Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Vitis venifera

26 Anticoccidial Activity of Vitis venifera Extract on Oocysts of Different Eimeria Species of Chicken

Authors: Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Asif Raza, Kashif Hussain

Abstract:

In the current experiment, in vitro anticoccidial potential of Vitis venifera (grape seed) extract was evaluated. For this purpose, an in vitro sporulation inhibition assay was used. Collected oocysts of different Eimeria species of chicken were exposed to six different concentrations (w/v) of Vitis venifera extract (TAE) in 10% dimethylsulphoxide solution (DMSO). Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and potassium dichromate solution (K₂Cr₂O₇) served as control groups. Results of the study revealed that Vitis venifera extract (TAE) showed an inhibitory effect on sporulation (%) and damage (%) of Eimeria oocysts in a dose-dependent manner as compared to both control groups. Vitis venifera extract also damaged the morphology of oocysts in terms of shape, size, and number of sporocysts.

Keywords: Vitis venifera, in vitro, Eimeria, oocysts

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25 Efficient Reduction of Organophosphate Pesticide from Fruits and Vegetables Using Cost Effective Neutralizer

Authors: Debjani Dasgupta, Aman Zalawadia, Anuj Thapa, Pranjali Sing, Ashish Dabade

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Organophosphate group pesticides are common pesticide group, which gain entry into food product due to incomplete removal of pesticide residues. The current food industry raw material handling process is not sufficient to eliminate pesticide residues. A neutralizer was used to neutralize the residues of pesticide on Vitis vinifera (Grapes). The water based dilution of neutralizer was demonstrated on fruits like grapes. Analysis for pesticides in water wash and neutralizer wash was carried out using GCMS. Fruits washed with neutralizer exhibited 72.95% removal of pesticides compared with normal water wash method. An economical chemical neutralizer can be used to remove such residues in raw material handling at industrial scale with minor modification in process to achieve minimum pesticide entry into final food products.

Keywords: GCMS, organophosphate, raw material handling, Vitis vinifera, pesticide neutralizer

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24 Effects of Grape Seed Oil on Postharvest Life and Quality of Some Grape Cultivars

Authors: Zeki Kara, Kevser Yazar

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Table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are an important crop worldwide. Postharvest problems like berry shattering, decay and stem dehydration are some of the important factors that limit the marketing of table grapes. Edible coatings are an alternative for increasing shelf-life of fruits, protecting fruits from humidity and oxygen effects, thus retarding their deterioration. This study aimed to compare different grape seed oil applications (GSO, 0.5 g L-1, 1 g L-1, 2 g L-1) and SO2 generating pads effects (SO2-1, SO2-2). Treated grapes with GSO and generating pads were packaged into polyethylene trays and stored at 0 ± 1°C and 85-95% moisture. Effects of the applications were investigated by some quality and sensory evaluations with intervals of 15 days. SO2 applications were determined the most effective treatments for minimizing weight loss and changes in TA, pH, color and appearance value. Grape seed oil applications were determined as a good alternative for grape preservation, improving weight losses and °Brix, TA, the color values and sensory analysis. Commercially, ‘Alphonse Lavallée’ clusters were stored for 75 days and ‘Antep Karası’ clusters for 60 days. The data obtained from GSO indicated that it had a similar quality result to SO2 for up to 40 days storage.

Keywords: postharvest, quality, sensory analyses, Vitis vinifera L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
23 Identification of Phenolic Compounds with Antibacterial Activity in Raisin Extract

Authors: Yousef M. Abouzeed A. Elfahem, F. Zgheel, M. A. Saad, Mohamed O. Ahmed

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The bioactive properties of phytochemicals indicate their potential as natural drug products to prevent and treat human disease; in particular, compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities may represent a novel class of safe and effective drugs. Following desiccation, grapes (Vitis vinifera) become more resistant to microbial-based degradation, suggesting that raisins may be a source of antimicrobial compounds. To investigate this hypothesis, total phenolic extracts were obtained from common raisins, local market-sourced. The acetone extract was tested for antibacterial activity against four prevalent bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli). Antibiotic sensitivity and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were determined for each bacterium. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify compounds in the total phenolic extract. The raisin phenolic extract inhibited growth of all the tested bacteria; the greatest inhibitive effect (normalized to cefotaxime sodium control antibiotic) occurred against P. aeruginosa, followed by S. aureus > Salmonella spp.= E. coli. The phenolic extracts contained the bioactive compounds catechin, quercetin, and rutin. Thus, phytochemicals in raisin extract have antibacterial properties; this plant-based extract, or its bioactive constituents, may represent a promising natural preservative or antimicrobial agent for the food industry or anti-infective drug.

Keywords: Vitis vinifera raisin, extraction, phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity

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22 Genome-Wide Analysis of BES1/BZR1 Gene Family in Five Plant Species

Authors: Jafar Ahmadi, Zhohreh Asiaban, Sedigheh Fabriki Ourang

Abstract:

Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate cell elongation, vascular differentiation, senescence and stress responses. BRs signal through the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which regulate hundreds of target genes involved in this pathway. In this research a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was carried out in BES1/BZR1 gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, Cucumis sativus, Vitis vinifera, Glycin max, and Brachypodium distachyon. Specifications of the desired sequences, dot plot and hydropathy plot were analyzed in the protein and genome sequences of five plant species. The maximum amino acid length was attributed to protein sequence Brdic3g with 374aa and the minimum amino acid length was attributed to protein sequence Gm7g with 163aa. The maximum Instability index was attributed to protein sequence AT1G19350 equal with 79.99 and the minimum Instability index was attributed to protein sequence Gm5g equal with 33.22. Aliphatic index of these protein sequences ranged from 47.82 to 78.79 in Arabidopsis thaliana, 49.91 to 57.50 in Vitis vinifera, 55.09 to 82.43 in Glycin max, 54.09 to 54.28 in Brachypodium distachyon 55.36 to 56.83 in Cucumis sativus. Overall, data obtained from our investigation contributes a better understanding of the complexity of the BES1/BZR1 gene family and provides the first step towards directing future experimental designs to perform systematic analysis of the functions of the BES1/BZR1 gene family.

