Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 66

Search results for: Anees Raza

66 Environment-Friendly Biogas Technology: Comparative Analysis of Benefits as Perceived by Biogas Users and Non-User Livestock Farmers of Tehsil Jhang

Authors: Anees Raza, Liu Chunyan

Abstract:

Renewable energy technologies are need of the time and are already making the big impact in the climatic outlook of the world. Biogas technology is one of those, and it has a lot of benefits for its users. It is cost effective because it is produced from the raw material which is available free of cost to the livestock farmers. Bio-slurry, a by-product of biogas, is being used as fertilizer for the crops production and increasing soil fertility. There are many other household benefits of technology. Research paper discusses the benefits of biogas as perceived by the biogas users as well as non-users of Tehsil Jhang. Data were collected from 60 respondents (30 users and 30 non-users) selected purposively through validated and pre-tested interview schedule from the respondents. Collected data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Household benefits like ‘makes cooking easy,’ ‘Less breathing issues for working women in kitchens’ and ‘Use of bio-slurry as organic fertilizer’ had the highly significant relationship between them with t-values of 3.24, 4.39 and 2.80 respectively. Responses of the respondents about environmental benefits of biogas technology showed that ‘less air pollution’ had a significant relationship between them while ‘less temperature rise up than due to the burning of wood /dung’ had the non-significant relationship in the responses of interviewed respondents. It was clear from the research that biogas users were becoming influential in convincing non-users to adopt this technology due to its noticeable benefits. Research area where people were depending on wood to be used as fire fuel could be helped in reduction of cutting of trees which will help in controlling deforestation and saving the environment.People should be encouraged in using of biogas technology through providing them subsidies and low mark up loans.

Keywords: biogas technology, deforestation, environmental benefits, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
65 Assessment of the Adoption and Distribution Pattern of Agroforestry in Faisalabad District Using GIS

Authors: Irfan Ahmad, Raza Ghafoor, Hammad Raza Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Farrakh Nawaz, M. Tahir Siddiqui

Abstract:

Due to the exploding population of Pakistan the pressure on natural forests is increasing to meet the demands of wood and wood based products. Agroforestry is being practiced throughout the world on scientific basis but unfortunately the farmers of Pakistan are reluctant in its adoption. The presents study was designed to assess the adoption of agroforestry practices in Faisalabad with respect to land holdings of farmers and future suitability by using Geographic information system (GIS). Faisalabad is the third largest city of the country and is famous due to the textile industry. A comprehensive survey from target villages of the Lyallpur town of Faisalabad district was carried out. Out of total 65 villages, 40 were selected for study. From each selected village, one farmer who was actively engaged in farming activities was selected. It was observed that medium sized farmers having 10-20 acre were more in number as compared to small and large farmers. Number of trees was found maximum in large farm lands, ratio of diseased trees was almost similar in all categories with maximum in small farmlands (24.1%). Regarding the future prospects 35% farmer were interested in agroforestry practices 65% were not interested in the promotion of trees due to the non-availability of technical guidance and proper markets. Geographic images of the study site can further help the researchers and policy makers in the promotion of agroforestry.

Keywords: agroforestry trends, adoption, Faisalabad, geographic information system (GIS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
64 Biological Applications of CNT Inherited Polyaniline Nano-Composites

Authors: Yashfeen Khan, Anees Ahmad

Abstract:

In the last few decades, nano-composites have been the topic of interest. Presently, the modern era enlightens the synthesis of hybrid nano-composites over their individual counterparts because of higher application potentials and synergism. Recently, CNT hybrids have demonstrated their pronounced capability as effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions (the root trouble) and organic contaminants due to their high specific surface area, enhanced reactivity, and sequestration characteristics. The present abstract discusses removal efficiencies of organic, inorganic pollutants through CNT/PANI/ composites. It also represents the widespread applications of CNT like monitoring biological systems, biosensors, as heat resources for treating cancer, fire retardant applications of polymer/CNT composites etc. And considering the same, this article aims to brief the scenario of CNT-PANI nano-composites.

