Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 529

Search results for: defects

529 Analyzing Defects with Failure Assessment Diagrams of Gas Pipelines

Authors: Alfred Hasanaj , Ardit Gjeta, Miranda Kullolli

Abstract:

The approach in analyzing defects on different pipe lines is conducted through Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD). These methods of analyses have further extended in recent years. This approach is used to identify and stress out a solution for the defects which randomly occur with gas pipes such are corrosion defects, gauge defects, and combination of defects where gauge and dents are included. Few of the defects are to be analyzed in this paper where our main focus will be the fracture of cast Iron pipes, elastic-plastic failure and plastic collapse of X52 steel pipes for gas transport. We need to conduct a calculation of probability of the defects in order to predict and avoid such costly defects.

Keywords: defects, failure assessment diagrams, steel pipes, safety factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
528 Automatic Detection of Defects in Ornamental Limestone Using Wavelets

Authors: Maria C. Proença, Marco Aniceto, Pedro N. Santos, José C. Freitas

Abstract:

A methodology based on wavelets is proposed for the automatic location and delimitation of defects in limestone plates. Natural defects include dark colored spots, crystal zones trapped in the stone, areas of abnormal contrast colors, cracks or fracture lines, and fossil patterns. Although some of these may or may not be considered as defects according to the intended use of the plate, the goal is to pair each stone with a map of defects that can be overlaid on a computer display. These layers of defects constitute a database that will allow the preliminary selection of matching tiles of a particular variety, with specific dimensions, for a requirement of N square meters, to be done on a desktop computer rather than by a two-hour search in the storage park, with human operators manipulating stone plates as large as 3 m x 2 m, weighing about one ton. Accident risks and work times are reduced, with a consequent increase in productivity. The base for the algorithm is wavelet decomposition executed in two instances of the original image, to detect both hypotheses – dark and clear defects. The existence and/or size of these defects are the gauge to classify the quality grade of the stone products. The tuning of parameters that are possible in the framework of the wavelets corresponds to different levels of accuracy in the drawing of the contours and selection of the defects size, which allows for the use of the map of defects to cut a selected stone into tiles with minimum waste, according the dimension of defects allowed.

Keywords: automatic detection, defects, fracture lines, wavelets

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
527 Reduction of Defects Using Seven Quality Control Tools for Productivity Improvement at Automobile Company

Authors: Abdul Sattar Jamali, Imdad Ali Memon, Maqsood Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

Quality of production near to zero defects is an objective of every manufacturing and service organization. In order to maintain and improve the quality by reduction in defects, Statistical tools are being used by any organizations. There are many statistical tools are available to assess the quality. Keeping in view the importance of many statistical tools, traditional 7QC tools has been used in any manufacturing and automobile Industry. Therefore, the 7QC tools have been successfully applied at one of the Automobile Company Pakistan. Preliminary survey has been done for the implementation of 7QC tool in the assembly line of Automobile Industry. During preliminary survey two inspection points were decided to collect the data, which are Chassis line and trim line. The data for defects at Chassis line and trim line were collected for reduction in defects which ultimately improve productivity. Every 7QC tools has its benefits observed from the results. The flow charts developed for better understanding about inspection point for data collection. The check sheets developed for helps for defects data collection. Histogram represents the severity level of defects. Pareto charts show the cumulative effect of defects. The Cause and Effect diagrams developed for finding the root causes of each defects. Scatter diagram developed the relation of defects increasing or decreasing. The P-Control charts developed for showing out of control points beyond the limits for corrective actions. The successful implementation of 7QC tools at the inspection points at Automobile Industry concluded that the considerable amount of reduction on defects level, as in Chassis line from 132 defects to 13 defects. The total 90% defects were reduced in Chassis Line. In Trim line defects were reduced from 157 defects to 28 defects. The total 82% defects were reduced in Trim Line. As the Automobile Company exercised only few of the 7 QC tools, not fully getting the fruits by the application of 7 QC tools. Therefore, it is suggested the company may need to manage a mechanism for the application of 7 QC tools at every section.

