Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 222

Search results for: Tahir Mahmood

222 Linguistic Trend in the Qur'anic Tafsir of 'Al Tahreer Wa Al Tanveer' by Sheikh Tahir Bin A'shur

Authors: Numan Hasan

Abstract:

We have tried to highlight the linguistic trend in the Qur’anic Tafsir of ‘Al Tahreer wa Al Tanveer’ by Sheikh Tahir Bin A’shur, the brightest linguistic commentator in the modern era. We have started studying the life of Bin A’shur and his contributions to the field of Qur’anic knowledge. We have also studied to focus on the linguistic approach of ‘Al Tahreer wa Al Tanveer’ and emphasized the importance of linguistic interpretations. We have tried to have a clear understanding about the features and characteristics of his Tafsir. We have also reflected on the methodological approach and linguistic reference of his interpretation. In the conclusion we presented the main results of a research.

Keywords: Sheikh Tahir Bin A’shur, tafsir, linguistics, interpretation, Islamic studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
221 Application of Optimization Techniques in Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review

Authors: Syed Auon Raza, Tahir Mahmood, Syed Basit Ali Bukhari

Abstract:

In power system properly coordinated protection scheme is designed to make sure that only the faulty part of the system will be isolated when abnormal operating condition of the system will reach. The complexity of the system as well as the increased user demand and the deregulated environment enforce the utilities to improve system reliability by using a properly coordinated protection scheme. This paper presents overview of over current relay coordination techniques. Different techniques such as Deterministic Techniques, Meta Heuristic Optimization techniques, Hybrid Optimization Techniques, and Trial and Error Optimization Techniques have been reviewed in terms of method of their implementation, operation modes, nature of distribution system, and finally their advantages as well as the disadvantages.

Keywords: distribution system, relay coordination, optimization, Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
220 Measuring the Impact of Brand Satisfaction, Brand Trust and Brand Experience on Brand Loyalty: An Empirical Study on the Skincare Products in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Azeem Qureshi, Hammad Tahir, Fawwad Mahmood Butt

Abstract:

Purpose: This study examines empirically the effect of brand satisfaction, brand trust and brand experience on brand loyalty which can be helpful to retain and increase customer base and satisfying customer needs as well. Methodology: Data has been collected on convenient sampling method and cause and effect among variables has been measured by applying regression analysis technique. Findings: Finding of this study have supported the proposed hypotheses and results show that brand loyalty is significantly explained by brand satisfaction, brand trust and brand experience. Practical Implications: The outcome of this study provides a useful framework and importance of brand loyalty culture in Pakistan. Marketers can be benefited trough the findings of this study.

Keywords: brand experience, brand satisfaction, brand trust, brand loyalty, hair-care products

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
219 Experimental and Analytical Study of Various Types of Shear Connector Used for Cold-Formed Steel-Ferrocement Composite Beam

Authors: Talal Alhajri, Mahmood M. Tahir, Khaled Alenezi, Mohamad Ragaee

Abstract:

This work presents the experimental tests carried out to evaluate the behaviour of different types of shear connectors proposed for cold formed steel (CFS) section integrated with ferrocement slab as potential used for composite beam. Ten push-out test specimens of cold-formed steel lipped channel sections connected with ferrocement slab were tested. Three types of shear connectors were studied comprised of bolts, self-drilling-screw and bar angle. The connection behavior is analysed in terms of its load-slip relationship and the failure mode. The parametric studies were performed to investigate the effect on the shear connector’s capacity by varying the number of layers of wire mesh used in ferrocement slab and types of shear connector used. An analytical analysis using ANSYS program and theoretical analysis (Eurocode 4) were carried out to verify the experiment results. The results show that the experimental, theoretical, and numerical values proved to have good agreement with each other.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, composite beam, ferrocement, finite element method, push-out test, shear connector

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
218 Comparison of Applicability of Time Series Forecasting Models VAR, ARCH and ARMA in Management Science: Study Based on Empirical Analysis of Time Series Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Hammad Tahir, Fawwad Mahmood Butt

Abstract:

Purpose: This study attempts to examine the best forecasting methodologies in the time series. The time series forecasting models such as VAR, ARCH and the ARMA are considered for the analysis. Methodology: The Bench Marks or the parameters such as Adjusted R square, F-stats, Durban Watson, and Direction of the roots have been critically and empirically analyzed. The empirical analysis consists of time series data of Consumer Price Index and Closing Stock Price. Findings: The results show that the VAR model performed better in comparison to other models. Both the reliability and significance of VAR model is highly appreciable. In contrary to it, the ARCH model showed very poor results for forecasting. However, the results of ARMA model appeared double standards i.e. the AR roots showed that model is stationary and that of MA roots showed that the model is invertible. Therefore, the forecasting would remain doubtful if it made on the bases of ARMA model. It has been concluded that VAR model provides best forecasting results. Practical Implications: This paper provides empirical evidences for the application of time series forecasting model. This paper therefore provides the base for the application of best time series forecasting model.