Keywords: BES1/BZR1, brassinosteroids, phylogenetic analysis, transcription factor

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21 Phytoremediation; Pb, Cr and Cd Accumulation in Fruits and Leaves of Vitis Vinifera L. From Air Pollutions and Intraction between Their Uptake Based on the Distance from the Main Road

Authors: Fatemeh Mohsennezhad

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Air pollution is one of major problems for environment. Providing healthy food and protecting water sources from pollution has been one of the concerns of human societies and decision-making centers so that protecting food from pollution, detecting sources of pollution and measuring them become important. Nutritive and political significance of grape in this area, extensive use of leaf and fruit of this plant and development of urban areas around grape gardens and construction of Tabriz – Miandoab road, which is the most important link between East and West Azarbaijan, led us to examine the impact of this road construction and urban environment pollutants such as lead chromium and cadmium on the quality of this valuable crop. First, the samples were taken from different adjacent places and medium distances from the road, each place being located exactly by Google earth and GPS. Digestion was done through burning dry material and hydrochloric acid and their ashes were analyzed by atomic absorption to determine (Pb, Cr, Cd) accumulations. In this experiments effects of 2 following factors were examined as a variable: Garden distance from the main road with levels 1: For 50 meters, 2: For 120-200 meters, 3: For above 800 meters, and plant organ with levels 1: For fruit, 2: For leaves. At the end, the results were processed by SPSS software. 3.54 ppm, the most lead quantity, was at sample No. 54 in fruits with 800 meters distance from the road and 1.00 ppm was the least lead quantity at sample No. 50 in fruits with 1000 meters from the road. In leaves, the most lead quantity was 19.16 ppm at sample No. 15 with 50 meters distance from the road and the least quantity was 1.41 ppm at sample No. 31 with 50 meters from the road. Pb uptake is significantly different at 50 meters and 200 meters distance. It means that Pb uptake near the main road is the highest. But this result is not true for others elements. Distance has not a meaningful effect on Cr uptake. The result of analysis of variation in distance and plant organ for Cd showed that between fruit and leaf, Cd uptake is significantly different. But distance and interaction between distance and plant organ is not meaningful. There is neither meaningful interaction between these elements uptakes in fruits nor in leaves. If leaves and fruits, assumed all together, showed a very meaningful integration between heavy metal accumulations. It means that each of these elements causes uptake others without considering special organs. In the tested area, it became clear that, from the accumulation of heavy metals perspective, there is no meaningful difference in existing distance between road and garden. There is a meaningful difference among heavy metals accumulation. In other words, increase ratio of one metal to another was different from the resulted differences shown in corresponding graphs. Interaction among elements and distance between garden and road was not meaningful.

Keywords: Vitis vinifera L., phytoremediation, heavy metals accumulation, lead, chromium, cadmium

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20 Production and Evaluation of Jam Made from Pineapple (Ananas comosus) and Grape (Vitis vinifera)

Authors: Z. O. Apotiola, J. F. Fashakin

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This project studied the production and evaluation of jam produced from pineapple and grape at different level of ratio (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 100%). The proximate and sensory properties were determined using standard methods. The (GDZ) was the highest for protein, moisture, fat and ash, (KFJ) was the highest for carbohydrate. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, GDZ, BEN) for moisture. Also, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, GDZ, KFJ) for protein. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, BEN) for carbohydrate. Also, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, QCM, GDZ, BEN) for fat and there were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, GDZ) for ash. (KFJ) was the highest for pH, (BBL and QCM) was the highest for Vitamin C; (GDZ) was the highest for titratable acidity. For sensory properties, for aroma, colour, flavour, and overall acceptability were tested using panellists; the result showed that (KFJ) had the highest for all samples. From the results of chemical and sensory characteristics sample BBL was the best combination.

Keywords: chemical, characteristic, combination, titratable, sensory, significant

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19 The Effects on Yield and Yield Components of Different Level Cluster Tip Reduction and Foliar Boric Acid Applications on Alphonse Lavallee Grape Cultivar

Authors: A. Akın, H. Çoban

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This study was carried out to determine the effects of Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), 1/6 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/6 CTR), 1/9 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/9 CTR), 1/3 CTR + Boric Acid (BA), 1/6 CTR + BA, 1/9 CTR + BA applications on yield and yield components of four years old Alphonse Lavallee grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) grown on grafted 110 Paulsen rootstock in Konya province in Turkey in the vegetation period in 2015. According to the results, the highest maturity index 21.46 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest grape juice yields 736.67 ml with 1/3 CTR + BA application; the highest L* color value 32.07 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest a* color value 1.74 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest b* color value 3.72 with 1/9 CTR application were obtained. The effects of applications on grape fresh yield, cluster weight and berry weight were not found statistically significant.

