Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 87

Search results for: deforestation

87 The Use of Geographically Weighted Regression for Deforestation Analysis: Case Study in Brazilian Cerrado

Authors: Ana Paula Camelo, Keila Sanches


The Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was proposed in geography literature to allow relationship in a regression model to vary over space. In Brazil, the agricultural exploitation of the Cerrado Biome is the main cause of deforestation. In this study, we propose a methodology using geostatistical methods to characterize the spatial dependence of deforestation in the Cerrado based on agricultural production indicators. Therefore, it was used the set of exploratory spatial data analysis tools (ESDA) and confirmatory analysis using GWR. It was made the calibration a non-spatial model, evaluation the nature of the regression curve, election of the variables by stepwise process and multicollinearity analysis. After the evaluation of the non-spatial model was processed the spatial-regression model, statistic evaluation of the intercept and verification of its effect on calibration. In an analysis of Spearman’s correlation the results between deforestation and livestock was +0.783 and with soybeans +0.405. The model presented R²=0.936 and showed a strong spatial dependence of agricultural activity of soybeans associated to maize and cotton crops. The GWR is a very effective tool presenting results closer to the reality of deforestation in the Cerrado when compared with other analysis.

Keywords: deforestation, geographically weighted regression, land use, spatial analysis

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86 Creatures of the Clearing: Forests, People, and Ants in Imperial Brazil

Authors: Diogo de Carvalho Cabral


This article offers a non-declensionist account of tropical deforestation, arguing that, rather than social stamp upon the environment or ecological endgame, deforestation is part of social site-making and remaking, the process through which humans produce sociality by carrying out nature-mediated – and therefore nature-transforming – practices that inevitably reset the very conditions of those practices. Human landscape-shaping inadvertently alters other species’ habitats –most often decimating them, but sometimes improving them–, the outcomes of which always resonate back upon human inhabitation and land use. Despite the overall tendency of biotic homogenization resulting from modern deforestation processes, there are always winners, i.e., species that gain competitive advantages enabling them to thrive in the novel ecosystems. Here it is examined one such case of deforestation-boosted species, namely leafcutter ants, which wrought havoc in the rural landscapes of nineteenth-century Brazil by defoliating a wide range of crops. By combining Historical GIS analysis and qualitative interpretation, it is shown how agricultural deforestation might have changed the ant species' biogeographies, and how in turn these changes – construed as 'infestation' – stimulated social innovations and rearrangements such as technical ingenuity, legal-administrative practices, and even local electoral arenas.

Keywords: deforestation, leafcutter ants, nineteenth-century Brazil, socio-ecological change

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85 Environmental and Economic Impact of Mangrove Deforestation: Case Study of Vadamaradchy East, Sri Lanka

Authors: Kumaraamy Sasikumar


The study was conducted in Vadamarachchi-East in Sri Lanka. Data collection was done for a period of two months from June to July 2011. The main focus of this study was to examine factors contributing to mangrove deforestation within the study area, and resultant impacts from deforestation. The study found that, the main factors that have contributed to deforestation include: Long civil wars in the region, poverty which pushed people to clear the forest to earn income through the sale of firewood and timber among others, industrial development, increasing demand for farm and settlement land, limited knowledge within the local community, weak government polices and implementation strategies, and natural disasters especially the 2004 Tsunami destruction. The impacts presented are those that impact both on the environment and the economy including; loss of income sources, loss of biodiversity, climate change, desertification, conflicts in the use of forest products and loss of land productivity due to reduced fertility caused by soil erosion. However, a few strategies have been put in place by the government to ensure the sustainable use of mangrove forest products, though these have not proved successful in reducing deforestation. The recommendations make suggestions to the government and other stakeholders to work together in ensuring sustainable use of natural resources, for example implementing laws and regulations aimed at controlling deforestation among others.

Keywords: deforestation, impacts, actors, environment, economic, sustainable development

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84 Carbon Storage in Natural Mangrove Biomass: Its Destruction and Potential Impact on Climate Change in the UAE

Authors: Hedaya Ali Al Ameri, Alya A. Arabi


Measuring the level of carbon storage in mangroves’ biomass has a potential impact in the climate change of UAE. Carbon dioxide is one of greenhouse gases. It is considered to be a main reason for global warming. Deforestation is a key source of the increase in carbon dioxide whereas forests such as mangroves assist in removing carbon dioxide from atmosphere by storing them in its biomass and soil. By using Kauffman and Donato methodology, above- and below-ground biomass and carbon stored in UAE’s natural mangroves were quantified. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) released to the atmosphere was then estimated in case of mangroves deforestation in the UAE. The results show that the mean total biomass of mangroves in the UAE ranged from 15.75 Mg/ha to 3098.69 Mg/ha. The estimated CO2eq released upon deforestation in the UAE was found to have a minimal effect on the temperature increase and thus global warming.

Keywords: carbon stored in biomass, mangrove deforestation, temperature change, United Arab Emirate

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83 Monitoring Deforestation Using Remote Sensing And GIS

Authors: Tejaswi Agarwal, Amritansh Agarwal


Forest ecosystem plays very important role in the global carbon cycle. It stores about 80% of all above ground and 40% of all below ground terrestrial organic carbon. There is much interest in the extent of tropical forests and their rates of deforestation for two reasons: greenhouse gas contributions and the impact of profoundly negative biodiversity. Deforestation has many ecological, social and economic consequences, one of which is the loss of biological diversity. The rapid deployment of remote sensing (RS) satellites and development of RS analysis techniques in the past three decades have provided a reliable, effective, and practical way to characterize terrestrial ecosystem properties. Global estimates of tropical deforestation vary widely and range from 50,000 to 170,000km2 /yr Recent FAO tropical deforestation estimates for 1990–1995 cite 116,756km2 / yr globally. Remote Sensing can prove to be a very useful tool in monitoring of forests and associated deforestation to a sufficient level of accuracy without the need of physically surveying the forest areas as many of them are physically inaccessible. The methodology for the assessment of forest cover using digital image processing (ERDAS) has been followed. The satellite data for the study was procured from Indian institute of remote Sensing (IIRS), Dehradoon in the digital format. While procuring the satellite data, care was taken to ensure that the data was cloud free and did not belong to dry and leafless season. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used as a numerical indicator of the reduction in ground biomass. NDVI = (near I.R - Red)/ (near I.R + Red). After calculating the NDVI variations and associated mean, we have analysed the change in ground biomass. Through this paper, we have tried to indicate the rate of deforestation over a given period of time by comparing the forest cover at different time intervals. With the help of remote sensing and GIS techniques, it is clearly shown that the total forest cover is continuously degrading and transforming into various land use/land cover category.