Keywords: biosensors, CNT, hybrids, polyaniline, synergism

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
63 Friction Stir Welding Process as a Solid State Joining -A Review

Authors: Mohd Anees Siddiqui, S. A. H. Jafri, Shahnawaz Alam

Abstract:

Through this paper an attempt is made to review a special welding technology of friction stir welding (FSW) which is a solid-state joining. Friction stir welding is used for joining of two plates which are applied compressive force by using fixtures over the work table. This is a non consumable type welding technique in which a rotating tool of cylindrical shape is used. Process parameters such as tool geometry, joint design and process speed are discussed in the paper. Comparative study of Friction stir welding with other welding techniques such as MIG, TIG & GMAW is also done. Some light is put on several major applications of friction stir welding in different industries. Quality and environmental aspects of friction stir welding is also discussed.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), process parameters, tool, solid state joining processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
62 Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Cymbopogon martini Essential Oil and Comparison of Its Composition with Traditionally Extracted Oils

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad

Abstract:

Essential oil was extracted from lemon grass (Cymbopogon martini) with supercritical carbondioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure of 140 bar and temperature of 55 °C and CO2 flow rate of 8 gmin-1, and its composition and yield were compared with other conventional extraction methods of oil, HD (Hydrodistillation), SE (Solvent Extraction), UAE (Ultrasound Assisted Extraction). SC-CO2 extraction is a green and sustainable extraction technique. Each oil was analysed by GC-MS, the major constituents were neral (44%), Z-citral (43%), geranial (27%), caryophyllene (4.6%) and linalool (1%). The essential oil of lemon grass is valued for its neral and citral concentration. The oil obtained by supercritical carbon-dioxide extraction contained maximum concentration of neral (55.05%) whereas ultrasonication extracted oil contained minimum content (5.24%) and it was absent in solvent extracted oil. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods.

Keywords: cymbopogon martini, essential oil, FT-IR, GC-MS, HPTLC, SC-CO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
61 Approaches to Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Subjected to Different Supports, Loadings and Boundary Conditions: A Literature Review

Authors: Fazl E. Ahad, Shi Dongyan, Anees Ur Rehman

Abstract:

Plates are one of the most important structural components used in many industries like aerospace, marine and various other engineering fields and thus motivate designers and engineers to study the vibrational characteristics of these structures. This paper is a review of existing literature on vibration analysis of plates. Focus has been kept on prominent studies related to isotropic plates based on Mindlin plate theory; however few citations on orthotropic plates and higher order shear deformation theories have also been included. All citations are in English language. This review is aimed to provide contemporarily relevant survey of papers on vibrational characteristics of thick plates and will be useful for scientists, designers and researchers to locate important and relevant literature/research quickly.

Keywords: mindlin plates, vibrations, arbitrary boundary conditions, mode shapes, natural frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
60 Application of Lean Manufacturing in Brake Shoe Manufacturing Plant: A Case Study

Authors: Anees K. Ahamed, Aakash Kumar R. G., Raj M. Mohan

Abstract:

The main objective is to apply lean tools to identify and eliminate waste in and among the work stations so as to improve the process speed and quality. From the top seven wastes in the lean concept, we consider the movement of materials, defects, and inventory for the improvement since these cause the major impact on the performance measures. The layout was improved to reduce the movement of materials. It also quantifies the reduction in movement among the work stations. Value stream mapping has been used for identification of waste. Cause and effect diagram and 5W analysis are used to identify the reasons for defects and to provide the counter measures. Some cycle time reduction techniques also proposed to improve the productivity. Lean Audit check sheet was also used to identify the current position of the industry and to identify the gap to make the industry Lean.

Keywords: cause and effect diagram, cycle time reduction, defects, lean, waste reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
59 LORA: A Learning Outcome Modelling Approach for Higher Education

Authors: Aqeel Zeid, Hasna Anees, Mohamed Adheeb, Mohamed Rifan, Kalpani Manathunga

Abstract:

To achieve constructive alignment in a higher education program, a clear set of learning outcomes must be defined. Traditional learning outcome definition techniques such as Bloom’s taxonomy are not written to be utilized by the student. This might be disadvantageous for students in student-centric learning settings where the students are expected to formulate their own learning strategies. To solve the problem, we propose the learning outcome relation and aggregation (LORA) model. To achieve alignment, we developed learning outcome, assessment, and resource authoring tools which help teachers to tag learning outcomes during creation. A pilot study was conducted with an expert panel consisting of experienced professionals in the education domain to evaluate whether the LORA model and tools present an improvement over the traditional methods. The panel unanimously agreed that the model and tools are beneficial and effective. Moreover, it helped them model learning outcomes in a more student centric and descriptive way.

