Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1619

Search results for: Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM)

1619 Aspen Plus Simulation of Saponification of Ethyl Acetate in the Presence of Sodium Hydroxide in a Plug Flow Reactor

Authors: U. P. L. Wijayarathne, K. C. Wasalathilake


This work presents the modelling and simulation of saponification of ethyl acetate in the presence of sodium hydroxide in a plug flow reactor using Aspen Plus simulation software. Plug flow reactors are widely used in the industry due to the non-mixing property. The use of plug flow reactors becomes significant when there is a need for continuous large scale reaction or fast reaction. Plug flow reactors have a high volumetric unit conversion as the occurrence for side reactions is minimum. In this research Aspen Plus V8.0 has been successfully used to simulate the plug flow reactor. In order to simulate the process as accurately as possible HYSYS Peng-Robinson EOS package was used as the property method. The results obtained from the simulation were verified by the experiment carried out in the EDIBON plug flow reactor module. The correlation coefficient (r2) was 0.98 and it proved that simulation results satisfactorily fit for the experimental model. The developed model can be used as a guide for understanding the reaction kinetics of a plug flow reactor.

Keywords: aspen plus, modelling, plug flow reactor, simulation

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1618 DNA Multiplier: A Design Architecture of a Multiplier Circuit Using DNA Molecules

Authors: Hafiz Md. Hasan Babu, Khandaker Mohammad Mohi Uddin, Nitish Biswas, Sarreha Tasmin Rikta, Nuzmul Hossain Nahid


Nanomedicine and bioengineering use biological systems that can perform computing operations. In a biocomputational circuit, different types of biomolecules and DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) are used as active components. DNA computing has the capability of performing parallel processing and a large storage capacity that makes it diverse from other computing systems. In most processors, the multiplier is treated as a core hardware block, and multiplication is one of the time-consuming and lengthy tasks. In this paper, cost-effective DNA multipliers are designed using algorithms of molecular DNA operations with respect to conventional ones. The speed and storage capacity of a DNA multiplier are also much higher than a traditional silicon-based multiplier.

Keywords: biological systems, DNA multiplier, large storage, parallel processing

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1617 Unsteadiness Effects on Variable Thrust Nozzle Performance

Authors: A. M. Tahsini, S. Tadayon Mousavi


The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the flow unsteady behavior for moving plug in convergent-divergent variable thrust nozzle. Compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations are used to study this physical phenomenon. Different velocities are set for plug to investigate the effect of plug movement on flow unsteadiness. Variation of mass flow rate and thrust are compared under two conditions: First, the plug is placed at different positions and flow is simulated to reach the steady state (quasi steady simulation) and second, the plug is moved with assigned velocity and flow simulation is coupled with plug movement (unsteady simulation). If plug speed is high enough and its movement time scale is at the same order of the flow time scale, variation of the mass flow rate and thrust level versus plug position demonstrate a vital discrepancy under the quasi steady and unsteady conditions. This phenomenon should be considered especially from response time viewpoints in thrusters design.

Keywords: nozzle, numerical study, unsteady, variable thrust

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1616 Solving Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination Problem Using Artificial Bees Colony

Authors: M. H. Hussain, I. Musirin, A. F. Abidin, S. R. A. Rahim


This paper presents the implementation of Artificial Bees Colony (ABC) algorithm in solving Directional OverCurrent Relays (DOCRs) coordination problem for near-end faults occurring in fixed network topology. The coordination optimization of DOCRs is formulated as linear programming (LP) problem. The objective function is introduced to minimize the operating time of the associated relay which depends on the time multiplier setting. The proposed technique is to taken as a technique for comparison purpose in order to highlight its superiority. The proposed algorithms have been tested successfully on 8 bus test system. The simulation results demonstrated that the ABC algorithm which has been proved to have good search ability is capable in dealing with constraint optimization problems.

Keywords: artificial bees colony, directional overcurrent relay coordination problem, relay settings, time multiplier setting

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1615 Application of Optimization Techniques in Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review

Authors: Syed Auon Raza, Tahir Mahmood, Syed Basit Ali Bukhari


In power system properly coordinated protection scheme is designed to make sure that only the faulty part of the system will be isolated when abnormal operating condition of the system will reach. The complexity of the system as well as the increased user demand and the deregulated environment enforce the utilities to improve system reliability by using a properly coordinated protection scheme. This paper presents overview of over current relay coordination techniques. Different techniques such as Deterministic Techniques, Meta Heuristic Optimization techniques, Hybrid Optimization Techniques, and Trial and Error Optimization Techniques have been reviewed in terms of method of their implementation, operation modes, nature of distribution system, and finally their advantages as well as the disadvantages.