Keywords: check sheet, cause and effect diagram, control chart, histogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
526 Taguchi Approach for the Optimization of the Stitching Defects of Knitted Garments

Authors: Adel El-Hadidy

Abstract:

For any industry, the production and quality management or wastages reductions have major impingement on overall factory economy. This work discusses the quality improvement of garment industry by applying Pareto analysis, cause and effect diagram and Taguchi experimental design. The main purpose of the work is to reduce the stitching defects, which will also minimize the rejection and reworks rate. Application of Pareto chart, fish bone diagram and Process Sigma Level/and or Performance Level tools helps solving those problems on priority basis. Among all, only sewing, defects are responsible form 69.3% to 97.3 % of total defects. Process Sigma level has been improved from 0.79 to 1.3 and performance rate improved, from F to D level. The results showed that the new set of sewing parameters was superior to the original one. It can be seen that fabric size has the largest effect on the sewing defects and that needle size has the smallest effect on the stitching defects.

Keywords: garment, sewing defects, cost of rework, DMAIC, sigma level, cause and effect diagram, Pareto analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
525 Deviations and Defects of the Sub-Task’s Requirements in Construction Projects

Authors: Abdullah Almusharraf, Andrew Whyte

Abstract:

The sub-task pattern in terms of the deviations and defects should be identified and understand in order to improve the quality practices in construction projects. Therefore, the sub-task susceptibility to exposure to deviations and defects have been evaluated and classified via six classifications that have proposed in this study. 34 case studies on specific sub-task (from compression member in construction concrete structure) have been collected from seven construction projects in order to examined study’s classifications. The study revealed that the sub-task has high sensitive to deviation where (91%) of the cases recorded as deviations, however, only (19%) of cases recorded as defects. Another findings were that the actual work during the execution process has high source of deviation for this sub-task (74%) while only (26%) of the deviation source was due to both design documentations with the actual work. These findings significantly imply that it could be used the study’s classifications to determine the pattern of each sub-task and develop the proactive actions to overcome issues of the sub-task deviations and defects.

Keywords: sub-tasks, deviations, defects, quality, construction projects

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
524 Mesoscopic Defects of Forming and Induced Properties on the Impact of a Composite Glass/Polyester

Authors: Bachir Kacimi, Fatiha Teklal, Arezki Djebbar

Abstract:

Forming processes induce residual deformations on the reinforcement and sometimes lead to mesoscopic defects, which are more recurrent than macroscopic defects during the manufacture of complex structural parts. This study deals with the influence of the fabric shear and buckles defects, which appear during draping processes of composite, on the impact behavior of a glass fiber reinforced polymer. To achieve this aim, we produced several specimens with different amplitude of deformations (shear) and defects on the fabric using a specific bench. The specimens were manufactured using the contact molding and tested with several impact energies. The results and measurements made on tested specimens were compared to those of the healthy material. The results showed that the buckle defects have a negative effect on elastic parameters and revealed a larger damage with significant out-of-plane mode relatively to the healthy composite material. This effect is the consequence of a local fiber impoverishment and a disorganization of the fibrous network, with a reorientation of the fibers following the out-of-plane buckling of the yarns, in the area where the defects are located. For the material with calibrated shear of the reinforcement, the increased local fiber rate due to the shear deformations and the contribution to stiffness of the transverse yarns led to an increase in mechanical properties.

Keywords: Defects, Forming, Impact, Induced properties, Textiles

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523 Ab-Initio Study of Native Defects in SnO Under Strain

Authors: A. Albar, D. B. Granato, U. Schwingenschlogl

Abstract:

Tin monoxide (SnO) has promising properties to be applied as a p-type semiconductor in transparent electronics. To this end, it is necessary to understand the behavior of defects in order to control them. We use density functional theory to study native defects of SnO under tensile and compressive strain. We show that Sn vacancies are more stable under tension and less stable under compression, irrespectively of the charge state. In contrast, O vacancies behave differently for different charge. It turns out that the most stable defect under compression is the +1 charged O vacancy in a Sn-rich environment and the charge neutral O interstitial in an O-rich environment. Therefore, compression can be used to transform SnO from an n-type into un-doped semiconductor.

Keywords: native defects, ab-initio, point defect, tension, compression, semiconductor

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
522 Statistical Characteristics of Distribution of Radiation-Induced Defects under Random Generation

Authors: P. Selyshchev

Abstract:

We consider fluctuations of defects density taking into account their interaction. Stochastic field of displacement generation rate gives random defect distribution. We determinate statistical characteristics (mean and dispersion) of random field of point defect distribution as function of defect generation parameters, temperature and properties of irradiated crystal.