Keywords: learning design, constructive alignment, Bloom’s taxonomy, learning outcome modelling

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58 The Onus of Human to Society in Accordance with Constitution and Traditions

Authors: Qamar Raza

Abstract:

This paper deals with the human concern and onus which every person should provide to his/her society. Especially the rules and regulations described in constitution or traditions which we have inherited from ancestors should be followed, and also our lives should be led in accordance with them. The main concern of paper would be personal behavior with others in a good manner especially what he/she should exercise for society’s welfare. As human beings are the fundamental organ of society, who play a crucial role in reforming the society, they should try their best to develop it as well as maintain harmony, peace, we-feeling and mutual contact in the society. Focusing on how the modern society and its elements keep society successful. Regulations of our constitution and tradition are essential for reforming the society. In a nutshell, a human has to mingle in his society and keep mutual respect and understand the value of others as well as for himself.

Keywords: constitution, human beings, society, traditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
57 Development of Impervious Concrete Using Micro Silica and GGBS as Cement Replacement Materials

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Akram, Saim Raza, Hamza Hanif Chauhan

Abstract:

This paper describes the aim of research to evaluate the performance of ordinary Portland concretes containing cement replacement materials in both binary and ternary system. Blocks of concrete were prepared to have a constant water-binder ratio of 0.30. The test variables included the type and the amount of the supplementary cementious materials (SCMs) such as class of Silica Fume (SF) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Portland cement was replaced with Silica Fume (SF) upto 7.5% and GGBS up to a level of 50%. Then physical properties are assessed from the compressive strength and permeability tests.

Keywords: silica fume, GGBS, compressive strength, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
56 Helping Older Users Staying Connected

Authors: Q. Raza

Abstract:

Getting old is inevitable, tasks which were once simple are now a daily struggle. This paper is a study of how older users interact with web application based upon a series of experiments. The experiments conducted involved 12 participants and the experiments were split into two parts. The first set gives the users a feel of current social networks and the second set take into considerations from the participants and the results of the two are compared. This paper goes in detail on the psychological aspects such as social exclusion, Metacognition memory and Therapeutic memories and how this relates to users becoming isolated from society, social networking can be the roof on a foundation of successful computer interaction. The purpose of this paper is to carry out a study and to propose new ideas to help users to be able to use social networking sites easily and efficiently.

Keywords: cognitive psychology, special memory, social networking and human computer interaction

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55 Carotenoids a Biologically Important Bioactive Compound

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad

Abstract:

Carotenoids comprise a group of isoprenoid pigments. Carotenes, xanthophylls and their derivatives have been found to play an important role in all living beings through foods, neutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin play a vital role in humans to provide vitamin A source for the growth, development and proper functioning of immune system and vision. They are very crucial for plants and humans as they protect from photooxidative damage and are excellent antioxidants quenching singlet molecular oxygen and peroxyl radicals. Diet including more intake of carotenoids results in reduced threat of various chronic diseases such as cancer (lung, breast, prostrate, colorectal and ovarian cancers) and coronary heart diseases. The blue light filtering efficiency of the carotenoids in liposomes have been reported to be maximum in lutein followed by zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene. Lycopene plays a vital role for the protection from CVD. Lycopene in serum is directly related to reduced risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Carotenoids have major role in the treatment of skin disorders. There is need to identify and isolate novel carotenoids from diverse natural sources for human health benefits.

Keywords: antioxidants, carotenoids, neutraceuticals, osteoporosis, pharmaceuticals

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
54 A Review: Carotenoids a Biologically Important Bioactive Compound

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad

Abstract:

Carotenoids comprise a group of isoprenoid pigments. Carotenes, xanthophylls and their derivatives have been found to play an important role in all living beings through foods, neutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin play a vital role in humans to provide vitamin A source for the growth, development and proper functioning of immune system and vision. They are very crucial for plants and humans as they protect from photooxidative damage and are excellent antioxidants quenching singlet molecular oxygen and peroxyl radicals. Diet including more intake of carotenoids results in reduced threat of various chronic diseases such as cancer (lung, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers) and coronary heart diseases. The blue light filtering efficiency of the carotenoids in liposomes have been reported to be maximum in lutein followed by zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene. Lycopene play a vital role for the protection from CVD. Lycopene in serum is directly related to reduced risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Carotenoids have the major role in the treatment of skin disorders. There is a need to identify and isolate novel carotenoids from diverse natural sources for human health benefits.