Keywords: distribution system, relay coordination, optimization, Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM)

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1614 Designing and Simulation of a CMOS Square Root Analog Multiplier

Authors: Milad Kaboli


A new CMOS low voltage current-mode four-quadrant analog multiplier based on the squarer circuit with voltage output is presented. The proposed circuit is composed of a pair of current subtractors, a pair differential-input V-I converters and a pair of voltage squarers. The circuit was simulated using HSPICE simulator in standard 0.18 μm CMOS level 49 MOSIS (BSIM3 V3.2 SPICE-based). Simulation results show the performance of the proposed circuit and experimental results are given to confirm the operation. This topology of multiplier results in a high-frequency capability with low power consumption. The multiplier operates for a power supply ±1.2V. The simulation results of analog multiplier demonstrate a THD of 0.65% in 10MHz, a −3dB bandwidth of 1.39GHz, and a maximum power consumption of 7.1mW.

Keywords: analog processing circuit, WTA, LTA, low voltage

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1613 Optimization and Design of Current-Mode Multiplier Circuits with Applications in Analog Signal Processing for Gas Industrial Package Systems

Authors: Mohamad Baqer Heidari, Hefzollah.Mohammadian


This brief presents two original implementations of improved accuracy current-mode multiplier/divider circuits. Besides the advantage of their simplicity, these original multiplier/divider structures present the advantage of very small linearity errors that can be obtained as a result of the proposed design techniques (0.75% and 0.9%, respectively, for an extended range of the input currents). The original multiplier/divider circuits permit a facile reconfiguration, the presented structures representing the functional basis for implementing complex function synthesizer circuits. The proposed computational structures are designed for implementing in 0.18-µm CMOS technology, with a low-voltage operation (a supply voltage of 1.2 V). The circuits’ power consumptions are 60 and 75 µW, respectively, while their frequency bandwidths are 79.6 and 59.7 MHz, respectively.

Keywords: analog signal processing, current-mode operation, functional core, multiplier, reconfigurable circuits, industrial package systems

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1612 Stem Covers of Leibniz n-Algebras

Authors: Natália Maria Rego


ALeibnizn-algebraGis aK-vector space endowed whit a n-linearbracket operation [-,…-] : GG … G→ Gsatisfying the fundamental identity, which can be expressed saying that the right multiplication map Ry2, …, ᵧₙ: Gn→ G, Rᵧ₂, …, ᵧₙn(ˣ¹, …, ₓₙ) = [[ˣ¹, …, ₓₙ], ᵧ₂, …, ᵧₙ], is a derivation. This structure, together with its skew-symmetric version, named as Lie n-algebra or Filippov algebra, arose in the setting of Nambumechanics, an n-ary generalization of the Hamiltonian mechanics. Thefirst goal of this work is to provide a characterization of various classes of central extensions of Leibniz n-algebras in terms of homological properties. Namely, Commutator extension, Quasi-commutator extension, Stem extension, and Stem cover. These kind of central extensions are characterized by means of the character of the map *(E): nHL1(G) → M provided by the five-term exact sequence in homology with trivial coefficients of Leibniz n-algebras associated to an extension E : 0 → M → K → G → 0. For a free presentation 0 →R→ F →G→ 0of a Leibniz n-algebra G,the term M(G) = (R[F,…n.., F])/[R, F,..n-1..,F] is called the Schur multiplier of G, which is a Baer invariant, i.e., it does not depend on the chosen free presentation, and it is isomorphic to the first Leibniz n-algebras homology with trivial coefficients of G. A central extension of Leibniz n-algebras is a short exact sequenceE : 0 →M→K→G→ 0such that [M, K,.. ⁿ⁻¹.., K]=0. It is said to be a stem extension if M⊆[G, .. n.., G]. Additionally, if the induced map M(K) → M(G) is the zero map, then the stem extension Eis said to be a stem cover. The second aim of this work is to analyze the interplay between stem covers of Leibniz n-algebras and the Schur multiplier. Concretely, in the case of finite-dimensional Leibniz n-algebras, we show the existence of coverings, and we prove that all stem covers with finite-dimensional Schur multiplier are isoclinic. Additionally, we characterize stem covers of perfect Leibniz n-algebras.

