Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16565

Search results for: distribution system

16565 Loss Analysis by Loading Conditions of Distribution Transformers

Authors: A. Bozkurt, C. Kocatepe, R. Yumurtaci, İ. C. Tastan, G. Tulun

Abstract:

Efficient use of energy, with the increase in demand of energy and also with the reduction of natural energy sources, has improved its importance in recent years. Most of the losses in the system from electricity produced until the point of consumption is mostly composed by the energy distribution system. In this study, analysis of the resulting loss in power distribution transformer and distribution power cable is realized which are most of the losses in the distribution system. Transformer losses in the real distribution system were analyzed by CYME Power Engineering Software program. These losses are disclosed for different voltage levels and different loading conditions.

Keywords: distribution system, distribution transformer, power cable, technical losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
16564 Fault Location Detection in Active Distribution System

Authors: R. Rezaeipour, A. R. Mehrabi

Abstract:

Recent increase of the DGs and microgrids in distribution systems, disturbs the tradition structure of the system. Coordination between protection devices in such a system becomes the concern of the network operators. This paper presents a new method for fault location detection in the active distribution networks, independent of the fault type or its resistance. The method uses synchronized voltage and current measurements at the interconnection of DG units and is able to adapt to changes in the topology of the system. The method has been tested on a 38-bus distribution system, with very encouraging results.

Keywords: fault location detection, active distribution system, micro grids, network operators

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
16563 Reliability Analysis in Power Distribution System

Authors: R. A. Deshpande, P. Chandhra Sekhar, V. Sankar

Abstract:

In this paper, we discussed the basic reliability evaluation techniques needed to evaluate the reliability of distribution systems which are applied in distribution system planning and operation. Basically, the reliability study can also help to predict the reliability performance of the system after quantifying the impact of adding new components to the system. The number and locations of new components needed to improve the reliability indices to certain limits are identified and studied.

Keywords: distribution system, reliability indices, urban feeder, rural feeder

Procedia PDF Downloads 597
16562 Steady State Analysis of Distribution System with Wind Generation Uncertainity

Authors: Zakir Husain, Neem Sagar, Neeraj Gupta

Abstract:

Due to the increased penetration of renewable energy resources in the distribution system, the system is no longer passive in nature. In this paper, a steady state analysis of the distribution system has been done with the inclusion of wind generation. The modeling of wind turbine generator system and wind generator has been made to obtain the average active and the reactive power injection into the system. The study has been conducted on a IEEE-33 bus system with two wind generators. The present research work is useful not only to utilities but also to customers.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution network, radial network, wind turbine generating system

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
16561 Efficient Design of Distribution Logistics by Using a Model-Based Decision Support System

Authors: J. Becker, R. Arnold

Abstract:

The design of distribution logistics has a decisive impact on a company's logistics costs and performance. Hence, such solutions make an essential contribution to corporate success. This article describes a decision support system for analyzing the potential of distribution logistics in terms of logistics costs and performance. In contrast to previous procedures of business process re-engineering (BPR), this method maps distribution logistics holistically under variable distribution structures. Combined with qualitative measures the decision support system will contribute to a more efficient design of distribution logistics.

Keywords: decision support system, distribution logistics, potential analyses, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
16560 A Study on Solutions to Connect Distribution Power Grid up to Renewable Energy Sources at KEPCO

Authors: Seung Yoon Hyun, Hyeong Seung An, Myeong Ho Choi, Sung Hwan Bae, Yu Jong Sim

Abstract:

In 2015, the southern part of the Korean Peninsula has 8.6 million poles, 1.25 million km power lines, and 2 million transformers, etc. It is the massive amount of distribution equipments which could cover a round-trip distance from the earth to the moon and 11 turns around the earth. These distribution equipments are spread out like capillaries and supplying power to every corner of the Korean Peninsula. In order to manage these huge power facility efficiently, KEPCO use DAS (Distribution Automation System) to operate distribution power system since 1997. DAS is integrated system that enables to remotely supervise and control breakers and switches on distribution network. Using DAS, we can reduce outage time and power loss. KEPCO has about 160,000 switches, 50%(about 80,000) of switches are automated, and 41 distribution center monitoring&control these switches 24-hour 365 days to get the best efficiency of distribution networks. However, the rapid increasing renewable energy sources become the problem in the efficient operation of distributed power system. (currently 2,400 MW, 75,000 generators operate in distribution power system). In this paper, it suggests the way to interconnect between renewable energy source and distribution power system.

