Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 241

Search results for: traditions

241 The Onus of Human to Society in Accordance with Constitution and Traditions

Authors: Qamar Raza

Abstract:

This paper deals with the human concern and onus which every person should provide to his/her society. Especially the rules and regulations described in constitution or traditions which we have inherited from ancestors should be followed, and also our lives should be led in accordance with them. The main concern of paper would be personal behavior with others in a good manner especially what he/she should exercise for society’s welfare. As human beings are the fundamental organ of society, who play a crucial role in reforming the society, they should try their best to develop it as well as maintain harmony, peace, we-feeling and mutual contact in the society. Focusing on how the modern society and its elements keep society successful. Regulations of our constitution and tradition are essential for reforming the society. In a nutshell, a human has to mingle in his society and keep mutual respect and understand the value of others as well as for himself.

Keywords: constitution, human beings, society, traditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
240 'Enjoying the Czech Traditions with All Sences!': Tourism Product Promotion

Authors: Tomas Seidl

Abstract:

'Enjoy the Czech traditions with all sences!' is the main communication headline of one of the major current marketing project representing the intangible cultural heritage of the Czech Republic to its visitors. The project CZ.1.06/4.1.00/12.08915 and CZ.1.06/4.1.00/12.08916 which is solved in the period 2013-2015 is co-financed form the EU financial sources from the Integrated Operational Programme. The primary goal of the project was to analyze the dislocation and potential of the intangible cultural heritage in the Czech Republic. Further goal was to prepare a useful regionalization. An as solution based on the outcomes the creative and media strategy was created and prepared. The processor – CzechTourism expect the following web and mobile application development and successful marketing campaign in 2015.

Keywords: traditions, intangible cultural heritage, Czech Republic, CzechTourism, digital performance

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239 Cultural Embeddedness of E-Participation Methods in Hungary

Authors: Hajnalka Szarvas

Abstract:

The research examines the effectiveness of e-participation tools and methods from a point of view of cultural fitting to the Hungarian community traditions. Participation can have very different meanings depending on the local cultural and historical traditions, experiences of the certain societies. Generally when it is about e-democracy or e-participation tools most of the researches are dealing with its technological sides and novelties, but there is not much said about the cultural and social context of the different platforms. However from the perspective of their success it would be essential to look at the human factor too, the actual users, how the certain DMS or any online platform is fitting to the way of thought, the way of functioning of the certain society. Therefore the paper will explore that to what extent the different online platforms like Loomio, Democracy OS, Your Priorities EVoks, Populus, miutcank.hu, Liquid Democracy, Brain Bar Budapest Lab are compatible with the Hungarian mental structures and community traditions, the contents of collective mind about community functioning. As a result the influence of cultural embeddedness of the logic of e-participation development tools on success of these methods will be clearly seen. Furthermore the most crucial factors in general which determine the efficiency of e-participation development tools in Hungary will be demonstrated.

Keywords: cultural embeddedness, e-participation, local community traditions, mental structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
238 An Analytical and Inductive Study of the Aspect and Impact of the Prophetic Traditions in Understating Quran and Its Interpretation

Authors: Zabihur Rahman

Abstract:

In present day we see in our surroundings and in different societies of the world an uprising approach of understanding Quran without the help of Hadith and Sunnah. As they believe that ‘Quran is sufficient for our guidance’. They do not give any preference to Prophetic traditions (Hadith and Sunnah), to understand or realize the actual meaning and purpose of the reveling of Quranic verses. Based on the afore mentioned idea we are going to pin point an analytical and inductive study of tafsir Ahkâm-ul Qu’ran by: Ibn-ul Arabi al-Mâliki. In this study we are trying to show the importance of Hadith and Sunnah in interpretation and understanding of Quran by presenting various examples from tafsir Ahkâm-ul Quran. This book is for being an important source in the relative filed of Ahkam-ul Quran we are going to highlight the method of Ibn-ul Arabi in dealing with Quranic verses in the light of Hadith. Furthermore, the impact of quoting different types of hadith in Tefsir is also taken into account. Besides, while citing these Prophetic traditions it is also inevitable to kept in view the sciences of hadith and its application on the context in order to orientate the proper meaning. The study also includes the scrutiny of these narrations by their chain of narrators and text to ensure the perfection of these prophetic traditions. So that, a person can have accesses to the righteous understanding and interpretation of the Holy Quran.

Keywords: Hadith, interpretation, narrators, verses

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
237 Juvenile Justice in China: A Historical Approach

Authors: Xianlu Zeng

Abstract:

China has undergone rapid economic growth over the last three decades. During this time, China-focused study has become one of the most popular areas of research. However, even though China has one of the oldest legal traditions in the world, there is limited research available regarding the development and operation of China’s juvenile justice system. This article will provide general information about China’s juvenile justice tradition along with a review of its reformation in 2013. A discussion is presented that provides some thoughts about how successful these reforms have been and where China may need to head.