Keywords: forecasting, time series, auto regression, ARCH, ARMA

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
217 Comparison Between Fuzzy and P&O Control for MPPT for Photovoltaic System Using Boost Converter

Authors: M. Doumi, A. Miloudi, A. G. Aissaoui, K. Tahir, C. Belfedal, S. Tahir

Abstract:

The studies on the photovoltaic system are extensively increasing because of a large, secure, essentially exhaustible and broadly available resource as a future energy supply. However, the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of solar cell radiation, temperature of the solar cells and so on. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array, for this Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is used. Some MPPT techniques are available in that perturbation and observation (P&O) and Fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The fuzzy control method has been compared with perturb and observe (P&O) method as one of the most widely conventional method used in this area. Both techniques have been analyzed and simulated. MPPT using fuzzy logic shows superior performance and more reliable control with respect to the P&O technique for this application.

Keywords: photovoltaic system, MPPT, perturb and observe, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 502
216 Sliding Mode Control of a Photovoltaic Grid-Connected System with Active and Reactive Power Control

Authors: M. Doumi, K. Tahir, A. Miloudi, A. G. Aissaoui, C. Belfedal, S. Tahir

Abstract:

This paper presents a three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic generation system with unity power factor for any situation of solar radiation based on voltage-oriented control (VOC). An input voltage clamping technique is proposed to control the power between the grid and photovoltaic system, where it is intended to achieve the maximum power point operation. This method uses a Perturb and Observe (P&O) controller. The main objective of this work is to compare the energy production unit performances by the use of two types of controllers (namely, classical PI and Sliding Mode (SM) Controllers) for the grid inverter control. The proposed control has a hierarchical structure with a grid side control level to regulate the power (PQ) and the current injected to the grid and to obtain a common DC voltage constant. To show the effectiveness of both control methods performances analysis of the system are analyzed and compared by simulation and results included in this paper.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic, MPPT, inverter control, classical PI, sliding mode, DC voltage constant, voltage-oriented control, VOC

Procedia PDF Downloads 484
215 A Comparative Study of the Maximum Power Point Tracking Methods for PV Systems Using Boost Converter

Authors: M. Doumi, A. Miloudi, A.G. Aissaoui, K. Tahir, C. Belfedal, S. Tahir

Abstract:

The studies on the photovoltaic system are extensively increasing because of a large, secure, essentially exhaustible and broadly available resource as a future energy supply. However, the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of solar cell radiation, temperature of the solar cells and so on. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array, for this Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is used. These algorithms are based on the Perturb-Observe, Conductance-Increment and the Fuzzy Logic methods. These techniques vary in many aspects as: simplicity, convergence speed, digital or analogical implementation, sensors required, cost, range of effectiveness, and in other aspects. This paper presents a comparative study of three widely-adopted MPPT algorithms; their performance is evaluated on the energy point of view, by using the simulation tool Simulink®, considering different solar irradiance variations. MPPT using fuzzy logic shows superior performance and more reliable control to the other methods for this application.

Keywords: photovoltaic system, MPPT, perturb and observe (P&O), incremental conductance (INC), Fuzzy Logic (FLC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
214 Awareness of Drug Interactions among Physicians at Governmental Health Centers in Bahrain

Authors: Yasin I. Tayem, Jamil Ahmed, Mahmood Bahzad, Abdullah Alnama, Fahad Al Asfoor, Mahmood A. Jalil, Mohammed Radhi, Ahmed Alenezi, Khalid A. J. Al-Khaja

Abstract:

Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) represent a significant cause of patient’s morbidity and mortality. The rate of DDIs is rapidly increasing worldwide with the increasing proportion of ageing population and frequent requirement of polypharmacy-prescription of multiple drugs to treat comorbidities. Prescribing physicians are responsible for checking their prescriptions for the presence and severity of DDIs. However, since a large number of new drugs are approved and marketed every year, new interactions between medications are increasingly reported. Consequently, it is no longer practical for physicians to rely only upon their previous knowledge of medicine to avoid potential DDIs. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of physicians working at primary healthcare centers in Bahrain towards DDIs and how they manage them during their practice. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, physicians working at all governmental primary healthcare centers in Bahrain were invited to voluntarily, privately and anonymously respond to a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire aims to assess their self-reported knowledge of DDIs and how they check for them in their practice. The participants were requested to provide socio demographic data and information related to their attitudes towards DDIs including strategies they employ for detecting and managing them, and their awareness of drugs which commonly cause DDIs. At the end of the questionnaire, an open-ended item was added to allow participants to further add any comment. Findings and Conclusions: The study is going on currently, and the results and conclusions will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: awareness, drug interactions, health centres, physicians

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
213 MNH-886(Bt.): A Cotton Cultivar (G. Hirsutum L.) for Cultivation in Virus Infested Regions of Pakistan, Having High Seed Cotton Yield and Desirable Fibre Characteristics

Authors: Wajad Nazeer, Saghir Ahmad, Khalid Mahmood, Altaf Hussain, Abid Mahmood, Baoliang Zhou

Abstract:

MNH-886(Bt.) is a upland cotton cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum L.) developed through hybridization of three parents [(FH-207×MNH-770)×Bollgard-1] at Cotton Research Station Multan, Pakistan. It is resistant to CLCuVD with 16.25 % disease incidence (60 DAS, March sowing) whereas moderately susceptible to CLCuVD when planted in June with disease incidence 34 % (60 DAS). This disease reaction was lowest among 25 cotton advanced lines/varieties tested at hot spots of CLCuVD. Its performance was tested during 2009 to 2012 in various indigenous, provincial, and national varietal trials in comparison with the commercial variety IR-3701 and AA-802 & CIM-496. In PCCT trial during 2009-10; 2011-12, MNH-886 surpassed all the existing Bt. strains along with commercial varieties across the Punjab province with seed cotton yield production 2658 kg ha-1 and 2848 kg ha-1 which was 81.31 and 13% higher than checks, respectively. In National Coordinated Bt. Trial, MNH-886(Bt.) produced 3347 kg ha-1 seed cotton at CCRI, Multan; the hot spot of CLCuVD, in comparison to IR-3701 which gave 2556 kg ha-1. It possesses higher lint percentage (41.01%), along with the most desirable fibre traits (staple length 28.210mm, micronaire value 4.95 µg inch-1 and fibre strength 99.5 tppsi, and uniformity ratio 82.0%). The quantification of toxicity level of crystal protein was found positive for Cry1Ab/Ac protein with toxicity level 2.76µg g-1 and Mon 531 event was confirmed. Having tremendous yield potential, good fibre traits, and great tolerance to CLCuVD we can recommended this variety for cultivation in CLCuVD hotspots of Pakistan.

Keywords: cotton, cultivar, cotton leaf curl virus, CLCuVD hit districts

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
212 Intrusion Detection Techniques in NaaS in the Cloud: A Review

Authors: Rashid Mahmood

Abstract:

The network as a service (NaaS) usage has been well-known from the last few years in the many applications, like mission critical applications. In the NaaS, prevention method is not adequate as the security concerned, so the detection method should be added to the security issues in NaaS. The authentication and encryption are considered the first solution of the NaaS problem whereas now these are not sufficient as NaaS use is increasing. In this paper, we are going to present the concept of intrusion detection and then survey some of major intrusion detection techniques in NaaS and aim to compare in some important fields.

Keywords: IDS, cloud, naas, detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
211 Automated Localization of Palpebral Conjunctiva and Hemoglobin Determination Using Smart Phone Camera

Authors: Faraz Tahir, M. Usman Akram, Albab Ahmad Khan, Mujahid Abbass, Ahmad Tariq, Nuzhat Qaiser

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the Degree of anemia by taking the picture of the palpebral conjunctiva using Smartphone Camera. We have first localized the region of interest from the image and then extracted certain features from that Region of interest and trained SVM classifier on those features and then, as a result, our system classifies the image in real-time on their level of hemoglobin. The proposed system has given an accuracy of 70%. We have trained our classifier on a locally gathered dataset of 30 patients.

Keywords: anemia, palpebral conjunctiva, SVM, smartphone

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
210 Paradigm Shift of Leadership: Leaders in Information Technology

Authors: Mustafa Hyder, Khalid Mahmood Iraqi, Sameen Mustafa

Abstract:

They say if the leader limps, all the others will start limping too. Therefore, a very dynamic leadership at all levels within the IT Community is critical to the success of an organization. This paper is an attempt to study the relationship between Information Technology (IT) with leadership and assesses its relevancy in today's fast-paced hi-tech globalized environment. The paper strives to look into the essential qualities and knowledge as needed by today's IT leader, in contrast to essential characteristics common to all the leaders-past, present, and future.

