Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 453

Search results for: permeability

453 [Keynote Talk]: A Comparative Study on Air Permeability Properties of Multilayered Nonwoven Structures

Authors: M. Kucukali Ozturk, B. Nergis, C. Candan

Abstract:

Air permeability plays an important role for applications such as filtration, thermal and acoustic insulation. The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate air permeability property of various combinations of nonwovens. The PROWHITE air permeability tester was used for the measurement of the air permeability of the samples in accordance with the relevant standards and a comparative study of the results were made. It was found that the fabric mass per unit area was closely related to the air-permeability. The air permeability decreased with the increase in mass per unit area. Additionally, the air permeability of nonwoven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness. Moreover, air permeability of multilayered SMS nonwoven structures was lower than those of single layered ones.

Keywords: air permeability, mass per unit area, nonwoven structure, polypropylene nonwoven, thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
452 Prediction of in situ Permeability for Limestone Rock Using Rock Quality Designation Index

Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Muhammed Rizwan

Abstract:

Geotechnical study for evaluating soil or rock permeability is a highly important parameter. Permeability values for rock formations are more difficult for determination than soil formation as it is an effect of the rock quality and its fracture values. In this research, the prediction of in situ permeability of limestone rock formations was predicted. The limestone rock permeability was evaluated using Lugeon tests (in-situ packer permeability). Different sites which spread all over the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia were chosen to conduct our study of predicting the in-situ permeability of limestone rock. Correlations were deducted between the values of in-situ permeability of the limestone rock with the value of the rock quality designation (RQD) calculated during the execution of the boreholes of the study areas. The study was performed for different ranges of RQD values measured during drilling of the sites boreholes. The developed correlations are recommended for the onsite determination of the in-situ permeability of limestone rock only. For the other sedimentary formations of rock, more studies are needed for predicting the actual correlations related to each type.

Keywords: In situ, packer, permeability, rock, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
451 Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability of Immiscible Fluids in Sand

Authors: Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Shigeo Honma

Abstract:

Relative permeability is the important parameter controlling the immiscible displacement of multiphase fluids flow in porous medium. The relative permeability for immiscible displacement of two-phase fluids flow (oil and water) in porous medium has been measured in this paper. As a result of the experiment, irreducible water saturation, Swi, residual oil saturation, Sor, and relative permeability curves for Kerosene, Heavy oil and Lubricant oil were determined successfully.

Keywords: relative permeability, two-phase flow, immiscible displacement, porous medium

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
450 The Effect of Nanofiber Web on Thermal Conductivity, Air and Water Vapor Permeability

Authors: Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Nuray Ucar, Zeynep Esma Soygur, Yasemin Kucuk

Abstract:

In this study, composite fabrics with polyacrylonitrile electrospun nanofiber deposited onto quilted polyester fabric have been produced in order to control the isolation properties such as water vapor permeability, air permeability and thermal conductivity. Different nanofiber webs were manufactured by changing polymer concentration from 10% to 16% and by changing the deposition time from 1 to 3 hours. Presence of nanofiber layer on the quilted fabric results to an increase of an isolation, i.e., a decrease of the moisture vapor transport rates at 20%, decrease of thermal conductivity at 15% and a decrease of air permeability values at 50%.

Keywords: nanofiber/fabric composites, electrospinning, isolation, thermal conductivity, moisture vapor transport, air permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
449 A Neural Network Modelling Approach for Predicting Permeability from Well Logs Data

Authors: Chico Horacio Jose Sambo

Abstract:

Recently neural network has gained popularity when come to solve complex nonlinear problems. Permeability is one of fundamental reservoir characteristics system that are anisotropic distributed and non-linear manner. For this reason, permeability prediction from well log data is well suited by using neural networks and other computer-based techniques. The main goal of this paper is to predict reservoir permeability from well logs data by using neural network approach. A multi-layered perceptron trained by back propagation algorithm was used to build the predictive model. The performance of the model on net results was measured by correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient from testing, training, validation and all data sets was evaluated. The results show that neural network was capable of reproducing permeability with accuracy in all cases, so that the calculated correlation coefficients for training, testing and validation permeability were 0.96273, 0.89991 and 0.87858, respectively. The generalization of the results to other field can be made after examining new data, and a regional study might be possible to study reservoir properties with cheap and very fast constructed models.