Keywords: leibniz n-algebras, central extensions, Schur multiplier, stem cover

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1611 Numerical Applications of Tikhonov Regularization for the Fourier Multiplier Operators

Authors: Fethi Soltani, Adel Almarashi, Idir Mechai


Tikhonov regularization and reproducing kernels are the most popular approaches to solve ill-posed problems in computational mathematics and applications. And the Fourier multiplier operators are an essential tool to extend some known linear transforms in Euclidean Fourier analysis, as: Weierstrass transform, Poisson integral, Hilbert transform, Riesz transforms, Bochner-Riesz mean operators, partial Fourier integral, Riesz potential, Bessel potential, etc. Using the theory of reproducing kernels, we construct a simple and efficient representations for some class of Fourier multiplier operators Tm on the Paley-Wiener space Hh. In addition, we give an error estimate formula for the approximation and obtain some convergence results as the parameters and the independent variables approaches zero. Furthermore, using numerical quadrature integration rules to compute single and multiple integrals, we give numerical examples and we write explicitly the extremal function and the corresponding Fourier multiplier operators.

Keywords: fourier multiplier operators, Gauss-Kronrod method of integration, Paley-Wiener space, Tikhonov regularization

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1610 Scalable Systolic Multiplier over Binary Extension Fields Based on Two-Level Karatsuba Decomposition

Authors: Chiou-Yng Lee, Wen-Yo Lee, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Cheng-Chen Yang


Shifted polynomial basis (SPB) is a variation of polynomial basis representation. SPB has potential for efficient bit-level and digit-level implementations of multiplication over binary extension fields with subquadratic space complexity. For efficient implementation of pairing computation with large finite fields, this paper presents a new SPB multiplication algorithm based on Karatsuba schemes, and used that to derive a novel scalable multiplier architecture. Analytical results show that the proposed multiplier provides a trade-off between space and time complexities. Our proposed multiplier is modular, regular, and suitable for very-large-scale integration (VLSI) implementations. It involves less area complexity compared to the multipliers based on traditional decomposition methods. It is therefore, more suitable for efficient hardware implementation of pairing based cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in constraint driven applications.

Keywords: digit-serial systolic multiplier, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), Karatsuba algorithm (KA), shifted polynomial basis (SPB), pairing computation

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
1609 Liquid-Liquid Plug Flow Characteristics in Microchannel with T-Junction

Authors: Anna Yagodnitsyna, Alexander Kovalev, Artur Bilsky


The efficiency of certain technological processes in two-phase microfluidics such as emulsion production, nanomaterial synthesis, nitration, extraction processes etc. depends on two-phase flow regimes in microchannels. For practical application in chemistry and biochemistry it is very important to predict the expected flow pattern for a large variety of fluids and channel geometries. In the case of immiscible liquids, the plug flow is a typical and optimal regime for chemical reactions and needs to be predicted by empirical data or correlations. In this work flow patterns of immiscible liquid-liquid flow in a rectangular microchannel with T-junction are investigated. Three liquid-liquid flow systems are considered, viz. kerosene – water, paraffin oil – water and castor oil – paraffin oil. Different flow patterns such as parallel flow, slug flow, plug flow, dispersed (droplet) flow, and rivulet flow are observed for different velocity ratios. New flow pattern of the parallel flow with steady wavy interface (serpentine flow) has been found. It is shown that flow pattern maps based on Weber numbers for different liquid-liquid systems do not match well. Weber number multiplied by Ohnesorge number is proposed as a parameter to generalize flow maps. Flow maps based on this parameter are superposed well for all liquid-liquid systems of this work and other experiments. Plug length and velocity are measured for the plug flow regime. When dispersed liquid wets channel walls plug length cannot be predicted by known empirical correlations. By means of particle tracking velocimetry technique instantaneous velocity fields in a plug flow regime were measured. Flow circulation inside plug was calculated using velocity data that can be useful for mass flux prediction in chemical reactions.

