Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 103

Search results for: Mohsin Raza

103 Developing Fault Tolerance Metrics of Web and Mobile Applications

Authors: Ahmad Mohsin, Irfan Raza Naqvi, Syda Fatima Usamn

Abstract:

Applications with higher fault tolerance index are considered more reliable and trustworthy to drive quality. In recent years application development has been shifted from traditional desktop and web to native and hybrid application(s) for the web and mobile platforms. With the emergence of Internet of things IOTs, cloud and big data trends, the need for measuring Fault Tolerance for these complex nature applications has increased to evaluate their performance. There is a phenomenal gap between fault tolerance metrics development and measurement. Classic quality metric models focused on metrics for traditional systems ignoring the essence of today’s applications software, hardware & deployment characteristics. In this paper, we have proposed simple metrics to measure fault tolerance considering general requirements for Web and Mobile Applications. We have aligned factors – subfactors, using GQM for metrics development considering the nature of mobile we apps. Systematic Mathematical formulation is done to measure metrics quantitatively. Three web mobile applications are selected to measure Fault Tolerance factors using formulated metrics. Applications are then analysed on the basis of results from observations in a controlled environment on different mobile devices. Quantitative results are presented depicting Fault tolerance in respective applications.

Keywords: web and mobile applications, reliability, fault tolerance metric, quality metrics, GQM based metrics

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102 Role of Interleukin-36 in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Muslim Idan Mohsin, Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti, Rusul Idan Mohsin, Ali A. Majeed

Abstract:

One of the causative agents of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can lead to severe infection associated with a lung infection. There are many cytokines that are secreted in response to bacterial infection, in particular interleukin IL-36 cytokine in response to P. aeruginosa infection. The involvement of IL-36 in the P. aeruginosa infection could be a clue to find a specific way for treatments of different inflammatory and degenerative lung diseases. IL36 promotes primary immune response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Indeed, an overactivity of IL-36 might be an initiating factor for many immunopathologic sceneries in pneumonia. Here we demonstrate if the IL-36 cytokine increases in response P. aeruginosa infection that is isolated from lower respiratory tract infection (LRT). We demonstrated that IL-36 expression significantly unregulated in human lung epithelial (A549) cells after infected by P. aeruginosa at mRNA level.

Keywords: IL36, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, LRT infection, A549 cells

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101 Modeling and Simulation of Secondary Breakup and Its Influence on Fuel Spray in High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Mohsin Raza, Rizwan Latif, Syed Adnan Qasim, Imran Shafi

Abstract:

High torque low-speed diesel engine has a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. In literature, it’s found that lot of work has been done for the high-speed diesel engine and research on High Torque low-speed is rare. The fuel injection plays a key role in the efficiency of engine and reduction in exhaust emission. The fuel breakup plays a critical role in air-fuel mixture and spray combustion. The current study explains numerically an important phenomenon in spray combustion which is deformation and breakup of liquid drops in compression ignition internal combustion engine. The secondary breakup and its influence on spray and characteristics of compressed gas in-cylinder have been calculated by using simulation software in the backdrop of high torque low-speed diesel like conditions. The secondary spray breakup is modeled with KH - RT instabilities. The continuous field is described by turbulence model and dynamics of the dispersed droplet is modeled by Lagrangian tracking scheme. The results by using KH - RT model are compared against other default methods in OpenFOAM and published experimental data from research and implemented in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). These numerical simulation, done in OpenFoam and Matlab, results are analyzed for the complete 720- degree 4 stroke engine cycle at a low engine speed, for favorable agreement to be achieved. Results thus obtained will be analyzed for better evaporation in near nozzle region. The proposed analyses will further help in better engine efficiency, low emission and improved fuel economy.

