechanical behavior, this behavior remains poorly understood. Nanoindentation testing is one of the primary testing techniques for the mechanical characterization of bone at small scales. The purpose of this study was to provide new nanoindentation data of cortical bovine bone in different directions and at different bone microstructures (osteonal, interstitial and laminar bone), and then to identify anisotropic properties of samples with FEM (finite element method) based inverse method. Experimentally and numerical results were compared. Experimental and numerical results were compared. The results compared were in good agreement.

Keywords: mechanical behavior of bone, nanoindentation, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approach

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379 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Development of Demand-Controlled Deep Brain Stimulation with Methods from Stochastic Phase Resetting

Authors: Mahdi Akhbardeh


Synchronization of neuronal firing is a hallmark of several neurological diseases. Recently, stimulation techniques have been developed which make it possible to desynchronize oscillatory neuronal activity in a mild and effective way, without suppressing the neurons' firing. As yet, these techniques are being used to establish demand-controlled deep brain stimulation (DBS) techniques for the therapy of movement disorders like severe Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. We here present a first conceptualization suggesting that the nucleus accumbens is a promising target for the standard, that is, permanent high-frequency, DBS in patients with severe and chronic obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we explain how demand-controlled DBS techniques may be applied to the therapy of OCD in those cases that are refractory to behavioral therapies and pharmacological treatment.

Keywords: stereotactic neurosurgery, deep brain stimulation, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phase resetting

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378 The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Oxygenation and Pleasure during Exercise

Authors: Alexandre H. Okano, Pedro M. D. Agrícola, Daniel G. Da S. Machado, Luiz I. Do N. Neto, Luiz F. Farias Junior, Paulo H. D. Nascimento, Rickson C. Mesquita, John F. Araujo, Eduardo B. Fontes, Hassan M. Elsangedy, Shinsuke Shimojo, Li M. Li


The prefrontal cortex is involved in the reward system and the insular cortex integrates the afferent inputs arriving from the body’ systems and turns into feelings. Therefore, modulating neuronal activity in these regions may change individuals’ perception in a given situation such as exercise. We tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) change cerebral oxygenation and pleasure during exercise. Fourteen volunteer healthy adult men were assessed into five different sessions. First, subjects underwent to a maximum incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Then, subjects were randomly assigned to a transcranial direct current stimulation (2mA for 15 min) intervention in a cross over design in four different conditions: anode and cathode electrodes on T3 and Fp2 targeting the insular cortex, and Fpz and F4 targeting prefrontal cortex, respectively; and their respective sham. These sessions were followed by 30 min of moderate intensity exercise. Brain oxygenation was measured in prefrontal cortex with a near infrared spectroscopy. Perceived exertion and pleasure were also measured during exercise. The asymmetry in prefrontal cortex oxygenation before the stimulation decreased only when it was applied over this region which did not occur after insular cortex or sham stimulation. Furthermore, pleasure was maintained during exercise only after prefrontal cortex stimulation (P > 0.7), while there was a decrease throughout exercise (P < 0.03) during the other conditions. We conclude that tDCS over the prefrontal cortex changes brain oxygenation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and maintains perceived pleasure during exercise. Therefore, this technique might be used to enhance effective responses related to exercise.

Keywords: affect, brain stimulation, dopamine neuromodulation, pleasure, reward, transcranial direct current stimulation

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377 The Possibility of Using Somatosensory Evoked Potential(SSEP) as a Parameter for Cortical Vascular Dementia

Authors: Hyunsik Park


As the rate of cerebrovascular disease increases in old populations, the prevalence rate of vascular dementia would be expected. Therefore, authors designed this study to find out the possibility of somatosensory evoked potentials(SSEP) as a parameter for early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients. 21 patients who met the criteria for vascular dementia according to DSM-IV,ICD-10and NINDS-AIREN with the history of recent cognitive impairment, fluctuation progression, and neurologic deficit. We subdivided these patients into two groups; a mild dementia and a severe dementia groups by MMSE and CDR score; and analysed comparison between normal control group and patient control group who have been cerebrovascular attack(CVA) history without dementia by using N20 latency and amplitude of median nerve. In this study, mild dementia group showed significant differences on latency and amplitude with normal control group(p-value<0.05) except patient control group(p-value>0.05). Severe dementia group showed significant differences both normal control group and patient control group.(p-value<0.05, <001). Since no significant difference has founded between mild dementia group and patient control group, SSEP has limitation to use for early diagnosis test. However, the comparison between severe dementia group and others showed significant results which indicate SSEP can predict the prognosis of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients.