Keywords: irradiation, primary defects, interaction, fluctuations

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
521 Effect of Low Level Laser on Healing of Congenital Septal Defects on Dogs

Authors: Hady Atef, Zinab Helmy, Heba Abdeen, Mostafa Fadel

Abstract:

Background and purpose: After the success of the first trials of this experiment which were done on rabbits, a new study were conducted on dogs to ensure the past results; in a step forward to use low-level LASER therapy in the treatment of congenital septal defects in infants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level LASER irradiation on congenital septal defects in dogs. Subjects and Methodology: six male dogs who have congenital septal defects in their hearts -with age ranged 6-10 months- enrolled in this study for one and half months. They were assigned into two groups: Group (A): The study group consisted of 3 canine hearts who received routine animal care associated with LASER irradiation. Group (B): The control group consisted of 3 canine hearts who received only routine animal care. Sizes of the septal defects were measured for both groups at the beginning and after the end of the study. Results: There was a significant decrease in the size of the diameter of the congenital septal defect with the study group (percentage of improvement was 42.19%) when compared with control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that low-level LASER therapy can be considered as a promising therapy for congenital heart defects in animals and to be examined on children with similar congenital lesions after then.

Keywords: laser, congenital septal defects, dogs, infants

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
520 Reducing Defects through Organizational Learning within a Housing Association Environment

Authors: T. Hopkin, S. Lu, P. Rogers, M. Sexton

Abstract:

Housing Associations (HAs) contribute circa 20% of the UK’s housing supply. HAs are however under increasing pressure as a result of funding cuts and rent reductions. Due to the increased pressure, a number of processes are currently being reviewed by HAs, especially how they manage and learn from defects. Learning from defects is considered a useful approach to achieving defect reduction within the UK housebuilding industry. This paper contributes to our understanding of how HAs learn from defects by undertaking an initial round table discussion with key HA stakeholders as part of an ongoing collaborative research project with the National House Building Council (NHBC) to better understand how house builders and HAs learn from defects to reduce their prevalence. The initial discussion shows that defect information runs through a number of groups, both internal and external of a HA during both the defects management process and organizational learning (OL) process. Furthermore, HAs are reliant on capturing and recording defect data as the foundation for the OL process. During the OL process defect data analysis is the primary enabler to recognizing a need for a change to organizational routines. When a need for change has been recognized, new options are typically pursued to design out defects via updates to a HAs Employer’s Requirements. Proposed solutions are selected by a review board and committed to organizational routine. After implementing a change, both structured and unstructured feedback is sought to establish the change’s success. The findings from the HA discussion demonstrates that OL can achieve defect reduction within the house building sector in the UK. The paper concludes by outlining a potential ‘learning from defects model’ for the housebuilding industry as well as describing future work.

Keywords: defects, new homes, housing association, organizational learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
519 Iterative Segmentation and Application of Hausdorff Dilation Distance in Defect Detection

Authors: S. Shankar Bharathi

Abstract:

Inspection of surface defects on metallic components has always been challenging due to its specular property. Occurrences of defects such as scratches, rust, pitting are very common in metallic surfaces during the manufacturing process. These defects if unchecked can hamper the performance and reduce the life time of such component. Many of the conventional image processing algorithms in detecting the surface defects generally involve segmentation techniques, based on thresholding, edge detection, watershed segmentation and textural segmentation. They later employ other suitable algorithms based on morphology, region growing, shape analysis, neural networks for classification purpose. In this paper the work has been focused only towards detecting scratches. Global and other thresholding techniques were used to extract the defects, but it proved to be inaccurate in extracting the defects alone. However, this paper does not focus on comparison of different segmentation techniques, but rather describes a novel approach towards segmentation combined with hausdorff dilation distance. The proposed algorithm is based on the distribution of the intensity levels, that is, whether a certain gray level is concentrated or evenly distributed. The algorithm is based on extraction of such concentrated pixels. Defective images showed higher level of concentration of some gray level, whereas in non-defective image, there seemed to be no concentration, but were evenly distributed. This formed the basis in detecting the defects in the proposed algorithm. Hausdorff dilation distance based on mathematical morphology was used to strengthen the segmentation of the defects.