Keywords: flow patterns, hydrodynamics, liquid-liquid flow, microchannel

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1608 Performance Analysis of Arithmetic Units for IoT Applications

Authors: Nithiya C., Komathi B. J., Praveena N. G., Samuda Prathima


At present, the ultimate aim in digital system designs, especially at the gate level and lower levels of design abstraction, is power optimization. Adders are a nearly universal component of today's integrated circuits. Most of the research was on the design of high-speed adders to execute addition based on various adder structures. This paper discusses the ideal path for selecting an arithmetic unit for IoT applications. Based on the analysis of eight types of 16-bit adders, we found out Carry Look-ahead (CLA) produces low power. Additionally, multiplier and accumulator (MAC) unit is implemented with the Booth multiplier by using the low power adders in the order of preference. The design is synthesized and verified using Synopsys Design Compiler and VCS. Then it is implemented by using Cadence Encounter. The total power consumed by the CLA based booth multiplier is 0.03527mW, the total area occupied is 11260 um², and the speed is 2034 ps.

Keywords: carry look-ahead, carry select adder, CSA, internet of things, ripple carry adder, design rule check, power delay product, multiplier and accumulator

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1607 Efficient Semi-Systolic Finite Field Multiplier Using Redundant Basis

Authors: Hyun-Ho Lee, Kee-Won Kim


The arithmetic operations over GF(2m) have been extensively used in error correcting codes and public-key cryptography schemes. Finite field arithmetic includes addition, multiplication, division and inversion operations. Addition is very simple and can be implemented with an extremely simple circuit. The other operations are much more complex. The multiplication is the most important for cryptosystems, such as the elliptic curve cryptosystem, since computing exponentiation, division, and computing multiplicative inverse can be performed by computing multiplication iteratively. In this paper, we present a parallel computation algorithm that operates Montgomery multiplication over finite field using redundant basis. Also, based on the multiplication algorithm, we present an efficient semi-systolic multiplier over finite field. The multiplier has less space and time complexities compared to related multipliers. As compared to the corresponding existing structures, the multiplier saves at least 5% area, 50% time, and 53% area-time (AT) complexity. Accordingly, it is well suited for VLSI implementation and can be easily applied as a basic component for computing complex operations over finite field, such as inversion and division operation.

Keywords: finite field, Montgomery multiplication, systolic array, cryptography

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1606 Flame Kernel Growth and Related Effects of Spark Plug Electrodes: Fluid Motion Interaction in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

Authors: A. Schirru, A. Irimescu, S. Merola, A. d’Adamo, S. Fontanesi


One of the aspects that are usually neglected during the design phase of an engine is the effect of the spark plug on the flow field inside the combustion chamber. Because of the difficulties in the experimental investigation of the mutual interaction between flow alteration and early flame kernel convection effect inside the engine combustion chamber, CFD-3D simulation is usually exploited in such cases. Experimentally speaking, a particular type of engine has to be used in order to directly observe the flame propagation process. In this study, a double electrode spark plug was fitted into an optically accessible engine and a high-speed camera was used to capture the initial stages of the combustion process. Both the arc and the kernel phases were observed. Then, a morphologic analysis was carried out and the position of the center of mass of the flame, relative to the spark plug position, was calculated. The crossflow orientation was chosen for the spark plug and the kernel growth process was observed for different air-fuel ratios. It was observed that during a normal cycle the flow field between the electrodes tends to transport the arc deforming it. Because of that, the kernel growth phase takes place away from the electrodes and the flame propagates with a preferential direction dictated by the flow field.

Keywords: Combustion, Optically Accessible Engine, Spark-Ignition Engine, Sparl Orientation, Kernel Growth

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1605 Heat Setting of Polyester: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan


Heat setting is a commonly used technique in textile industry for treating synthetic fibers. In this study, we examined the effect of heat-setting process on the dyeing properties of polyester fabric. The heat setting conditions were varied, and these conditions would affect the dyeing results. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application method of heat setting process to polyester fabric, and the results could provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, heat setting, polyester, dyeing

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1604 Study of Cavitation Phenomena Based on Flow Visualization Test in 3-Way Reversing Valve