Keywords: SSEP, cortical vascular dementia, N20 latency, N20 amplitude

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376 System for Mechanical Stimulation of the Mesenchymal Stem Cells Supporting Differentiation into Osteogenic Cells

Authors: Jana Stepanovska, Roman Matejka, Jozef Rosina, Marta Vandrovcova, Lucie Bacakova


The aim of this study was to develop a system for mechanical and also electrical stimulation controlling in vitro osteogenesis under conditions more similar to the in vivo bone microenvironment than traditional static cultivation, which would achieve good adhesion, growth and other specific behaviors of osteogenic cells in cultures. An engineered culture system for mechanical stimulation of the mesenchymal stem cells on the charged surface was designed. The bioreactor allows efficient mechanical loading inducing an electrical response and perfusion of the culture chamber with seeded cells. The mesenchymal stem cells were seeded to specific charged materials, like polarized hydroxyapatite (Hap) or other materials with piezoelectric and ferroelectric features, to create electrical potentials for stimulating of the cells. The material of the matrix was TiNb alloy designed for these purposes, and it was covered by BaTiO3 film, like a kind of piezoelectric material. The process of mechanical stimulation inducing electrical response is controlled by measuring electrical potential in the chamber. It was performed a series of experiments, where the cells were seeded, perfused and stimulated up to 48 hours under different conditions, especially pressure and perfusion. The analysis of the proteins expression was done, which demonstrated the effective mechanical and electrical stimulation. The experiments demonstrated effective stimulation of the cells in comparison with the static culture. This work was supported by the Ministry of Health, grant No. 15-29153A and the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic grant No. GA15-01558S.

Keywords: charged surface, dynamic cultivation, electrical stimulation, ferroelectric layers, mechanical stimulation, piezoelectric layers

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375 A Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylobacterium sp Isolated from Retama monosperma Root Nodules

Authors: N. Selami, M. Kaid Harche


A pink-pigmented, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, was isolated from Retama monosperma root nodules and identified as a member of the genus Methylobacterium. Inoculation of R. monosperma plants by a pure culture of isolate strain under a hydroponic condition, resulted, 10 dpi, the puffiness at lateral roots. The observation in detail the anatomy and ultra-structure of infection sites by light and electron microscopy show that the bacteria induce stimulation of the division of cortical cells and digestion of epidermis cells then, Methylobacterium was observed in the inter and intracellular spaces of the outer cortex root. These preliminary results allow us to suggest the establishment of an epi-endosymbiotic interaction between Methylobacterium sp and R. monosperma.

Keywords: endophytic colonization, Methylobacterium, microscopy, nodule, pink pigmented, Retama monosperma

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374 The Effectiveness of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation on Brain Wave Pattern and Blood Pressure in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Authors: Mahtab Baghaei, Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei


Aim & Background: Electrical stimulation of transcranial direct current is considered one of the treatment methods for mental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of transcranial electrical stimulation on the delta, theta, alpha, beta and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Materials and Methods: The present study was a double-blind intervention with a pre-test and post-test design on people with generalized anxiety disorder in Tabriz in 1400. In this study, 30 patients with generalized anxiety disorder were selected by purposive sampling method based on the criteria specified in DSM-5 and randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 15) and a control group (n = 15). The experimental group received two sessions of 30 minutes of electrical stimulation of transcranial direct current with an intensity of 2 mA in the area of the lateral dorsal prefrontal cortex, and the control group also received artificial stimulation. Results: The results showed that transcranial electrical stimulation reduces delta and theta waves and increases beta and alpha brain waves in the experimental group. On the other hand, this method also showed a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these patients (p <0.01). Conclusion: The results show that transcranial electrical stimulation has a statistically significant effect on brain waves and blood pressure, and this non-invasive method can be used as one of the treatment methods in people with generalized anxiety disorder.