Keywords: metallic surface, scratches, segmentation, hausdorff dilation distance, machine vision

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
518 Non Destructive Testing for Evaluation of Defects and Interfaces in Metal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrids

Authors: H.-G. Herrmann, M. Schwarz, J. Summa, F. Grossmann

Abstract:

In this work, different non-destructive testing methods for the characterization of defects and interfaces are presented. It is shown that, by means of active thermography, defects in the interface and in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) itself can be detected and determined. The bonding of metal and thermoplastic can be characterized very well by ultrasonic testing with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Mechanical testing is combined with passive thermography to correlate mechanical values with the defect-size. There is also a comparison between active and passive thermography. Mechanical testing shows the influence of different defects. Furthermore, a correlation of defect-size and loading to rupture was performed.

 

Keywords: defect evaluation, EMAT, mechanical testing, thermography

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
517 Defect Management Life Cycle Process for Software Quality Improvement

Authors: Aedah Abd Rahman, Nurdatillah Hasim

Abstract:

Software quality issues require special attention especially in view of the demands of quality software product to meet customer satisfaction. Software development projects in most organisations need proper defect management process in order to produce high quality software product and reduce the number of defects. The research question of this study is how to produce high quality software and reducing the number of defects. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a framework for managing software defects by following defined life cycle processes. The methodology starts by reviewing defects, defect models, best practices and standards. A framework for defect management life cycle is proposed. The major contribution of this study is to define a defect management road map in software development. The adoption of an effective defect management process helps to achieve the ultimate goal of producing high quality software products and contributes towards continuous software process improvement.

Keywords: defects, defect management, life cycle process, software quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
516 Improvement of the 3D Finite Element Analysis of High Voltage Power Transformer Defects in Time Domain

Authors: M. Rashid Hussain, Shady S. Refaat

Abstract:

The high voltage power transformer is the most essential part of the electrical power utilities. Reliability on the transformers is the utmost concern, and any failure of the transformers can lead to catastrophic losses in electric power utility. The causes of transformer failure include insulation failure by partial discharge, core and tank failure, cooling unit failure, current transformer failure, etc. For the study of power transformer defects, finite element analysis (FEA) can provide valuable information on the severity of defects. FEA provides a more accurate representation of complex geometries because they consider thermal, electrical, and environmental influences on the insulation models to obtain basic characteristics of the insulation system during normal and partial discharge conditions. The purpose of this paper is the time domain analysis of defects 3D model of high voltage power transformer using FEA to study the electric field distribution at different points on the defects.

Keywords: power transformer, finite element analysis, dielectric response, partial discharge, insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
515 Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Midfacial: Nasal Defects

Authors: Bilal Ahmed

Abstract:

Rehabilitation of congenital and acquired maxillofacial defects is always a challenging clinical scenario. These defects pose major physiological and psychological threat not only to the patient but to the entire family. There has been an enormous scientific development in maxillofacial rehabilitation with the advent of CAD CAM, 3-D scanning, Osseo-integrated implants and improved restorative materials. There are also specialized centers with latest diagnostic and treatment facilities in the developed countries. However, in certain clinical case scenarios, conventional prosthodontic principles are still the gold standards. Similarly in a less developed world, financial and technical constraints are factors affecting treatment planning and final outcomes. However, we can do a lot of benefits to the affected human beings, even with use of simple and cost-effective conventional prosthodontic techniques and materials. These treatment strategies may sometimes be considered as intermediate or temporary options, but with regular follow-up maintenance these can be used on a definitive basis.

Keywords: maxillofacial defects, obturators, prosthodontics, medical and health sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
514 A Practical and Theoretical Study on the Electromotor Bearing Defect Detection in a Wet Mill Using the Vibration Analysis Method and Defect Length Calculation in the Bearing

Authors: Mostafa Firoozabadi, Alireza Foroughi Nematollahi

Abstract:

Wet mills are one of the most important equipment in the mining industries and any defect occurrence in them can stop the production line and it can make some irrecoverable damages to the system. Electromotors are the significant parts of a mill and their monitoring is a necessary process to prevent unwanted defects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Electromotor bearing defects, theoretically and practically, using the vibration analysis method. When a defect happens in a bearing, it can be transferred to the other parts of the equipment like inner ring, outer ring, balls, and the bearing cage. The electromotor defects source can be electrical or mechanical. Sometimes, the electrical and mechanical defect frequencies are modulated and the bearing defect detection becomes difficult. In this paper, to detect the electromotor bearing defects, the electrical and mechanical defect frequencies are extracted firstly. Then, by calculating the bearing defect frequencies, and the spectrum and time signal analysis, the bearing defects are detected. In addition, the obtained frequency determines that the bearing level in which the defect has happened and by comparing this level to the standards it determines the bearing remaining lifetime. Finally, the defect length is calculated by theoretical equations to demonstrate that there is no need to replace the bearing. The results of the proposed method, which has been implemented on the wet mills in the Golgohar mining and industrial company in Iran, show that this method is capable of detecting the electromotor bearing defects accurately and on time.

Keywords: bearing defect length, defect frequency, electromotor defects, vibration analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
513 Understanding the Information in Principal Component Analysis of Raman Spectroscopic Data during Healing of Subcritical Calvarial Defects

Authors: Rafay Ahmed, Condon Lau

Abstract:

Bone healing is a complex and sequential process involving changes at the molecular level. Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique to study bone mineral and matrix environments simultaneously. In this study, subcritical calvarial defects are used to study bone composition during healing without discomposing the fracture. The model allowed to monitor the natural healing of bone avoiding mechanical harm to the callus. Calvarial defects were created using 1mm burr drill in the parietal bones of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8) that served in vivo defects. After 7 days, their skulls were harvested after euthanizing. One additional defect per sample was created on the opposite parietal bone using same calvarial defect procedure to serve as control defect. Raman spectroscopy (785 nm) was established to investigate bone parameters of three different skull surfaces; in vivo defects, control defects and normal surface. Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized for the data analysis and interpretation of Raman spectra and helped in the classification of groups. PCA was able to distinguish in vivo defects from normal surface and control defects. PC1 shows that the major variation at 958 cm⁻¹, which corresponds to ʋ1 phosphate mineral band. PC2 shows the major variation at 1448 cm⁻¹ which is the characteristic band of CH2 deformation and corresponds to collagens. Raman parameters, namely, mineral to matrix ratio and crystallinity was found significantly decreased in the in vivo defects compared to surface and controls. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope images show the formation of newly generated matrix by means of bony bridges of collagens. Optical profiler shows that surface roughness increased by 30% from controls to in vivo defects after 7 days. These results agree with Raman assessment parameters and confirm the new collagen formation during healing.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, principal component analysis, calvarial defects, tissue characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
512 Financial Instruments of Islamic Banking: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Rukhsana Shaheen, Tahira Ifraq

Abstract:

Interest based transactions led the advent of Islamic banking. In order to provide an alternative to Interest based banking, financial transactions found in classical books of fiqh were employed. Musharakah, Mudarabah, Murabahah Salam, Ijara, and some other modes were adopted. These modes were modified so that they can be adopted for banking and satisfy the needs of customers. Since the inception of Islamic banking, these modes are being used and with the passage of time, are being molded and experimented with to cater different kinds of customers and requirements. Human efforts cannot be errorless. These modes too bear legal defects which need an in-depth scrutiny and refinement. The aim of this paper is to dig the basis and rulings of these modes in classical books of fiqh and analyze its modification and adoption in Islamic banking and the legal defects that these modes are bearing. Paper will prove itself fruitful by providing remedies for the legal defects.

Keywords: financial instruments, legal defects, remedies, Islamic banking

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
511 Defect-Based Urgency Index for Bridge Maintenance Ranking and Prioritization

Authors: Saleh Abu Dabous, Khaled Hamad, Rami Al-Ruzouq

Abstract:

Bridge condition assessment and rating provide essential information needed for bridge management. This paper reviews bridge inspection and condition rating practices and introduces a defect-based urgency index. The index is estimated at the element-level based on the extent and severity of the different defects typical to the bridge element. The urgency index approach has the following advantages: (1) It facilitates judgment submission, i.e. instead of rating the bridge element with a specific linguistic overall expression (which can be subjective and used differently by different people), the approach is based on assessing the defects; (2) It captures multiple defects that can be present within a deteriorated element; and (3) It reflects how critical the element is through quantifying critical defects and their severity. The approach can be further developed and validated. It is expected to be useful for practical purposes as an early-warning system for critical bridge elements.