Keywords: China, history, juvenile justice, legal traditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
236 The Lightener of Love: The World Peace Religion

Authors: Abdul Razzaq

Abstract:

It is known that every human society throughout the world and throughout history, the various religions and their theologies, ethics, and traditions influence everything in their life, shaping socio-economic and political ideas, attitudes and institutions. It is observed that religious teachings and traditions shape how people respond to each other in their daily social inter-course and interaction in the community at large. The majorities of us preserves and protect our own religious beliefs and traditions as generally they symbolize our essential identities, theologically, historically, culturally, socially, and even politically. Our religious faiths symbolize our dignity as persons and our very souls as communities and individuals. It thus goes without saying that in our multi-racial and multi-religious society, the only way for us to live in peace and harmony is for us to live in peaceful co-existence. It is important for us to recognize, understand, accept and respect each other regardless of our respective belief. The history of interfaith is as ancient as the religions since men and women when not at war with their neighbors have always made an effort to understand them (not least because understanding is a strategy for defense, but also because for as long as there is dialogue wars are delayed).

Keywords: Islam, religion, peace, society

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
235 The Lightener of Love - The World Peace

Authors: Abdul Razzaq

Abstract:

It is known that every human society throughout the world and throughout history, the various religions and their theologies, ethics, and traditions influence everything in their life, shaping socio-economic and political ideas, attitudes and institutions. It is observed that religious teachings and traditions shape how people respond to each other in their daily social inter-course and interaction in the community at large. The majorities of us preserves and protect our own religious beliefs and traditions as generally they symbolize our essential identities, theologically, historically, culturally, socially, and even politically. Our religious faiths symbolize our dignity as persons and our very souls as communities and individuals. It thus goes without saying that in our multi-racial and multi-religious society, the only way for us to live in peace and harmony is for us to live in peaceful co-existence. It is important for us to recognize, understand, accept and respect each other regardless of our respective belief. The history of interfaith is as ancient as the religions since men and women when not at war with their neighbors have always made an effort to understand them (not least because understanding is a strategy for defense, but also because for as long as there is dialogue wars are delayed).

Keywords: Islam, interfaith, Sects, world, piece

Procedia PDF Downloads 600
234 The Role of 'Tantric Bhakti Movement' in Conceptualization of the Manifestation of Hindu God Concept

Authors: Ahmed M. Alavi

Abstract:

India is the motherland of countless beliefs and religious traditions. Hinduism is one of the oldest traditions of India and owns the treasure of numerous organic and inorganic gods. Hinduism was unfamiliar of the manifestation of divine powers in its early accounts. The conceptualization of the divine powers is still debatable query among the experts of the area. This study examines the unseen memoirs of the Hindu god concept and answers the dubious question ‘how Hindu gods subjected to manifestation? Comparing the attitude of the Hindu and Asiatic tantric traditions; these study hypotheses the clear role of tantric Bhakti movements which originated in 3rd to 5th century BC in south India as the key of the conceptualization. The study concludes exploring the vital role of Bhakti movement in rifting the Indian Hindu community to three major fans of manifested gods; the Shaivism, Vishnavism and Saktism and spreading the new trend all over the sub-continent.

Keywords: Bhakti movement, concept of manifestation of divine object, Hindu god concept, Tantrism

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
233 The Lightener of Love, the World Piece Religion

Authors: Abdul Razzaq Azad

Abstract:

It is known that every human society throughout the world and throughout history, the various religions and their theologies, ethics, and traditions influence everything in their life, shaping socio-economic and political ideas, attitudes and institutions. It is observed that religious teachings and traditions shape how people respond to each other in their daily social inter-course and interaction in the community at large. The majorities of us preserves and protect our own religious beliefs and traditions as generally they symbolize our essential identities, theologically, historically, culturally, socially, and even politically. Our religious faiths symbolize our dignity as persons and our very souls as communities and individuals. It thus goes without saying that in our multi racial and multi religious society, the only way for us to live in peace and harmony is for us to live in peaceful co-existence. It is important for us to recognize, understand, accept and respect each other regardless of our respective belief. The history of interfaith is as ancient as the religions since men and women when not at war with their neighbors have always made an effort to understand them (not least because understanding is a strategy for defense, but also because for as long as there is dialogue wars are delayed).

Keywords: interfaith harmony, world piece order, Islam, religions, lightness,

Procedia PDF Downloads 546
232 Meanings and Construction: Evolution of Inheriting the Traditions in Chinese Modern Architecture in the 1980s

Authors: Wei Wang

Abstract:

Queli Hotel, Xixi Scenery Spot Reception and Square Pagoda Garden are three important landmarks of localized Chinese modern architecture (LCMA) in the architectural design context of "Inheriting the Traditions in Modern Architecture" in the 1980s. As the most representative cases of LCMA in the 1980s, they interpret the traditions of Chinese garden and imperial roof from different perspectives. Based on the research text, conceptual drawings, construction drawings and site investigation, this paper extracts two groups of prominent contradictions in practice ("Pattern-Material-Structure" and "Type-Topography-Body") for keyword-based analysis to compare and examine different choices and balances by architects. Based on this, this paper attempts to indicate that the ideographic form derived from macro-narrative and the innovative investigation in construction is a pair of inevitable contradictions that must be handled and coordinated in these practices. The collision of the contradictions under specific conditions results in three cognitive attitudes and practical strategies towards traditions: Formal symbolism, spatial abstraction and construction-based narrative. These differentiated thoughts about Localization and Chineseness reflect various professional ideologies and value standpoints in the transition of Chinese Architecture discipline in the 1980s. The great variety in this particular circumstance suggests tremendous potential and possibilities of the future LCMA.