Keywords: transcranial direct current electrical stimulation, brain waves, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure

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373 Evaluation of the Laser and Partial Vibration Stimulation on Osteoporosis

Authors: Ji Hyung Park, Dong-Hyun Seo, Young-Jin Jung, Han Sung Kim


The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the laser and partial vibration stimulation on the mice tibia with morphological characteristics. Twenty female C57BL/6 mice (12 weeks old) were used for the experiment. The study was carried out on four groups of animals each consisting of five mice. Four groups of mice were ovariectomized. Animals were scanned at 0 and 2 weeks after ovariectomy by using micro-computed tomography to estimate morphological characteristics of tibial trabecular bone. Morphological analysis showed that structural parameters of multi-stimuli group appear significantly better phase in BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, Tb.Sp, and than single stimulation groups. However, single stimulation groups didn’t show significant effect on tibia with Sham group. This study suggests that multi-stimuli may restrain the change as the degenerate phase on osteoporosis in the mice tibia.

Keywords: laser, partial vibration, osteoporosis, in-vivo micro-CT, mice

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372 The Effect of Bihemisferic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Therapy on Upper Extremity Motor Functions in Stroke Patients

Authors: Dilek Cetin Alisar, Oya Umit Yemisci, Selin Ozen, Seyhan Sozay


New approaches and treatment modalities are being developed to make patients more functional and independent in stroke rehabilitation. One of these approaches is transcranial direct stimulation therapy (tDCS), which aims to improve the hemiplegic upper limb function of stroke patients. tDCS therapy is not in the routine rehabilitation program; however, the studies about tDCS therapy on stroke rehabilitation was increased in recent years. Evaluate the effect of tDCS treatment on upper extremity motor function in patients with subacute stroke was aimed in our study. 32 stroke patients (16 tDCS group, 16 sham groups) who were hospitalized for rehabilitation in Başkent University Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic between 01.08.2016-20.01-2018 were included in the study. The conventional upper limb rehabilitation program was used for both tDCS and control group patients for 3 weeks, 5 days a week, for 60-120 minutes a day. In addition to the conventional stroke rehabilitation program in the tDAS group, bihemispheric tDCS was administered for 30 minutes daily. Patients were evaluated before treatment and after 1 week of treatment. Functional independence measure self-care score (FIM), Brunnstorm Recovery Stage (BRS), and Fugl-Meyer (FM) upper extremity motor function scale were used. There was no difference in demographic characteristics between the groups. There were no significant differences between BRS and FM scores in two groups, but there was a significant difference FIM score (p=0.05. FIM, BRS, and FM scores are significantly in the tDCS group, when before therapy and after 1 week of therapy, however, no difference is found in the shame group (p < 0,001). When FBS and FM scores were compared, there were statistical significant differences in tDCS group (p < 0,001). In conclusion, this randomized double-blind study showed that bihemispheric tDCS treatment was found to be superior to upper extremity motor and functional enhancement in addition to conventional rehabilitation methods in subacute stroke patients. In order for tDCS therapy to be used routinely in stroke rehabilitation, there is a need for more comprehensive, long-termed, randomized controlled clinical trials in order to find answers to many questions, such as the duration and intensity of treatment.

Keywords: cortical stimulation, motor function, rehabilitation, stroke

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371 Ovarian Stimulation and Oocyte Cryopreservation for Fertility Preservation in Adolescent Females at the Royal Children’s Hospital: A Case Series

Authors: Kira Merigan


BACKGROUND- Fertility preservation (FP) measures are increasingly recognised as an important consideration for children and adolescents planned to undergo potentially damaging gonadotoxic therapy. Worldwide, there are very few documented cases of FP in young females by way of ovarian stimulation and oocyte cryopreservation.AIM – To report a case series of mature oocyte cryopreservation in 5post-pubertal adolescents aged 14-17 years old, with varied medical conditions requiring gonadotoxic treatment. SETTING-These cases took place via a multidisciplinary team approach at The Royal Children’s Hospital, a large tertiary centre in Melbourne, Australia. INTERVENTION– Ovarian stimulation and oocyte collection was performed as detailed in each case. RESULTS –Across the 5 patients, 3-28 oocytes were retrieved. We report pre-treatment workup, complications, and delays to treatment. CONCLUSION- Oocyte cryopreservation may be a safe alternative to ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) in the adolescent population