Keywords: antioxidants, carotenoids, neutraceuticals, osteoporosis, pharmaceuticals

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
53 Comparative Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Cooling Fins Using Ansys Software

Authors: Aakash Kumar R. G., Anees K. Ahamed, Raj M. Mohan

Abstract:

Effective engine cooling can improve the engine’s life and efficacy. The design of the fin of the cylinder head and block determines the cooling mechanism of air cooled engine. The heat conduction takes place through the engine parts and convection of heat from the surface of the fins takes place with air as the heat transferring medium. The air surrounding the cooling fins helps in removal of heat built up by the air cooled engine. If the heat removal rate is inadequate, it will result in lower engine efficiency and high thermal stresses in the engine. The main drawback of the air cooled engine is the low heat transfer rate of the cooling fins .This work is based on scrutiny of previous researches that involves enhancing of heat transfer rate of cooling fins. The current research is about augmentation of heat transfer rate of longitudinal rectangular fin profiles by varying the length of the fin and diameter of holes on the fins. Thermal and flow analysis is done for two different models of fins. One is simple fin without holes and the other is perforated (consist of holes). It can be inferred from the research that the fins with holes have a higher fin efficiency than the fins without holes. The geometry of the fin is done in CREO. The heat transfer analysis is done using ANSYS software.

Keywords: fins, heat transfer, perforated fins, thermal analysis, thermal flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
52 Application of Optimization Techniques in Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review

Authors: Syed Auon Raza, Tahir Mahmood, Syed Basit Ali Bukhari

Abstract:

In power system properly coordinated protection scheme is designed to make sure that only the faulty part of the system will be isolated when abnormal operating condition of the system will reach. The complexity of the system as well as the increased user demand and the deregulated environment enforce the utilities to improve system reliability by using a properly coordinated protection scheme. This paper presents overview of over current relay coordination techniques. Different techniques such as Deterministic Techniques, Meta Heuristic Optimization techniques, Hybrid Optimization Techniques, and Trial and Error Optimization Techniques have been reviewed in terms of method of their implementation, operation modes, nature of distribution system, and finally their advantages as well as the disadvantages.

Keywords: distribution system, relay coordination, optimization, Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
51 Case Study of Child Labour in Pakistan

Authors: Ahmad Ali Ansari, Hassan Arshad, Basharat Hussani, Adnan Raza, Ahmad Ali Khan

Abstract:

Child labor is a kind of an issue which was found all over the world, but now the first world countries like countries in Europe and America (USA) got hold of it up to a large extent but Underdeveloped or the developing countries including Pakistan are still a victim of this issue. The following attempt has been made in this research article to figure out the main reasons of child labor in underdeveloped countries especially in Pakistan and also some of the issues are discussed which are hindering the solution of child labor in Pakistan. In this research we interviewed 70 working children in the area of Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Taxila and Hatar who belonged to the different parts of the country and figured out the basic causes of the child labor in Pakistan, what are its bad effects on the young one who is a victim of it and we also put a light on what the government of Pakistan is doing in this context and what the government still have to do.

Keywords: child labour, Pakistan, case study, underdeveloped countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
50 An investigation of Leading Edge and Trailing Edge Corrugation for Low Reynolds Number Application

Authors: Syed Hassan Raza Shah, Mohammad Mohammad Ali

Abstract:

The flow over a smoothly profiled airfoil at a low Reynolds number is highly susceptible to separate even at a very low angle of attack. An investigation was made to study the effect of leading-edge and trailing-edge corrugation with the spanwise change in the ridges resulted due to the change in the chord length for an infinite wing. The wind tunnel results using NACA0018 wings revealed that leading and trailing edge corrugation did not have any benefit in terms of aerodynamic efficiency or delayed stall. The leading edge and trailing edge corrugation didn't change the lift curve slope, with the leading edge corrugation wing stalling first in the range of Reynolds number of 50,000 to 125,000.