Keywords: distribution, renewable, connect, DAS (Distribution Automation System)

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
16559 Reliability Analysis: A Case Study in Designing Power Distribution System of Tehran Oil Refinery

Authors: A. B. Arani, R. Shojaee

Abstract:

Electrical power distribution system is one of the vital infrastructures of an oil refinery, which requires wide area of study and planning before construction. In this paper, power distribution reliability of Tehran Refinery’s KHDS/GHDS unit has been taken into consideration to investigate the importance of these kinds of studies and evaluate the designed system. In this regard, the authors chose and evaluated different configurations of electrical power distribution along with the existing configuration with the aim of finding the most suited configuration which satisfies the conditions of minimum cost of electrical system construction, minimum cost imposed by loss of load, and maximum power system reliability.

Keywords: power distribution system, oil refinery, reliability, investment cost, interruption cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 701
16558 Influence of Harmonics on Medium Voltage Distribution System: A Case Study for Residential Area

Authors: O. Arikan, C. Kocatepe, G. Ucar, Y. Hacialiefendioglu

Abstract:

In this paper, influence of harmonics on medium voltage distribution system of Bogazici Electricity Distribution Inc. (BEDAS) which takes place at Istanbul/Turkey is investigated. A ring network consisting of residential loads is taken into account for this study. Real system parameters and measurement results are used for simulations. Also, probable working conditions of the system are analyzed for %50, %75 and %100 loading of transformers with similar harmonic contents. Results of the study are exhibited the influence of nonlinear loads on %THDV, P.F. and technical losses of the medium voltage distribution system.

Keywords: distribution system, harmonic, technical losses, power factor, total harmonic distortion, residential load, medium voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
16557 Water Distribution Uniformity of Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation under Low Operating Pressure

Authors: Manal Osman

Abstract:

Sprinkler irrigation system became more popular to reduce water consumption and increase irrigation efficiency. The water distribution uniformity plays an important role in the performance of the sprinkler irrigation system. The use of low operating pressure instead of high operating pressure can be achieved many benefits including energy and water saving. An experimental study was performed to investigate the water distribution uniformity of the solid-set sprinkler irrigation system under low operating pressure. Different low operating pressures (62, 82, 102 and 122 kPa) were selected. The range of operating pressure was lower than the recommended in the previous studies to investigate the effect of low pressure on the water distribution uniformity. Different nozzle diameters (4, 5, 6 and 7 mm) were used. The outdoor single sprinkler test was performed. The water distribution of single sprinkler, the coefficients of uniformity such as coefficient of uniformity (CU), distribution uniformity of low quarter (DUlq), distribution uniformity of low half (DUlh), coefficient of variation (CV) and the distribution characteristics like rotation speed, throw radius and overlapping distance are presented in this paper.

Keywords: low operating pressure, sprinkler irrigation system, water distribution uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
16556 SPICE Modeling for Evaluation of Distribution System Reliability Indices

Authors: G. N. Srinivas, K. Raju

Abstract:

This paper presents Markov processes for determining the reliability indices of distribution system. The continuous Markov modeling is applied to a complex radial distribution system and electrical equivalent circuits are developed for the modeling. In general PSPICE is being used for electrical and electronic circuits and various applications of power system like fault analysis, transient analysis etc. In this paper, the SPICE modeling equivalent circuits which are developed are applied in a novel way to Distribution System reliability analysis. These circuits are simulated using PSPICE software to obtain the state probabilities, the basic and performance indices. Thus the basic indices and the performance indices obtained by this method are compared with those obtained by FMEA technique. The application of the concepts presented in this paper are illustrated and analyzed for IEEE-Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS).