Keywords: alphonse lavallee grape cultivar, different cluster tip reduction (1/3, 1/6, 1/9), foliar boric acid application, yield, quality

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18 The Effects of Yield and Yield Components of Some Quality Increase Applications on Ismailoglu Grape Type in Turkey

Authors: Yaşar Önal, Aydın Akın

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This study was conducted Ismailoglu grape type (Vitis vinifera L.) and its vine which was aged 15 was grown on its own root in a vegetation period of 2013 in Nevşehir province in Turkey. In this research, it was investigated whether the applications of Control (C), 1/3 cluster tip reduction (1/3 CTR), shoot tip reduction (STR), 1/3 CTR + STR, TKI-HUMAS (TKI-HM) (Soil) (S), TKI-HM (Foliar) (F), TKI-HM (S + F), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (F), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S+F), STR + TKI-HM (S), STR + TKI-HM (F), STR + TKI-HM (S + F), 1/3 CTR + STR+TKI-HM (S), 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (F), 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (S + F) on yield and yield components of Ismailoglu grape type. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (16.15 kg/vine) with TKI-HM (S), as the highest cluster weight (652.39 g) with 1/3 CTR + STR, as the highest 100 berry weight (419.07 g) with 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (F), as the highest maturity index (44.06) with 1/3 CTR, as the highest must yield (810.00 ml) with STR + TKI-HM (F), as the highest intensity of L* color (42.04) with TKI-HM (S + F), as the highest intensity of a* color (2.60) with 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S), as the highest intensity of b* color (7.16) with 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S) applications. To increase the fresh grape yield of Ismailoglu grape type can be recommended TKI-HM (S) application.

Keywords: 1/3 cluster tip reduction, shoot tip reduction, TKI-Humas application, yield and yield components

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17 Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

Authors: Abeer M. Algeblawi

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Fifteen isolates of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were obtained from crown gall samples collected from six locations (Tripoli, Alzahra, Ain-Zara, Alzawia, Alazezia in Libya) from Grape (Vitis vinifera L.), Pear (Pyrus communis L.), Peach (Prunus persica L.) and Alexandria in Egypt from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) trees, Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L.) and Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Total DNA was extracted from the eight isolates as well as the identification of six isolates used into Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique were used. High similarity (55.5%) was observed among the eight A. tumefaciens isolates (Agro1, Agro2, Agro3, Agro4, Agro5, Agro6, Agro7, and Agro8). The PCR amplification products were resulting from the use of two specific primers (virD2A-virD2C). Analysis induction six isolates of A. tumefaciens obtained from different hosts. A visible band was specific to A. tumefaciens of (220 bp, 224 bp) and 338 bp produced with total DNA extracted from bacterial cells.

Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, crown gall, identification, molecular characterization, PCR, RAPD

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16 Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Wild Bulgarian Berries as Determined by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

Authors: Ilian Badjakov, Ivayla Dincheva, Violeta Kondakova, Rossitza Batchvarova

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In this study, we present our initial results on the assessment of genetic diversity among wild Bulgarian berry accessions (Rubus idaeus L. Fragaria Vesca L., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Vaccinium myrtillus L.) using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) markers. Leaves and fruits were collected from two natural habitats - the Balkan Mountain and the Mountain of Orpheus - Rhodope Mountain. All accessions were screened for their polymorphism using five RAPD primers. The phylogenetic distances calculated from RAPD data ranged from 0.29 to 0.82 thus indicating that a high level of gene diversity is present in the selected genotypes. In order to characterize further the structure and grouping of berry accessions, a dendrogram deriving from UPGMA cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity (GS) coefficient matrix was designed. RAPD analysis provided to be efficient for discrimination of accessions within the same species with similar morphological characters

Keywords: Bulgarian wild berries, genetic diversity, RAPD, UPGMA

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15 The Effects of Different Level Cluster Tip Reduction and Foliar Boric Acid Applications on Yield and Yield Components of Italia Grape Cultivar

Authors: A. Akin

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This study was carried out on Italia grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in Konya province, Turkey in 2016. The cultivar is five years old and grown on 1103 Paulsen rootstock. It was determined the effects of applications of the Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), 1/6 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/6 CTR), 1/9 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/9 CTR), 1/3 CTR+Boric Acid (BA), 1/6 CTR+BA, 1/9 CTR+BA, on yield and yield components of the Italia grape variety. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (4.74 g) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; the highest cluster weight (220.08 g) with 1/3 CTR application; the highest 100 berry weight (565.85 g) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; as the highest maturity index (49.28) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; as the highest must yield (685.33 ml/kg) with 1/3 CTR+BA and (685.33 ml/kg) with 1/9 CTR+BA applications. To increase the fresh grape yield, 100 berry weight and maturity index in the Italia grape variety, the 1/9 CTR+BA application can be recommended.

Keywords: boric acid, cluster tip reduction, Italia grape variety, yield, yield components

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14 The Effects of Yield and Yield Components of Some Quality Increase Applications on Razakı Grape Variety

Authors: Şehri Çınar, Aydın Akın

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This study was conducted Razakı grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) and its vine which was aged 19 was grown on 5 BB rootstock in a vegetation period of 2014 in Afyon province in Turkey. In this research, it was investigated whether the applications of Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), Shoot Tip Reduction (STR), 1/3 CTR + STR, Boric Acid (BA), 1/3 CTR + BA, STR + BA, 1/3 CTR + STR + BA on yield and yield components of Razakı grape variety. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (7.74 kg/vine) with C application, as the highest cluster weight (244.62 g) with STR application, as the highest 100 berry weight (504.08 g) with C application, as the highest maturity index (36.89) with BA application, as the highest must yield (695.00 ml) with BA and (695.00 ml) with 1/3 CTR + STR + BA applications, as the highest intensity of L* color (46.93) with STR and (46.10) with 1/3 CTR + STR + BA applications, as the highest intensity of a* color (-5.37) with 1/3 CTR + STR and (-5.01) with STR, as the highest intensity of b* color (12.59) with STR application. The shoot tip reduction to increase cluster weight and boric acid application to increase maturity index of Razakı grape variety can be recommended.