Keywords: condition rating, deterioration, inspection, maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
510 Magnetic Field Effects on Parabolic Graphene Quantum Dots with Topological Defects

Authors: Defne Akay, Bekir S. Kandemir

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the low-lying energy levels of the two-dimensional parabolic graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in the presence of topological defects with long range Coulomb impurity and subjected to an external uniform magnetic field. The low-lying energy levels of the system are obtained within the framework of the perturbation theory. We theoretically demonstrate that a valley splitting can be controlled by geometrical parameters of the graphene quantum dots and/or by tuning a uniform magnetic field, as well as topological defects. It is found that, for parabolic graphene dots, the valley splitting occurs due to the introduction of spatial confinement. The corresponding splitting is enhanced by the introduction of a uniform magnetic field and it increases by increasing the angle of the cone in subcritical regime.

Keywords: coulomb impurity, graphene cones, graphene quantum dots, topological defects

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
509 The Integrated Strategy of Maintenance with a Scientific Analysis

Authors: Mahmoud Meckawey

Abstract:

This research is dealing with one of the most important aspects of maintenance fields, that is Maintenance Strategy. It's the branch which concerns the concepts and the schematic thoughts in how to manage maintenance and how to deal with the defects in the engineering products (buildings, machines, etc.) in general. Through the papers we will act with the followings: i) The Engineering Product & the Technical Systems: When we act with the maintenance process, in a strategic view, we act with an (engineering product) which consists of multi integrated systems. In fact, there is no engineering product with only one system. We will discuss and explain this topic, through which we will derivate a developed definition for the maintenance process. ii) The factors or basis of the functionality efficiency: That is the main factors affect the functional efficiency of the systems and the engineering products, then by this way we can give a technical definition of defects and how they occur. iii) The legality of occurrence of defects (Legal defects and Illegal defects): with which we assume that all the factors of the functionality efficiency been applied, and then we will discuss the results. iv) The Guarantee, the Functional Span Age and the Technical surplus concepts: In the complementation with the above topic, and associated with the Reliability theorems, where we act with the Probability of Failure state, with which we almost interest with the design stages, that is to check and adapt the design of the elements. But in Maintainability we act in a different way as we act with the actual state of the systems. So, we act with the rest of the story that means we have to act with the complementary part of the probability of failure term which refers to the actual surplus of the functionality for the systems.

Keywords: engineering product and technical systems, functional span age, legal and illegal defects, technical and functional surplus

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508 Native Point Defects in ZnO

Authors: A. M. Gsiea, J. P. Goss, P. R. Briddon, Ramadan. M. Al-habashi, K. M. Etmimi, Khaled. A. S. Marghani

Abstract:

Using first-principles methods based on density functional theory and pseudopotentials, we have performed a details study of native defects in ZnO. Native point defects are unlikely to be cause of the unintentional n-type conductivity. Oxygen vacancies, which considered most often been invoked as shallow donors, have high formation energies in n-type ZnO, in edition are a deep donors. Zinc interstitials are shallow donors, with high formation energies in n-type ZnO, and thus unlikely to be responsible on their own for unintentional n-type conductivity under equilibrium conditions, as well as Zn antisites which have higher formation energies than zinc interstitials. Zinc vacancies are deep acceptors with low formation energies for n-type and in which case they will not play role in p-type coductivity of ZnO. Oxygen interstitials are stable in the form of electrically inactive split interstitials as well as deep acceptors at the octahedral interstitial site under n-type conditions. Our results may provide a guide to experimental studies of point defects in ZnO.

Keywords: DFT, native, n-type, ZnO

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507 Excitation Dependent Luminescence in Cr³+ Doped MgAl₂O₄ Nanocrystals

Authors: Savita, Pargam Vashishtha, Govind Gupta, Ankush Vij, Anup Thakur

Abstract:

The ligand field dependent visible as well as NIR emission of the Cr³+dopant in spinel hosts has attracted immense attention in tuning the color emitted by the material. In this research, Mg1-xCrxAl₂O₄(x=0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mol%) nanocrystals have been synthesizedby solution combustion method. The synthesized nanocrystals possessed a single phase cubic structure. The strong absorption by host lattice defects (antisite defects, F centres) andd-d transitions of Cr³+ ions lead to radiative emission in the visible and NIR region, respectively. The red-NIR emission in photoluminescence spectra inferred the octahedral symmetry of Cr³+ ions and anticipated the site distortion by the presence ofCr³+ clusters and antisite defects in the vicinity of Cr³+ ions. The thermoluminescence response of UV and γ-irradiated Cr doped MgAl2O4 samples revealed the formation of various shallow and deep defects with doping Cr³+ions. The induced structural cation disorder with an increase in doping concentration caused photoluminescence quenching beyond 3 mol% Cr³+ doping. The color tuning exhibited by Cr doped MgAl₂O₄ nanocrystals by varying Cr³+ ion concentration and excitation wavelength find its applicability in solid state lighting.