Keywords: construction, meaning, Queli Hotel, square pagoda garden, tradition, Xixi scenery spot reception

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
231 A Secular Advent: A Video-Ethnographic Study of the Preparations for Christmas in Swedish Preschools

Authors: Tunde Puskas, Anita Andersson

Abstract:

In Swedish early childhood education research, the issues related to religious identifications and practices have often been marginalized or relegated either to the realm of diversity and multiculturalism or to the realm of national traditions. This paper is part of a research project about whether religion is considered as part of Swedish cultural heritage in Swedish preschools. Our aim in this paper is to explore how a Swedish preschool balance between keeping the education non-confessional and at the same time introducing the traditions associated with advent and Christmas. Christmas was chosen because of the religious background of the holiday and because it is a tradition widely celebrated in Swedish preschools. In Swedish education system, the concept of freedom of religion is understood in the sense that education is declared to be non-confessional. Nevertheless, as the major state holidays in Sweden are tied to Lutheran Christian traditions, and according to the curriculum preschool educators, are given the task to pass on a cultural heritage, defined in terms of values, traditions, history, language, and knowledge, it is the preschool teams or individual preschool teachers who determine whether and to what extent religious considerations are/ought to be seen as part of the cultural heritage the preschool passes on. The data consists of ten video taped observations from two preschools. The video data was transcribed and the transcripts were thereafter analysed through content analysis. In the analysis, we draw on the concept of banal religiosity that has helped us to draw attention to the workings of religious considerations that are so familiar that they rarely are noticed as religious and on Ninian Smart’s theory on the dimensions of religion. The analysis shows that what the adults actually do with religion fulfils six of seven dimensions common to religious traditions as outlined by Smart. At the same time, Christmas is performed as a lived tradition within which the commercial and religious rituals intersect and result in a banal, national religiosity.

Keywords: secular advent, banal religiosity, dimensions of religion, rites

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
230 Multiracial Society and Oral Tradition: A Study through Secondary Data

Authors: Jesvin Puay-Hwa Yeo, Laavanya Kathiravelu, Sa’Eda Binte Buang

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In the early days, myths and taboos were used by our ancestors to give explanations to the existence of nature and man, as well as to propitiate fortunes and to avoid unluckiness and harm. Myths and taboos are deeply rooted in our cultures and environment, and they form certain characteristics of any society, even in modern societies. With decades of the three main ethnic communities in Singapore – Malay, Indian and Chinese – living together, there has been intermingling and intermixing of traditions and practices. This may mean that what we think is a ‘Malay’ practice is actually one that is a hybrid of the Chinese and Malay. A good example would be the practice of covering all mirrors in a house of mourning. Therefore, the proposed seeks to explore and understand the underlying social influences of Singapore’s oral tradition. As part of a bigger cultural research project: Designing Cultures, the proposed paper focused on using secondary data to contribute to the overall cultural understanding of the integral connections between oral traditions, people and landscapes. The proposed paper will discuss in details the initials findings of the research project, including the two manners that contributed to the intermixing of myths and taboos. The first is the presence of social institutions such as religions, and the second is the presence of cross-cultural minorities such as the Straits Chinese. As well as other observations included the use and influence of Chinese oral traditions such as folklore among the early Chinese immigrants through social institutions.

Keywords: cultural belief, multiracial society, myths, oral tradition

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
229 The Study of Biodiversity of Thirty Two Families of Useful Plants Existed in Georgia

Authors: Kacharava Tamar, Korakhashvili Avtandil, Epitashvili Tinatin

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The article deals with the database, which was created by the authors, related to biodiversity of some families of useful plants (medicinal, aromatic, spices, dye and poisonous) existing in Georgia considering important taxonomy. Our country is also rich with endemic genera. The results of monitoring of the phytogenetic resources to reveal perspective species and situation of endemic species and resources are also discussed in this paper. To get some new medicinal and preventive treatments using plant raw material in the phytomedicine, phytocosmetics and phytoculinary, the unique phytogenetic resources should be protected because the application of useful plants is becoming irreversible. This can be observed along with intensification and sustainable use of ethnobotanical traditions and promotion of phytoproduction based on the international requirements on biodiversity (Convention on Biological Diversity - CBD). Though Georgian phytopharmacy has the centuries-old traditions, today it is becoming the main concern.

Keywords: aromatic, medicinal, poisonous, spicy, dye plants, endemic biodiversity, endemic, ELISA, GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
228 From Colonial Outpost to Cultural India: Folk Epics of India

Authors: Jyoti Brahma

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Folk epics of India are found in various Indian languages. The study of folk epics and its importance in folkloristic study in India came into prominence only during the nineteenth century. The British administrators and missionaries collected and documented folk epics from various parts of the country. The paper is an attempt to investigate how colonial outpost appears to penetrate the interiors of Indian land and society and triggered off the Indian Renaissance. It takes into account the compositions of the epics of India and the attention it received during the nineteenth century, which in turn gave, rise to the national consciousness shaping the culture of India. Composed as oral traditions these folk epics are now seen as repositories of historical consciousness whereas in earlier times societies without literacy were said to be without history. So, there is an urgent need to re-examine the British impact on Indian literary traditions. The Bhakti poets through their nuanced responses in their efforts to change the behavior of Indian society gives us the perfect example of deferment in the clear cut distinction between the folk and the classical in the context of India. It evades a pure categorization and classification of the classical and constitutes part of the folk traditions of the cultural heritage of India. Therefore, the ethical question of what is ontologically known as ordinary discourse in the case of the “folk” forms metaphors and folk language gains importance once more. The paper also thus seeks simultaneously to outline the significant factors responsible for shaping the destiny of folklore in South India particularly the four political states of the Indian Union: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, what could be termed as South Indian “cultural zones”.