Keywords: razakı, 1/3 cluster tip reduction, shoot tip reduction, boric acid, yield and yield components

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13 Understanding Health-Related Properties of Grapes by Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Intestinal Absorption

Authors: Sophie N. Selby-Pham, Yudie Wang, Louise Bennett

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Consumption of grapes promotes health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases due to the action of grape phytochemicals in regulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation (OSI). The bioefficacy of phytochemicals depends on their absorption in the human body. The time required for phytochemicals to achieve maximal plasma concentration (Tₘₐₓ) after oral intake reflects the time window of maximal bioefficacy of phytochemicals, with Tₘₐₓ dependent on physicochemical properties of phytochemicals. This research collated physicochemical properties of grape phytochemicals from white and red grapes to predict their Tₘₐₓ using pharmacokinetic modelling. The predicted values of Tₘₐₓ were then compared to the measured Tₘₐₓ collected from clinical studies to determine the accuracy of prediction. In both liquid and solid intake forms, white grapes exhibit a shorter Tₘₐₓ range (0.5-2.5 h) versus red grapes (1.5-5h). The prediction accuracy of Tₘₐₓ for grape phytochemicals was 33.3% total error of prediction compared to the mean, indicating high prediction accuracy. Pharmacokinetic modelling allows prediction of Tₘₐₓ without costly clinical trials, informing dosing frequency for sustained presence of phytochemicals in the body to optimize the health benefits of phytochemicals.

Keywords: absorption kinetics, phytochemical, phytochemical absorption prediction model, Vitis vinifera

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12 Biological Control of Blue Mold Disease of Grapes by Pichia anomala Supplemented by Chitosan and Its Possible Control Mechanism

Authors: Esa Abiso Godana, Qiya Yang, Kaili Wang, Zhang Hongyin, Xiaoyun Zhang, Lina Zhao

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Blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum is among the recent identified diseases of grapes (Vitis vinifera). The increasing concern about use of chemical substance and pesticide in postharvest fruit push the trends of research toward biocontrol strategies which are more sustainable and ecofriendly. In this study, we determined the biocontrol efficacy of Pichia anomala alone and supplemented with 1% chitosan in the grapefruit against blue mold disease caused by P. expansum. The result showed that 1% chitosan better enhances the biocontrol efficacy P. anomala. Chitosan (1% w/v) also improved the number of population of P. anomala in grape wounds, surface and on nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB). P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan significantly reduced the disease incidence, lesion diameter and natural decay of grapefruits without affecting the fruit quality as compared to the control. The scanned electron microscope (SEM) concisely illustrates how the high number of yeast cells on the wounds reduced the growth of P. expansum. P. anomala alone or P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan are presented as a potential biocontrol alternative against the postharvest blue mold of grapefruit.

Keywords: biocontrol, Pichia anomala, chitosan, Penicillium expansum, grape

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11 Analysis of Intra-Varietal Diversity for Some Lebanese Grapevine Cultivars

Authors: Stephanie Khater, Ali Chehade, Lamis Chalak

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The progressive replacement of the Lebanese autochthonous grapevine cultivars during the last decade by the imported foreign varieties almost resulted in the genetic erosion of the local germplasm and the confusion with cultivars' names. Hence there is a need to characterize these local cultivars and to assess the possible existing variability at the cultivar level. This work was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the intra-varietal diversity within Lebanese traditional cultivars 'Aswad', 'Maghdoushe', 'Maryame', 'Merweh', 'Meksese' and 'Obeide'. A total of 50 accessions distributed over five main geographical areas in Lebanon were collected and submitted to both ampelographic description and ISSR DNA analysis. A set of 35 ampelographic descriptors previously established by the International Office of Vine and Wine and related to leaf, bunch, berry, and phenological stages, were examined. Variability was observed between accessions within cultivars for blade shape, density of prostrate and erect hairs, teeth shape, berry shape, size and color, cluster shape and size, and flesh juiciness. At the molecular level, nine ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) primers, previously developed for grapevine, were used in this study. These primers generated a total of 35 bands, of which 30 (85.7%) were polymorphic. Totally, 29 genetic profiles were differentiated, of which 9 revealed within 'Obeide', 6 for 'Maghdoushe', 5 for 'Merweh', 4 within 'Maryame', 3 for 'Aswad' and 2 within 'Meksese'. Findings of this study indicate the existence of several genotypes that form the basis of the main indigenous cultivars grown in Lebanon and which should be further considered in the establishment of new vineyards and selection programs.

Keywords: ampelography, autochthonous cultivars, ISSR markers, Lebanon, Vitis vinifera L.

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10 Ghrelin, Obestatin and Ghrelin/Obestatin Ratio: A Postprandial Study in Healthy Subjects of Normal Weight

Authors: Panagiotis T. Kanellos, Vaios T. Karathanos, Andriana C. Kaliora

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Introduction: The role of ghrelin and obestatin in appetite regulation has been investigated. However, data on ghrelin and obestatin changes after food ingestion are negligible. Objective: We aimed at assessing the appetite-regulating hormones, ghrelin, and obestatin, and furthermore calculate ghrelin/obestatin ratio in healthy normal-weight subjects after consumption of raisins. This survey is a comparative study of a glucose control with raisins containing fructose and glucose in similar concentrations as well as fibers. Methodology: Ten apparently healthy subjects who reported no history of glucose intolerance, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, or recent use of any antibiotics were enrolled in the study. The raisins used (Vitis vinifera) originate in Greece and are distributed worldwide as Corinthian raisins. In a randomized crossover design, all subjects after an overnight fast consumed, either 50g of glucose diluted in 240 mL of water (control) or 74 g of raisins (sugar content 50 g) with a 5-day interval between individual trials. Vein blood samples were collected at baseline and at 60, 120 and 180 min postprandially. In blood samples ghrelin and obestatin were measured applying specific enzyme linked immuno absorbent assays. Results: The subjects were of mean age 26.3 years, with BMI of 21.6 kg/m2, waist circumference of 77.7 cm, normal serum lipidemic parameters and normal HbA1c levels. Ghrelin levels were significantly lower after raisin consumption compared to glucose at 120 and at 180 min post-ingestion (p= 0.011 and p= 0.035, respectively). However, obestatin did not reach statistical significance between the two interventions. The ghrelin/obestatin ratio was found significantly lower (p=0.020) at 120 min after raisin ingestion compared to control. Conclusion: Two isocaloric foods containing equal amounts of sugars, however with a different composition, have different effects on appetite hormones ghrelin and obestatin in normal-weight healthy subjects.