Keywords: neural network, permeability, multilayer perceptron, well log

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
448 Modified Evaluation of the Hydro-Mechanical Dependency of the Water Coefficient of Permeability of a Clayey Sand with a Novel Permeameter for Unsaturated Soils

Authors: G. Adelian, A. Mirzaii, S. S. Yasrobi

Abstract:

This paper represents data of an extensive experimental laboratory testing program for the measurement of the water coefficient of permeability of clayey sand in different hydraulic and mechanical boundary conditions. A novel permeameter was designed and constructed for the experimental testing program, suitable for the study of flow in unsaturated soils in different hydraulic and mechanical loading conditions. In this work, the effect of hydraulic hysteresis, net isotropic confining stress, water flow condition, and sample dimensions are evaluated on the water coefficient of permeability of understudying soil. The experimental results showed a hysteretic variation for the water coefficient of permeability versus matrix suction and degree of saturation, with higher values in drying portions of the SWCC. The measurement of the water permeability in different applied net isotropic stress also signified that the water coefficient of permeability increased within the increment of net isotropic consolidation stress. The water coefficient of permeability also appeared to be independent of different applied flow heads, water flow condition, and sample dimensions.

Keywords: water permeability, unsaturated soils, hydraulic hysteresis, void ratio, matrix suction, degree of saturation

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
447 Permeability Prediction Based on Hydraulic Flow Unit Identification and Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Emad A. Mohammed

Abstract:

The concept of hydraulic flow units (HFU) has been used for decades in the petroleum industry to improve the prediction of permeability. This concept is strongly related to the flow zone indicator (FZI) which is a function of the reservoir rock quality index (RQI). Both indices are based on reservoir porosity and permeability of core samples. It is assumed that core samples with similar FZI values belong to the same HFU. Thus, after dividing the porosity-permeability data based on the HFU, transformations can be done in order to estimate the permeability from the porosity. The conventional practice is to use the power law transformation using conventional HFU where percentage of error is considerably high. In this paper, neural network technique is employed as a soft computing transformation method to predict permeability instead of power law method to avoid higher percentage of error. This technique is based on HFU identification where Amaefule et al. (1993) method is utilized. In this regard, Kozeny and Carman (K–C) model, and modified K–C model by Hasan and Hossain (2011) are employed. A comparison is made between the two transformation techniques for the two porosity-permeability models. Results show that the modified K-C model helps in getting better results with lower percentage of error in predicting permeability. The results also show that the use of artificial intelligence techniques give more accurate prediction than power law method. This study was conducted on a heterogeneous complex carbonate reservoir in Oman. Data were collected from seven wells to obtain the permeability correlations for the whole field. The findings of this study will help in getting better estimation of permeability of a complex reservoir.

Keywords: permeability, hydraulic flow units, artificial intelligence, correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
446 Modeling of the Pores Form Influence on the Hydraulic Resistance of Membranes and Their Permeability

Authors: Zhanat Umarova

Abstract:

Until the present time, modeling of the pores form influence on the hydraulic resistance of membranes and their permeability has not been analyzed. The aim of the given work is the theoretical consideration of the issue on the productivity of polymer membranes with the profile pores and determination of the optimum form of pores.