Keywords: colonial, folk, folklore, tradition

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
227 Teaching Legal English in Russia: Traditions and Problems

Authors: Irina A. Martynenko, Viktoriia V. Pikalova

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At the moment, there are more than a thousand law schools in Russia. The program of preparation in each of them without exception includes English language course. It is believed that lawyers in Russia are best trained at the MGIMO University, the All-Russian State University of Justice, Kutafin Moscow State Law University, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Lomonosov Moscow State University, St. Petersburg State University, Diplomatic Academy of Russian Foreign Ministry and some others. Currently, the overwhelming majority of universities operate using the two-level system of education: bachelor's plus master's degree. Foreign languages are taught at both levels. The main example of consideration used throughout this paper is Kutafin Moscow State Law University being one of the best law schools in the country. The article examines traditions of teaching legal English in Russia and highlights problem arising in this process. The authors suggest ways of solving them in the scope of modern views and practice of teaching English for specific purposes.

Keywords: Kutafin Moscow State Law University, legal English, Russia, teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
226 The Socio-Cultural Aspect of Food in Ceremonial Turkey

Authors: Suheyla Saritas

Abstract:

No matter who we are or where we live, our lives revolve around food, which is much more than a merely sustenance. As a part of the human culture, food carries complex significance and symbolic meanings. Turkish people attribute great value to food and its usage specifically tied to rites of passages of human life. Traditions, especially the ones practiced during rites of passages, such as birth, circumcisions, weddings and funerals, have always been accompanied by food in Turkish culture. Since food celebrates and symbolizes human progress in life in the culture, it also surrounds by aspects of belief, custom, magic, ritual and religion and has always been used in ceremonial context during such rites. Even though that context may be different depending on the religious, economic and social nuances of the various Turkish regions, like wheat, meat and bread, certain kinds of food play key roles during Turkish rites, generally upholding traditions. This paper highlights the sociocultural aspect of food in the rites of passages in the Turkish culture. The importance of this work also is how the ceremonial food represents the identity of Turkish people.

Keywords: food, culture, rites of passages, ritual and identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
225 Cultural Identity in Environmental Protection Areas of Nova Friburgo: Heritage, Tourism, and Traditions

Authors: Camila Dazzi, Crisitiane Passos de Mattos, Thiago Leite

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The paper discusses the cultural identity of the communities located in Environmental Protection Area (APAs), in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro, constituted almost entirely by descendants of Swiss immigrants who arrived in Brazil in the nineteenth century. The communication is the result of an extension project named "Cultural Identity in Environmental Protection Areas of Nova Friburgo." The objectives of this project were framed in the identification of local history, cultural demonstrations, crafts, religious events, festivals, the "know-how" and traditions. While an extension project, developed by students and teachers of a Bachelor of Tourism Management program, the work provided a more practical action: awareness the communities that inhabit the APAs on the possible implementation of the cultural community-based tourism, a sustainable alternative for economic development, involving local people as propagators of local culture, and tourism as a way of valuing and safeguarding of Intangible Heritage.

Keywords: tourism and cultural heritage, tourism and cultural impacts, tourism and cultural change, cultural identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
224 Architectural Identity in Manifestation of Tall-buildings' Design

Authors: Huda Arshadlamphon

Abstract:

Advancing frontiers of technology and industry is moving rapidly fast influenced by the economic and political phenomena. One vital phenomenon,which has had consolidated the world to a one single village, is Globalization. In response, architecture and the built-environment have faced numerous changes, adjustments, and developments. Tall-buildings, as a product of globalization, represent prestigious icons, symbols, and landmarks for highly economics and advanced countries. Despite the fact, this trend has been encountering several design challenges incorporating architectural identity, traditions, and characteristics that enhance the built-environments' sociocultural values and traditions. The necessity of these values and traditionsform self-solitarily, leading to visual and spatial creativity, independency, and individuality. In other words, they maintain the inherited identity and avoid replications in all means and aspects. This paper, firstly, defines globalization phenomenon, architectural identity, and the concerns of sociocultural values in relation to the traditional characteristics of the built-environment. Secondly, through three case-studies of tall-buildings located in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia, the Queen's Building, the National Commercial Bank Building (NCB), and the Islamic Development Bank Building; design strategies and methodologies in acclimating architectural identity and characteristics in tall-buildings are discussed. The case-studies highlight buildings' sites and surroundings, concepts and inspirations, design elements, architectural forms and compositions, characteristics, issues, barriers, and trammels facing the designs' decisions, representation of facades, and selection of materials and colors. Furthermore, the research will elucidate briefs of the dominant factors that shape the architectural identity of Jeddah city. In conclusion, the study manifests four tall-buildings' design standards guideline in preserving and developing architectural identity in Jeddah city; the scale of urban and natural environment, the scale of architectural design elements, the integration of visual images, and the creation of spatial scenes and scenarios. The prosed guideline will encourage the development of architectural identity aligned with zeitgeist demands and requirements, supports the contemporary architectural movement toward tall-buildings, and shoresself-solitarily in representing sociocultural values and traditions of the built-environment.