Keywords: leading and trailing edge corrugations, low reynolds number, wind tunnel testing, NACA0018

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
49 Usability Issues of Smart Phone Applications: For Visually Challenged People

Authors: Anam Ashraf, Arif Raza

Abstract:

In this era of globalization, adoption of technology is quite difficult for people with physical disabilities compared to people with normal abilities. The advancement in mobile based accessible applications has opened up several different avenues for the visually challenged across the globe. Smartphones applications are not very common for blind people, but they access and use these applications in their daily lives to some extent. Several smartphone applications have a number of usability issues for the visually impaired. In this paper, we evaluate the usability of various android and iPhone applications for blind people through analysis and surveys. This paper aspires to provide guidance in order to increase smartphone application accessibility for the visually impaired. An abstract application design is also proposed to overcome usability issues in smartphone applications for visually challenged people.

Keywords: eyes-free shell, human computer interaction, usability engineering, visually challenged

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
48 Extracting Spatial Information Using Stereo Imageries for Mapping Slum Areas in Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Mohammed Raza Mehdi, Kamran Ahmed

Abstract:

Mega-city Karachi has numerous unplanned slum areas and squatter settlements with irregular growth of building structures. Due to weak development policy and lack of development control, such settlements are increasing at a rapid pace. Mapping such areas for planning and infrastructure development requires an integrated approach of socio-spatial and technological tools. Therefore in this study, an attempt is made to create GIS information layers on complex inbound built-up areas of slums at the coastal belt of Karachi by using a stereo pair of satellite images. The outcome expected is technological application to aid planning institutions for crisis management and infrastructure development in irregularly developed slum areas of Karachi, Pakistan.

Keywords: slum, satellite imageries, GIS, Karachi, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
47 Girls' Underperformance in Science: From Biological Determinism and Feminist Perspectives

Authors: Raza Ullah, Hazir Ullah

Abstract:

There is ample evidence that reveals the outstanding performance of girls in a different range of subjects. However, it is pertinent to mention here that boys have historically dominated girls, particularly in math, physics, and technological subjects across the globe with the exception of few developed countries. This article examines the reasons why girls are underdog in STEM subjects. The article critically analyzes two main approaches towards gender and education: biological determinist and feminist. This article highlights that social factors influencing girls performance in STEM subjects have not analyzed critically, and girls underachieving in science has linked with biological and sex differences. The article concludes that the underperformance of girls in a STEM subject is the direct response of socio-cultural factors. Thus, socio-cultural factors are responsible for the dearth of girls in STEM subjects.

Keywords: gender, underperformance, STEM, education, sex

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
46 Anticoccidial Activity of Vitis venifera Extract on Oocysts of Different Eimeria Species of Chicken

Authors: Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Asif Raza, Kashif Hussain

Abstract:

In the current experiment, in vitro anticoccidial potential of Vitis venifera (grape seed) extract was evaluated. For this purpose, an in vitro sporulation inhibition assay was used. Collected oocysts of different Eimeria species of chicken were exposed to six different concentrations (w/v) of Vitis venifera extract (TAE) in 10% dimethylsulphoxide solution (DMSO). Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and potassium dichromate solution (K₂Cr₂O₇) served as control groups. Results of the study revealed that Vitis venifera extract (TAE) showed an inhibitory effect on sporulation (%) and damage (%) of Eimeria oocysts in a dose-dependent manner as compared to both control groups. Vitis venifera extract also damaged the morphology of oocysts in terms of shape, size, and number of sporocysts.

Keywords: Vitis venifera, in vitro, Eimeria, oocysts

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
45 Autonomic Threat Avoidance and Self-Healing in Database Management System

Authors: Wajahat Munir, Muhammad Haseeb, Adeel Anjum, Basit Raza, Ahmad Kamran Malik

Abstract:

Databases are the key components of the software systems. Due to the exponential growth of data, it is the concern that the data should be accurate and available. The data in databases is vulnerable to internal and external threats, especially when it contains sensitive data like medical or military applications. Whenever the data is changed by malicious intent, data analysis result may lead to disastrous decisions. Autonomic self-healing is molded toward computer system after inspiring from the autonomic system of human body. In order to guarantee the accuracy and availability of data, we propose a technique which on a priority basis, tries to avoid any malicious transaction from execution and in case a malicious transaction affects the system, it heals the system in an isolated mode in such a way that the availability of system would not be compromised. Using this autonomic system, the management cost and time of DBAs can be minimized. In the end, we test our model and present the findings.