Keywords: leadership, autocratic leaders, characteristics of IT leaders, skills of IT professionals, IT leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
209 Intrusion Detection Techniques in Mobile Adhoc Networks: A Review

Authors: Rashid Mahmood, Muhammad Junaid Sarwar

Abstract:

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) use has been well-known from the last few years in the many applications, like mission critical applications. In the (MANETS) prevention method is not adequate as the security concerned, so the detection method should be added to the security issues in (MANETs). The authentication and encryption is considered the first solution of the MANETs problem where as now these are not sufficient as MANET use is increasing. In this paper we are going to present the concept of intrusion detection and then survey some of major intrusion detection techniques in MANET and aim to comparing in some important fields.

Keywords: MANET, IDS, intrusions, signature, detection, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
208 Optimization of Machining Parameters by Using Cryogenic Media

Authors: Shafqat Wahab, Waseem Tahir, Manzoor Ahmad, Sarfraz Khan, M. Azam

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Optimization and analysis of tool flank wear width and surface finish of alloy steel rods are studied in the presence of cryogenic media (LN2) by using Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404- WF 4215). Robust design concept of Taguchi L9(34) method and ANOVA is applied to determine the contribution of key cutting parameters and their optimum conditions. Through analysis, it revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear width while surface finish is mostly dependent on feed rate.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic fluid, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface roughness, taguchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 566
207 Solution of Hybrid Fuzzy Differential Equations

Authors: Mahmood Otadi, Maryam Mosleh

Abstract:

The hybrid differential equations have a wide range of applications in science and engineering. In this paper, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to obtain the series solution of the hybrid differential equations. Using the homotopy analysis method, it is possible to find the exact solution or an approximate solution of the problem. Comparisons are made between improved predictor-corrector method, homotopy analysis method and the exact solution. Finally, we illustrate our approach by some numerical example.

Keywords: fuzzy number, fuzzy ODE, HAM, approximate method

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
206 Synthesis of Iron Oxide Doped Zeolite: An Antimicrobial Nanomaterial for Drinking Water Purification Applications

Authors: Muhammad Zeeshan, Rabia Nazir, Lubna Tahir

Abstract:

Low cost filter based on iron doped zeolite (Fe-Z) and pottery clay was developed for an effective and efficient treatment of the drinking water contaminated with microbes. Fe-Z was characterized using powder XRD, SEM and EDX and shown to have average particle size of 49 nm with spongy appearance. The simulated samples of water self-contaminated with six microbes (S. typhi, B. subtilus, E. coli, S. aures, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa) after treatment with Fe-Z indicated effective removal of all the microbes in less than 30 min. Equally good results were obtained when actual drinking water samples, totally unfit for human consumption, were treated with Fe-Z.

Keywords: iron doped zeolite, biological and chemical treatment, drinking water

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
205 Social Structure, Involuntary Relations and Urban Poverty

Authors: Mahmood Niroobakhsh

Abstract:

This article deals with special structuralism approaches to explain a certain kind of social problem. Widespread presence of poverty is a reminder of deep-rooted unresolved problems of social relations. The expected role from an individual for the social system recognizes poverty derived from an interrelated social structure. By the time, enabled to act on his role in the course of social interaction, reintegration of the poor in society may take place. Poverty and housing type are reflections of the underlying social structure, primarily structure’s elements, systemic interrelations, and the overall strength or weakness of that structure. Poverty varies based on social structure in that the stronger structures are less likely to produce poverty.

Keywords: absolute poverty, relative poverty, social structure, urban poverty

Procedia PDF Downloads 564
204 BER Estimate of WCDMA Systems with MATLAB Simulation Model

Authors: Suyeb Ahmed Khan, Mahmood Mian

Abstract:

Simulation plays an important role during all phases of the design and engineering of communications systems, from early stages of conceptual design through the various stages of implementation, testing, and fielding of the system. In the present paper, a simulation model has been constructed for the WCDMA system in order to evaluate the performance. This model describes multiusers effects and calculation of BER (Bit Error Rate) in 3G mobile systems using Simulink MATLAB 7.1. Gaussian Approximation defines the multi-user effect on system performance. BER has been analyzed with comparison between transmitting data and receiving data.