Keywords: appetite, ghrelin, obestatin, raisins

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9 Genotyping and Phylogeny of Phaeomoniella Genus Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases in Algeria

Authors: A. Berraf-Tebbal, Z. Bouznad, , A.J.L. Phillips

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Phaeomoniella is a fungus genus in the mitosporic ascomycota which includes Phaeomoniella chlamydospora specie associated with two declining diseases on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) namely Petri disease and esca. Recent studies have shown that several Phaeomoniella species also cause disease on many other woody crops, such as forest trees and woody ornamentals. Two new species, Phaeomoniella zymoides and Phaeomoniella pinifoliorum H.B. Lee, J.Y. Park, R.C. Summerbell et H.S. Jung, were isolated from the needle surface of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. in Korea. The identification of species in Phaeomoniella genus can be a difficult task if based solely on morphological and cultural characters. In this respect, the application of molecular methods, particularly PCR-based techniques, may provide an important contribution. MSP-PCR (microsatellite primed-PCR) fingerprinting has proven useful in the molecular typing of fungal strains. The high discriminatory potential of this method is particularly useful when dealing with closely related or cryptic species. In the present study, the application of PCR fingerprinting was performed using the micro satellite primer M13 for the purpose of species identification and strain typing of 84 Phaeomoniella -like isolates collected from grapevines with typical symptoms of dieback. The bands produced by MSP-PCR profiles divided the strains into 3 clusters and 5 singletons with a reproducibility level of 80%. Representative isolates from each group and, when possible, isolates from Eutypa dieback and esca symptoms were selected for sequencing of the ITS region. The ITS sequences for the 16 isolates selected from the MSP-PCR profiles were combined and aligned with sequences of 18 isolates retrieved from GenBank, representing a selection of all known Phaeomoniella species. DNA sequences were compared with those available in GenBank using Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum-parsimony (MP) analyses. The phylogenetic trees of the ITS region revealed that the Phaeomoniella isolates clustered with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora reference sequences with a bootstrap support of 100 %. The complexity of the pathosystems vine-trunk diseases shows clearly the need to identify unambiguously the fungal component in order to allow a better understanding of the etiology of these diseases and justify the establishment of control strategies against these fungal agents.

Keywords: Genotyping, MSP-PCR, ITS, phylogeny, trunk diseases

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8 Comparison of Phytochemicals in Grapes and Wine from Shenton Park Winery

Authors: Amanda Sheard, Garry Lee, Katherine Stockham

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Introduction: Health benefits associated with wine consumption have been well documented; these include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection. The majority of these health benefits have been linked to polyphenols found within wine and grapes. Once consumed polyphenols exhibit free radical quenching capabilities. Environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, CO2 levels and sunlight exposure have been shown to affect the polyphenol content of grapes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of growing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of grapes obtained from a single plot vineyard in Perth. This was achieved through the analysis of samples using; oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) in human red blood cells, ICP-MS and ICP-OES, total polyphenols (PP’s), and total flavonoid’s (FLa). The data obtained was compared to observed climate data. The 14 Selected Vitis Vinefera L. cultivars included Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carnelian, Chardonnay, Grenache, Melbec, Merlot, Orange muscat, Rousanne, Sauvignon Blanc, Shiraz, Tempernillo, Verdelho, and Voignier. Results: Notable variation’s between cultivars included results ranging from 125 mg/100 g-350 mg/100 g for PP’s, 93 mg/100 g–300 mg/100 g for FLa, 13 mM T.E/kg–33 mM T.E/kg for ORAC and 0.3 mM Q.E/kg–27 mM Q.E/kg CAA were found between red and white grape cultivars. No correlation was found between CAA and the ORAC obtained in this study; except that white cultivars were consistently lower than red. ICP analysis showed that seeds contained the highest concentration of copper followed by skins and flesh of the grape. A positive correlation between copper and ORAC was found. The ORAC, PP’s, and FLa in red grapes were consistently higher than white grape cultivars; these findings were supported by literature values. Significance: The cellular antioxidant activities of white and red wine cultivars were used to compare the bioactivity of these grapes against the chemical ORAC measurement. The common method of antioxidant activity measurement is the chemical value from ORAC analysis; however this may not reflect the activity within the human body. Hence, the measurements were also carried out using the cellular antioxidant activity to perform a comparison. Additionally, the study explored the influence of weather systems such as El Niño and La Niña on the polyphenol content of Australian wine cultivars grown in Perth.

Keywords: oxygen radical antioxidant activity, cellular antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, wine grapes, climate

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7 Stilbenes as Sustainable Antimicrobial Compounds to Control Vitis Vinifera Diseases

Authors: David Taillis, Oussama Becissa, Julien Gabaston, Jean-Michel Merillon, Tristan Richard, Stephanie Cluzet