Keywords: architectural identity, built-environment, globalization, sociocultural values and traditions, tall-buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
223 Explication of the Relationship between Historical Trauma, Culture Loss, and Native American Youth Suicide: A Review of Related Literature

Authors: Julie A. LaRose

Abstract:

Native American youth, ages 10-24, have the highest rate of suicide in the United States. The hopelessness experienced by the native American youth is linked to psychosocial reasons more than biological or intrapsychic reasons. Two significant social determinants of health that diminish their hope include historical trauma and cultural loss. Intergenerational grief is caused by historical trauma from hundreds of years of colonization, broken treaties, and forced migration, leading to land, resources, and sovereignty loss. Forced acculturation through boarding schools that native children were required to attend led to the loss of traditions and culture. The result is hopelessness. This paper reviewed peer-reviewed research literature, government reports, non-government organizations reports, and video and written publications by Native Americans. Building hope through healing historical trauma and embracing cultural traditions may reduce suicide rates among Native American youth.

Keywords: culture loss, historical trauma, Native American, suicide, suicide rates

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
222 A Critical Analysis of the Current Concept of Healthy Eating and Its Impact on Food Traditions

Authors: Carolina Gheller Miguens

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Feeding is, and should be, pleasurable for living beings so they desire to nourish themselves while preserving the continuity of the species. Social rites usually revolve around the table and are closely linked to the cultural traditions of each region and social group. Since the beginning, food has been closely linked with the products each region provides, and, also, related to the respective seasons of production. With the globalization and facilities of modern life we are able to find an ever increasing variety of products at any time of the year on supermarket shelves. These lifestyle changes end up directly influencing food traditions. With the era of uncontrolled obesity caused by the dazzle with the large and varied supply of low-priced to ultra-processed industrial products now in the past, today we are living a time when people are putting aside the pleasure of eating to exclusively eat food dictated by the media as healthy. Recently the medicalization of food in our society has become so present in daily life that almost without realizing we make food choices conditioned to the studies of the properties of these foods. The fact that people are more attentive to their health is interesting. However, when this care becomes an obsessive disorder, which imposes itself on the pleasure of eating and extinguishes traditional customs, it becomes dangerous for our recognition as citizens belonging to a culture and society. This new way of living generates a rupture with the social environment of origin, possibly exposing old traditions to oblivion after two or three generations. Based on these facts, the presented study analyzes these social transformations that occur in our society that triggered the current medicalization of food. In order to clarify what is actually a healthy diet, this research proposes a critical analysis on the subject aiming to understand nutritional rationality and relate how it acts in the medicalization of food. A wide bibliographic review on the subject was carried out followed by an exploratory research in online (especially social) media, a relevant source in this context due to the perceived influence of such media in contemporary eating habits. Finally, this data was crossed, critically analyzing the current situation of the concept of healthy eating and medicalization of food. Throughout this research, it was noticed that people are increasingly seeking information about the nutritional properties of food, but instead of seeking the benefits of products that traditionally eat in their social environment, they incorporate external elements that often bring benefits similar to the food already consumed. This is because the access to information is directed by the media and exalts the exotic, since this arouses more interest of the population in general. Efforts must be made to clarify that traditional products are also healthy foods, rich in history, memory and tradition and cannot be replaced by a standardized diet little concerned with the construction of taste and pleasure, having a relationship with food as if it were a Medicinal product.

Keywords: food traditions, food transformations, healthy eating, medicalization of food

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
221 Linguistic Analysis of Holy Scriptures: A Comparative Study of Islamic Jurisprudence and the Western Hermeneutical Tradition

Authors: Sana Ammad

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The tradition of linguistic analysis in Islam and Christianity has developed independently of each other in lieu of the social developments specific to their historical context. However, recently increasing number of Muslim academics educated in the West have tried to apply the Western tradition of linguistic interpretation to the Qur’anic text while completely disregarding the Islamic linguistic tradition used and developed by the traditional scholars over the centuries. The aim of the paper is to outline the linguistic tools and methods used by the traditional Islamic scholars for the purpose of interpretating the Holy Qur’an and shed light on how they contribute towards a better understanding of the text compared to their Western counterparts. This paper carries out a descriptive-comparative study of the linguistic tools developed and perfected by the traditional scholars in Islam for the purpose of textual analysis of the Qur’an as they have been described in the authentic works of Usul Al Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and the principles of textual analysis employed by the Western hermeneutical tradition for the study of the Bible. First, it briefly outlines the independent historical development of the two traditions emphasizing the final normative shape that they have taken. Then it draws a comparison of the two traditions highlighting the similarities and the differences existing between them. In the end, the paper demonstrates the level of academic excellence achieved by the traditional linguistic scholars in their efforts to develop appropriate tools of textual interpretation and how these tools are more suitable for interpreting the Qur’an compared to the Western principles. Since the aim of interpreters of both the traditions is to try and attain an objective understanding of the Scriptures, the emphasis of the paper shall be to highlight how well the Islamic method of linguistic interpretation contributes to an objective understanding of the Qur’anic text. The paper concludes with the following findings: The Western hermeneutical tradition of linguistic analysis developed within the Western historical context. However, the Islamic method of linguistic analysis is much more highly developed and complex and serves better the purpose of objective understanding of the Holy text.