Keywords: diesel fuel, KH-RT, Lagrangian , Open FOAM, secondary breakup

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100 Feminist Perspective: Negotiating Subverted Feminine Self in Moth Smoke by Mohsin Hamid

Authors: Sumaira Mukhtar

Abstract:

The present research aims at the discussion of the subversion of the hegemony of the feminine self in the text Moth Smoke by a Pakistani novelist Mohsin Hamid. It presents the notion of the subversion of the grand narratives of the ‘positioning’ of feminine identity in Pakistani patriarchal society by presenting a de-stereotyped personality of Mumtaz, the protagonist in Moth Smoke. The dominant masculine traits in Mumtaz’s personality have been negotiated since she is an untraditional female character in the novel. In this regard, the researcher has taken a feministic stance in this study by presenting the proposition that subaltern can also speak. Mumtaz’s character reminds one of Hedda from Henrik Ibsen’s play Hedda Gabler. So, the masculine traits in Mumtaz’s personality have also been compared with Hedda’s. Besides, the research study will also bring into notice that how that in the postmodern scenario, marginalization of the women have been responded back by women and hereby Mumtaz by uplifting her social status and class. Her de-stereotyped feminine self has been reinforced by the dialogues and incidents in the text. This research is qualitative in design and is based on the textual analysis. An interpretive research method has also been utilized since the researcher has tried to decode the text in supporting the notion of de-stereotyping of feminine self. This research would add to the body of Pakistani literature and Feministic theory.

Keywords: de-stereotyped, feminine identity, marginalization, masculine traits

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99 Assessment of the Adoption and Distribution Pattern of Agroforestry in Faisalabad District Using GIS

Authors: Irfan Ahmad, Raza Ghafoor, Hammad Raza Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Farrakh Nawaz, M. Tahir Siddiqui

Abstract:

Due to the exploding population of Pakistan the pressure on natural forests is increasing to meet the demands of wood and wood based products. Agroforestry is being practiced throughout the world on scientific basis but unfortunately the farmers of Pakistan are reluctant in its adoption. The presents study was designed to assess the adoption of agroforestry practices in Faisalabad with respect to land holdings of farmers and future suitability by using Geographic information system (GIS). Faisalabad is the third largest city of the country and is famous due to the textile industry. A comprehensive survey from target villages of the Lyallpur town of Faisalabad district was carried out. Out of total 65 villages, 40 were selected for study. From each selected village, one farmer who was actively engaged in farming activities was selected. It was observed that medium sized farmers having 10-20 acre were more in number as compared to small and large farmers. Number of trees was found maximum in large farm lands, ratio of diseased trees was almost similar in all categories with maximum in small farmlands (24.1%). Regarding the future prospects 35% farmer were interested in agroforestry practices 65% were not interested in the promotion of trees due to the non-availability of technical guidance and proper markets. Geographic images of the study site can further help the researchers and policy makers in the promotion of agroforestry.

Keywords: agroforestry trends, adoption, Faisalabad, geographic information system (GIS)

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98 A New Internal Architecture Based On Feature Selection for Holonic Manufacturing System

Authors: Jihan Abdulazeez Ahmed, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez Brifcani

Abstract:

This paper suggests a new internal architecture of holon based on feature selection model using the combination of Bees Algorithm (BA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). BA is used to generate features while ANN is used as a classifier to evaluate the produced features. Proposed system is applied on the Wine data set, the statistical result proves that the proposed system is effective and has the ability to choose informative features with high accuracy.

Keywords: artificial neural network, bees algorithm, feature selection, Holon

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97 The Onus of Human to Society in Accordance with Constitution and Traditions

Authors: Qamar Raza

Abstract:

This paper deals with the human concern and onus which every person should provide to his/her society. Especially the rules and regulations described in constitution or traditions which we have inherited from ancestors should be followed, and also our lives should be led in accordance with them. The main concern of paper would be personal behavior with others in a good manner especially what he/she should exercise for society’s welfare. As human beings are the fundamental organ of society, who play a crucial role in reforming the society, they should try their best to develop it as well as maintain harmony, peace, we-feeling and mutual contact in the society. Focusing on how the modern society and its elements keep society successful. Regulations of our constitution and tradition are essential for reforming the society. In a nutshell, a human has to mingle in his society and keep mutual respect and understand the value of others as well as for himself.