Keywords: remote sensing, deforestation, supervised classification, NDVI, change detection

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82 NDVI as a Measure of Change in Forest Biomass

Authors: Amritansh Agarwal, Tejaswi Agarwal


Forest ecosystem plays very important role in the global carbon cycle. It stores about 80% of all above ground and 40% of all below ground terrestrial organic carbon. There is much interest in the extent of tropical forests and their rates of deforestation for two reasons: greenhouse gas contributions and the impact of profoundly negative biodiversity. Deforestation has many ecological, social and economic consequences, one of which is the loss of biological diversity. The rapid deployment of remote sensing (RS) satellites and development of RS analysis techniques in the past three decades have provided a reliable, effective, and practical way to characterize terrestrial ecosystem properties. Global estimates of tropical deforestation vary widely and range from 50,000 to 170,000 km2 /yr Recent FAO tropical deforestation estimates for 1990–1995 cite 116,756km2 / yr globally. Remote Sensing can prove to be a very useful tool in monitoring of forests and associated deforestation to a sufficient level of accuracy without the need of physically surveying the forest areas as many of them are physically inaccessible. The methodology for the assessment of forest cover using digital image processing (ERDAS) has been followed. The satellite data for the study was procured from USGS website in the digital format. While procuring the satellite data, care was taken to ensure that the data was cloud and aerosol free by making using of FLAASH atmospheric correction technique. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used as a numerical indicator of the reduction in ground biomass. NDVI = (near I.R - Red)/ (near I.R + Red). After calculating the NDVI variations and associated mean we have analysed the change in ground biomass. Through this paper we have tried to indicate the rate of deforestation over a given period of time by comparing the forest cover at different time intervals. With the help of remote sensing and GIS techniques it is clearly shows that the total forest cover is continuously degrading and transforming into various land use/land cover category.

Keywords: remote sensing, deforestation, supervised classification, NDVI change detection

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81 The Threats of Deforestation, Forest Fire and CO2 Emission toward Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve in Riau, Indonesia

Authors: Siti Badriyah Rushayati, Resti Meilani, Rachmad Hermawan


A biosphere reserve is developed to create harmony amongst economic development, community development, and environmental protection, through partnership between human and nature. Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR) in Riau Province, Indonesia, is unique in that it has peat soil dominating the area, many springs essential for human livelihood, high biodiversity. Furthermore, it is the only biosphere reserve covering privately managed production forest areas. The annual occurrences of deforestation and forest fire pose a threat toward such unique biosphere reserve. Forest fire produced smokes that along with mass airflow reached neighboring countries, particularly Singapore and Malaysia. In this research, we aimed at analyzing the threat of deforestation and forest fire, and the potential of CO2 emission at GSKBB BR. We used Landsat image, arcView software, and ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5 Software to conduct spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes, calculated CO2 emission based on emission potential from each land cover and land use type, and exercised simple linear regression to demonstrate the relation between CO2 emission potential and deforestation. The result showed that, beside in the buffer zone and transition area, deforestation also occurred in the core area. Spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes from years 2010, 2012, and 2014 revealed that there were changes of land cover and land use from natural forest and industrial plantation forest to other land use types, such as garden, mixed garden, settlement, paddy fields, burnt areas, and dry agricultural land. Deforestation in core area, particularly at the Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve and Bukit Batu Wildlife Reserve, occurred in the form of changes from natural forest in to garden, mixed garden, shrubs, swamp shrubs, dry agricultural land, open area, and burnt area. In the buffer zone and transition area, changes also happened, what once swamp forest changed into garden, mixed garden, open area, shrubs, swamp shrubs, and dry agricultural land. Spatial analysis on land cover and land use changes indicated that deforestation rate in the biosphere reserve from 2010 to 2014 had reached 16 119 ha/year. Beside deforestation, threat toward the biosphere reserve area also came from forest fire. The occurrence of forest fire in 2014 had burned 101 723 ha of the area, in which 9 355 ha of core area, and 92 368 ha of buffer zone and transition area. Deforestation and forest fire had increased CO2 emission as much as 24 903 855 ton/year.

Keywords: biosphere reserve, CO2 emission, deforestation, forest fire

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80 Mapping of Forest Cover Change in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Case of the Territory of Bolobo

Authors: Armand Okende, Benjamin Beaumont


Deforestation is a change in the structure and composition of flora and fauna, which leads to a loss of biodiversity, production of goods and services, and an increase in fires. It concerns vast territories in tropical zones particularly; this is the case of the territory of Bolobo in the current province of Mai-Ndombe in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Indeed, through this study between 2001 and 2018, we believe that it was important to show and analyze quantitatively the important forests changes and analyze quantitatively. It’s the overall objective of this study because, in this area, we are witnessing significant deforestation. Mapping and quantification are the methodological approaches that we have put forward to assess the deforestation or forest changes through satellite images or raster layers. These satellites data from Global Forest Watch are integrated into the GIS software (GRASS GIS and Quantum GIS) to represent the loss of forest cover that has occurred and the various changes recorded (e.g., forest gain) in the territory of Bolobo. The results obtained to show, in terms of quantifying deforestation for the periods 2001-2006, 2007-2012, and 2013-2018, the loss of forest area in hectares each year. The different change maps produced during different study periods mentioned above show that the loss of forest areas is gradually increasing. With this study, knowledge of forest management and protection is a challenge to ensure good management of forest resources. To do this, it is wise to carry out more studies that would optimize the monitoring of forests to guarantee the ecological and economic functions they provide in the Congo Basin, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In addition, the cartographic approach, coupled with the geographic information system and remote sensing proposed by Global Forest Watch using raster layers, provides interesting information to explain the loss of forest areas.