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Nowadays, there is a strong pressure to reduce the phytosanitary inputs of synthetic chemistry in vineyards. It is, therefore, necessary to find viable alternatives in order to protect the vine against its major diseases. For this purpose, we suggest the use of a plant extract enriched in antimicrobial compounds. Being produced from vine trunks and roots, which are co-products of wine production, the extract produced is part of a circular economy. The antimicrobial molecules present in this plant material are polyphenols and, more particularly, stilbenes, which are derived from a common base, the resveratrol unit, and that are well known vine phytoalexins. The stilbenoids were extracted from trunks and roots (30/70, w/w) by a double extraction with ethyl acetate followed by enrichment by liquid-liquid extraction. The produced extract was characterized by UHPLC-MS, then its antimicrobial activities were tested on Plasmopara viticola and Botrytis cinerea in the laboratory and/or in greenhouse and in vineyard. The major compounds were purified, and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on B. cinerea. Moreover, after its spraying, the effect of the stilbene extract on the plant defence status was evaluated by analysis of defence gene expression. UHPLC-MS analysis revealed that the extract contains 50% stilbenes with resveratrol, ε-viniferin and r-viniferin as major compounds. The extract showed antimicrobial activities on P. viticola with IC₅₀ and IC₁₀₀ respectively of 90 and 300 mg/L in the laboratory. In addition, it inhibited 40% of downy mildew development in greenhouse. However, probably because of the sensitivity of stilbenes to the environment, such as UV degradation, no activity has been observed in vineyard towards P. viticola development. For B. cinerea, the extract IC50 was 123 mg/L, with resveratrol and ε-viniferin being the most active stilbenes (IC₅₀ of 88 and 142 mg/L, respectively). The analysis of the expression of defence genes revealed that the extract can induce the expression of some defence genes 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment, meaning that the extract has a defence-stimulating effect at least for the first three days after treatment. In conclusion, we produced a plant extract enriched in stilbenes with antimicrobial properties against two major grapevine pathogenic agents P. viticola and B. cinerea. In addition, we showed that this extract displayed eliciting activity of plant defences. This extract can therefore represent, after formulation development, a viable eco-friendly alternative for vineyard protection. Subsequently, the effect of the stilbenoid extract on primary metabolism will be evaluated by quantitative NMR.

Keywords: antimicrobial, bioprotection, grapevine, Plasmopara viticola, stilbene

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6 Possibilities to Evaluate the Climatic and Meteorological Potential for Viticulture in Poland: The Case Study of the Jagiellonian University Vineyard

Authors: Oskar Sekowski

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Current global warming causes changes in the traditional zones of viticulture worldwide. During 20th century, the average global air temperature increased by 0.89˚C. The models of climate change indicate that viticulture, currently concentrating in narrow geographic niches, may move towards the poles, to higher geographic latitudes. Global warming may cause changes in traditional viticulture regions. Therefore, there is a need to estimate the climatic conditions and climate change in areas that are not traditionally associated with viticulture, e.g., Poland. The primary objective of this paper is to prepare methodology to evaluate the climatic and meteorological potential for viticulture in Poland based on a case study. Moreover, the additional aim is to evaluate the climatic potential of a mesoregion where a university vineyard is located. The daily data of temperature, precipitation, insolation, and wind speed (1988-2018) from the meteorological station located in Łazy, southern Poland, was used to evaluate 15 climatological parameters and indices connected with viticulture. The next steps of the methodology are based on Geographic Information System methods. The topographical factors such as a slope gradient and slope exposure were created using Digital Elevation Models. The spatial distribution of climatological elements was interpolated by ordinary kriging. The values of each factor and indices were also ranked and classified. The viticultural potential was determined by integrating two suitability maps, i.e., the topographical and climatic ones, and by calculating the average for each pixel. Data analysis shows significant changes in heat accumulation indices that are driven by increases in maximum temperature, mostly increasing number of days with Tmax > 30˚C. The climatic conditions of this mesoregion are sufficient for vitis vinifera viticulture. The values of indicators and insolation are similar to those in the known wine regions located on similar geographical latitudes in Europe. The smallest threat to viticulture in study area is the occurrence of hail and the highest occurrence of frost in the winter. This research provides the basis for evaluating general suitability and climatologic potential for viticulture in Poland. To characterize the climatic potential for viticulture, it is necessary to assess the suitability of all climatological and topographical factors that can influence viticulture. The methodology used in this case study shows places where there is a possibility to create vineyards. It may also be helpful for wine-makers to select grape varieties.

Keywords: climatologic potential, climatic classification, Poland, viticulture

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5 Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Carménère Wines during Aging with Oak Wood (Staves, Chips and Barrels)

Authors: E. Obreque-Slier, J. Laqui-Estaña, A. Peña-Neira, M. Medel-Marabolí

Abstract:

Wine is an important source of polyphenols. Red wines show important concentrations of nonflavonoid (gallic acid, ellagic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid) and flavonoid compounds [(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin]. However, a significant variability in the quantitative and qualitative distribution of chemical constituents in wine has to be expected depending on an array of important factors, such as the varietal differences of Vitis vinifera and cultural practices. It has observed that Carménère grapes present a differential composition and evolution of phenolic compounds when compared to other varieties and specifically with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. Likewise, among the cultural practices, the aging in contact with oak wood is a high relevance factor. Then, the extraction of different polyphenolic compounds from oak wood into wine during its ageing process produces both qualitative and quantitative changes. Recently, many new techniques have been introduced in winemaking. One of these involves putting new pieces of wood (oak chips or inner staves) into inert containers. It offers some distinct and previously unavailable flavour advantages, as well as new options in wine handling. To our best knowledge, there is not information about the behaviour of Carménère wines (Chilean emblematic cultivar) in contact with oak wood. In addition, the effect of aging time and wood product (barrels, chips or staves) on the phenolic composition in Carménère wines has not been studied. This study aims at characterizing the condensed and hydrolyzable tannins from Carménère wines during the aging with staves, chips and barrels from French oak wood. The experimental design was completely randomized with two independent assays: aging time (0-12 month) and different formats of wood (barrel, chips and staves). The wines were characterized by spectrophotometric (total tannins and fractionation of proanthocyanidins into monomers, oligomers and polymers) and HPLC-DAD (ellagitannins) analysis. The wines in contact with different products of oak wood showed a similar content of total tannins during the study, while the control wine (without oak wood) presented a lower content of these compounds. In addition, it was observed that the polymeric proanthocyanidin fraction was the most abundant, while the monomeric fraction was the less abundant fraction in all treatments in two sample. However, significative differences in each fractions were observed between wines in contact from barrel, chips, and staves in two sample dates. Finally, the wine from barrels presented the highest content of the ellagitannins from the fourth to the last sample date. In conclusion, the use of alternative formats of oak wood affects the chemical composition of wines during aging, and these enological products are an interesting alternative to contribute with tannins to wine.