Keywords: constitution, human beings, society, traditions

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96 Development of Impervious Concrete Using Micro Silica and GGBS as Cement Replacement Materials

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Akram, Saim Raza, Hamza Hanif Chauhan

Abstract:

This paper describes the aim of research to evaluate the performance of ordinary Portland concretes containing cement replacement materials in both binary and ternary system. Blocks of concrete were prepared to have a constant water-binder ratio of 0.30. The test variables included the type and the amount of the supplementary cementious materials (SCMs) such as class of Silica Fume (SF) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Portland cement was replaced with Silica Fume (SF) upto 7.5% and GGBS up to a level of 50%. Then physical properties are assessed from the compressive strength and permeability tests.

Keywords: silica fume, GGBS, compressive strength, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
95 Helping Older Users Staying Connected

Authors: Q. Raza

Abstract:

Getting old is inevitable, tasks which were once simple are now a daily struggle. This paper is a study of how older users interact with web application based upon a series of experiments. The experiments conducted involved 12 participants and the experiments were split into two parts. The first set gives the users a feel of current social networks and the second set take into considerations from the participants and the results of the two are compared. This paper goes in detail on the psychological aspects such as social exclusion, Metacognition memory and Therapeutic memories and how this relates to users becoming isolated from society, social networking can be the roof on a foundation of successful computer interaction. The purpose of this paper is to carry out a study and to propose new ideas to help users to be able to use social networking sites easily and efficiently.

Keywords: cognitive psychology, special memory, social networking and human computer interaction

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94 Impact of Work Experience and Gender on Decisional Conflict

Authors: Mohsin Aslam Khan

Abstract:

Decision making tendency varies in people with different socio demographics. This study was conducted to identify the impact of work experience on decisional conflict and whether there is a gender differences in decisional conflict. Convenience sampling was more appropriate for this exploratory research. AM O’ Connor decisional conflict scale, (1995) with cronbach alpha 0.900 was administered on sample size of 109 participants (62males, 47females). The responses were scored according to the AM O’ Connor decisional conflict scale manual, (1995). The results of the study indicate that work experience has no significant impact on decisional conflict, whereas gender differences in decisional conflict illustrates significant mean score differences among male and female participants.

Keywords: decision making, decisional conflict, gender decision making, work experience

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93 Application of Optimization Techniques in Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review

Authors: Syed Auon Raza, Tahir Mahmood, Syed Basit Ali Bukhari

Abstract:

In power system properly coordinated protection scheme is designed to make sure that only the faulty part of the system will be isolated when abnormal operating condition of the system will reach. The complexity of the system as well as the increased user demand and the deregulated environment enforce the utilities to improve system reliability by using a properly coordinated protection scheme. This paper presents overview of over current relay coordination techniques. Different techniques such as Deterministic Techniques, Meta Heuristic Optimization techniques, Hybrid Optimization Techniques, and Trial and Error Optimization Techniques have been reviewed in terms of method of their implementation, operation modes, nature of distribution system, and finally their advantages as well as the disadvantages.

Keywords: distribution system, relay coordination, optimization, Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
92 Enhanced Thermal, Mechanical and Morphological Properties of CNT/HDPE Nanocomposite Using MMT as Secondary Filler

Authors: M. E. Ali Mohsin, Agus Arsad, Othman Y. Alothman

Abstract:

This study explains the influence of secondary filler on the dispersion of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites (CNT/HDPE). In order to understand the mixed-fillers system, Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to CNT/HDPE nanocomposites. It was followed by investigating their effect on the thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of the aforesaid nanocomposite. Incorporation of 3 wt% each of MMT into CNT/HDPE nanocomposite resulted to the increased values for the tensile and flexural strength, as compared to the pure HDPE matrix. The thermal analysis result showed improved thermal stability of the formulated nanocomposites. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that larger aggregates of CNTs were disappeared upon addition of these two components leading to the enhancement of thermo-mechanical properties for such composites.