Keywords: deforestation, loss year, forest change, remote sensing, drivers of deforestation

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79 Buffer Zone a Means of Reduction of Deforestation on Protected Area: A Case Study of Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Dhruba Khatri, Uttam Ghimire, Nabin Kumar Thapalia


Protected area management in Indonesia is based on MAB program and ICDPs have become Indonesia’s main approach to biodiversity conservation since the early 1990s. However, very few ICDPs have realized the importance of biodiversity conservation in Indonesia and significantly enhanced as a result of currently planned project activities. Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan was damaged illegal logging after decentralization. It made clear through the field survey: (1) Agroforestry did not make reduce to deforestation on regional level and (2) local people who engaging illegal logging activities have two characteristics that for their life and for vent of surplus labor in village. From these results, it became clear that a local resident had a bilateral character as an actor of conservation and the deforestation and also it confirmed that a market also was working on both of the conservation and deforestation. Therefore, surplus labor can be the key actors for future program design and at the same time it is necessary corroborative system which central government, local government, and local people are concerned with the process of policy making under the situation that management body of national park and buffer zone was separated.

Keywords: buffer zone, decentralization, Gunung Palung National Park, illegal logging, Indonesia

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78 Modelling the Impacts of Geophysical Parameters on Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Pre and Post Ban Logging Periods in Hindu Kush Himalayas

Authors: Alam Zeb, Glen W. Armstrong, Muhammad Qasim


Loss of forest cover is one of the most important land cover changes and has been of great concern to policy makers. This study quantified forest cover changes over pre logging ban (1973-1993) and post logging ban (1993-2015) to examine the role of geophysical factors and spatial attributes of land in the two periods. We show that despite a complete ban on green felling, forest cover decreased by 28% and mostly converted to rangeland. Nevertheless, the logging ban was completely effective in controlling agriculture expansion. The binary logistic regression revealed that the south facing aspects at low elevation witnessed more deforestation in the pre-ban period compared to post-ban. Opposite to deforestation, forest degradation was more prominent on the northern aspects at higher elevation during the policy period. Agriculture expansion was widespread in the low elevation flat areas with gentle slope, while during the policy period agriculture contraction in the form of regeneration was observed on the low elevation areas of north facing slopes. All proximity variables, except distance to administrative boundary, showed a similar trend across the two periods and were important explanatory variables in understanding forest and agriculture expansion. The changes in determinants of forest and agriculture expansion and contraction over the two periods might be attributed to the influence of policy and a general decrease in resource availability.

Keywords: forest conservation , wood harvesting ban, logistic regression, deforestation, forest degradation, agriculture expansion, Chitral, Pakistan

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77 Livelihood and Willingness to Accept Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation by Local People in the Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo John Julius, Emmanuel Imoagene


Mitigating global warming through reducing emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD) has been given increasing attentions in government-to-government negotiations while discussions among decision-makers have been going on, it is important to learn about the perception of local people in relation to REDD because the implementation will affect their lives. A survey was conducted using questionnaires to examine the livelihood and forest dependency of the local people in the vicinity of Onigambari and Ido area. Respondents’ income from forest activities and forest resources are collected. Participation in tourism related activities among the household members was also investigated to measure the potential of this “eco-friendly” income generation activity in the local communities. There was a general indication of reducing slash-and-burn activities with distance from the park and involvement in tourism-related job. Most of the local people were willing to accept compensation as alternative for slash-and-burn activities. The compensation preferred is in various form of development and different level of forest and environmental activities

Keywords: livelihood, emission, deforestation, degradation, local people, southwest Nigeria

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76 An Initial Assessment of the Potential Contibution of 'Community Empowerment' to Mitigating the Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation, in Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve

Authors: Arzyana Sunkar, Yanto Santosa, Siti Badriyah Rushayati


Indonesia has experienced annual forest fires that have rapidly destroyed and degraded its forests. Fires in the peat swamp forests of Riau Province, have set the stage for problems to worsen, this being the ecosystem most prone to fires (which are also the most difficult, to extinguish). Despite various efforts to curb deforestation, and forest degradation processes, severe forest fires are still occurring. To find an effective solution, the basic causes of the problems must be identified. It is therefore critical to have an in-depth understanding of the underlying causal factors that have contributed to deforestation and forest degradation as a whole, in order to attain reductions in their rates. An assessment of the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation was carried out, in order to design and implement measures that could slow these destructive processes. Research was conducted in Giam Siak Kecil–Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR), in the Riau Province of Sumatera, Indonesia. A biosphere reserve was selected as the study site because such reserves aim to reconcile conservation with sustainable development. A biosphere reserve should promote a range of local human activities, together with development values that are in line spatially and economically with the area conservation values, through use of a zoning system. Moreover, GSKBB BR is an area with vast peatlands, and is experiencing forest fires annually. Various factors were analysed to assess the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in GSKBB BR; data were collected from focus group discussions with stakeholders, key informant interviews with key stakeholders, field observation and a literature review. Landsat satellite imagery was used to map forest-cover changes for various periods. Analysis of landsat images, taken during the period 2010-2014, revealed that within the non-protected area of core zone, there was a trend towards decreasing peat swamp forest areas, increasing land clearance, and increasing areas of community oil-palm and rubber plantations. Fire was used for land clearing and most of the forest fires occurred in the most populous area (the transition area). The study found a relationship between the deforested/ degraded areas, and certain distance variables, i.e. distance from roads, villages and the borders between the core area and the buffer zone. The further the distance from the core area of the reserve, the higher was the degree of deforestation and forest degradation. Research findings suggested that agricultural expansion may be the direct cause of deforestation and forest degradation in the reserve, whereas socio-economic factors were the underlying driver of forest cover changes; such factors consisting of a combination of socio-cultural, infrastructural, technological, institutional (policy and governance), demographic (population pressure) and economic (market demand) considerations. These findings indicated that local factors/problems were the critical causes of deforestation and degradation in GSKBB BR. This research therefore concluded that reductions in deforestation and forest degradation in GSKBB BR could be achieved through ‘local actor’-tailored approaches such as community empowerment