Keywords: enological inputs, oak wood aging, polyphenols, red wine

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4 Phenolic Composition of Wines from Cultivar Carménère during Aging with Inserts to Barrels

Authors: E. Obreque-Slier, P. Osorio-Umaña, G. Vidal-Acevedo, A. Peña-Neira, M. Medel-Marabolí

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Sensory and nutraceutical characteristics of a wine are determined by different chemical compounds, such as organic acids, sugars, alcohols, polysaccharides, aromas, and polyphenols. The polyphenols correspond to secondary metabolites that are associated with the prevention of several pathologies, and those are responsible for color, aroma, bitterness, and astringency in wines. These compounds come from grapes and wood during aging in barrels, which correspond to the format of wood most widely used in wine production. However, the barrels is a high-cost input with a limited useful life (3-4 years). For this reason, some oenological products have been developed in order to renew the barrels and increase their useful life in some years. These formats are being used slowly because limited information exists about the effect on the wine chemical characteristics. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different laubarrel renewal systems (staves and zigzag) on the polyphenolic characteristics of a Carménère wine (Vitis vinifera), an emblematic cultivar of Chile. For this, a completely randomized experimental design with 5 treatments and three replicates per treatment was used. The treatments were: new barrels (T0), used barrels during 4 years (T1), scraped used barrels (T2), used barrels with staves (T3) and used barrels with zigzag (T4). The study was performed for 12 months, and different spectrophotometric parameters (phenols, anthocyanins, and total tannins) and HPLC-DAD (low molecular weight phenols) were evaluated. The wood inputs were donated by Toneleria Nacional and corresponded to products from the same production batch. The total phenols content increased significantly after 40 days, while the total tannin concentration decreased gradually during the study. The anthocyanin concentration increased after 120 days of the assay in all treatments. Comparatively, it was observed that the wine of T2 presented the lowest values of these polyphenols, while the T0 and T4 presented the highest total phenol contents. Also, T1 presented the highest values of total tannins in relation to the rest of the treatments in some samples. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD were 7 flavonoids (epigallocatechin, catechin, procyanidin gallate, epicatechin, quercetin, rutin and myricetin) and 14 non-flavonoids (gallic, protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, trans-cutaric, vanillinic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids; tyrosol, vanillin, syringaldehyde, trans-resveratrol and cis-resveratrol). Tyrosol was the most abundant compound, whereas ellagic acid was the lowest in the samples. Comparatively, it was observed that the wines of T2 showed the lowest concentrations of flavonoid and non-flavonoid phenols during the study. In contrast, wines of T1, T3, and T4 presented the highest contents of non-flavonoid polyphenols. In summary, the use of barrel renovators (zig zag and staves) is an interesting alternative which would emulate the contribution of polyphenols from the barrels to the wine.

Keywords: barrels, oak wood aging, polyphenols, red wine

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3 Recovery of Polyphenolic Phytochemicals From Greek Grape Pomace (Vitis Vinifera L.)

Authors: Christina Drosou, Konstantina E. Kyriakopoulou, Andreas Bimpilas, Dimitrios Tsimogiannis, Magdalini C. Krokida

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Rationale: Agiorgitiko is one of the most widely-grown and commercially well-established red wine varieties in Greece. Each year viticulture industry produces a large amount of waste consisting of grape skins and seeds (pomace) during a short period. Grapes contain polyphenolic compounds which are partially transferred to wine during winemaking. Therefore, winery wastes could be an alternative cheap source for obtaining such compounds with important antioxidant activity. Specifically, red grape waste contains anthocyanins and flavonols which are characterized by multiple biological activities, including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antiviral and antibacterial properties attributed mainly to their antioxidant activity. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) is considered an effective way to recover phenolic compounds, since it combines the advantage of mechanical effect with low temperature. Moreover, green solvents can be used in order to recover extracts intended for used in the food and nutraceutical industry. Apart from the extraction, pre-treatment process like drying can play an important role on the preservation of the grape pomace and the enhancement of its antioxidant capacity. Objective: The aim of this study is to recover natural extracts from winery waste with high antioxidant capacity using green solvents so they can be exploited and utilized as enhancers in food or nutraceuticals. Methods: Agiorgitiko grape pomace was dehydrated by air drying (AD) and accelerated solar drying (ASD) in order to explore the effect of the pre-treatment on the recovery of bioactive compounds. UAE was applied in untreated and dried samples using water and water: ethanol (1:1) as solvents. The total antioxidant potential and phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. Finally, the profile of anthocyanins and flavonols was specified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The efficiency of processes was determined in terms of extraction yield, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and the anthocyanins and flavovols profile. Results & Discussion: The experiments indicated that the pre-treatment was essential for the recovery of highly nutritious compounds from the pomace as long as the extracts samples showed higher phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Water: ethanol (1:1) was considered a more effective solvent on the recovery of phenolic compounds. Moreover, ASD grape pomace extracted with the solvent system exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=0.36±0.01mg/mL) and phenolic content (TPC=172.68±0.01mgGAE/g dry extract), followed by AD and untreated pomace. The major compounds recovered were malvidin3-O-glucoside and quercetin3-O-glucoside according to the HPLC analysis. Conclusions: Winery waste can be exploited for the recovery of nutritious compounds using green solvents such as water or ethanol. The pretreatment of the pomace can significantly affect the concentration of phenolic compounds, while UAE is considered a highly effective extraction process.