Keywords: distribution system, Markov Model, reliability indices, spice simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
16555 Designing an Intelligent Voltage Instability System in Power Distribution Systems in the Philippines Using IEEE 14 Bus Test System

Authors: Pocholo Rodriguez, Anne Bernadine Ocampo, Ian Benedict Chan, Janric Micah Gray

Abstract:

The state of an electric power system may be classified as either stable or unstable. The borderline of stability is at any condition for which a slight change in an unfavourable direction of any pertinent quantity will cause instability. Voltage instability in power distribution systems could lead to voltage collapse and thus power blackouts. The researchers will present an intelligent system using back propagation algorithm that can detect voltage instability and output voltage of a power distribution and classify it as stable or unstable. The researchers’ work is the use of parameters involved in voltage instability as input parameters to the neural network for training and testing purposes that can provide faster detection and monitoring of the power distribution system.

Keywords: back-propagation algorithm, load instability, neural network, power distribution system

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
16554 Optimal Analysis of Grounding System Design for Distribution Substation

Authors: Thong Lantharthong, Nattchote Rugthaicharoencheep, Att Phayomhom

Abstract:

This paper presents the electrical effect of two neighboring distribution substation during the construction phase. The size of auxiliary grounding grid have an effect on entire grounding system. The bigger the size of auxiliary grounding grid, the lower the GPR and maximum touch voltage, with the exception that when the two grids are unconnected, i.e. the bigger the size of auxiliary grounding grid, the higher the maximum step voltage. The results in this paper could be served as design guideline of grounding system, and perhaps remedy of some troublesome grounding grids in power distribution’s system. Modeling and simulation is carried out on the Current Distribution Electromagnetic interference Grounding and Soil structure (CDEGS) program. The simulation results exhibit the design and analysis of power system grounding and perhaps could be set as a standard in grounding system design and modification in distribution substations.

Keywords: grounding system, touch voltage, step voltage, safety criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
16553 Evaluation of Reliability Indices Using Monte Carlo Simulation Accounting Time to Switch

Authors: Sajjad Asefi, Hossein Afrakhte

Abstract:

This paper presents the evaluation of reliability indices of an electrical distribution system using Monte Carlo simulation technique accounting Time To Switch (TTS) for each section. In this paper, the distribution system has been assumed by accounting random repair time omission. For simplicity, we have assumed the reliability analysis to be based on exponential law. Each segment has a specified rate of failure (λ) and repair time (r) which will give us the mean up time and mean down time of each section in distribution system. After calculating the modified mean up time (MUT) in years, mean down time (MDT) in hours and unavailability (U) in h/year, TTS have been added to the time which the system is not available, i.e. MDT. In this paper, we have assumed the TTS to be a random variable with Log-Normal distribution.

Keywords: distribution system, Monte Carlo simulation, reliability, repair time, time to switch (TTS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
16552 A Multi Agent Based Protection Scheme for Smart Distribution Network in Presence of Distributed Energy Resources

Authors: M. R. Ebrahimi, B. Mahdaviani

Abstract:

Conventional electric distribution systems are radial in nature, supplied at one end through a main source. These networks generally have a simple protection system usually implemented using fuses, re-closers, and over-current relays. Recently, great attention has been paid to applying Distributed energy resources (DERs) throughout electric distribution systems. Presence of such generation in a network leads to losing coordination of protection devices. Therefore, it is desired to develop an algorithm which is capable of protecting distribution systems that include DER. On the other hand smart grid brings opportunities to the power system. Fast advancement in communication and measurement techniques accelerates the development of multi agent system (MAS). So in this paper, a new approach for the protection of distribution networks in the presence of DERs is presented base on MAS. The proposed scheme has been implemented on a sample 27-bus distribution network.