Keywords: modeling, polymer membranes, permeability, pore’s density

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
445 Development of In Situ Permeability Test Using Constant Discharge Method for Sandy Soils

Authors: A. Rifa’i, Y. Takeshita, M. Komatsu

Abstract:

The post-rain puddles problem that occurs in the first yard of Prambanan Temple are often disturbing visitor activity. A poodle layer and a drainage system has ever built to avoid such a problem, but puddles still didn’t stop appearing after rain. Permeability parameter needs to be determined by using more simple procedure to find exact method of solution. The instrument modelling were proposed according to the development of field permeability testing instrument. This experiment used proposed Constant Discharge method. Constant Discharge method used a tube poured with constant water flow. The procedure were carried out from unsaturated until saturated soil condition. Volumetric water content (θ) were being monitored by soil moisture measurement device. The results were relationship between k and θ which drawn by numerical approach Van Genutchen model. Parameters θr optimum value obtained from the test was at very dry soil. Coefficient of permeability with a density of 19.8 kN/m3 for unsaturated conditions was in range of 3 x 10-6 cm/sec (Sr= 68 %) until 9.98 x 10-4 cm/sec (Sr= 82 %). The equipment and testing procedure developed in this research was quite effective, simple and easy to be implemented on determining field soil permeability coefficient value of sandy soil. Using constant discharge method in proposed permeability test, value of permeability coefficient under unsaturated condition can be obtained without establish soil water characteristic curve.

Keywords: constant discharge method, in situ permeability test, sandy soil, unsaturated conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
444 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

Authors: A. J. Nazari, S. Honma

Abstract:

This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

Keywords: fractional flow, oil displacement, relative permeability, simultaneously flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
443 Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Transport Properties of SCCs Composites: Influence of Mechanical Damage

Authors: Davood Niknezhad, Siham Kamali-Bernard

Abstract:

Concrete durability is one of the most important considerations in the design of new structures in aggressive environments. It is now common knowledge that the transport properties of a concrete, i.e; permeability and chloride diffusion coefficient are important indicators of its durability. The development of microcracking in concrete structures leads to significant permeability and to durability problems as a result. The main objective of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the influence of mineral admixtures and impact of compressive cracks by mechanical uniaxial compression up to 80% of the ultimate strength on transport properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) manufactured with the eco-materials (metakaolin, fly ash, slag HF). The chloride resistance and binding capacity of the different SCCs produced with the different admixtures in damaged and undamaged state are measured using a chloride migration test accelerated by an external applied electrical field. Intrinsic permeability is measured using the helium gas and one permeameter at constant load. Klinkenberg approach is used for the determination of the intrinsic permeability. Based on the findings of this study, the use of mineral admixtures increases the resistance of SCC to chloride ingress and reduces their permeability. From the impact of mechanical damage, we show that the Gas permeability is more sensitive of concrete damaged than chloride diffusion. A correlation is obtained between the intrinsic permeability and chloride migration coefficient according to the damage variable for the four studied mixtures.

Keywords: SCC, concrete durability, transport properties, gas permeability, chloride diffusion, mechanical damage, mineral admixtures

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
442 Prediction of Permeability of Frozen Unsaturated Soil Using Van Genuchten Model and Fredlund-Xing Model in Soil Vision

Authors: Bhavita S. Dave, Jaimin Vaidya, Chandresh H. Solanki, Atul K.

Abstract:

To measure the permeability of a soil specimen, one of the basic assumptions of Darcy's law is that the soil sample should be saturated. Unlike saturated soils, the permeability of unsaturated soils cannot be found using conventional methods as it does not follow Darcy's law. Many empirical models, such as the Van Genuchten Model and Fredlund-Xing Model were suggested to predict permeability value for unsaturated soil. Such models use data from the soil-freezing characteristic curve to find fitting parameters for frozen unsaturated soils. In this study, soil specimens were subjected to 0, 1, 3, and 5 freezing-thawing (F-T) cycles for different degrees of saturation to have a wide range of suction, and its soil freezing characteristic curves were formulated for all F-T cycles. Changes in fitting parameters and relative permeability with subsequent F-T cycles are presented in this paper for both models.