Keywords: secondary filler, montmorillonite, carbon nanotube, nanocomposite

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91 Case Study of Child Labour in Pakistan

Authors: Ahmad Ali Ansari, Hassan Arshad, Basharat Hussani, Adnan Raza, Ahmad Ali Khan

Abstract:

Child labor is a kind of an issue which was found all over the world, but now the first world countries like countries in Europe and America (USA) got hold of it up to a large extent but Underdeveloped or the developing countries including Pakistan are still a victim of this issue. The following attempt has been made in this research article to figure out the main reasons of child labor in underdeveloped countries especially in Pakistan and also some of the issues are discussed which are hindering the solution of child labor in Pakistan. In this research we interviewed 70 working children in the area of Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Taxila and Hatar who belonged to the different parts of the country and figured out the basic causes of the child labor in Pakistan, what are its bad effects on the young one who is a victim of it and we also put a light on what the government of Pakistan is doing in this context and what the government still have to do.

Keywords: child labour, Pakistan, case study, underdeveloped countries

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90 An investigation of Leading Edge and Trailing Edge Corrugation for Low Reynolds Number Application

Authors: Syed Hassan Raza Shah, Mohammad Mohammad Ali

Abstract:

The flow over a smoothly profiled airfoil at a low Reynolds number is highly susceptible to separate even at a very low angle of attack. An investigation was made to study the effect of leading-edge and trailing-edge corrugation with the spanwise change in the ridges resulted due to the change in the chord length for an infinite wing. The wind tunnel results using NACA0018 wings revealed that leading and trailing edge corrugation did not have any benefit in terms of aerodynamic efficiency or delayed stall. The leading edge and trailing edge corrugation didn't change the lift curve slope, with the leading edge corrugation wing stalling first in the range of Reynolds number of 50,000 to 125,000.

Keywords: leading and trailing edge corrugations, low reynolds number, wind tunnel testing, NACA0018

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89 Synthesis of NiO and ZnO Nanoparticles and Charactiration for the Eradication of Lead (Pb) from Wastewater

Authors: Sadia Ata, Anila Tabassum, Samina ghafoor, Ijaz ul Mohsin, Azam Muktar

Abstract:

Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, in wastewater are considered as the serious environmental problem. Among these heavy metals, Lead or Pb (II) is the most toxic heavy metal. Exposure to lead causes damage of nervous system, mental retardation, renal kidney disease, anemia and cancer in human beings. Adsorption is the most widely used method to remove metal ions based on the physical interaction between metal ions and sorbents. With the development of nanotechnology, nano-sized materials are proved to be effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater due to their unique structural properties. The present work mainly focuses on the synthesis of NiO and ZnO nanoparticles for the removal of Lead ions, their preparation, characterization by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, along with adsorption isotherm model and adsorption kinetics to understand the adsorption procedure.

Keywords: heavy metal, adsorption isotherms, nanoparticles, wastewater

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88 Usability Issues of Smart Phone Applications: For Visually Challenged People

Authors: Anam Ashraf, Arif Raza

Abstract:

In this era of globalization, adoption of technology is quite difficult for people with physical disabilities compared to people with normal abilities. The advancement in mobile based accessible applications has opened up several different avenues for the visually challenged across the globe. Smartphones applications are not very common for blind people, but they access and use these applications in their daily lives to some extent. Several smartphone applications have a number of usability issues for the visually impaired. In this paper, we evaluate the usability of various android and iPhone applications for blind people through analysis and surveys. This paper aspires to provide guidance in order to increase smartphone application accessibility for the visually impaired. An abstract application design is also proposed to overcome usability issues in smartphone applications for visually challenged people.

Keywords: eyes-free shell, human computer interaction, usability engineering, visually challenged

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87 Extracting Spatial Information Using Stereo Imageries for Mapping Slum Areas in Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Mohammed Raza Mehdi, Kamran Ahmed

Abstract:

Mega-city Karachi has numerous unplanned slum areas and squatter settlements with irregular growth of building structures. Due to weak development policy and lack of development control, such settlements are increasing at a rapid pace. Mapping such areas for planning and infrastructure development requires an integrated approach of socio-spatial and technological tools. Therefore in this study, an attempt is made to create GIS information layers on complex inbound built-up areas of slums at the coastal belt of Karachi by using a stereo pair of satellite images. The outcome expected is technological application to aid planning institutions for crisis management and infrastructure development in irregularly developed slum areas of Karachi, Pakistan.