Keywords: distributed energy resource, distribution network, protection, smart grid, multi agent system

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
16551 The Effect of Measurement Distribution on System Identification and Detection of Behavior of Nonlinearities of Data

Authors: Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi, Aref Ghafouri

Abstract:

In this paper, we considered and applied parametric modeling for some experimental data of dynamical system. In this study, we investigated the different distribution of output measurement from some dynamical systems. Also, with variance processing in experimental data we obtained the region of nonlinearity in experimental data and then identification of output section is applied in different situation and data distribution. Finally, the effect of the spanning the measurement such as variance to identification and limitation of this approach is explained.

Keywords: Gaussian process, nonlinearity distribution, particle filter, system identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
16550 Effects of Compensation on Distribution System Technical Losses

Authors: B. Kekezoglu, C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan, Y. Hacialiefendioglu, G. Ucar

Abstract:

One of the significant problems of energy systems is to supply economic and efficient energy to consumers. Therefore studies has been continued to reduce technical losses in the network. In this paper, the technical losses analyzed for a portion of European side of Istanbul MV distribution network for different compensation scenarios by considering real system and load data and results are presented. Investigated system is modeled with CYME Power Engineering Software and optimal capacity placement has been proposed to minimize losses.

Keywords: distribution system, optimal capacitor placement, reactive power compensation, technical losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 534
16549 Intelligent Minimal Allocation of Capacitors in Distribution Networks Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: S. Neelima, P. S. Subramanyam

Abstract:

A distribution system is an interface between the bulk power system and the consumers. Among these systems, radial distributions system is popular because of low cost and simple design. In distribution systems, the voltages at buses reduces when moved away from the substation, also the losses are high. The reason for a decrease in voltage and high losses is the insufficient amount of reactive power, which can be provided by the shunt capacitors. But the placement of the capacitor with an appropriate size is always a challenge. Thus, the optimal capacitor placement problem is to determine the location and size of capacitors to be placed in distribution networks in an efficient way to reduce the power losses and improve the voltage profile of the system. For this purpose, in this paper, two stage methodologies are used. In the first stage, the load flow of pre-compensated distribution system is carried out using ‘dimension reducing distribution load flow algorithm (DRDLFA)’. On the basis of this load flow the potential locations of compensation are computed. In the second stage, Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique is used to determine the optimal location and size of the capacitors such that the cost of the energy loss and capacitor cost to be a minimum. The above method is tested on IEEE 9 and 34 bus system and compared with other methods in the literature.

Keywords: dimension reducing distribution load flow algorithm, DRDLFA, genetic algorithm, electrical distribution network, optimal capacitors placement, voltage profile improvement, loss reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
16548 Impact of the Photovoltaic Integration in Power Distribution Network: Case Study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Authors: David Hasurungan

Abstract:

This paper objective is to analyze the impact from photovoltaic system integration to power distribution network. The case study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant is presented in this paper. Badak LNG electricity network is operated in islanded mode. The total power generation in Badak LNG plant is significantly affected to feed gas supply. Meanwhile, to support the Government regulation, Badak LNG continuously implemented the grid-connected photovoltaic system in existing power distribution network. The impact between train operational mode change in Badak LNG plant and the growth of photovoltaic system is also encompassed in analysis. The analysis and calculation are performed using software Power Factory 15.1.

Keywords: power quality, distribution network, grid-connected photovoltaic system, power management system

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
16547 An Exploration of the Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Stand Alone Solar PV Generated DC Distribution System over AC Distribution System for Use in the Modern as Well as Future Houses of Isolated Areas

Authors: Alpesh Desai, Indrajit Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

Standalone Photovoltaic (PV) systems are designed and sized to supply certain AC and/or DC electrical loads. In computers, consumer electronics and many small appliances as well as LED lighting the actual power consumed is DC. The DC system, which requires only voltage control, has many advantages such as feasible connection of the distributed energy sources and reduction of the conversion losses for DC-based loads. Also by using the DC power directly the cost of the size of the Inverter and Solar panel reduced hence the overall cost of the system reduced. This paper explores the technical and economic feasibility of supplying electrical power to homes/houses using DC voltage mains within the house. Theoretical calculated results are presented to demonstrate the advantage of DC system over AC system with PV on sustainable rural/isolated development.