Keywords: WCDMA, simulations, BER, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
203 Performance Evaluation of Content Based Image Retrieval Using Indexed Views

Authors: Tahir Iqbal, Mumtaz Ali, Syed Wajahat Kareem, Muhammad Harris

Abstract:

Digital information is expanding in exponential order in our life. Information that is residing online and offline are stored in huge repositories relating to every aspect of our lives. Getting the required information is a task of retrieval systems. Content based image retrieval (CBIR) is a retrieval system that retrieves the required information from repositories on the basis of the contents of the image. Time is a critical factor in retrieval system and using indexed views with CBIR system improves the time efficiency of retrieved results.

Keywords: content based image retrieval (CBIR), indexed view, color, image retrieval, cross correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
202 Graphene/ZnO/Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Film for Separation of Oil-Water Mixture

Authors: Suboohi Shervani, Jingjing Ling, Jiabin Liu, Tahir Husain

Abstract:

Offshore oil-spill has become the most emerging problem in the world. In the current paper, a graphene/ZnO/polymer nanocomposite thin film is coated on stainless steel mesh via layer by layer deposition method. The structural characterization of materials is determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and separation efficiency have been measured via gas chromatography – flame ionization detector (GC-FID). TPHs are reduced to 2 ppm and separation efficiency of the nanocomposite coated mesh is reached ≥ 99% for the final sample. The nanocomposite coated mesh acts as a promising candidate for the separation of oil- water mixture.

Keywords: oil spill, graphene, oil-water separation, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
201 A Series Solution of Fuzzy Integro-Differential Equation

Authors: Maryam Mosleh, Mahmood Otadi

Abstract:

The hybrid differential equations have a wide range of applications in science and engineering. In this paper, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to obtain the series solution of the hybrid differential equations. Using the homotopy analysis method, it is possible to find the exact solution or an approximate solution of the problem. Comparisons are made between improved predictor-corrector method, homotopy analysis method and the exact solution. Finally, we illustrate our approach by some numerical example.

Keywords: Fuzzy number, parametric form of a fuzzy number, fuzzy integrodifferential equation, homotopy analysis method

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
200 Photocatalytic Removal of Methylene Blue Dye: Fabrication and Optimization of Adsorbant Material and a Photocatlyst in Unilayer and Bilayer System

Authors: M. Z. Mahmood, S. Ismail

Abstract:

A reusable immobilized unilayer thin coating of adsorbent material bentonite and photocatalyst (TiO₂) was fabricated on the glass beaker to remove aqueous methylene blue solution. The dye removal efficiency of photocatalyst was much lower with pure titanium dioxide. In the preliminary experiments, different compositions of TiO₂ – bentonite were tested on unilayer and bilayer system, and it was observed that 0.50:0.50 ratios are best for maximum photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous medium when applied on unilayer coating system.

Keywords: adsorption, photocatalyst, bentonite, TiO₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
199 Mining Diagnostic Investigation Process

Authors: Sohail Imran, Tariq Mahmood

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In complex healthcare diagnostic investigation process, medical practitioners have to focus on ways to standardize their processes to perform high quality care and optimize the time and costs. Process mining techniques can be applied to extract process related knowledge from data without considering causal and dynamic dependencies in business domain and processes. The application of process mining is effective in diagnostic investigation. It is very helpful where a treatment gives no dispositive evidence favoring it. In this paper, we applied process mining to discover important process flow of diagnostic investigation for hepatitis patients. This approach has some benefits which can enhance the quality and efficiency of diagnostic investigation processes.

Keywords: process mining, healthcare, diagnostic investigation process, process flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
198 Ziegler Nichols Based Integral Proportional Controller for Superheated Steam Temperature Control System

Authors: Amil Daraz, Suheel Abdullah Malik, Tahir Saleem, Sajid Ali Bhati

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In this paper, Integral Proportional (I-P) controller is employed for superheated steam temperature control system. The Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) method is used for the tuning of I-P controller. The performance analysis of Z-N based I-P controller is assessed on superheated steam system of 500-MW boiler. The comparison of transient response parameters such as rise time, settling time, and overshoot is made with Z-N based Proportional Integral (PI) controller. It is observed from the results that Z-N based I-P controller completely eliminates the overshoot in the output response.