Authors: Hyo Lim Kang, Tae An Kim, Seung Ho Han


A 3-way reversing valve has been used in automotive washing machines to remove remaining oil and dirt on machined engine and transmission blocks. It provides rapid and accurate changes of water flow direction without any precise control device. However, due to its complicated bottom-plug shape, a cavitation occurs in a wide range of the bottom-plug in a downstream. In this study, the cavitation index and POC (percent of cavitation) were used to evaluate quantitatively the cavitation phenomena occurring at the bottom-plug. An optimal shape design was carried out via parametric study for geometries of the bottom-plug, in which a simple CAE-model was used in order to avoid time-consuming CFD analysis and hard to achieve convergence. To verify the results of numerical analysis, a flow visualization test was carried out using a test specimen with a transparent acryl pipe according to ISA-RP75.23. The flow characteristics such as the cavitation occurring in the downstream were investigated by using a flow test equipment with valve and pump including a flow control system and high-speed camera.

Keywords: cavitation, flow visualization test, optimal shape design, percent of cavitation, reversing valve

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1603 Process Parameter Study on Friction Push Plug Welding of AA6061 Alloy

Authors: H. Li, W. Qin, Ben Ye


Friction Push Plug Welding (FPPW) is a solid phase welding suitable for repairing defective welds and filling self-reacting weld keyholes in Friction Stir Welds. In FPPW process, a tapered shaped plug is rotated at high speed and forced into a tapered hole in the substrate. The plug and substrate metal is softened by the increasing temperature generated by friction and material plastic deformation. This paper aims to investigate the effect of process parameters on the quality of the weld. Orthogonal design methods were employed to reduce the amount of experiment. Three values were selected for each process parameter, rotation speed (1500r/min, 2000r/min, 2500r/min), plunge depth (2mm, 3mm, 4mm) and plunge speed (60mm/min, 90mm/min, 120r/min). AA6061aluminum alloy plug and substrate plate was used in the experiment. In a trial test with the plunge depth of 1mm, a noticeable defect appeared due to the short plunge time and insufficient temperature. From the recorded temperature profiles, it was found that the peak temperature increased with the increase of the rotation speed, plunge speed and plunge depth. In the initial stage, the plunge speed was the main factor affecting heat generation, while in the steady state welding stage, the rotation speed played a more important role. The FPPW weld defect includes flash and incomplete penetration in the upper, middle and bottom interface with the substrate. To obtain defect free weld, the higher rotation speed and proper plunge depth were recommended.

Keywords: friction push plug welding, process parameter, weld defect, orthogonal design

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1602 A New Smart Plug for Home Energy Management

Authors: G. E. Kiral, O. Elma, A. T. Ince, B. Vural, U. S. Selamogullari, M. Uzunoglu


Energy is an indispensable resource to meet the needs of people. Depending on the needs of people, the correct and efficient use of electrical energy has became important nowadays. Besides the need for the electrical energy is also increasing with the rapidly developing technology and continuously changing living standards. Due to the depletion of energy sources and increased demand for electricity, efficient energy use is an important research topic. Recently, ideas like smart cities, smart buildings and smart homes have been widely used under smart grid concept. With smart grid infrastructure, it will be possible to monitor electrical demand of a residential customer and control each electricity generation center for more efficient energy flow. The smallest component of the smart grid can be considered as smart homes. Better utilization of the electrical grid can be achieved through the communication of the smart home with both other customers in the grid and appliances in the house itself since generation can effectively be scheduled by having more precise demand data. Smart Plugs are used for the communication with the household appliances in the house. Smart Plug is an intermediate control element, which can be mounted on the existing outlet, and thus can be used to monitor the energy consumption of the plugged device and also can provide on/off control energy remotely. This study proposes a Smart Plug for energy monitoring and energy management. Proposed design is composed of five subsystems: micro controller embedded system with communication system, metering circuitry, power supply and switching circuitry. The developed smart plug offers efficient use of electrical energy.

Keywords: energy efficiency, home energy management, smart home, smart plug

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1601 Inertia Friction Pull Plug Welding, a New Weld Repair Technique of Aluminium Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Guoqing Wang, Yanhua Zhao, Lina Zhang, Jingbin Bai, Ruican Zhu