Keywords: distribution system, energy efficiency, off-grid, stand-alone PV system, sustainability, techno-socio-economic

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
16546 Application of Universal Distribution Factors for Real-Time Complex Power Flow Calculation

Authors: Abdullah M. Alodhaiani, Yasir A. Alturki, Mohamed A. Elkady

Abstract:

Complex power flow distribution factors, which relate line complex power flows to the bus injected complex powers, have been widely used in various power system planning and analysis studies. In particular, AC distribution factors have been used extensively in the recent power and energy pricing studies in free electricity market field. As was demonstrated in the existing literature, many of the electricity market related costing studies rely on the use of the distribution factors. These known distribution factors, whether the injection shift factors (ISF’s) or power transfer distribution factors (PTDF’s), are linear approximations of the first order sensitivities of the active power flows with respect to various variables. This paper presents a novel model for evaluating the universal distribution factors (UDF’s), which are appropriate for an extensive range of power systems analysis and free electricity market studies. These distribution factors are used for the calculations of lines complex power flows and its independent of bus power injections, they are compact matrix-form expressions with total flexibility in determining the position on the line at which line flows are measured. The proposed approach was tested on IEEE 9-Bus system. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed approach is very accurate compared with exact method.

Keywords: distribution factors, power system, sensitivity factors, electricity market

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
16545 PWM Based Control of Dstatcom for Voltage Sag, Swell Mitigation in Distribution Systems

Authors: A. Assif

Abstract:

This paper presents the modeling of a prototype distribution static compensator (D-STATCOM) for voltage sag and swell mitigation in an unbalanced distribution system. Here the concept that an inverter can be used as generalized impedance converter to realize either inductive or capacitive reactance has been used to mitigate power quality issues of distribution networks. The D-STATCOM is here supposed to replace the widely used StaticVar Compensator (SVC). The scheme is based on the Voltage Source Converter (VSC) principle. In this model PWM based control scheme has been implemented to control the electronic valves of VSC. Phase shift control Algorithm method is used for converter control. The D-STATCOM injects a current into the system to mitigate the voltage sags. In this paper the modeling of D¬STATCOM has been designed using MATLAB SIMULINIC. Accordingly, simulations are first carried out to illustrate the use of D-STATCOM in mitigating voltage sag in a distribution system. Simulation results prove that the D-STATCOM is capable of mitigating voltage sag as well as improving power quality of a system.

Keywords: D-STATCOM, voltage sag, voltage source converter (VSC), phase shift control

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
16544 Hierarchical Control Structure to Control the Power Distribution System Components in Building Systems

Authors: Hamed Sarbazy, Zohre Gholipour Haftkhani, Ali Safari, Pejman Hosseiniun

Abstract:

Scientific and industrial progress in the past two decades has resulted in energy distribution systems based on power electronics, as an enabling technology in various industries and building management systems can be considered. Grading and standardization module power electronics systems and its use in a distributed control system, a strategy for overcoming the limitations of using this system. The purpose of this paper is to investigate strategies for scheduling and control structure of standard modules is a power electronic systems. This paper introduces the classical control methods and disadvantages of these methods will be discussed, The hierarchical control as a mechanism for distributed control structure of the classification module explains. The different levels of control and communication between these levels are fully introduced. Also continue to standardize software distribution system control structure is discussed. Finally, as an example, the control structure will be presented in a DC distribution system.