Keywords: slum, satellite imageries, GIS, Karachi, Pakistan

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86 Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Egyptian Children Vaccinated during Infancy

Authors: Iman I. Salama, Samia M. Sami, Somaia I. Salama, Zeinab N. Said, Thanaa M. Rabah, Aida M. Abdel-Mohsin

Abstract:

This is a national community-based project to evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccination program in prevention of infection. HBV markers were tested in the sera of 3600 vaccinated children. Infected children were followed up for 1 year. Prevalence of HBV infection was 0.39 % (0.28% positive for anti-HBc, 0.03% positive for HBsAg and 0.08% positive for both). One year later, 50% of positive anti-HBc children turned negative with sustained positivity for positive HBsAg cases. HBV infection was significantly higher at age above 9 years (0.6%) compared to 0.2% at age 3-9 years and 0% at younger age (P < 0.05). Logistic analysis revealed that predictors for HBV infection were history of blood transfusion, regular medical injection, and family history of either HBV infection or drug abuse (adjusted odds ratios 6.2, 5.6, 7.6 & 19.1 respectively). HBV vaccination program produced adequate protection. Adherence to infection control measures and safe blood transfusion are recommended.

Keywords: HBV infection, HBV vaccine, children, Egypt

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85 Girls' Underperformance in Science: From Biological Determinism and Feminist Perspectives

Authors: Raza Ullah, Hazir Ullah

Abstract:

There is ample evidence that reveals the outstanding performance of girls in a different range of subjects. However, it is pertinent to mention here that boys have historically dominated girls, particularly in math, physics, and technological subjects across the globe with the exception of few developed countries. This article examines the reasons why girls are underdog in STEM subjects. The article critically analyzes two main approaches towards gender and education: biological determinist and feminist. This article highlights that social factors influencing girls performance in STEM subjects have not analyzed critically, and girls underachieving in science has linked with biological and sex differences. The article concludes that the underperformance of girls in a STEM subject is the direct response of socio-cultural factors. Thus, socio-cultural factors are responsible for the dearth of girls in STEM subjects.

Keywords: gender, underperformance, STEM, education, sex

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84 Anticoccidial Activity of Vitis venifera Extract on Oocysts of Different Eimeria Species of Chicken

Authors: Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Asif Raza, Kashif Hussain

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In the current experiment, in vitro anticoccidial potential of Vitis venifera (grape seed) extract was evaluated. For this purpose, an in vitro sporulation inhibition assay was used. Collected oocysts of different Eimeria species of chicken were exposed to six different concentrations (w/v) of Vitis venifera extract (TAE) in 10% dimethylsulphoxide solution (DMSO). Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and potassium dichromate solution (K₂Cr₂O₇) served as control groups. Results of the study revealed that Vitis venifera extract (TAE) showed an inhibitory effect on sporulation (%) and damage (%) of Eimeria oocysts in a dose-dependent manner as compared to both control groups. Vitis venifera extract also damaged the morphology of oocysts in terms of shape, size, and number of sporocysts.

Keywords: Vitis venifera, in vitro, Eimeria, oocysts

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83 A New Tool for Global Optimization Problems: Cuttlefish Algorithm

Authors: Adel Sabry Eesa, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez Brifcani, Zeynep Orman

Abstract:

This paper presents a new meta-heuristic bio-inspired optimization algorithm which is called Cuttlefish Algorithm (CFA). The algorithm mimics the mechanism of color changing behavior of the cuttlefish to solve numerical global optimization problems. The colors and patterns of the cuttlefish are produced by reflected light from three different layers of cells. The proposed algorithm considers mainly two processes: reflection and visibility. Reflection process simulates light reflection mechanism used by these layers, while visibility process simulates visibility of matching patterns of the cuttlefish. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested with some other popular bio-inspired optimization algorithms such as Genetic Algorithms (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Bees Algorithm (BA) that have been previously proposed in the literature. Simulations and obtained results indicate that the proposed CFA is superior when compared with these algorithms.