Friction stir welding with bobbin tool is a simple technique compared to conventional FSW since the backing fixture is no longer needed and assembling labor is reduced. It gets adopted more and more in the aerospace industry as a result. However, a post-weld problem, the left keyhole, has to be fixed by forced repair welding. To close the keyhole, the conventional fusion repair could be an option if the joint properties are not deteriorated; friction push plug welding, a forced repair, could be another except that a rigid support unit is demanded at the back of the weldment. Therefore, neither of the above ways is satisfaction in welding a large enclosed structure, like rocket propellant tank. Although friction pulls plug welding does not need a backing plate, the wide applications are still held back because of the disadvantages in respects of unappropriated tensile stress, (i.e. excessive stress causing neck shrinkage of plug that will bring about back defects while insufficient stress causing lack of heat input that will bring about face defects), complicated welding parameters (including rotation speed, transverse speed, friction force, welding pressure and upset),short welding time (approx. 0.5 sec.), narrow windows and poor stability of process. In this research, an updated technique called inertia friction pull plug welding, and its equipment was developed. The influencing rules of technological parameters on joint properties of inertia friction pull plug welding were observed. The microstructure characteristics were analyzed. Based on the elementary performance data acquired, the conclusion is made that the uniform energy provided by an inertia flywheel will be a guarantee to a stable welding process. Meanwhile, due to the abandon of backing plate, the inertia friction pull plug welding is considered as a promising technique in repairing keyhole of bobbin tool FSW and point type defects of aluminium base material.

Keywords: defect repairing, equipment, inertia friction pull plug welding, technological parameters

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1600 Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

Authors: Fazeera Ujin, Kamran Shavarebi Ali, Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith


This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement. Chemical properties of both eggshells ash and cement are compared. From the results obtained, both eggshells ash and cement have the same chemical composition and primary composition which is the calcium compounds. Results from the setting time show that by adding the eggshells ash to the cement, the setting time of the cement decreases. In short, the higher amount of eggshells ash, the faster the rate of setting and apply to all percentage of eggshells ash that were used in this investigation. Both initial and final setting times fulfill the setting time requirements by Malaysian Standard. Hence, it is suggested that eggshells ash can be used as an admixture in concrete mix.

Keywords: construction materials, eggshells ash, solid waste, setting time

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1599 Review of Vehicle to Grid Applications in Recent Years

Authors: Afsane Amiri


Electric Vehicle (EV) technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. In this paper a review of different plug-in and vehicle to grid (V2G) capable vehicles are given along with their power electronics topologies. The economic implication of charging the vehicle or sending power back to the utility is described in brief.

Keywords: energy storage system, battery unit, cost, optimal sizing, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), smart grid

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1598 Optimization of Multiplier Extraction Digital Filter On FPGA

Authors: Shiksha Jain, Ramesh Mishra


One of the most widely used complex signals processing operation is filtering. The most important FIR digital filter are widely used in DSP for filtering to alter the spectrum according to some given specifications. Power consumption and Area complexity in the algorithm of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter is mainly caused by multipliers. So we present a multiplier less technique (DA technique). In this technique, precomputed value of inner product is stored in LUT. Which are further added and shifted with number of iterations equal to the precision of input sample. But the exponential growth of LUT with the order of FIR filter, in this basic structure, makes it prohibitive for many applications. The significant area and power reduction over traditional Distributed Arithmetic (DA) structure is presented in this paper, by the use of slicing of LUT to the desired length. An architecture of 16 tap FIR filter is presented, with different length of slice of LUT. The result of FIR Filter implementation on Xilinx ISE synthesis tool (XST) vertex-4 FPGA Tool by using proposed method shows the increase of the maximum frequency, the decrease of the resources as usage saving in area with more number of slices and the reduction dynamic power.

Keywords: multiplier less technique, linear phase symmetric FIR filter, FPGA tool, look up table

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1597 Simulation of 1D Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Argon Mixtures

Authors: Lucas Wilman Crispim, Patrícia Hallack, Maikel Ballester


This work aims at modeling electric discharges in gas mixtures. The mathematical model mimics the ignition process in a commercial spark-plug when a high voltage is applied to the plug terminals. A longitudinal unidimensional Cartesian domain is chosen for the simulation region. Energy and mass transfer are considered for a macroscopic fluid representation, while energy transfer in molecular collisions and chemical reactions are contemplated at microscopic level. The macroscopic model is represented by a set of uncoupled partial differential equations. Microscopic effects are studied within a discrete model for electronic and molecular collisions in the frame of ZDPlasKin, a plasma modeling numerical tool. The BOLSIG+ solver is employed in solving the electronic Boltzmann equation. An operator splitting technique is used to separate microscopic and macroscopic models. The simulation gas is a mixture of atomic Argon neutral, excited and ionized. Spatial and temporal evolution of such species and temperature are presented and discussed.