Keywords: Actor-led solution, community empowerment, drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, Giam Siak Kecil – Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve

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75 An Approach to Integrated Water Resources Management, a Plan for Action to Climate Change in India

Authors: H. K. Ramaraju


World is in deep trouble and deeper denial. Worse, the denial is now entirely on the side of action. It is well accepted that climate change is a reality. Scientists say we need to cap temperature increases at 2°C to avoid catastrophe, which means capping emissions at 450 ppm .We know global average temperatures have already increased by 0.8°C and there is enough green house gas in the atmosphere to lead to another 0.8°C increase. There is still a window of opportunity, a tiny one, to tackle the crisis. But where is the action? In the 1990’s, when the world did even not understand, let alone accept, the crises, it was more willing to move to tackle climate change. Today we are in reverse in gear. The rich world has realized it is easy to talk big, but tough to take steps to actually reduce emissions. The agreement was that these countries would reduce so that the developing World could increase. Instead, between 1990 and 2006, their carbon dioxide emissions increased by a whopping 14.5 percent, even green countries of Europe are unable to match words with action. Stop deforestation and take a 20 percent advantage in our carbon balance sheet, with out doing anything at home called REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) and push for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. There are warning signs elsewhere and they need to be read correctly and acted up on , if not the cases like flood –act of nature or manmade disaster. The full length paper orient in proper understanding of the issues and identifying the most appropriate course of action.

Keywords: catastrophe, deforestation, emissions, waste water

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74 Assessing the High Rate of Deforestation Caused by the Operations of Timber Industries in Ghana

Authors: Obed Asamoah


Forests are very vital for human survival and our well-being. During the past years, the world has taken an increasingly significant role in the modification of the global environment. The high rate of deforestation in Ghana is of primary national concern as the forests provide many ecosystem services and functions that support the country’s predominantly agrarian economy and foreign earnings. Ghana forest is currently major source of carbon sink that helps to mitigate climate change. Ghana forests, both the reserves and off-reserves, are under pressure of deforestation. The causes of deforestation are varied but can broadly be categorized into anthropogenic and natural factors. For the anthropogenic factors, increased wood fuel collection, clearing of forests for agriculture, illegal and poorly regulated timber extraction, social and environmental conflicts, increasing urbanization and industrialization are the primary known causes for the loss of forests and woodlands. Mineral exploitation in the forest areas is considered as one of the major causes of deforestation in Ghana. Mining activities especially mining of gold by both the licensed mining companies and illegal mining groups who are locally known as "gallantly mining" also cause damage to the nation's forest reserves. Several works have been conducted regarding the causes of the high rate of deforestation in Ghana, major attention has been placed on illegal logging and using forest lands for illegal farming and mining activities. Less emphasis has been placed on the timber production companies on their harvesting methods in the forests in Ghana and other activities that are carried out in the forest. The main objective of the work is to find out the harvesting methods and the activities of the timber production companies and their effects on the forests in Ghana. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were engaged in the research work. The study population comprised of 20 Timber industries (Sawmills) forest areas of Ghana. These companies were selected randomly. The cluster sampling technique was engaged in selecting the respondents. Both primary and secondary data were employed. In the study, it was observed that most of the timber production companies do not know the age, the weight, the distance covered from the harvesting to the loading site in the forest. It was also observed that old and heavy machines are used by timber production companies in their operations in the forest, which makes the soil compact prevents regeneration and enhances soil erosion. It was observed that timber production companies do not abide by the rules and regulations governing their operations in the forest. The high rate of corruption on the side of the officials of the Ghana forestry commission makes the officials relax and do not embark on proper monitoring on the operations of the timber production companies which makes the timber companies to cause more harm to the forest. In other to curb this situation the Ghana forestry commission with the ministry of lands and natural resources should monitor the activities of the timber production companies and sanction all the companies that make foul play in their activities in the forest. The commission should also pay more attention to the policy “fell one plant 10” to enhance regeneration in both reserves and off-reserves forest.

Keywords: companies, deforestation, forest, Ghana, timber

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73 Geospatial Assessments on Impacts of Land Use Changes and Climate Change in Nigeria Forest Ecosystems

Authors: Samuel O. Akande


The human-induced climate change is likely to have severe consequences on forest ecosystems in Nigeria. Recent discussions and emphasis on issues concerning the environment justify the need for this research which examined deforestation monitoring in Oban Forest, Nigeria using Remote Sensing techniques. The Landsat images from TM (1986), ETM+ (2001) and OLI (2015) sensors were obtained from Landsat online archive and processed using Erdas Imagine 2014 and ArcGIS 10.3 to obtain the land use/land cover and Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI) values. Ground control points of deforested areas were collected for validation. It was observed that the forest cover decreased in area by about 689.14 km² between 1986 and 2015. The NDVI was used to determine the vegetation health of the forest and its implications on agricultural sustainability. The result showed that the total percentage of the healthy forest cover has reduced to about 45.9% from 1986 to 2015. The results obtained from analysed questionnaires shown that there was a positive correlation between the causes and effects of deforestation in the study area. The coefficient of determination value was calculated as R² ≥ 0.7, to ascertain the level of anthropogenic activities, such as fuelwood harvesting, intensive farming, and logging, urbanization, and engineering construction activities, responsible for deforestation in the study area. Similarly, temperature and rainfall data were obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) for the period of 1986 to 2015 in the study area. It was observed that there was a significant increase in temperature while rainfall decreased over the study area. Responses from the administered questionnaires also showed that futile destruction of forest ecosystem in Oban forest could be reduced to its barest minimum if fuelwood harvesting is disallowed. Thus, the projected impacts of climate change on Nigeria’s forest ecosystems and environmental stability is better imagined than experienced.