Keywords: application management, hardware management, power electronics, building blocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
16543 The Development of Digital Commerce in Community Enterprise Products to Promote the Distribution of Samut Songkhram Province

Authors: Natcha Wattanaprapa, Alongkorn Taengtong, Phachaya Chaiwchan

Abstract:

This study investigates and promotes the distribution of community enterprise products of Samut Songkhram province by using e-commerce web technology to help distribute the products. This study also aims to develop the information system to be able to operate on multiple platforms and promote the easy usability on smartphones to increase the efficiency and promote the distribution of community enterprise products of Samut Songkhram province in three areas including Baan Saraphi learning center, the learning center of Bang Noi Floating market as well as Bang Nang Li learning center. The main structure consists of spreading the knowledge regarding the tourist attraction in the area of community enterprise, e-commerce system of community enterprise products, and Chatbot. The researcher developed the system into an application form using the software package to create and manage the content on the internet. Connect management system (CMS) word press was used for managing web pages. Add-on CMS word press was used for creating the system of Chatbot, and the database of PHP My Admin was used as the database management system. The evaluation by the experts and users in 5 aspects, including the system efficiency, the accuracy in the operation of the system, the convenience and ease of use of the system, the design, and the promotion of product distribution in Samut Songkhram province by using questionnaires revealed that the result of evaluation in the promotion of product distribution in Samut Songkhram province was the highest with the mean of 4.20. When evaluating the efficiency of the developed system, it was found that the result of system efficiency was the highest level with a mean of 4.10.

Keywords: community enterprise, digital commerce, promotion of product distribution, Samut Songkhram province

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
16542 Algorithmic Fault Location in Complex Gas Networks

Authors: Soban Najam, S. M. Jahanzeb, Ahmed Sohail, Faraz Idris Khan

Abstract:

With the recent increase in reliance on Gas as the primary source of energy across the world, there has been a lot of research conducted on gas distribution networks. As the complexity and size of these networks grow, so does the leakage of gas in the distribution network. One of the most crucial factors in the production and distribution of gas is UFG or Unaccounted for Gas. The presence of UFG signifies that there is a difference between the amount of gas distributed, and the amount of gas billed. Our approach is to use information that we acquire from several specified points in the network. This information will be used to calculate the loss occurring in the network using the developed algorithm. The Algorithm can also identify the leakages at any point of the pipeline so we can easily detect faults and rectify them within minimal time, minimal efforts and minimal resources.

Keywords: FLA, fault location analysis, GDN, gas distribution network, GIS, geographic information system, NMS, network Management system, OMS, outage management system, SSGC, Sui Southern gas company, UFG, unaccounted for gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
16541 Effect of DG Installation in Distribution System for Voltage Monitoring Scheme

Authors: S. R. A. Rahim, I. Musirin, M. M. Othman, M. H. Hussain

Abstract:

Loss minimization is a long progressing issue mainly in distribution system. Nevertheless, its effect led to temperature rise due to significant voltage drop through the distribution line. Thus, compensation scheme should be proper scheduled in the attempt to alleviate the voltage drop phenomenon. Distributed generation has been profoundly known for voltage profile improvement provided that over-compensation or under-compensation phenomena are avoided. This paper addresses the issue of voltage improvement through different type DG installation. In ensuring optimal sizing and location of the DGs, predeveloped EMEFA technique was made to be used for this purpose. Incremental loading condition subjected to the system is the concern such that it is beneficial to the power system operator.

Keywords: distributed generation, EMEFA, power loss, voltage profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
16540 Optimal Protection Coordination in Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations

Authors: Abdorreza Rabiee, Shahla Mohammad Hoseini Mirzaei

Abstract:

The advantages of distributed generations (DGs) based on renewable energy sources (RESs) leads to high penetration level of DGs in distribution network. With incorporation of DGs in distribution systems, the system reliability and security, as well as voltage profile, is improved. However, the protection of such systems is still challenging. In this paper, at first, the related papers are reviewed and then a practical scheme is proposed for coordination of OCRs in distribution system with DGs. The coordination problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization problem with the object function of minimizing total operating time of OCRs. The proposed method is studied based on a simple test system. The optimization problem is solved by General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) to calculate the optimal time dial setting (TDS) and also pickup current setting of OCRs. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method and its applicability.