Keywords: fertility preservation, adolescent, ovarian stimulation, oocyte cryopreservation

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370 The Functional Roles of Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Risk-Taking Behavior

Authors: Aline M. Dantas, Alexander T. Sack, Elisabeth Bruggen, Peiran Jiao, Teresa Schuhmann


Risk-taking behavior has been associated with the activity of specific prefrontal regions of the brain, namely the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). While the deactivation of the rDLPFC has been shown to lead to increased risk-taking behavior, the functional relationship between VMPFC activity and risk-taking behavior is yet to be clarified. Correlational evidence suggests that the VMPFC is involved in valuation processes that involve risky choices, but evidence on the functional relationship is lacking. Therefore, this study uses brain stimulation to investigate the role of the VMPFC during risk-taking behavior and replicate the current findings regarding the role of the rDLPFC in this same phenomenon. We used continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to inhibit either the VMPFC or DLPFC during the execution of the computerized Maastricht Gambling Task (MGT) in a within-subject design with 30 participants. We analyzed the effects of such stimulation on risk-taking behavior, participants’ choices of probabilities and average values, and response time. We hypothesized that, compared to sham stimulation, VMPFC inhibition leads to a reduction in risk-taking behavior by reducing the appeal to higher-value options and, consequently, the attractiveness of riskier options. Right DLPFC (rDLPFC) inhibition, on the other hand, should lead to an increase in risk-taking due to a reduction in cognitive control, confirming existent findings. Stimulation of both the rDLPFC and the VMPFC led to an increase in risk-taking behavior and an increase in the average value chosen after both rDLPFC and VMPFC stimulation compared to sham. No significant effect on chosen probabilities was found. A significant increase in response time was observed exclusively after rDLPFC stimulation. Our results indicate that inhibiting DLPFC and VMPFC separately leads to similar effects, increasing both risk-taking behavior and average value choices, which is likely due to the strong anatomical and functional interconnection of the VMPFC and rDLPFC.

Keywords: decision-making, risk-taking behavior, brain stimulation, TMS

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369 Identification of the Orthotropic Parameters of Cortical Bone under Nanoindentation

Authors: D. Remache, M. Semaan, C. Baron, M. Pithioux, P. Chabrand, J. M. Rossi, J. L. Milan


A good understanding of the mechanical properties of the bone implies a better understanding of its various diseases, such as osteoporosis. Berkovich nanoindentation tests were performed on the human cortical bone to extract its orthotropic parameters. The nanoindentation experiments were then simulated by the finite element method. Different configurations of interactions between the tip indenter and the bone were simulated. The orthotropic parameters of the material were identified by the inverse method for each configuration. The friction effect on the bone mechanical properties was then discussed. It was found that the inverse method using the finite element method is a very efficient method to predict the mechanical behavior of the bone.

Keywords: mechanical behavior of bone, nanoindentation, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approaches

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368 Cephalometric Changes of Patient with Class II Division 1 [Malocclusion] Post Orthodontic Treatment with Growth Stimulation: A Case Report

Authors: Pricillia Priska Sianita


An aesthetic facial profile is one of the goals in Orthodontics treatment. However, this is not easily achieved, especially in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion who have the clinical characteristics of convex profile and significant skeletal discrepancy due to mandibular growth deficiency. Malocclusion with skeletal problems require proper treatment timing for growth stimulation, and it must be done in early age and in need of good cooperation from the patient. If this is not done and the patient has passed the growth period, the ideal treatment is orthognathic surgery which is more complicated and more painful. The growth stimulation of skeletal malocclusion requires a careful cephalometric evaluation ranging from diagnosis to determine the parts that require stimulation to post-treatment evaluation to see the success achieved through changes in the measurement of the skeletal parameters shown in the cephalometric analysis. This case report aims to describe skeletal changes cephalometrically that were achieved through orthodontic treatment in growing period. Material and method: Lateral Cephalograms, pre-treatment, and post-treatment of cases of Class II Division 1 malocclusion is selected from a collection of cephalometric radiographic in a private clinic. The Cephalogram is then traced and measured for the skeletal parameters. The result is noted as skeletal condition data of pre-treatment and post-treatment. Furthermore, superimposition is done to see the changes achieved. The results show that growth stimulation through orthodontic treatment can solve the skeletal problem of Class II Division 1 malocclusion and the skeletal changes that occur can be verified through cephalometric analysis. The skeletal changes have an impact on the improvement of patient's facial profile. To sum up, the treatment timing on a skeletal malocclusion is very important to obtain satisfactory results for the improvement of the aesthetic facial profile, and skeletal changes can be verified through cephalometric evaluation of pre- and post-treatment.