Keywords: deforestation, ecosystems, normalized differential vegetative index, sustainability

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72 Sustainable Resource Use as a Means of Preserving the Integrity of the Eco-System and Environment

Authors: N. Hedayat, E. Karamifar


Sustainable food and fiber production is emerging as an irresistible option in agrarian planning. Although one should not underestimate the successes of the Green Revolution in enhancing crop production, its adverse environmental and ecosystem consequences have also been remarkable. The aim of this paper is to identify ways of improving crop production to ensure agricultural sustainability and environmental integrity. Systematic observations are used for data collection on intensive farming, deforestation and the environmental implications of industrial pollutants on agricultural sustainability at national and international levels. These were achieved within a comparative analytical model of data interpretation. Results show that while multiple factors enhance yield, they have a simultaneous effect in undermining the ecosystem and environmental integrity. Results show that application of excessive agrichemical have been one of the major cause of polluting the surface and underground water bodies as well as soil layers in affected croplands. Results consider rapid deforestation in the tropical regions has been the underlying cause of impairing the integrity of biodiversity and oxygen-generation regime. These, coupled with production of greenhouse gasses, have contributed to global warming and hydrological irregularities. Continuous production of pollutants and effluents has affected marine and land biodiversity arising from acid rains generated by modern farming and deforestation. Continuous production of greenhouse gases has also been instrumental in affecting climatic behavior manifested in recurring draughts and contraction of lakes and ponds as well as emergence of potential flooding of waterways and floodplains in the future.

Keywords: agricultural sustainability, environmental integrity, pollution, eco-system

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71 Driving Forces of Net Carbon Emissions in a Tropical Dry Forest, Oaxaca, México

Authors: Rogelio Omar Corona-Núñez, Alma Mendoza-Ponce


The Tropical Dry Forest not only is one of the most important tropical ecosystems in terms of area, but also it is one of the most degraded ecosystems. However, little is known about the degradation impacts on carbon stocks, therefore in carbon emissions. There are different studies which explain its deforestation dynamics, but there is still a lack of understanding of how they correlate to carbon losses. Recently different authors have built current biomass maps for the tropics and Mexico. However, it is not clear how well they predict at the local scale, and how they can be used to estimate carbon emissions. This study quantifies the forest net carbon losses by comparing the potential carbon stocks and the different current biomass maps in the Southern Pacific coast in Oaxaca, Mexico. The results show important differences in the current biomass estimates with not a clear agreement. However, by the aggregation of the information, it is possible to infer the general patterns of biomass distribution and it can identify the driving forces of the carbon emissions. This study estimated that currently ~44% of the potential carbon stock estimated for the region is still present. A total of 6,764 GgC has been emitted due to deforestation and degradation of the forest at a rate of above ground biomass loss of 66.4 Mg ha-1. Which, ~62% of the total carbon emissions can be regarded as being due to forest degradation. Most of carbon losses were identified in places suitable for agriculture, close to rural areas and to roads while the lowest losses were accounted in places with high water stress and within the boundaries of the National Protected Area. Moreover, places not suitable for agriculture, but close to the coast showed carbon losses as a result of urban settlements.

Keywords: above ground biomass, deforestation, degradation, driving forces, tropical deciduous forest

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70 Overview of the 2017 Fire Season in Amazon

Authors: Ana C. V. Freitas, Luciana B. M. Pires, Joao P. Martins


In recent years, fire dynamics in deforestation areas of tropical forests have received considerable attention because of their relationship to climate change. Climate models project great increases in the frequency and area of drought in the Amazon region, which may increase the occurrence of fires. This study analyzes the historical record number of fire outbreaks in 2017 using satellite-derived data sets of active fire detections, burned area, precipitation, and data of the Fire Program from the Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC/INPE). A downward trend in the number of fire outbreaks occurred in the first half of 2017, in relation to the previous year. This decrease can be related to the fact that 2017 was not an El Niño year and, therefore, the observed rainfall and temperature in the Amazon region was close to normal conditions. Meanwhile, the worst period in history for fire outbreaks began with the subsequent arrival of the dry season. September of 2017 exceeded all monthly records for number of fire outbreaks per month in the entire series. This increase was mainly concentrated in Bolivia and in the states of Amazonas, northeastern Pará, northern Rondônia and Acre, regions with high densities of rural settlements, which strongly suggests that human action is the predominant factor, aggravated by the lack of precipitation during the dry season allowing the fires to spread and reach larger areas. Thus, deforestation in the Amazon is primarily a human-driven process: climate trends may be providing additional influences.

Keywords: Amazon forest, climate change, deforestation, human-driven process, fire outbreaks

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69 Behavioral Response of Bee Farmers to Climate Change in South East, Nigeria

Authors: Jude A. Mbanasor, Chigozirim N. Onwusiribe


The enigma climate change is no longer an illusion but a reality. In the recent years, the Nigeria climate has changed and the changes are shown by the changing patterns of rainfall, the sunshine, increasing level carbon and nitrous emission as well as deforestation. This study analyzed the behavioural response of bee keepers to variations in the climate and the adaptation techniques developed in response to the climate variation. Beekeeping is a viable economic activity for the alleviation of poverty as the products include honey, wax, pollen, propolis, royal jelly, venom, queens, bees and their larvae and are all marketable. The study adopted the multistage sampling technique to select 120 beekeepers from the five states of Southeast Nigeria. Well-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were adopted to collect the required data. Statistical tools like the Principal component analysis, data envelopment models, graphs, and charts were used for the data analysis. Changing patterns of rainfall and sunshine with the increasing rate of deforestation had a negative effect on the habitat of the bees. The bee keepers have adopted the Kenya Top bar and Langstroth hives and they establish the bee hives on fallow farmland close to the cultivated communal farms with more flowering crops.