Keywords: Islamic jurisprudence, linguistic analysis, textual interpretation, western hermeneutics

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
220 Problems and Prospects of an Intelligent Investment in Kazakh Society

Authors: Sultanbayeva Gulmira Serikbayevna, Golovchun Aleftina Anatolyevna

Abstract:

The development of any nation is directly related to the development of human capital in it. A human development is an increase its intellectual potential, its compliance with the requirements of time, present and future society. Demands of globalization cannot limit the processes of national traditions. The education system must be formed on the basis of international practice of cultural development. In Kazakhstan, where modernization changes are rapidly developing, the education system should be formed in two ways: first, on a national basis, and secondly, based on global best practices. There is the need to recognize and promote the importance of education as a value. The world community considers the problem of spiritual values. Along with individual values, spiritual values are also universal values. Formation of values such as the presence in young people a sense of respect for their homeland, social responsibility, respect the culture and traditions of its people is the most important task than the possession of material goods. When forming the intellectual nation, values in the field of education and science become investments for the development of the society, as well as education and science today transformed into the most important capital.

Keywords: human capital, humanitarian technology, intangible assets, intelligent nation, society of knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
219 Local Female Dresses of Yuruk Community in Günaydin Village of Balikesir Region

Authors: Melek Tufan, Filiz Erden, E. Elhan Özus

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Apparel is a fact that has assigned wide cultural functions in development process even if it basically aims at protection during mankind's cultural development and course of live. It is an important cultural element that has been shaped by ecological conditions, social and personal values, traditions, cultural and economic conditions, at the same time it is a bearer of culture. Customs and traditions that maintain culture create differences in dressing styles of the region. These differences create traditional clothing forms specific to each region, which are different from each other or show close similarities. Differences which have dominant features create sense of dress specific to community owned. Samples of a kind of dress worn over salwar, long shirt, jacket, salwar and underpants that are types of local female dresses available in houses of yuruk community in Günaydın village of Balıkesir region have been found. By examining local dresses in terms of material, color, cutting, sewing, ornamentation technique and ornamentation subject and it has been aimed to record them with observation forms and transfer them to the next generations.

Keywords: women, traditional, Turkish Culture, art, fashion

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
218 Removing the Veils of Caste from the Face of Islam in the Sub-Continent

Authors: Elaheh Ghasempour

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India has always been an all-encompassing center of attention in the theological and cultural studies since it beholds a very diverse nation within its borders. Among the uncountable faiths and traditions of this massive land, this article shall negotiate Islam in a Hindu dominated society. Practicing Caste and the views on it are the most controversial topics in modern-day India. Some blame it on the teachings of Hinduism; some call it a colonial outcome; and yet many believe that it is, in fact, a social construct. Islam was the souvenir coming from the Arabian Peninsula into the Indian Subcontinent in the hands of Arab, Persian, and Turk religious missionaries and Sufi saints. The aim of bringing the faith to this region was to enlighten the people of East and the Far East with the ideas of peace, justice, brotherhood as well as a proper way of living. Due to many reasons, the concept of the Islamic Nation or ‘Ummah’ has been touched by the native teachings of Hinduism which negates and questions the actual Islamic principles and laws. The Islamic Nation in India has been parted to different classes and each class nowadays beholds one level of a hierarchy. The superiors do not hesitate to keep the inferiors oppressed as much as they can since their own high position in this hierarchy depends on such oppressions. Their rules and laws to keep the lower castes out of the political and economical scene found ways into the religious traditions so much that it has become hard to question it by the masses; the masses who are too uneducated to question their own heretical faith and traditions. But now that the world is rapidly evolving, the access to knowledge has evoked an awareness of many lower caste or ‘Dalit’ Muslims. They no longer wish to be oppressed for their ethnicity or rootless principles of the old generations to guarantee the survival of the higher caste Muslims or ‘Ashrafs’. In recent years, many have stood against the rules of the caste system. As the oppressed no longer wishes to be oppressed, they also show acts of violence against the rulers who destined them the life they currently have. Considering they are usually poor and uneducated, and they might do violent actions, this can threaten not only Indians but the whole world; especially because the ISIS can easily fund a troop of hungry men who are looking forward to revenge their masters and others for all the unjust discriminations. Therefore for the sake of social security and stopping the disrepute for followers of Islam, the entire Islamic nation must consider taking actions against practicing Caste, regardless of where they come from. Since the teachings of the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) invite all Muslims to practice equality and brotherhood in the Ummah, this article would find the practical ways to abolish the caste-system through the Islamic liturgical texts and traditions.

Keywords: Dalit Muslims, Islam in India, caste system, justice in Islam, violence

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217 Matter of the Artistic Content of Music (The Symphonies of Jovdat Hajiyev and the Creativity of Fikrat Amirov)

Authors: Vusala Amirbayova Yusif

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As we know the formation of new composer’s schools is determined not with the national belonging, but firstly with the development of the national spirit and eternal traditions. The formation of ancient musical traditions with the classical European genre and forms stand in the center of music art with Azerbaijani written tradition. Though this duty is actual for the neighboring eastern countries (for example, Iran, Turkey, Arabian countries, India), it has not been realized in the same level in real creative practice. It is necessary to mention that, the symphonic mughams formed from the joining of Eastern mugham-magam and classical music forms of Western symphony have been greeted with amazement and it was valuable practice in national composer’s art. It is true that, the new examples of the genre were formed in the next years (S.Alasgarov, T.Bakikhanov and etc.) and F.Amirov came back to the genre of symphonic mugham as he created Gulustani-Bayati-Shiraz”in,-1970. New tendency has begun to show itself in the development of national symphonic genre. The new attitude for mugham traditions showed itself in symphonic creative work of A.Malikov, A.Alizada, M.Guliyev,V.Adigozalov. The voice of mugham mentality has entered the depth of the Azerbaijan symphony, has determined the meditation spirit, dramatist process and content. This movement has formed the new notion of “mugham mphonism” with new meaning by our musicologists. In the modern musical science, in addition to traditional methods and procedures, the formation of new theories and approaches caused to the further increase of scientific interest towards the problem of artistic content in the art of composition. The initiative has been made to have overall look on this important subject as an example of the creativity of FikratAmirov (1922-1984)and JovdatHaciyev(1917-2000), the great composers of Azerbaijan and to analyze his some symphonic works from this point of view in the current report. In this connection, main provisions of the new theoretical concept that were comprehensively annotated in the article of Russian musicologist V. Kholopova named "Special and non-special musical content" were used.