Keywords: antisite defects, cation disorder, color tuning, combustion synthesis

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506 Investigation of the Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Electrically Active Defects in InAs/InGaAs Quantum Dots Laser Structures Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on GaAs Substrates Using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy

Authors: M. Al Huwayz, A. Salhi, S. Alhassan, S. Alotaibi, A. Almalki, M.Almunyif, A. Alhassni, M. Henini

Abstract:

Recently, there has been much research carried out to investigate quantum dots (QDs) lasers with the aim to increase the gain of quantum well lasers. However, one of the difficulties with these structures is that electrically active defects can lead to serious issues in the performance of these devices. It is therefore essential to fully understand the types of defects introduced during the growth and/or the fabrication process. In this study, the effects of Gamma radiation on the electrically active defects in p-i-n InAs/InGaAsQDs laser structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) technique on GaAs substrates were investigated. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), current-voltage (I-V), and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were performed to explore these effects on the electrical properties of these QDs lasers. I-V measurements showed that as-grown sample had better electrical properties than the irradiated sample. However, DLTS and Laplace DLTS measurements at different reverse biases revealed that the defects in the-region of the p-i-n structures were decreased in the irradiated sample. In both samples, a trap with an activation energy of ~ 0.21 eV was assigned to the well-known defect M1 in GaAs layers

Keywords: quantum dots laser structures, gamma radiation, DLTS, defects, nAs/IngaAs

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505 Radiation Effects and Defects in InAs, InP Compounds and Their Solid Solutions InPxAs1-x

Authors: N. Kekelidze, B. Kvirkvelia, E. Khutsishvili, T. Qamushadze, D. Kekelidze, R. Kobaidze, Z. Chubinishvili, N. Qobulashvili, G. Kekelidze

Abstract:

On the basis of InAs, InP and their InPxAs1-x solid solutions, the technologies were developed and materials were created where the electron concentration and optical and thermoelectric properties do not change under the irradiation with Ф = 2∙1018 n/cm2 fluences of fast neutrons high-energy electrons (50 MeV, Ф = 6·1017 e/cm2) and 3 MeV electrons with fluence Ф = 3∙1018 e/cm2. The problem of obtaining such material has been solved, in which under hard irradiation the mobility of the electrons does not decrease, but increases. This material is characterized by high thermal stability up to T = 700 °C. The complex process of defects formation has been analyzed and shown that, despite of hard irradiation, the essential properties of investigated materials are mainly determined by point type defects.

Keywords: InAs, InP, solid solutions, irradiation

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504 A Review on Bone Grafting, Artificial Bone Substitutes and Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Kasun Gayashan Samarawickrama

Abstract:

Bone diseases, defects, and fractions are commonly seen in modern life. Since bone is regenerating dynamic living tissue, it will undergo healing process naturally, it cannot recover from major bone injuries, diseases and defects. In order to overcome them, bone grafting technique was introduced. Gold standard was the best method for bone grafting for the past decades. Due to limitations of gold standard, alternative methods have been implemented. Apart from them artificial bone substitutes and bone tissue engineering have become the emerging methods with technology for bone grafting. Many bone diseases and defects will be healed permanently with these promising techniques in future.

Keywords: bone grafting, gold standard, bone substitutes, bone tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
503 Analysis of Causality between Defect Causes Using Association Rule Mining

Authors: Sangdeok Lee, Sangwon Han, Changtaek Hyun

Abstract:

Construction defects are major components that result in negative impacts on project performance including schedule delays and cost overruns. Since construction defects generally occur when a few associated causes combine, a thorough understanding of defect causality is required in order to more systematically prevent construction defects. To address this issue, this paper uses association rule mining (ARM) to quantify the causality between defect causes, and social network analysis (SNA) to find indirect causality among them. The suggested approach is validated with 350 defect instances from concrete works in 32 projects in Korea. The results show that the interrelationships revealed by the approach reflect the characteristics of the concrete task and the important causes that should be prevented.