Keywords: frozen unsaturated soil, Fredlund Xing model, soil-freezing characteristic curve, Van Genuchten model

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441 Optimum Design of Alkali Activated Slag Concretes for Low Chloride Ion Permeability and Water Absorption Capacity

Authors: Müzeyyen Balçikanli, Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan Tacettin Türker, Okan Karahan, Cengiz Duran Atiş

Abstract:

In this research, effect of curing time (TC), curing temperature (CT), sodium concentration (SC) and silicate modules (SM) on the compressive strength, chloride ion permeability, and water absorption capacity of alkali activated slag (AAS) concretes were investigated. For maximization of compressive strength while for minimization of chloride ion permeability and water absorption capacity of AAS concretes, best possible combination of CT, CTime, SC and SM were determined. An experimental program was conducted by using the central composite design method. Alkali solution-slag ratio was kept constant at 0.53 in all mixture. The effects of the independent parameters were characterized and analyzed by using statistically significant quadratic regression models on the measured properties (dependent parameters). The proposed regression models are valid for AAS concretes with the SC from 0.1% to 7.5%, SM from 0.4 to 3.2, CT from 20 °C to 94 °C and TC from 1.2 hours to 25 hours. The results of test and analysis indicate that the most effective parameter for the compressive strength, chloride ion permeability and water absorption capacity is the sodium concentration.

Keywords: alkali activation, slag, rapid chloride permeability, water absorption capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
440 Strength and Permeability Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Amrit Pal Singh Arora

Abstract:

The paper reports the results of a study undertaken to study the effects of addition of steel fibres of different aspect ratios on the permeability and strength characteristics of steel fiber reinforced fly ash concrete (SFRC). Corrugated steel fibres having a diameter of 0.6 mm and lengths of 12.5 mm, 30 mm and 50 mm were used in this study. Cube samples of 100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm were cast from mixes replacing 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% cement content by fly ash with and without fibres and tested for the determination of coefficient of water permeability, compressive and split tensile strengths after 7 and 28 days of curing. Plain concrete samples were also cast and tested for reference purposes. Permeability was observed to decrease significantly for all concrete mixes with the addition of steel fibers as compared to plain concrete. The replacement of cement content by fly ash results in an increase in the coefficient of water permeability. With the addition of fly ash to the plain mix the7 day compressive and split tensile strengths decreased, however both the compressive and split tensile strengths increased with increase in curing age.

Keywords: curing age, fiber shape, fly ash, Darcy’s law, Ppermeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
439 An Approach to Spatial Planning for Water Conservation: The Case of Kovada Sub-Watershed (Turkey)

Authors: Aybike Ayfer Karadağ

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Today, the amount of water available is decreasing day by day due to global warming, environmental problems and population increase. To protect water resources, it is necessary to take a lot of measures from the global scale to the local scale. Some of these measures are related to spatial planning studies. In this study, the impact of water process analysis was assessed in the development of spatial planning for water conservation. The study was conducted in the Kovada sub-watershed (Isparta, Turkey). By means of water process analysis, the way to reach underground water of surface water in the study area is mapped. In this context, plant cover, soil and rock permeability were evaluated holistically with geographic information systems technologies. Then, on the map, water permeability is classified and this is spatially expressed. The findings show that the permeability of the water is different in the study case. As a result, the water permeability map needs to be included in the planning for water conservation planning.

Keywords: water, conservation, spatial planning, water process analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
438 Fabrication of a High-Performance Polyetherimide Membrane for Helium Separation

Authors: Y. Alqaheem, A. Alomair, F. Altarkait, F. Alswaileh, Nusrat Tanoli

Abstract:

Helium market is continuously growing due to its essential uses in the electronic and healthcare sectors. Currently, helium is produced by cryogenic distillation but the process is uneconomical especially for low production volumes. On the other hand, polymeric membranes can provide a cost-effective solution for helium purification due to their low operating energy. However, the preparation of membranes involves the use of very toxic solvents such as chloroform. In this work, polyetherimide membranes were prepared using a less toxic solvent, n-methylpyrrolidone with a polymer-to-solvent ratio of 27 wt%. The developed membrane showed a superior helium permeability of 15.9 Barrer that surpassed the permeability of membranes made by chloroform.