Keywords: CFD, electronic discharge, ignition, spark plug

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1596 Simulation Study of Multiple-Thick Gas Electron Multiplier-Based Microdosimeters for Fast Neutron Measurements

Authors: Amir Moslehi, Gholamreza Raisali


Microdosimetric detectors based on multiple-thick gas electron multiplier (multiple-THGEM) configurations are being used in various fields of radiation protection and dosimetry. In the present work, microdosimetric response of these detectors to fast neutrons has been investigated by Monte Carlo method. Three similar microdosimeters made of A-150 and rexolite as the wall materials are designed; the first based on single-THGEM, the second based on double-THGEM and the third is based on triple-THGEM. Sensitive volume of the three microdosimeters is a right cylinder of 5 mm height and diameter which is filled with the propane-based tissue-equivalent (TE) gas. The TE gas with 0.11 atm pressure at the room temperature simulates 1 µm of tissue. Lineal energy distributions for several neutron energies from 10 keV to 14 MeV including 241Am-Be neutrons are calculated by the Geant4 simulation toolkit. Also, mean quality factor and dose-equivalent value for any neutron energy has been determined by these distributions. Obtained data derived from the three microdosimeters are in agreement. Therefore, we conclude that the multiple-THGEM structures present similar microdosimetric responses to fast neutrons.

Keywords: fast neutrons, geant4, multiple-thick gas electron multiplier, microdosimeter

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1595 Effect of Fiscal Policy on Growth in India

Authors: Parma Chakravartti


The impact of government spending and taxation on economic growth has remained a central issue of fiscal policy analysis. There is a wide range of opinions over the strength of fiscal policy’s effect on macroeconomic variables. It can be argued that the impact of fiscal policy depends on the structure and economic condition of the economy. This study makes an attempt to examine the effect of fiscal policy shocks on growth in India using the structural vector autoregressive model (SVAR), considering data from 1950 to 2019. The study finds that government spending is an important instrument of growth in India, where the share of revenue expenditure to capital expenditure plays a key role. The optimum composition of total expenditure is important for growth and it is not necessarily true that capital expenditure multiplier is more than revenue expenditure multiplier. The study also finds that the impact of public economic activities on private economic activities for both consumption expenditure and gross capital formation of government crowds in private consumption expenditure and private gross capital formation, respectively, thus indicating that government expenditure complements private expenditure in India.

Keywords: government spending, fiscal policy, multiplier, growth

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1594 Estimating the Government Consumption and Investment Multipliers Using Local Projection Method on the US Data from 1966 to 2020

Authors: Mustofa Mahmud Al Mamun


Government spending, one of the major components of gross domestic product (GDP), is composed of government consumption, investment, and transfer payments. A change in government spending during recessionary periods can generate an increase in GDP greater than the increase in spending. This is called the "multiplier effect". Accurate estimation of government spending multiplier is important because fiscal policy has been used to stimulate a flagging economy. Many recent studies have focused on identifying parts of the economy that responds more to a stimulus under a variety of circumstances. This paper used the US dataset from 1966 to 2020 and local projection method assuming standard identification strategy to estimate the multipliers. The model includes important macroaggregates and controls for forecasted government spending, interest rate, consumer price index (CPI), export, import, and level of public debt. Investment multipliers are found to be positive and larger than the consumption multipliers. Consumption multipliers are either negative or not significantly different than zero. Results do not vary across the business cycle. However, the consumption multiplier estimated from pre-1980 data is positive.

Keywords: business cycle, consumption multipliers, forecasted government spending, investment multipliers, local projection method, zero lower bound

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1593 Assembly Solution for Modular Buildings: Development of a Plug-In Self-Locking Device Designed for Light-Framed Structures

Authors: Laurence Picard, André Bégin-Drolet, Pierre Blanchet


The prefabricated construction industry has been operating in North America for several years now and differs from traditional construction by its much shorter project timelines, lower costs, and increased build quality. Faced with the global housing crisis, prefabrication should be the first choice for erecting buildings quickly and at a low cost. However, the reality is quite different; manufacturers focus their operations mainly on single-home construction. This is explained by the lack of a suitable and efficient assembly solution for erecting large-scale buildings. Indeed, it is difficult to maintain the coveted advantages of prefabrication with a laborious on-site assembly and a colossal load of additional operations such as the installation of fasteners and the internal finishing. In the desire to maximize the benefits of prefabrication and make it a smart choice even for large buildings, an automated connection solution is developed. The plug-in self-locking device was developed accordingly to the product design phases: on-site observations, the definition of the problem and product requirements, solution generation, prototyping, fabricating and testing.