Keywords: climate, farmer, response, smart

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68 Dynamics of the Landscape in the Different Colonization Models Implemented in the Legal Amazon

Authors: Valdir Moura, FranciléIa De Oliveira E. Silva, Erivelto Mercante, Ranieli Dos Anjos De Souza, Jerry Adriani Johann


Several colonization projects were implemented in the Brazilian Legal Amazon in the 1970s and 1980s. Among all of these colonization projects, the most prominent were those with the Fishbone and Topographic models. Within this scope, the projects of settlements known as Anari and Machadinho were created, which stood out because they are contiguous areas with different models and structure of occupation and colonization. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) in two different colonization models, implanted in the State of Rondonia in the 1980s. The Fishbone and Topographic models were implanted in the Anari and Machadinho settlements respectively. The understanding of these two forms of occupation will help in future colonization programs of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. These settlements are contiguous areas with different occupancy structures. A 32-year Landsat time series (1984-2016) was used to evaluate the rates and trends in the LULC process in the different colonization models. In the different occupation models analyzed, the results showed a rapid loss of primary and secondary forests (deforestation), mainly due to the dynamics of use, established by the Agriculture/Pasture (A/P) relation and, with heavy dependence due to road construction.

Keywords: land-cover, deforestation, rate fragments, remote sensing, secondary succession

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67 Deforestation, Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies of Rural Farmers: The Case of Central Rift Valley Region of Ethiopia

Authors: Dembel Bonta Gebeyehu


In the study area, the impacts of deforestation for environmental degradation and livelihood of farmers manifest in different faces. They are more vulnerable as they depend on rain-fed agriculture and immediate natural forests. On the other hand, after planting seedling, waste disposal and management system of the plastic cover is poorly practiced and administered in the country in general and in the study area in particular. If this situation continues, the plastic waste would also accentuate land degradation. Besides, there is the absence of empirical studies conducted comprehensively on the research under study the case. The results of the study could suffice to inform any intervention schemes or to contribute to the existing knowledge on these issues. The study employed a qualitative approach based on intensive fieldwork data collected via various tools namely open-ended interviews, focus group discussion, key-informant interview and non-participant observation. The collected data was duly transcribed and latter categorized into different labels based on pre-determined themes to make further analysis. The major causes of deforestation were the expansion of agricultural land, poor administration, population growth, and the absence of conservation methods. The farmers are vulnerable to soil erosion and soil infertility culminating in low agricultural production; loss of grazing land and decline of livestock production; climate change; and deterioration of social capital. Their adaptation and coping strategies include natural conservation measures, diversification of income sources, safety-net program, and migration. Due to participatory natural resource conservation measures, soil erosion has been decreased and protected, indigenous woodlands started to regenerate. These brought farmers’ attitudinal change. The existing forestation program has many flaws. Especially, after planting seedlings, there is no mechanism for the plastic waste disposal and management. It was also found out organizational challenges among the mandated offices In the studied area, deforestation is aggravated by a number of factors, which made the farmers vulnerable. The current forestation programs are not well-planned, implemented, and coordinated. Sustainable and efficient seedling plastic cover collection and reuse methods should be devised. This is possible through creating awareness, organizing micro and small enterprises to reuse, and generate income from the collected plastic etc.

Keywords: land-cover and land-dynamics, vulnerability, adaptation strategy, mitigation strategies, sustainable plastic waste management

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66 Performance Tests of Wood Glues on Different Wood Species Used in Wood Workshops: Morogoro Tanzania

Authors: Japhet N. Mwambusi


High tropical forests deforestation for solid wood furniture industry is among of climate change contributing agents. This pressure indirectly is caused by furniture joints failure due to poor gluing technology based on improper use of different glues to different wood species which lead to low quality and weak wood-glue joints. This study was carried in order to run performance tests of wood glues on different wood species used in wood workshops: Morogoro Tanzania whereby three popular wood species of C. lusitanica, T. glandis and E. maidenii were tested against five glues of Woodfix, Bullbond, Ponal, Fevicol and Coral found in the market. The findings were necessary on developing a guideline for proper glue selection for a particular wood species joining. Random sampling was employed to interview carpenters while conducting a survey on the background of carpenters like their education level and to determine factors that influence their glues choice. Monsanto Tensiometer was used to determine bonding strength of identified wood glues to different wood species in use under British Standard of testing wood shear strength (BS EN 205) procedures. Data obtained from interviewing carpenters were analyzed through Statistical Package of Social Science software (SPSS) to allow the comparison of different data while laboratory data were compiled, related and compared by the use of MS Excel worksheet software as well as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results revealed that among all five wood glues tested in the laboratory to three different wood species, Coral performed much better with the average shear strength 4.18 N/mm2, 3.23 N/mm2 and 5.42 N/mm2 for Cypress, Teak and Eucalyptus respectively. This displays that for a strong joint to be formed to all tree wood species for soft wood and hard wood, Coral has a first priority in use. The developed table of guideline from this research can be useful to carpenters on proper glue selection to a particular wood species so as to meet glue-bond strength. This will secure furniture market as well as reduce pressure to the forests for furniture production because of the strong existing furniture due to their strong joints. Indeed, this can be a good strategy on reducing climate change speed in tropics which result from high deforestation of trees for furniture production.

Keywords: climate change, deforestation, gluing technology, joint failure, wood-glue, wood species

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65 Mayan Culture and Attitudes towards Sustainability

Authors: Sarah Ryu


Agricultural methods and ecological approaches employed by the pre-colonial Mayans may provide valuable insights into forest management and viable alternatives for resource sustainability in the face of major deforestation across Central and South America.Using a combination of observation data collected from the modern indigenous inhabitants near Mixco in Guatemala and historical data, this study was able to create a holistic picture of how the Maya maintained their ecosystems. Surveys and observations were conducted in the field, over a period of twelve weeks across two years. Geographic and archaeological data for this area was provided by Guatemalan organizations such as the Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. Observations of current indigenous populations around Mixco showed that they adhered to traditional Mayan methods of agriculture, such as terrace construction and arboriculture. Rather than planting one cash crop as was done by the Spanish, indigenous peoples practice agroforestry, cultivating forests that would provide trees for construction material, wild plant foods, habitat for game, and medicinal herbs. The emphasis on biodiversity prevented deforestation and created a sustainable balance between human consumption and forest regrowth. Historical data provided by MayaSim showed that the Mayans successfully maintained their ecosystems from about 800BCE to 700CE. When the Mayans practiced natural resource conservation and cultivated a harmonious relationship with the forest around them, they were able to thrive and prosper alongside nature. Having lasted over a thousand years, the Mayan empire provides a valuable lesson in sustainability and human attitudes towards the environment.