Keywords: causality, defect causes, social network analysis, association rule mining

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502 Numerical Study on Response of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFCs) with Defects under Different Load Conditions

Authors: Muhammad Faizan Chinannai, Jaeseung Lee, Mohamed Hassan Gundu, Hyunchul Ju

Abstract:

Fuel cell is known to be an effective renewable energy resource which is commercializing in the present era. It is really important to know about the improvement in performance even when the system faces some defects. This study was carried out to analyze the performance of the Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFCs) under different operating conditions such as current density, relative humidity and Pt loadings considering defects with load changes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the response of the fuel cell system with defects in Balance of Plants (BOPs) and catalyst layer (CL) degradation by maintaining the coolant flow rate as such to preserve the cell temperature at the required level. Multi-Scale Simulation of 3D two-phase PEFC model with coolant was carried out under different load conditions. For detailed analysis and performance comparison, extensive contours of temperature, current density, water content, and relative humidity are provided. The simulation results of the different cases are compared with the reference data. Hence the response of the fuel cell stack with defects in BOP and CL degradations can be analyzed by the temperature difference between the coolant outlet and membrane electrode assembly. The results showed that the Failure of the humidifier increases High-Frequency Resistance (HFR), air flow defects and CL degradation results in the non-uniformity of current density distribution and high cathode activation overpotential, respectively.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, fuel cell modeling, performance analysis, BOP components, current density distribution, degradation

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501 Effect of Ti+ Irradiation on the Photoluminescence of TiO2 Nanofibers

Authors: L. Chetibi, D. Hamana, T. O. Busko, M. P. Kulish, S. Achour

Abstract:

TiO2 nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their optical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties as well as applications including optical coating, photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical solar cells. This work aims to prepare TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) on titanium substrate (Ti) by in situ oxidation of Ti foils in a mixture solution of concentrated H2O2 and NaOH followed by proton exchange and calcinations. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an obvious network of TiO2 nanofibers. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these nanostructures revealed a broad intense band in the visible light range with a reduced near edge band emission. The PL bands in the visible region, mainly, results from surface oxygen vacancies and others defects. After irradiation with Ti+ ions (the irradiation energy was E = 140 keV with doses of 1013 ions/cm2), the intensity of the PL spectrum decreased as a consequence of the radiation treatment. The irradiation with Ti+ leads to a reduction of defects and generation of non irradiative defects near to the level of the conduction band as evidenced by the PL results. On the other hand, reducing the surface defects on TiO2 nanostructures may improve photocatalytic and optoelectronic properties of this nanostructure.

Keywords: TiO2, nanofibers, photoluminescence, irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
500 Deformation Severity Prediction in Sewer Pipelines

Authors: Khalid Kaddoura, Ahmed Assad, Tarek Zayed

Abstract:

Sewer pipelines are prone to deterioration over-time. In fact, their deterioration does not follow a fixed downward pattern. This is in fact due to the defects that propagate through their service life. Sewer pipeline defects are categorized into distinct groups. However, the main two groups are the structural and operational defects. By definition, the structural defects influence the structural integrity of the sewer pipelines such as deformation, cracks, fractures, holes, etc. However, the operational defects are the ones that affect the flow of the sewer medium in the pipelines such as: roots, debris, attached deposits, infiltration, etc. Yet, the process for each defect to emerge follows a cause and effect relationship. Deformation, which is the change of the sewer pipeline geometry, is one type of an influencing defect that could be found in many sewer pipelines due to many surrounding factors. This defect could lead to collapse if the percentage exceeds 15%. Therefore, it is essential to predict the deformation percentage before confronting such a situation. Accordingly, this study will predict the percentage of the deformation defect in sewer pipelines adopting the multiple regression analysis. Several factors will be considered in establishing the model, which are expected to influence the defamation defect severity. Besides, this study will construct a time-based curve to understand how the defect would evolve overtime. Thus, this study is expected to be an asset for decision-makers as it will provide informative conclusions about the deformation defect severity. As a result, inspections will be minimized and so the budgets.

Keywords: deformation, prediction, regression analysis, sewer pipelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 113