Keywords: superheated steam, process reaction curve, PI and I-P controller, Ziegler-Nichols Tuning

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
197 Fabrication of Eco-Friendly Pigment Printed Textiles by Reducing Formaldehyde Content

Authors: Sidra Saleemi, Raja Fahad Qureshi, Farooq Ahmed, Rabia Almas, Tahir Jameel

Abstract:

This research aimed to decrease formaldehyde content in substrates printed by pigments using different fixation temperature and concentration of urea in order to produce eco-friendly textiles. Substrates were printed by hand screen printing method as per recipe followed by drying and curing. Standard test methods were adapted to measure formaldehyde content washing and rubbing fastness. Formaldehyde content is instantaneously decreased by raising the temperature during curing printed fabric. Good results of both dry and wet rubbing fastness were found at 160˚C slightly improved dry rubbing results are achieved with 2% urea at a curing temperature of 150˚C.

Keywords: formaldehyde content, pigment printing, urea, washing fastness, rubbing fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
196 Effects of Alkalinity on the Treatment of Landfill Leachate through Algae Growth

Authors: Tahir Imran Qureshi

Abstract:

This study was aimed at finding out effects of potential influence of alkalinity on the treatment of landfill leachate through the growth of algae at varying dilution rates and toxicity potential. pH control proved to be an effective factor influencing on algal growth. With the use of algae Scenedesmus sp. for the treatment of leachate, a sharp increase in the growth of algae was recorded until pH 9. However, at pH 9.3 and 25 °C temperature, the growing trend of algae population showed a weakening tendency with the increase of total alkalinity in the leachate solution. Highest growth of algae was recorded in the leachate samples with alkalinity ranged at 1500-2500 mg CaCO3/L under neutral condition at pH 7 after 48 hours of cultivation time. Under the similar conditions, total nitrogen and total phosphorous in the leachate also reduced to 80% and 85%, respectively, however, no significant removal of COD was observed during the course of experiment.

Keywords: leachate treatment, microalgae, nutrient removal, ammonia toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
195 Improvement in Tool Life Through Optimizing Cutting Parameters Using Cryogenic Media in Machining of Aerospace Alloy Steel

Authors: Waseem Tahir, Syed Hussain Imran Jaffery, Mohammad Azam

Abstract:

In this research work, liquid nitrogen gas (LN2) is used as a cryogenic media to optimize the cutting parameters for evaluation of tool flank wear width of Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404-WF 4215) while turning a high strength alloy steel. Robust design concept of Taguchi L9 (34) method is applied to determine the optimum conditions. The analysis is revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear. However, High Speed Machining is shown most significant as compare to cooling media on work piece surface roughness.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic cooling, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface finish

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
194 Transformative Concept of Logic to Islamic Science: Reflections on Al-Ghazālī's Influence

Authors: Umar Sheikh Tahir

Abstract:

Before al-Ghazālī, Islamic scholars perceived logic as an intrusive knowledge. The knowledge therefore, did not receive ample attention among scholars on how it should be adapted into Islamic sciences. General scholarship in that period rejects logic as an instrumental knowledge. This attitude became unquestionable to the scholars from different perspectives with diversification of suggestions in the pre-al-Ghazālī’s period. However, al-Ghazālī proclaimed with new perspective that transform Logic from ‘intrusive knowledge’ to a useful tool for Islamic sciences. This study explores the contributions of al-Ghazālī to epistemology regarding the use and the relevance of Logic. The study applies qualitative research methodology dealing strictly with secondary data from medieval age and contemporary sources. The study concludes that al-Ghazālī’s contributions which supported the transformation of Logic to useful tool in the Muslim world were drawn from his experience within Islamic tradition. He succeeded in reconciling Islamic tradition with the wisdom of Greek sciences.

Keywords: Al-Ghazālī, classical logic, epistemology, Islamdom and Islamic sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
193 Classification Rule Discovery by Using Parallel Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Waseem Shahzad, Ayesha Tahir Khan, Hamid Hussain Awan

Abstract:

Ant-Miner algorithm that lies under ACO algorithms is used to extract knowledge from data in the form of rules. A variant of Ant-Miner algorithm named as cAnt-MinerPB is used to generate list of rules using pittsburgh approach in order to maintain the rule interaction among the rules that are generated. In this paper, we propose a parallel Ant MinerPB in which Ant colony optimization algorithm runs parallel. In this technique, a data set is divided vertically (i-e attributes) into different subsets. These subsets are created based on the correlation among attributes using Mutual Information (MI). It generates rules in a parallel manner and then merged to form a final list of rules. The results have shown that the proposed technique achieved higher accuracy when compared with original cAnt-MinerPB and also the execution time has also reduced.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, parallel Ant-MinerPB, vertical partitioning, classification rule discovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 216