Keywords: biodiversity, forestry, mayan, sustainability

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64 Environment-Friendly Biogas Technology: Comparative Analysis of Benefits as Perceived by Biogas Users and Non-User Livestock Farmers of Tehsil Jhang

Authors: Anees Raza, Liu Chunyan


Renewable energy technologies are need of the time and are already making the big impact in the climatic outlook of the world. Biogas technology is one of those, and it has a lot of benefits for its users. It is cost effective because it is produced from the raw material which is available free of cost to the livestock farmers. Bio-slurry, a by-product of biogas, is being used as fertilizer for the crops production and increasing soil fertility. There are many other household benefits of technology. Research paper discusses the benefits of biogas as perceived by the biogas users as well as non-users of Tehsil Jhang. Data were collected from 60 respondents (30 users and 30 non-users) selected purposively through validated and pre-tested interview schedule from the respondents. Collected data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Household benefits like ‘makes cooking easy,’ ‘Less breathing issues for working women in kitchens’ and ‘Use of bio-slurry as organic fertilizer’ had the highly significant relationship between them with t-values of 3.24, 4.39 and 2.80 respectively. Responses of the respondents about environmental benefits of biogas technology showed that ‘less air pollution’ had a significant relationship between them while ‘less temperature rise up than due to the burning of wood /dung’ had the non-significant relationship in the responses of interviewed respondents. It was clear from the research that biogas users were becoming influential in convincing non-users to adopt this technology due to its noticeable benefits. Research area where people were depending on wood to be used as fire fuel could be helped in reduction of cutting of trees which will help in controlling deforestation and saving the environment.People should be encouraged in using of biogas technology through providing them subsidies and low mark up loans.

Keywords: biogas technology, deforestation, environmental benefits, renewable energy

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63 Raising Forest Voices: A Cross-Country Comparative Study of Indigenous Peoples’ Engagement with Grassroots Climate Change Mitigation Projects in the Initial Pilot Phase of Community-Based Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation

Authors: Karl D. Humm


The United Nations’ Community-based REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) (CBR+) is a programme that directly finances grassroots climate change mitigation strategies that uplift Indigenous Peoples (IPs) and other marginalised groups. A pilot for it in six countries was developed in response to criticism of the REDD+ programme for excluding IPs from dialogues about climate change mitigation strategies affecting their lands and livelihoods. Despite the pilot’s conclusion in 2017, no complete report has yet been produced on the results of CBR+. To fill this gap, this study investigated the experiences with involving IPs in the CBR+ programmes and local projects across all six pilot countries. A literature review of official UN reports and academic articles identified challenges and successes with IP participation in REDD+ which became the basis for a framework guiding data collection. A mixed methods approach was used to collect and analyse qualitative and quantitative data from CBR+ documents and written interviews with CBR+ National Coordinators in each country for a cross-country comparative analysis. The study found that the most frequent challenges were lack of organisational capacity, illegal forest activities, and historically-based contentious relationships in IP and forest-dependent communities. Successful programmes included IPs and incorporated respect and recognition of IPs as major stakeholders in managing sustainable forests. Findings are summarized and shared with a set of recommendations for improvement of future projects.

Keywords: climate change, forests, indigenous peoples, REDD+

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62 Land Use Dynamics of Ikere Forest Reserve, Nigeria Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Akintunde Alo


The incessant encroachments into the forest ecosystem by the farmers and local contractors constitute a major threat to the conservation of genetic resources and biodiversity in Nigeria. To propose a viable monitoring system, this study employed Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to assess the changes that occurred for a period of five years (between 2011 and 2016) in Ikere forest reserve. Landsat imagery of the forest reserve was obtained. For the purpose of geo-referencing the acquired satellite imagery, ground-truth coordinates of some benchmark places within the forest reserve was relied on. Supervised classification algorithm, image processing, vectorization and map production were realized using ArcGIS. Various land use systems within the forest ecosystem were digitized into polygons of different types and colours for 2011 and 2016, roads were represented with lines of different thickness and colours. Of the six land-use delineated, the grassland increased from 26.50 % in 2011 to 45.53% in 2016 of the total land area with a percentage change of 71.81 %. Plantations of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis on the other hand reduced from 62.16 % in 2011 to 27.41% in 2016. The farmland and degraded land recorded percentage change of about 176.80 % and 8.70 % respectively from 2011 to 2016. Overall, the rate of deforestation in the study area is on the increase and becoming severe. About 72.59% of the total land area has been converted to non-forestry uses while the remnant 27.41% is occupied by plantations of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis. Interestingly, over 55 % of the plantation area in 2011 has changed to grassland, or converted to farmland and degraded land in 2016. The rate of change over time was about 9.79 % annually. Based on the results, rapid actions to prevail on the encroachers to stop deforestation and encouraged re-afforestation in the study area are recommended.