Keywords: distributed generation, DG, distribution network, over current relay, OCR, protection coordination, pickup current, time dial setting, TDS

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
16539 Application of Optimization Techniques in Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review

Authors: Syed Auon Raza, Tahir Mahmood, Syed Basit Ali Bukhari

Abstract:

In power system properly coordinated protection scheme is designed to make sure that only the faulty part of the system will be isolated when abnormal operating condition of the system will reach. The complexity of the system as well as the increased user demand and the deregulated environment enforce the utilities to improve system reliability by using a properly coordinated protection scheme. This paper presents overview of over current relay coordination techniques. Different techniques such as Deterministic Techniques, Meta Heuristic Optimization techniques, Hybrid Optimization Techniques, and Trial and Error Optimization Techniques have been reviewed in terms of method of their implementation, operation modes, nature of distribution system, and finally their advantages as well as the disadvantages.

Keywords: distribution system, relay coordination, optimization, Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
16538 A Robust System for Foot Arch Type Classification from Static Foot Pressure Distribution Data Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

Authors: R. Periyasamy, Deepak Joshi, Sneh Anand

Abstract:

Foot posture assessment is important to evaluate foot type, causing gait and postural defects in all age groups. Although different methods are used for classification of foot arch type in clinical/research examination, there is no clear approach for selecting the most appropriate measurement system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a system for evaluation of foot type as clinical decision-making aids for diagnosis of flat and normal arch based on the Arch Index (AI) and foot pressure distribution parameter - Power Ratio (PR) data. The accuracy of the system was evaluated for 27 subjects with age ranging from 24 to 65 years. Foot area measurements (hind foot, mid foot, and forefoot) were acquired simultaneously from foot pressure intensity image using portable PedoPowerGraph system and analysis of the image in frequency domain to obtain foot pressure distribution parameter - PR data. From our results, we obtain 100% classification accuracy of normal and flat foot by using the linear discriminant analysis method. We observe there is no misclassification of foot types because of incorporating foot pressure distribution data instead of only arch index (AI). We found that the mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data and arch index (AI) value are well correlated to foot arch type based on visual analysis. Therefore, this paper suggests that the proposed system is accurate and easy to determine foot arch type from arch index (AI), as well as incorporating mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data instead of physical area of contact. Hence, such computational tool based system can help the clinicians for assessment of foot structure and cross-check their diagnosis of flat foot from mid-foot pressure distribution.

Keywords: arch index, computational tool, static foot pressure intensity image, foot pressure distribution, linear discriminant analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
16537 Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Systems

Authors: Sana Ansari, Sirus Mohammadi

Abstract:

In distribution systems, shunt capacitors are used to reduce power losses, to improve voltage profile, and to increase the maximum flow through cables and transformers. This paper presents a new method to determine the optimal locations and economical sizing of fixed and/or switched shunt capacitors with a view to power losses reduction and voltage stability enhancement. General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) has been used to solve the maximization modules using the MINOS optimization software with Linear Programming (LP). The proposed method is tested on 33 node distribution system and the results show that the algorithm suitable for practical implementation on real systems with any size.

Keywords: power losses, voltage stability, radial distribution systems, capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 564
16536 A Proposed Mechanism for Skewing Symmetric Distributions

Authors: M. T. Alodat

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a mechanism for skewing any symmetric distribution. The new distribution is called the deflation-inflation distribution (DID). We discuss some statistical properties of the DID such moments, stochastic representation, log-concavity. Also we fit the distribution to real data and we compare it to normal distribution and Azzlaini's skew normal distribution. Numerical results show that the DID fits the the tree ring data better than the other two distributions.

Keywords: normal distribution, moments, Fisher information, symmetric distributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 494