Keywords: cephalometric evaluation, class II division 1 malocclusion, growth stimulation, skeletal changes, skeletal problems

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367 Direct Current Electric Field Stimulation against PC12 Cells in 3D Bio-Reactor to Enhance Axonal Extension

Authors: E. Nakamachi, S. Tanaka, K. Yamamoto, Y. Morita


In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) direct current electric field (DCEF) stimulation bio-reactor for axonal outgrowth enhancement to generate the neural network of the central nervous system (CNS). By using our newly developed 3D DCEF stimulation bio-reactor, we cultured the rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and investigated the effects on the axonal extension enhancement and network generation. Firstly, we designed and fabricated a 3D bio-reactor, which can load DCEF stimulation on PC12 cells embedded in the collagen gel as extracellular environment. The connection between the electrolyte and the medium using salt bridges for DCEF stimulation was introduced to avoid the cell death by the toxicity of metal ion. The distance between the salt bridges was adopted as the design variable to optimize a structure for uniform DCEF stimulation, where the finite element (FE) analyses results were used. Uniform DCEF strength and electric flux vector direction in the PC12 cells embedded in collagen gel were examined through measurements of the fabricated 3D bio-reactor chamber. Measurement results of DCEF strength in the bio-reactor showed a good agreement with FE results. In addition, the perfusion system was attached to maintain pH 7.2 ~ 7.6 of the medium because pH change was caused by DCEF stimulation loading. Secondly, we disseminated PC12 cells in collagen gel and carried out 3D culture. Finally, we measured the morphology of PC12 cell bodies and neurites by the multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscope (MPM). The effectiveness of DCEF stimulation to enhance the axonal outgrowth and the neural network generation was investigated. We confirmed that both an increase of mean axonal length and axogenesis rate of PC12, which have been exposed 5 mV/mm for 6 hours a day for 4 days in the bioreactor. We found following conclusions in our study. 1) Design and fabrication of DCEF stimulation bio-reactor capable of 3D culture nerve cell were completed. A uniform electric field strength of average value of 17 mV/mm within the 1.2% error range was confirmed by using FE analyses, after the structure determination through the optimization process. In addition, we attached a perfusion system capable of suppressing the pH change of the culture solution due to DCEF stimulation loading. 2) Evaluation of DCEF stimulation effects on PC12 cell activity was executed. The 3D culture of PC 12 was carried out adopting the embedding culture method using collagen gel as a scaffold for four days under the condition of 5.0 mV/mm and 10mV/mm. There was a significant effect on the enhancement of axonal extension, as 11.3% increase in an average length, and the increase of axogenesis rate. On the other hand, no effects on the orientation of axon against the DCEF flux direction was observed. Further, the network generation was enhanced to connect longer distance between the target neighbor cells by DCEF stimulation.

Keywords: PC12, DCEF stimulation, 3D bio-reactor, axonal extension, neural network generation

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366 Blindness and Deafness, the Outcomes of Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis in HIV Positive Patient

Authors: Hadiseh Hosamirudsari, Farhad Afsarikordehmahin, Pooria Sekhavatfar


Concomitant cortical blindness and deafness that follow varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is rare. We describe a case of ophthalmic zoster that caused cortical blindness and deafness after central nervous system (CNS) involvement. A 42-year old, HIV infected woman has developed progressive blurry vision and deafness, 4 weeks after ophthalmic zoster. A physical examination and positive VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggested VZV encephalitis. Complication of VZV encephalitis is considered as the cause of blindness and deafness. In neurological deficit patient especially with a history of herpes zoster, VZV infection should be regarded as the responsible agent in inflammatory disorders of nervous system. The immunocompromised state of patient (including HIV) is as important an agent as VZV infection in developing the disease.