Keywords: land use change, forest reserve, satellite imagery, geographical information system

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61 Impact of Private Oil Palm Expansion on Indonesia Tropical Forest Deforestation Rate: Case Study in the Province of Riau

Authors: Arzyana Sunkar, Yanto Santosa, Intan Purnamasari, Yohanna Dalimunthe


A variety of negative allegations have criticized the Indonesian oil palm plantations as being environmentally unfriendly. One of the important allegations thus must be verified is that expansion of Indonesian oil palm plantation has increased the deforestation rate of primary tropical forest. In relation to this, a research was conducted to study the origin or history of the status and land use of 8 private oil palm plantations (with a total of 46,372.38 ha) located in Riau Province. Several methods were employed: (1) conducting analysis of overlay maps between oil palm plantation studied with the 1986 Forest Map Governance Agreement (TGHK) and the 1994 and 2014 Riau Provincial Spatial Plans(RTRWP); (2) studying the Cultivation Right on Land (HGU) documents including the Forestry Ministerial Decree on the release of forest area and (3) interpretation of lands at imagery of bands 542, covering 3 years before and after the oil palm industries operated. In addition, field cross-checked, and interviews were conducted with National Land Agency, Plantation and Forestry Office and community figures. The results indicated that as much as 1.95% of the oil palm plantations under study were converted from production forest, 30.34% from limited production forest and 67.70% from area for other usage /conversion production forest. One year prior to the establishment of the plantations, the land cover types comprised of rubber plantations (49.96%), secondary forest (35.99%), bare land (10.17%), shrubs (3.03%) and mixed dryland farming-shrubs (0.84%), whereas the land use types comprised of 35.99% forest concession areas, 14.04% migrants dryland farms, and 49.96% Cultivation Right on Land of other companies. These results indicated that most of the private oil palm plantations under study, resulted from the conversion of production forests and the previous land use were not primary forest but rubber plantations and secondary forests.

Keywords: land cover types, land use history, primary forest, private oil palm plantations

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60 Role of Community Based Forest Management to Address Climate Change Problem: A Case of Nepalese Community Forestry

Authors: Bikram Jung Kunwar


Forests have central roles in climate change. The conservation of forests sequestrates the carbon from the atmosphere and also regulates the carbon cycle. However, knowingly and unknowingly the world’s forests were deforested and degraded annually at the rate of 0.18% and emitted the carbon to the atmosphere. The IPCC reports claimed that the deforestation and forest degradation accounts 1/5th of total carbon emission, which is second position after fossil fuels. Since 1.6 billion people depend on varying degree on forests for their daily livelihood, not all deforestation are undesirable. Therefore, to conserve the forests and find the livelihood opportunities for forest surrounding people is prerequisites to address the climate change problems especially in developing countries, and also a growing concern to the forestry sector researchers, planners and policy makers. The study examines the role of community based forest management in carbon mitigation and adaptation taking the examples of Nepal’s community forestry program. In the program, the government hands over a part of national forests to the local communities with sole forest management authorities. However, the government itself retained the ownership rights of forestland. Local communities organized through a local institution called Community Forest User Group (CFUG) managed the forests. They also formed an operational plan with technical prescriptions and a constitution with forest management rules and regulations. The implementation results showed that the CFUGs are not only found effective to organize the local people and construct a local institution to forest conservation and management activities, but also they are able to collect a community fund from the sale of forest products and carried out various community development activities. These development activities have decisive roles to improve the livelihood of forest surrounding people and eventually to address the climate change problems.

Keywords: climate change, community forestry, local institution, Nepal

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59 Carbon Sequestration Modeling in the Implementation of REDD+ Programmes in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwafemi Samuel Oyamakin


The forest in Nigeria is currently estimated to extend to around 9.6 million hectares, but used to expand over central and southern Nigeria decades ago. The forest estate is shrinking due to long-term human exploitation for agricultural development, fuel wood demand, uncontrolled forest harvesting and urbanization, amongst other factors, compounded by population growth in rural areas. Nigeria has lost more than 50% of its forest cover since 1990 and currently less than 10% of the country is forested. The current deforestation rate is estimated at 3.7%, which is one of the highest in the world. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks constituted what is referred to as REDD+. This study evaluated some of the existing way of computing carbon stocks using eight indigenous tree species like Mansonia, Shorea, Bombax, Terminalia superba, Khaya grandifolia, Khaya senegalenses, Pines and Gmelina arborea. While these components are the essential elements of REDD+ programme, they can be brought under a broader framework of systems analysis designed to arrive at optimal solutions for future predictions through statistical distribution pattern of carbon sequestrated by various species of tree. Available data on height and diameter of trees in Ibadan were studied and their respective potentials of carbon sequestration level were assessed and subjected to tests so as to determine the best statistical distribution that would describe the carbon sequestration pattern of trees. The result of this study suggests a reasonable statistical distribution for carbons sequestered in simulation studies and hence, allow planners and government in determining resources forecast for sustainable development especially where experiments with real-life systems are infeasible. Sustainable management of forest can then be achieved by projecting future condition of forests under different management regimes thereby supporting conservation and REDD+ programmes in Nigeria.

Keywords: REDD+, carbon, climate change, height and diameter

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58 A Deforestation Dilemma: An Integrated Approach to Conservation and Development in Madagascar

Authors: Tara Moore


Madagascar is one of the regions of the world with the highest biodiversity, with more than 600 new species discovered in just the last decade. In parallel with its record-breaking biodiversity, Madagascar is also the tenth poorest country in the world. The resultant socio-economic pressures are leading to a highly threatened environment. In particular, deforestation is at the core of biodiversity and ecosystem loss, primarily from slash and burn agriculture and illegal rosewood tree harvesting. Effective policy response is imperative for improved conservation in Madagascar. However, these changes cannot come from the current, unstable government institutions. After a violent and politically turbulent coup in 2009, any effort to defend Madagascar's biodiversity has been eclipsed by the high corruption of government bodies. This paper presents three policy options designed for a private donor to invest in conservation in Madagascar. The first proposed policy consists of payments for ecosystem services model, which involves paying local Malagasy women to reforest nearby territories. The second option is a micro-irrigation system proposal involving relocating local Malagasy out of the threatened forest region. The final proposition is captive breeding funding for the Madagascar Fauna and Flora Group, which could then lead to new reintroductions in the threatened northeastern rainforests. In the end, all three options present feasible, impactful options for a conservation-minded major donor. Ideally, the policy change would involve a combination of all three options, as each provides necessary development and conservation re-structuring goals. Option one, payments for ecosystem services, would be the preferred choice if there were only enough funding for one project. The payments for ecosystem services project both support local populations and promotes sustainable development while reforesting the threatened Marojejy National Park. Regardless of the chosen policy solution, any support from a donor will make a huge impact if it supports both sustainable development and biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: captive breeding, cnservation policy, lemur conservation, Madagascar conservation, payments for ecosystem services

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