Keywords: autonomic computing, self-healing, threat avoidance, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
44 Mobile Learning in Teacher Education: A Review in Context of Developing Countries

Authors: Mehwish Raza

Abstract:

Mobile learning (m-learning) offers unique affordances to learners, setting them free of limitations posed by time and geographic space; thus becoming an affordable device for convenient distant learning. There is a plethora of research available on mobile learning projects planned, implemented and evaluated across disciplines in the context of developed countries, however, the potential of m-learning at different educational levels remain unexplored with little evidence of research carried out in developing countries. Despite the favorable technical infrastructure offered by cellular networks and boom in mobile subscriptions in the developing world, there is limited focus on utilizing m-learning for education and development purposes. The objective of this review is to unify findings from m-learning projects that have been implemented in developing countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh, Philippines, India, and Tanzania for teachers’ in-service training. The purpose is to draw upon key characteristics of mobile learning that would be useful for future researchers to inform conceptualizations of mobile learning for developing countries.

Keywords: design model, developing countries, key characteristics, mobile learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
43 A Case Study of Kick Control in Tough Potohar Region

Authors: Iftikhar Raza

Abstract:

Well control is the management of the hazardous effects caused by the unexpected release of formation fluid, such as natural gas and/or crude oil, upon surface equipment of oil or gas drilling rigs and escaping into the atmosphere. Technically, oil well control involves preventing the formation fluid, usually referred to as kick, from entering into the wellbore during drilling. Oil well control is one of the most important aspects of drilling operations. Improper handling of kicks in oil well control can result in blowouts with very grave consequences, including the loss of valuable resources. Even though the cost of a blowout (as a result of improper/no oil well control) can easily reach several millions of US dollars, the monetary loss is not as serious as the other damages that can occur: irreparable damage to the environment, waste of valuable resources, ruined equipment, and most importantly, the safety and lives of personnel on the drilling rig. In this paper, case study of a well is discussed with field data showing the properties of the well. The whole procedure of controlling this well is illustrated in this which may be helpful for professional dealing with such kind of problems.

Keywords: kick control, kill sheet, oil well, gas drilling

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
42 Effect of a Stepwise Discontinuity on a 65 Degree Delta Wing

Authors: Nishit L. Sanil, Raza M. Khan

Abstract:

Increasing lift effectively at higher angles of attack has always been a daunting challenge in aviation especially on a delta wing. These are used on military jet fighter planes and has some undesirable characteristics, notably flow separation at high angles of attack and high drag at low speeds. In order to solve this problem, a design modification is modeled on a delta wing which would increase the lift so that we can improve maneuverability. To attain an increase in the lift of a 65 degree delta wing at higher angles of attack, a step-wise discontinuity is created at the upper surface of the delta wing. A normal delta wing is validated for comparison which would thereby give us a measure of flow separation and coefficient of lift affected by the modification. The results obtained deliver a significant increase in lift at higher angles of attack thereby delaying stall. Hence the benefits of the modification would aid the potential designs of aircraft’s in the time to come.

Keywords: coefficient of lift, delta wing, flow separation, step-wise discontinuity

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
41 Group Decision Making through Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set TOPSIS Method Using New Hybrid Score Function

Authors: Syed Talib Abbas Raza, Tahseen Ahmed Jilani, Saleem Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper presents interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets based TOPSIS method for group decision making. The interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set is a mutation of an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set and soft set. In group decision making problems IVIFSS makes the process much more algebraically elegant. We have used weighted arithmetic averaging operator for aggregating the information and define a new Hybrid Score Function as metric tool for comparison between interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. In an illustrative example we have applied the developed method to a criminological problem. We have developed a group decision making model for integrating the imprecise and hesitant evaluations of multiple law enforcement agencies working on target killing cases in the country.