Keywords: content, composer, music, mugham symphony

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216 The Background of Ornamental Design Practice: Theory and Practice Based Research on Ornamental Traditions

Authors: Jenna Pyorala

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This research looks at the principles and purposes ornamental design has served in the field of textile design. Ornamental designs are characterized by richness of details, abundance of elements, vegetative motifs and organic forms that flow harmoniously in complex compositions. Research on ornamental design is significant, because ornaments have been overlooked and considered as less meaningful and aesthetically pleasing than minimalistic, modern designs. This is despite the fact that in many parts of the world ornaments have been an important part of the cultural identification and expression for centuries. Ornament has been claimed to be superficial and merely used as a decorative way to hide the faults of designs. Such generalization is an incorrect interpretation of the real purposes of ornament. Many ornamental patterns tell stories, present mythological scenes or convey symbolistic meanings. Historically, ornamental decorations have been representing ideas and characteristics such as abundance, wealth, power and personal magnificence. The production of fine ornaments required refined skill, eye for intricate detail and perseverance while compiling complex elements into harmonious compositions. For this reason, ornaments have played an important role in the advancement of craftsmanship. Even though it has been claimed that people in the western design world have lost the relationship to ornament, the relation to it has merely changed from the practice of a craftsman to conceptualisation of a designer. With the help of new technological tools the production of ornaments has become faster and more efficient, demanding less manual labour. Designers who commit to this style of organic forms and vegetative motifs embrace and respect nature by representing its organically growing forms and by following its principles. The complexity of the designs is used as a way to evoke a sense of extraordinary beauty and stimulate intellect by freeing the mind from the predetermined interpretations. Through the study of these purposes it can be demonstrated that complex and richer design styles are as valuable a part of the world of design as more modern design approaches. The study highlights the meaning of ornaments by presenting visual examples and literature research findings. The practice based part of the project is the visual analysis of historical and cultural ornamental traditions such as Indian Chikan embroidery, Persian carpets, Art Nouveau and Rococo according to the rubric created for the purpose. The next step is the creation of ornamental designs based on the key elements in different styles. Theoretical and practical parts are woven together in this study that respects respect the long traditions of ornaments and highlight the importance of these design approaches to the field, in contrast to the more commonly preferred styles.

Keywords: cultural design traditions, ornamental design, organic forms from nature, textile design

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215 Walking in a Weather rather than a Climate: Critique on the Meta-Narrative of Buddhism in Early India

Authors: Yongjun Kim

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Since the agreement on the historicity of historical Buddha in eastern India, the beginning, heyday and decline of Buddhism in Early India have been discussed in urbanization, commercialism and state formation context, in short, Weberian socio-politico frame. Recent Scholarship, notably in archaeology and anthropology, has proposed ‘re-materialization of Buddhism in Early India’ based on what Buddhist had actually done rather than what they should do according to canonical teachings or philosophies. But its historical narrations still remain with a domain of socio-politico meta-narrative which tends to unjustifiably dismiss the naturally existing heterogeneity and often chaotic dynamic of diverse agencies, landscape perceptions, localized traditions, etc. An author will argue the multiplicity of theoretical standpoints for the reconstruction on the Buddhism in Early India. For this, at first, the diverse agencies, localized traditions, landscape patterns of Buddhist communities and monasteries in Trans-Himalayan regions; focusing Zanskar Valley and Spiti Valley in India will be illustrated based on an author’s field work. And then an author will discuss this anthropological landscape analysis is better appropriated with textual and archaeological evidences on the tension between urban monastic and forest Buddhism, the phenomena of sacred landscape, cemetery, garden, natural cave along with socio-economic landscape, the demographic heterogeneity in Early India. Finally, it will be attempted to compare between anthropological landscape of present Trans-Himalayan and archaeological one of ancient Western India. The study of Buddhism in Early India has hardly been discussed through multivalent theoretical archaeology and anthropology of religion, thus traditional and recent scholarship have produced historical meta-narrative though heterogeneous among them. The multidisciplinary approaches of textual critics, archaeology and anthropology will surely help to deconstruct the grand and all-encompassing historical description on Buddhism in Early India and then to reconstruct the localized, behavioral and multivalent narratives. This paper expects to highlight the importance of lesser-studied Buddhist archaeological sites and the dynamic views on religious landscape in Early India with a help of critical anthropology of religion.