Keywords: helium separation, polyetherimide, dense membrane, gas permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
437 Influence of Structural Cracks on Transport Performance of Reinforced Concrete

Authors: V. A. Okenyi, K. Yang, P. A. M. Basheer

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Concrete structures in service are constantly under the influence of load. Microstructural cracks often develop in them and considering those in the marine environment; these microcracks often serve as a means for transportation of harmful fluids into the concrete. This paper studies the influence of flexural tensile stress that structural elements undergo on the transport properties of such concrete in the tensile zone of the structural member. Reinforced concrete beams of 1200mm ⨉ 230mm ⨉ 150mm in dimension in a four-point bending set up were subjected to various levels of the loading required to cause a microcrack width of 100µm. The use of Autoclam permeability tests, sorptivity tests as well as the Permit chloride ion migration tests were employed, and results showed that air permeability, sorptivity and water permeability all increased as the load increased in the concrete tensile zone. For air permeability, an increase in stress levels led to more permeability, and the addition of steel macrofibers had no significant effect until at 75% of stress level where it decreased air permeability. For sorptivity, there was no absorption into concrete when no load was added, but water sorptivity index was high at 75% stress levels and higher in steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). Steel macrofibers produced more water permeability into the concrete at 75% stress level under the 100µm crack width considered while steel macrofibers helped in slightly reducing the migration of chloride into concrete by 8.8% reduction, compared to control samples at 75% stress level. It is clear from this research that load-induced cracking leads to an increase in fluid permeability into concrete and the effect of the addition of steel macrofiber to concrete for durability is not significant under 100µm crack width.

Keywords: durability, microcracks, SFRC, stress Level, transport properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
436 Analysis of Effects of Magnetic Slot Wedges on Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

Authors: B. Ladghem Chikouche

Abstract:

The influence of slot wedges permeability on the electromagnetic performance of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine is investigated in this paper. It is shown that the back-EMF waveform, electromagnetic torque and electromagnetic torque ripple are all significantly affected by slot wedges permeability. The paper presents an accurate analytical subdomain model and confirmed by finite-element analyses.

Keywords: exact analytical calculation, finite-element method, magnetic field distribution, permanent magnet machines performance, stator slot wedges permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
435 Impacts of Low-Density Polyethylene (Plastic Shopping Bags) on Structural Strength and Permeability of Hot-Mix-Asphalt Pavements

Authors: Chayanon Boonyuid

Abstract:

This paper experiments the effects of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the structural strength and permeability of hot-mix-asphalt (HMA) pavements. Different proportions of bitumen (4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5% and 6% of total aggregates) and plastic (5%, 10% and 15% of bitumen) contents in HMA mixtures were investigated to estimate the optimum mixture of bitumen and plastic in HMA pavement with long-term performance. Marshall Tests and Falling Head Tests were performed to experiment the structure strength and permeability of HMA mixtures with different percentages of plastic materials and bitumen. The laboratory results show that the optimum binder content was 5.5% by weight of aggregates with higher contents of plastic materials, increase structural stability, reduce permanent deformation, increase ductility, and improve fatigue life of HMA pavements. The use of recycled plastic shopping bags can reduce the use of bitumen content by 0.5% - 1% in HMA mixtures resulting in cheaper material costs with better long-term performance. The plastic materials increase the impermeability of HMA pavements. This study has two-fold contributions: optimum contents of both bitumen and plastic materials in HMA mixtures and the impacts of plastic materials on the permeability of HMA pavements.

Keywords: plastic bags, bitumen, structural strength, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
434 Effect of Oil Viscosity and Brine Salinity/Viscosity on Water/Oil Relative Permeability and Residual Saturations

Authors: Sami Aboujafar

Abstract:

Oil recovery in petroleum reservoirs is greatly affected by fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. These interactions directly control rock wettability, capillary pressure and relative permeability curves. Laboratory core-floods and centrifuge experiments were conducted on sandstone and carbonate cores to study the effect of low and high brine salinity and viscosity and oil viscosity on residual saturations and relative permeability. Drainage and imbibition relative permeability in two phase system were measured, refined lab oils with different viscosities, heavy and light, and several brine salinities were used. Sensitivity analysis with different values for the salinity and viscosity of the fluids,, oil and water, were done to investigate the effect of these properties on water/oil relative permeability, residual oil saturation and oil recovery. Experiments were conducted on core material from viscous/heavy and light oil fields. History matching core flood simulator was used to study how the relative permeability curves and end point saturations were affected by different fluid properties using several correlations. Results were compared with field data and literature data. The results indicate that there is a correlation between the oil viscosity and/or brine salinity and residual oil saturation and water relative permeability end point. Increasing oil viscosity reduces the [email protected] and increases Sor. The remaining oil saturation from laboratory measurements might be too high due to experimental procedures, capillary end effect and early termination of the experiment, especially when using heavy/viscous oil. Similarly the [email protected] may be too low. The effect of wettability on the observed results is also discussed. A consistent relationship has been drawn between the fluid parameters, water/oil relative permeability and residual saturations, and a descriptor may be derived to define different flow behaviors. The results of this work will have application to producing fields and the methodologies developed could have wider application to sandstone and carbonate reservoirs worldwide.

Keywords: history matching core flood simulator, oil recovery, relative permeability, residual saturations

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
433 Nafion Nanofiber Mat in a Single Fuel Cell Test

Authors: Chijioke Okafor, Malik Maaza, Touhami Mokrani

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane, PEM was developed and tested for potential application in fuel cell. Nafion was electrospun to nanofiber network with the aid of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, as a carrier polymer. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV after compacting and annealing. The welded nanofiber mat was characterized for morphology, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability, then tested in a single cell test station. The results of the fabricated nanofiber membrane showed a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at 25 oC and higher fiber volume fraction; methanol permeability of 3.6x10^-6 cm2/s and power density of 96.1 and 81.2 mW/cm2 for 5M and 1M methanol concentration respectively.

Keywords: fuel cell, nafion, nanofiber, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
432 Marble Powder’s Effect on Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Concrete

Authors: Shams Ul Khaliq, Khan Shahzada, Bashir Alam, Fawad Bilal, Mushtaq Zeb, Faizan Akbar

Abstract:

Marble industry contributes its fair share in environmental deterioration, producing voluminous amounts of mud and other excess residues obtained from marble and granite processing, polluting soil, water and air. Reusing these products in other products will not just prevent our environment from polluting but also help with economy. In this research, an attempt has been made to study the expediency of waste Marble Powder (MP) in concrete production. Various laboratory tests were performed to investigate permeability, physical and mechanical properties, such as slump, compressive strength, split tensile test, etc. Concrete test samples were fabricated with varying MP content (replacing 5-30% cement), furnished from two different sources. 5% replacement of marble dust caused 6% and 12% decrease in compressive and tensile strength respectively. These parameters gradually decreased with increasing MP content up to 30%. Most optimum results were obtained with 10% replacement. Improvement in consistency and permeability were noticed. The permeability was improved with increasing MP proportion up to 10% without substantial decrease in compressive strength. Obtained results revealed that MP as an alternative to cement in concrete production is a viable option considering its economic and environment friendly implications.

Keywords: marble powder, strength, permeability, consistency, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
431 Effect of Permeability on Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Laminate Produced by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Process

Authors: Nagri Sateesh, Kundavarapu Vengalrao, Kopparthi Phaneendra Kumar

Abstract:

Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is one of the manufacturing technique that is viable for production of fiber reinforced polymer composite components suitable for aerospace, marine and commercial applications. However, the repeatable quality of the product can be achieved by critically fixing the process parameters such as Vacuum Pressure (VP) and permeability of the preform. The present investigation is aimed at studying the effect of permeability for production of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) components with consistent quality. The VARTM mould is made with an acrylic transparent top cover to observe and record the resin flow pattern. Six layers of randomly placed glass fiber under five different vacuum pressures VP1 = 0.013, VP2 = 0.026, VP3 = 0.039, VP4 = 0.053 and VP5 = 0.066 MPa were studied. The laminates produced by this process under the above mentioned conditions were characterized with ASTM D procedures so as to study the effect of these process parameters on the quality of the laminate. Moreover, as mentioned there is a considerable effect of permeability on the impact strength and the void content in the laminates under different vacuum pressures. SEM analysis of the impact tested fractured GFRP composites showed the bonding of fiber and matrix.