Keywords: blindness, deafness, hiv, VZV encephalitis

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365 Suitability Verification of Cellulose Nanowhisker as a Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Moon Hee Jung, Dae Seung Kim, Sang-Myung Jung, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hoo Cheol Lee, Hwa Sung Shin


Scaffolds are an important part to support growth and differentiation of osteoblast for regeneration of injured bone in bone tissue engineering. We utilized tunicate cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) as scaffold and developed complex system that can enhance differentiation of osteoblast by applying mechanical stimulation. CNW, a crystal form of cellulose, has high stiffness with a large surface area and is useful as a biomedical material due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. In this study, CNW was obtained from tunicate extraction and was confirmed for its adhesion, differentiation, growth of osteoblast without cytotoxicity. In addition, osteoblast was successfully differentiated under mechanical stimulation, followed by calcium dependent signaling. In conclusion, we verified suitability of CNW as scaffold and possibility of bone substitutes.

Keywords: osteoblast, cellulose nanowhisker, CNW, mechanical stimulation, bone tissue engineering, bone substitute

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364 A Robotic Rehabilitation Arm Driven by Somatosensory Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Jiewei Li, Hongyan Cui, Chunqi Chang, Yong Hu


It was expected to benefit patient with hemiparesis after stroke by extensive arm rehabilitation, to partially regain forearm and hand function. This paper propose a robotic rehabilitation arm in assisting the hemiparetic patient to learn new ways of using and moving their weak arms. In this study, the robotic arm was driven by a somatosensory stimulated brain computer interface (BCI), which is a new modality BCI. The use of somatosensory stimulation is not only an input for BCI, but also a electrical stimulation for treatment of hemiparesis to strengthen the arm and improve its range of motion. A trial of this robotic rehabilitation arm was performed in a stroke patient with pure motor hemiparesis. The initial trial showed a promising result from the patient with great motivation and function improvement. It suggests that robotic rehabilitation arm driven by somatosensory BCI can enhance the rehabilitation performance and progress for hemiparetic patients after stroke.

Keywords: robotic rehabilitation arm, brain computer interface (BCI), hemiparesis, stroke, somatosensory stimulation

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363 Photoelectrical Stimulation for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Mohammad M. Aria, Fatma Öz, Yashar Esmaeilian, Marco Carofiglio, Valentina Cauda, Özlem Yalçın


Photoelectrical stimulation of cells with semiconductor organic polymers have been shown promising applications in neuroprosthetics such as retinal prosthesis. Photoelectrical stimulation of the cell membranes can be induced through a photo-electric charge separation mechanism in the semiconductor materials, and it can alter intracellular calcium level through both stimulation of voltage-gated ion channels and increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. On the other hand, targeting voltage-gated ion channels in cancer cells to induce cell apoptosis through calcium signaling alternation is an effective mechanism which has been explained before. In this regard, remote control of the voltage-gated ion channels aimed to alter intracellular calcium by using photo-active organic polymers can be novel technology in cancer therapy. In this study, we used P (ITO/Indium thin oxide)/P3HT(poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)) and PN (ITO/ZnO/P3HT) photovoltaic junctions to stimulate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We showed that the photo-stimulation of breast cancer cells through photo capacitive current generated by the photovoltaic junctions are able to excite the cells and alternate intracellular calcium based on the calcium imaging (at 8mW/cm² green light intensity and 10-50 ms light durations), which has been reported already to safety stimulate neurons. The control group did not undergo light treatment and was cultured in T-75 flasks. We detected 20-30% cell death for ITO/P3HT and 51-60% cell death for ITO/ZnO/P3HT samples in the light treated MDA-MB-231 cell group. Western blot analysis demonstrated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activated cell death in the light treated group. Furthermore, Annexin V and PI fluorescent staining indicated both apoptosis and necrosis in treated cells. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the photoelectrical stimulation of cells (through long time overstimulation) can induce cell death in cancer cells.