Keywords: assembly solution, automation, construction productivity, modular connection, modular buildings, plug-in device, self-lock mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
1592 Applications and Development of a Plug Load Management System That Automatically Identifies the Type and Location of Connected Devices

Authors: Amy Lebar, Kim L. Trenbath, Bennett Doherty, William Livingood


Plug and process loads (PPLs) account for 47% of U.S. commercial building energy use. There is a huge potential to reduce whole building consumption by targeting PPLs for energy savings measures or implementing some form of plug load management (PLM). Despite this potential, there has yet to be a widely adopted commercial PLM technology. This paper describes the Automatic Type and Location Identification System (ATLIS), a PLM system framework with automatic and dynamic load detection (ADLD). ADLD gives PLM systems the ability to automatically identify devices as they are plugged into the outlets of a building. The ATLIS framework takes advantage of smart, connected devices to identify device locations in a building, meter and control their power, and communicate this information to a central database. ATLIS includes five primary capabilities: location identification, communication, control, energy metering and data storage. A laboratory proof of concept (PoC) demonstrated all but the data storage capabilities and these capabilities were validated using an office building scenario. The PoC can identify when a device is plugged into an outlet and the location of the device in the building. When a device is moved, the PoC’s dashboard and database are automatically updated with the new location. The PoC implements controls to devices from the system dashboard so that devices maintain correct schedules regardless of where they are plugged in within a building. ATLIS’s primary technology application is improved PLM, but other applications include asset management, energy audits, and interoperability for grid-interactive efficient buildings. A system like ATLIS could also be used to direct power to critical devices, such as ventilators, during a brownout or blackout. Such a framework is an opportunity to make PLM more widespread and reduce the amount of energy consumed by PPLs in current and future commercial buildings.

Keywords: commercial buildings, grid-interactive efficient buildings (GEB), miscellaneous electric loads (MELs), plug loads, plug load management (PLM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1591 Reactive Power Control with Plug-In Electric Vehicles

Authors: Mostafa Dastori, Sirus Mohammadi


While plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) potentially have the capability to fulfill the energy storage needs of the electric grid, the degradation on the battery during this operation makes it less preferable by the auto manufacturers and consumers. On the other hand, the on-board chargers can also supply energy storage system applications such as reactive power compensation, voltage regulation, and power factor correction without the need of engaging the battery with the grid and thereby preserving its lifetime. It presents the design motives of single-phase on-board chargers in detail and makes a classification of the chargers based on their future vehicle-to-grid usage. The pros and cons of each different ac–dc topology are discussed to shed light on their suit- ability for reactive power support. This paper also presents and analyzes the differences between charging-only operation and capacitive reactive power operation that results in increased demand from the dc-link capacitor (more charge/discharge cycles and in- creased second harmonic ripple current). Moreover, battery state of charge is spared from losses during reactive power operation, but converter output power must be limited below its rated power rating to have the same stress on the dc-link capacitor.

Keywords: energy storage system, battery unit, cost, optimal sizing, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1590 Mathematical Modeling of the Water Bridge Formation in Porous Media: PEMFC Microchannels

Authors: N. Ibrahim-Rassoul, A. Kessi, E. K. Si-Ahmed, N. Djilali, J. Legrand


The static and dynamic formation of liquid water bridges is analyzed using a combination of visualization experiments in a microchannel with a mathematical model. This paper presents experimental and theoretical findings of water plug/capillary bridge formation in a 250 μm squared microchannel. The approach combines mathematical and numerical modeling with experimental visualization and measurements. The generality of the model is also illustrated for flow conditions encountered in manipulation of polymeric materials and formation of liquid bridges between patterned surfaces. The predictions of the model agree favorably the observations as well as with the experimental recordings.

Keywords: green energy, mathematical modeling, fuel cell, water plug, gas diffusion layer, surface of revolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 351