Keywords: analogy by living traditions, Buddhism in Early India, landscape analysis, meta-narrative

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214 Horizontal Gender Inequality and Segregation at Workplace in China: Understanding How Implicit and Unconscious Gender Stereotypes Produce and Reinforce Workplace Gender Inequality in China through Interview-Based Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Yiyan Wu

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In the past several decades, the market transition in China has brought in not only more opportunities for women in the labor market but also more attention to gender inequality in workplace. Although some pieces of literature have mentioned gender inequality and segregation at workplace in China, the paper looks into the variations of gender inequality and segregation: working women have little feeling about 'hierarchical inequalities', which define the status and position of women at the workplace. However, at the same time, they unconsciously reinforced 'horizontal inequalities', which creates gender segregation across occupations and job titles. Using qualitative interviews with women employers and employees of various occupations and job titles in Eastern and Southern China, this paper finds evidence that working women's understandings of the division of labor based on the characteristics and expectations of women and men are not as a result of rationality and efficiency, but instead, are the products of gendered stereotypes and traditions. However, holding positive views of gender equality at workplace, working women are not aware of the existence and influence of such gendered stereotypes and traditions. By distinguishing the concepts of 'horizontal inequality' and 'hierarchical inequality' with a cultural sociological approach, this paper contributes to the understanding of gender inequality and segregation in contemporary Chinese society. Moreover, this paper explains the logic behind the paradox in which gender inequality and segregation at workplace persist while women are feeling equal.

Keywords: gender equality, segregation, hierarchical inequality, horizontal inequality, China

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213 From Oral to Written: Translating the Dawot (Epic Poem), Revitalizing Appreciation for Indigenous Literature

Authors: Genevieve Jorolan-Quintero

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The recording as well as the preservation of indigenous literature is an important task as it deals with a significant heritage of pre-colonial culture. The beliefs and traditions of a people are reflected in their oral narratives, such as the folk epic, which must be written down to insure their preservation. The epic poem for instance, known as dawot among the Mandaya, one of the indigenous communities in the southern region of the Philippines, narrates the customs, the ways of life, and the adventures of an ancient people. Nabayra, an expert on Philippine folkloric studies, stresses that still extant after centuries of unknown origin, the dawot was handed down to the magdadawot (bard) by word of mouth, forming the greatest bulk of Mandaya oral tradition. Unhampered by modern means of communication to distract her/him, the magdadawot has a sharp memory of the intricacies of the ancient art of chanting the panayday (verses) of the epic poem. The dawot has several hullubaton (episodes), each of which takes several nights to chant . The language used in these oral traditions is archaic Mandaya, no longer spoken or clearly understood by the present generation. There is urgency to the task of recording and writing down what remain of the epic poem since the singers and storytellers who have retained the memory and the skill of chanting and narrating the dawot and other forms of oral tradition in their original forms are getting fewer. The few who are gifted and skilled to transmit these ancient arts and wisdom are old and dying. Unlike the other Philippine epics (i.e. the Darangen, the Ulahingan, the Hinilawod, etc.), the Mandaya epic is yet to be recognized and given its rightful place among the recorded epics in Philippine Folk Literature. The general aim of this study was to put together and preserve an intangible heritage, the Mandaya hullubaton (episodes of the dawot), in order to preserve and promote appreciation for the oral traditions and cultural legacy of the Mandaya. It was able to record, transcribe, and translate four hullubaton of the folk epic into two languages, Visayan and English to insure understanding of their contents and significance among non-Mandaya audiences. Evident in the contents of the episodes are the cultural practices, ideals, life values, and traditions of the ancient Mandaya. While the conquests and adventures of the Mandaya heroes Lumungtad, Dilam, and Gambong highlight heroic virtues, the role of the Mandaya matriarch in family affairs is likewise stressed. The recording and the translation of the hullubaton and the dawot into commonly spoken languages will not only promote knowledge and understanding about their culture, but will also stimulate in the members of this cultural community a sense of pride for their literature and culture. Knowledge about indigenous cultural system and philosophy derived from their oral literature will serve as a springboard to further comparative researches dealing with indigenous mores and belief systems among the different tribes in the Philippines, in Asia, in Africa, and other countries in the world.

Keywords: Dawot, epic poem, Mandaya, Philippine folk literature

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212 Oriental Tradition, Taoism:A Critical Option for Peace Building Initiative in the Contemporary Society

Authors: Kingsley Okoro Nwannennaya

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The 21st century seems to have been eclipsed by social conflict, giving vent to a mentality construct that accepts conflict as inextricable part of the social system. This is justified by the escalation of conflict in all the zones of the world. We therefore, query whether a peaceful society is a mere illusion? It is in an attempt to give lucid answer to this question that the researcher began critical investigations on various peace building and conflict management models. Here the researcher discovered that these models as good as they may be have not addressed the root of conflicts which revolves on the social structure in place in any society. Hence the current social structure is organized around class system, which gave birth to competition, greed, selfishness, power struggle etc. and also promotes mono-culture based on Euro-American traditions. This placed some cultures on a disadvantageous position, with conflict as its outgrowth. However, the researcher being interested to finding a peace building and conflict management model that will address this gap discovered that Taoism has the seed that can offer the world the desired peace. This tradition anchors on the principles of Tao, Yin-yang and Wu-wei. Basic to the trio concepts are the idea of Pluralism, non-interference, non-action and flowing with the order of nature. This paper, having adopted, historical and sociological methods of investigations opines that if Taoist tradition shall be adopted as a peace building model, the desired peace of our dream shall soon become a reality.

Keywords: critical option, oriental traditions, peace initiative, taoism

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