Keywords: Ca²⁺ signaling, cancer therapy, electrically excitable cells, photoelectrical stimulation, voltage-gated ion channels

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362 Symmetric Corticobasal Degeneration: Case Report

Authors: Sultan Çağırıcı, Arsida Bajrami, Beyza Aslan, Hacı Ali Erdoğan, Nejla Sözer Topçular, Dilek Bozkurt, Vildan Yayla


Objective: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is phenotypically characterized by asymmetric rigidity, apraxia, alien-limb phenomenon, cortical sensory loss, dystonia and myoclonus. The underlying pathologies consists of corticobasal degeneration (CBD), progressive supra nuclear palsy, Alzheimer's, Creutzfeldt-Jakob and frontotemporal degeneration. CBD is a degenerative disease with clinical symptoms related to the prominent involvement of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. CBD is a pathological diagnosis and antemortem clinical diagnosis may change many times. In this paper, we described the clinical features and discussed a cases diagnosed with symmetric CBS because of its rarity. Case: Seventy-five-year-old woman presented with a three years history of difficulty in speaking and reading. Involuntary hand jerks and slowness of movement also had began in the last six months. In the neurological examination the patient was alert but not fully oriented. The speech was non-fluent, word finding difficulties were present. Bilateral limited upgaze, bradimimia, bilateral positive cogwheel' rigidity but prominent in the right side, postural tremor and negative myoclonus during action on the left side were detected. Receptive language was normal but expressive language and repetition were impaired. Acalculia, alexia, agraphia and apraxia were also present. CSF findings were unremarkable except for elevated protein level (75 mg/dL). MRI revealed bilateral symmetric cortical atrophy prominent in the frontoparietal region. PET showed hypometabolism in the left caudate nucleus. Conclusion: The increase of data related to neurodegenerative disorders associated with dementia, movement disorders and other findings results in an expanded range of diagnosis and transitions between clinical diagnosis. When considered the age of onset, clinical symptoms, imaging findings and prognosis of this patient, clinical diagnosis was CBS and pathologic diagnosis as probable CBD. Imaging of CBD usually consist of typical asymmetry between hemispheres. Still few cases with clinical appearance of CBD may show symmetrical cortical cerebral atrophy. It is presented this case who was diagnosed with CBD although we found symmetrical cortical cerebral atrophy in MRI.

Keywords: symmetric cortical atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, corticobasal syndrome

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361 Evaluation of the Diagnostic Potential of IL-2 after Specific Antigen Stimulation with PE35 (Rv3872) and PPE68 (Rv3873) for the Discrimination of Active and Latent Tuberculosis

Authors: Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Setareh Mamishi, Mostafa Teymuri, Majid Marjani


Although cytokine analysis has greatly contributed to the understanding of tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis, data on cytokine profiles that might distinguish progression from latency of TB infection are scarce. Since PE/PPE proteins are known to induce strong humoral and cellular immune responses, the aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of interleukin-2 (IL-2) as biomarker after specific antigen stimulation with PE35 and PPE68 for the discrimination of active and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The production of IL-2 was measured in the antigen-stimulated whole-blood supernatants following stimulation with recombinant PE35 and PPE68. All the patients with active TB and LTBI had positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube test. The level of IL-2 following stimulation with recombinant PE35 and PPE68 were significantly higher in LTBI group than in patients with active TB infection or control group. The discrimination performance (assessed by the area under ROC curve) for IL-2 following stimulation with recombinant PE35 and PPE68 between LTBI and patients with active TB were 0.837 (95%CI: 0.72-0.97) and 0.75 (95%CI: 0.63-0.89), respectively. Applying the 12.4 pg/mL cut-off for IL-2 induced by PE35 in the present study population resulted in sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 78%, PPV of 78% and NPV of 100%. In addition, a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 70%, PPV of 67% and 87% of NPV was reported based on the 4.4 pg/mL cut-off for IL-2 induced by PPE68. In conclusion, peptides of the antigen PE35 and PPE68, absent from commonly used BCG strains, stimulated strong IL-2- positive T cell responses in patients with LTBI. This study confirms IL-2 induced by PE35 and PPE68 as a sensitive and specific biomarker and highlights IL-2 as new promising adjunct markers for discriminating of LTBI and Active TB infection.

Keywords: IL-2, PE35, PPE68, tuberculosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 337