Keywords: permeability, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), ASTM D standards, SEM

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430 Effect of Powder Shape on Physical Properties of Porous Coatings

Authors: M. Moayeri, A. Kaflou

Abstract:

Decreasing the size of heat exchangers in industries is favorable due to a reduction in the initial costs and maintenance. This can be achieved generally by increasing the heat transfer coefficient, which can be done by increasing tube surface by passive methods named “porous coat”. Since these coatings are often in contact with the fluid, mechanical strength of coatings should be considered as main concept beside permeability and porosity in design, especially in high velocity services. Powder shape affected mechanical property more than other factors. So in this study, the Copper powder with three different shapes (spherical, dendritic and irregular) was coated on Cu-Ni base metal with thickness of ~300µm in a reduction atmosphere (5% H2-N2) and programmable furnace. The morphology and physical properties of coatings, such as porosity, permeability and mechanical strength were investigated. Results show although irregular particle have maximum porosity and permeability but strength level close to spherical powder, in addition, mentioned particle has low production cost, so for creating porous coats in high velocity services these powder recommended.

Keywords: porous coat, permeability, mechanical strength, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
429 Numerical Study for Examination of Flow Characteristics in Fractured Gas Reservoirs

Authors: M. K. Kim, C. H. Shin, W. G. Park

Abstract:

Recently, natural gas resources are issued due to alternative and eco-friendly energy policies, and development of even unconventional gas resources including tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas is being rapidly expanded from North America all over the world. For developing these gas reservoirs, it is necessary to investigate reservoir characteristics by using reservoir simulation. In reservoir simulation, calculation of permeability of fractured zone is very important to predict the gas production. However, it is difficult to accurately calculate the permeability by using conventional methods which use analytic solution for laminar flow. The flow in gas reservoirs exhibits complex flow behavior such as slip around the wall roughness effect and turbulence because the size of the apertures of fractures is ranged over various scales from nano-scale to centi-scale. Therefore, it is required to apply new reservoir flow analysis methods which can accurately consider complex gas flow owing to the geometric characteristics and distributions of various pores and flow paths within gas reservoirs. Hence, in this study, the flow characteristics and the relation between each characteristic variable was investigated and multi-effect was quantified when the fractures are compounded for devising a new calculation model of permeability of fractured zone in gas reservoirs by using CFD.

Keywords: fractured zone, gas reservoir, permeability, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
428 Barrier Properties of Starch-Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposites

Authors: Farid Amidi Fazli

Abstract:

Replacement of plastics used in the food industry seems to be a serious issue to overcome mainly the environmental problems in recent years. This study investigates the hydrophilicity and permeability properties of starch biopolymer which ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) (0-10%) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) (1 -15%) were used to enhance its properties. Starch -EVOH nanocomposites were prepared by casting method in different formulations. NCC production by acid hydrolysis was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Solubility, water vapor permeability, water vapor transmission rate and moisture absorbance were measured on each of the nanocomposites. The results were analyzed by SAS software. The lowest moisture absorbance was measured in pure starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC. The lowest permeability to water vapor belongs to starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC and the sample containing 7.8% EVOH and 13% NCC. Also, the lowest solubility was observed in the composite contains the highest amount of EVOH. Applied Process resulted in production of bio films which have good resistance to water vapor permeability and solubility in water. The use of NCC and EVOH leads to reduced moisture absorbance property of the biofilms.

Keywords: starch, EVOH, nanocrystalline cellulose, hydrophilicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
427 Determination of Unsaturated Soil Permeability Based on Geometric Factor Development of Constant Discharge Model

Authors: A. Rifa’i, Y. Takeshita, M. Komatsu

Abstract:

After Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006, the main problem that occurred in the first yard of Prambanan Temple is ponding area that occurred after rainfall. Soil characterization needs to be determined by conducting several processes, especially permeability coefficient (k) in both saturated and unsaturated conditions to solve this problem. More accurate and efficient field testing procedure is required to obtain permeability data that present the field condition. One of the field permeability test equipment is Constant Discharge procedure to determine the permeability coefficient. Necessary adjustments of the Constant Discharge procedure are needed to be determined especially the value of geometric factor (F) to improve the corresponding value of permeability coefficient. The value of k will be correlated with the value of volumetric water content (θ) of an unsaturated condition until saturated condition. The principle procedure of Constant Discharge model provides a constant flow in permeameter tube that flows into the ground until the water level in the tube becomes constant. Constant water level in the tube is highly dependent on the tube dimension. Every tube dimension has a shape factor called the geometric factor that affects the result of the test. Geometric factor value is defined as the characteristic of shape and radius of the tube. This research has modified the geometric factor parameters by using empty material tube method so that the geometric factor will change. Saturation level is monitored by using soil moisture sensor. The field test results were compared with the results of laboratory tests to validate the results of the test. Field and laboratory test results of empty tube material method have an average difference of 3.33 x 10-4 cm/sec. The test results showed that modified geometric factor provides more accurate data. The improved methods of constant discharge procedure provide more relevant results.

Keywords: constant discharge, geometric factor, permeability coefficient, unsaturated soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
426 Strength and Permeability of the Granular Pavement Materials Treated with Polyacrylamide Based Additive

Authors: Romel N. Georgees, Rayya A Hassan, Robert P. Evans, Piratheepan Jegatheesan

Abstract:

Among other traditional and non-traditional additives, polymers have shown an efficient performance in the field and improved sustainability. Polyacrylamide (PAM) is one such additive that has demonstrated many advantages including a reduction in permeability, an increase in durability and the provision of strength characteristics. However, information about its effect on the improved geotechnical characteristics is very limited to the field performance monitoring. Therefore, a laboratory investigation was carried out to examine the basic and engineering behaviors of three types of soils treated with a PAM additive. The results showed an increase in dry density and unconfined compressive strength for all the soils. The results further demonstrated an increase in unsoaked CBR and a reduction in permeability for all stabilized samples.

Keywords: CBR, hydraulic conductivity, PAM, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
425 Minimization of Seepage in Sandy Soil Using Different Grouting Types

Authors: Eng. M. Ahmed, A. Ibrahim, M. Ashour

Abstract:

One of the major concerns facing dam is the repair of their structures to prevent the seepage under them. In previous years, many existing dams have been treated by grouting, but with varying degrees of success. One of the major reasons for this erratic performance is the unsuitable selection of the grouting materials to reduce the seepage. Grouting is an effective way to improve the engineering properties of the soil and strengthen of the permeability of the soil to reduce the seepage. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the efficiency of current available grouting materials and techniques from construction, environmental and economical point of view. The seepage reduction usually accomplished by either chemical grouting or cementious grouting using ultrafine cement. In addition, the study shows a comparison between grouting materials according to their degree of permeability reduction and cost. The application of seepage reduction is based on the permeation grouting using grout curtain installation. The computer program (SEEP/W) is employed to model a dam rested on sandy soil, using grout curtain to reduce seepage quantity and hydraulic gradient by different grouting materials. This study presents a relationship that takes into account the permeability of the soil, grout curtain spacing and a new performance parameter that can be used to predict the best selection of grouting materials for seepage reduction.

Keywords: seepage, sandy soil, grouting, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
424 Durability Aspects of Recycled Aggregate Concrete: An Experimental Study

Authors: Smitha Yadav, Snehal Pathak

Abstract:

Aggregate compositions in the construction and demolition (C&D) waste have potential to replace normal aggregates. However, to re-utilise these aggregates, the concrete produced with these recycled aggregates needs to provide the desired compressive strength and durability. This paper examines the performance of recycled aggregate concrete made up of 60% recycled aggregates of 20 mm size in terms of durability tests namely rapid chloride permeability, drying shrinkage, water permeability, modulus of elasticity and creep without compromising the compressive strength. The experimental outcome indicates that recycled aggregate concrete provides strength and durability same as controlled concrete when processed for removal of adhered mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, recycled aggregate, shrinkage, rapid chloride permeation test, modulus of elasticity, water permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 163