Keywords: group decision making, interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set, TOPSIS, score function, criminology

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
40 3D Guidance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Sliding Mode Approach

Authors: M. Zamurad Shah, M. Kemal Ozgoren, Raza Samar

Abstract:

This paper presents a 3D guidance scheme for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed guidance scheme is based on the sliding mode approach using nonlinear sliding manifolds. Generalized 3D kinematic equations are considered here during the design process to cater for the coupling between longitudinal and lateral motions. Sliding mode based guidance scheme is then derived for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system using the proposed nonlinear manifolds. Instead of traditional sliding surfaces, nonlinear sliding surfaces are proposed here for performance and stability in all flight conditions. In the reaching phase control inputs, the bang-bang terms with signum functions are accompanied with proportional terms in order to reduce the chattering amplitudes. The Proposed 3D guidance scheme is implemented on a 6-degrees-of-freedom (6-dof) simulation of a UAV and simulation results are presented here for different 3D trajectories with and without disturbances.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles, sliding mode control, 3D guidance, nonlinear sliding manifolds

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
39 Time Overrun in Pre-Construction Planning Phase of Construction Projects

Authors: Hafiz Usama Imad, Muhammad Akram Akhund, Tauha Hussain Ali, Ali Raza Khoso, Fida Hussain Siddiqui

Abstract:

Construction industry plays a significant role in fulfilling the major requirements of the human being. It is one of the major constituents of every developed country. Although the construction industry of both the developing and developed countries encompasses a major part of the economy, and millions of rupees are utilized every year on various kinds of construction projects. But, this industry is facing numerous hurdles in terms of its budget and timely completion. Construction projects generally consist of several phases like planning, designing, execution, and finishing. This research study aims to determine the significant factors of time overrun in pre-construction planning (PCP) phase of construction projects in Pakistan. Questionnaires were distributed by various means and responses of respondents were compiled and collected data were then analyzed through a statistical technique using SPSS version 24. Major causes of time overrun in pre-construction planning phase; which is an extremely important phase of construction projects, were revealed. The research conclusion will provide a pathway for stakeholders to pay attention to the mentioned causes to overcome the major issue of time overrun.

Keywords: construction industry, Pakistan, pre-construction planning phase, time overrun

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
38 Influence of Bio-Based Admixture on Compressive Strength of Concrete for Columns

Authors: K. Raza, S. Gul, M. Ali

Abstract:

Concrete is a fundamental building material, extensively utilized by the construction industry. Problems related to the strength of concrete is an immense issue for the sustainability of concrete structures. Concrete mostly loses its strength due to the cracks produced in it by shrinkage or hydration process. This study aims to enhance the strength and service life of the concrete structures by incorporating bio-based admixture in the concrete. By the injection of bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete, it will self-heal the cracks by producing calcium carbonate. Minimization of cracks will compact the microstructure of the concrete, due to which strength will increase. For this study, Bacillus subtilis will be used as a bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete. Calcium lactate up to 1.5% will be used as the food source for the Bacillus subtilis in concrete. Two formulations containing 0 and 5% of Bacillus subtilis by weight of cement, will be used for the casting of concrete specimens. Direct mixing method will be adopted for the usage of bio-based admixture in concrete. Compressive strength test will be carried out after 28 days of curing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) will be performed for the examination of micro-structure of concrete. Results will be drawn by comparing the test results of 0 and 5% the formulations. It will be recommended to use to bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete for columns because of the satisfactory increase in the compressive strength of concrete.

Keywords: bio-based admixture, Bacillus subtilis, calcium lactate, compressive strength

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37 Antiprotozoal Activity of Peganum harmala against Babesiosis in Cattle

Authors: Muhammad Mustafa Jafar, Syed Ashar Mahfooz, Muhammad Ejaz Saleem, Muhammad Asif Raza, Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq

Abstract:

The Babesia gradually attained resistance against the synthetic medicines. To overcome the drug resistance, herbal therapy has gained more attention as compared to allopathic therapy. Peganumharmala (harmal) is a plant which has shown effective results against various protozoal diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to monitor the efficacy of Peganumharmala (aqueous extract) against Babesiosis in cattle. For this purpose, a total of forty (n=40) infected animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was treated with aqueous extract of Peganum harmala at 7.5 mg/kg, group B at 10 mg/kg and group C at 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. Group D served as a control group (normal). It was observed that there was a stabilization in hematological parameters (white and red blood cells, hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) in infected animals treated with Peganum harmala at different doses. Results of this study hence indicated that Peganum harmala extract at 12.5mg/kg BW is more effective against Babesiosis than lower doses.

Keywords: Babesiosis, cattle, control, Peganum harmala

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