Keywords: agiorgitico grape pomace, antioxidants, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction

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2 Establishments of an Efficient Platform for Genome Editing in Grapevine

Authors: S. Najafi, E. Bertini, M. Pezzotti, G.B. Tornielli, S. Zenoni

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Grapevine is an important agricultural fruit crop plant consumed worldwide and with a key role in the global economy. Grapevine is strongly affected by both biotic and abiotic stresses, which impact grape growth at different stages, such as during plant and berry development and pre- and post-harvest, consequently causing significant economic losses. Recently global warming has propelled the anticipation of the onset of berry ripening, determining the reduction of a grape color and increased volatilization of aroma compounds. Climate change could negatively alter the physiological characteristics of the grape and affect the berry and wine quality. Modern plant breeding can provide tools such as genome editing for improving grape resilience traits while maintaining intact the viticultural and oenological quality characteristics of the genotype. This study aims at developing a platform for genome editing application in grapevine plants with the final goal to improve berry quality, biotic, and abiotic resilience traits. We chose to directly deliver ribonucleoproteins (RNP, preassembled Cas protein and guide RNA) into plant protoplasts, and, from these cell structures, regenerate grapevine plants edited in specific selected genes controlling traits of interest. Edited plants regenerated by somatic embryogenesis from protoplasts will then be sequenced and molecularly characterized. Embryogenic calli of Sultana and Shiraz cultivars were initiated from unopened leaves of in-vitro shoot tip cultures and from stamens, respectively. Leaves were placed on NB2 medium while stamens on callus initiation medium (PIV) medium and incubated in the dark at 28 °C for three months. Viable protoplasts, tested by FDA staining, isolated from embryogenic calli were cultured by disc method at 1*105 protoplasts/ml. Mature well-shaped somatic embryos developed directly in the protoplast culture medium two months later and were transferred in the light into to shooting medium for further growth. Regenerated plants were then transferred to the greenhouse; no phenotypic alterations were observed when compared to non in-vitro cultured plants. The performed experiments allowed to established an efficient protocol of embryogenic calli production, protoplast isolation, and regeneration of the whole plant through somatic embryogenesis in both Sultana and Shiraz. Regenerated plants, through direct somatic embryogenesis deriving from a single cell, avoid the risk of chimerism during the regeneration process, therefore improving the genome editing process. As pre-requisite of genome editing, an efficient method for transfection of protoplast by yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) marker genes was also established and experiments of direct delivery of CRISPR–Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) in protoplasts to achieve efficient DNA-free targeted mutations are in progress.

Keywords: CRISPR-cas9, plant regeneration, protoplast isolation, Vitis vinifera

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1 Phytochemicals and Photosynthesis of Grape Berry Exocarp and Seed (Vitis vinifera, cv. Alvarinho): Effects of Foliar Kaolin and Irrigation

Authors: Andreia Garrido, Artur Conde, Ana Cunha, Ric De Vos

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Climate changes predictions point to increases in abiotic stress for crop plants in Portugal, like pronounced temperature variation and decreased precipitation, which will have negative impact on grapevine physiology and consequently, on grape berry and wine quality. Short-term mitigation strategies have, therefore, been implemented to alleviate the impacts caused by adverse climatic periods. These strategies include foliar application of kaolin, an inert mineral, which has radiation reflection proprieties that decreases stress from excessive heat/radiation absorbed by its leaves, as well as smart irrigation strategies to avoid water stress. However, little is known about the influence of these mitigation measures on grape berries, neither on the photosynthetic activity nor on the photosynthesis-related metabolic profiles of its various tissues. Moreover, the role of fruit photosynthesis on berry quality is poorly understood. The main objective of our work was to assess the effects of kaolin and irrigation treatments on the photosynthetic activity of grape berry tissues (exocarp and seeds) and on their global metabolic profile, also investigating their possible relationship. We therefore collected berries of field-grown plants of the white grape variety Alvarinho from two distinct microclimates, i.e. from clusters exposed to high light (HL, 150 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹) and low light (LL, 50 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹), from both kaolin and non-kaolin (control) treated plants at three fruit developmental stages (green, véraison and mature). Plant irrigation was applied after harvesting the green berries, which also enabled comparison of véraison and mature berries from irrigated and non-irrigated growth conditions. Photosynthesis was assessed by pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis, and the metabolite profile of both tissues was assessed by complementary metabolomics approaches. Foliar kaolin application resulted in, for instance, an increased photosynthetic activity of the exocarp of LL-grown berries at green developmental stage, as compared to the control non-kaolin treatment, with a concomitant increase in the levels of several lipid-soluble isoprenoids (chlorophylls, carotenoids, and tocopherols). The exocarp of mature berries grown at HL microclimate on kaolin-sprayed non-irrigated plants had higher total sugar levels content than all other treatments, suggesting that foliar application of this mineral results in an increased accumulation of photoassimilates in mature berries. Unbiased liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based profiling of semi-polar compounds followed by ASCA (ANOVA simultaneous component analysis) and ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that kaolin had no or inconsistent effect on the flavonoid and phenylpropanoid composition in both seed and exocarp at any developmental stage; in contrast, both microclimate and irrigation influenced the level of several of these compounds depending on berry ripening stage. Overall, our study provides more insight into the effects of mitigation strategies on berry tissue photosynthesis and phytochemistry, under contrasting conditions of cluster light microclimate. We hope that this may contribute to develop sustainable management in vineyards and to maintain grape berries and wines with high quality even at increasing abiotic stress challenges.

Keywords: climate change, grape berry tissues, metabolomics, mitigation strategies

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