Keywords: Cuttlefish Algorithm, bio-inspired algorithms, optimization, global optimization problems

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82 Autonomic Threat Avoidance and Self-Healing in Database Management System

Authors: Wajahat Munir, Muhammad Haseeb, Adeel Anjum, Basit Raza, Ahmad Kamran Malik

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Databases are the key components of the software systems. Due to the exponential growth of data, it is the concern that the data should be accurate and available. The data in databases is vulnerable to internal and external threats, especially when it contains sensitive data like medical or military applications. Whenever the data is changed by malicious intent, data analysis result may lead to disastrous decisions. Autonomic self-healing is molded toward computer system after inspiring from the autonomic system of human body. In order to guarantee the accuracy and availability of data, we propose a technique which on a priority basis, tries to avoid any malicious transaction from execution and in case a malicious transaction affects the system, it heals the system in an isolated mode in such a way that the availability of system would not be compromised. Using this autonomic system, the management cost and time of DBAs can be minimized. In the end, we test our model and present the findings.

Keywords: autonomic computing, self-healing, threat avoidance, security

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81 Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Copper Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Humaira Khan, Mohsin Javed, Sammia Shahid

Abstract:

The reinforced photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) along with composites of ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied by synthesizing ZnO and copper- doped ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. Zinc acetate and copper acetate were used as precursors, whereas graphene oxide was prepared from pre-oxidized graphite in the presence of H2O2.The supernatant was collected carefully and showed high-quality single-layer characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction Analysis), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry). The degradation of methylene blue as standard pollutant under UV-Visible irradiation gave results for photocatalytic activity of dopants. It could be concluded that shrinking of optical band caused by composites of Cu-dopped nanoparticles with GO enhances the photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: degradation, graphene oxide, photocatalysis, ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles

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80 Beta Titanium Alloys: The Lowest Elastic Modulus for Biomedical Applications: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee

Abstract:

Biometallic materials are the most important materials for use in biomedical applications especially in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern worlds, e.g. hip, knee or shoulder joints, due to their advanced characteristics. Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are used extensively in biomedical applications based on their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Beta-Ti alloys containing completely biocompatible elements are exceptionally prospective materials for manufacturing of bioimplants. They have superior mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties for use as biomaterials. These biomaterials have the ability to introduce the most important property of biochemical compatibility which is low elastic modulus. This review examines current information on the recent developments in alloying elements leading to improvements of beta Ti alloys for use as biomaterials. Moreover, this paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of the modulus of elasticity as an effective factor on the performance of beta alloys.

Keywords: beta alloys, biomedical applications, titanium alloys, Young's modulus

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79 Mobile Learning in Teacher Education: A Review in Context of Developing Countries

Authors: Mehwish Raza

Abstract:

Mobile learning (m-learning) offers unique affordances to learners, setting them free of limitations posed by time and geographic space; thus becoming an affordable device for convenient distant learning. There is a plethora of research available on mobile learning projects planned, implemented and evaluated across disciplines in the context of developed countries, however, the potential of m-learning at different educational levels remain unexplored with little evidence of research carried out in developing countries. Despite the favorable technical infrastructure offered by cellular networks and boom in mobile subscriptions in the developing world, there is limited focus on utilizing m-learning for education and development purposes. The objective of this review is to unify findings from m-learning projects that have been implemented in developing countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh, Philippines, India, and Tanzania for teachers’ in-service training. The purpose is to draw upon key characteristics of mobile learning that would be useful for future researchers to inform conceptualizations of mobile learning for developing countries.

Keywords: design model, developing countries, key characteristics, mobile learning

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78 A Case Study of Kick Control in Tough Potohar Region

Authors: Iftikhar Raza

Abstract:

Well control is the management of the hazardous effects caused by the unexpected release of formation fluid, such as natural gas and/or crude oil, upon surface equipment of oil or gas drilling rigs and escaping into the atmosphere. Technically, oil well control involves preventing the formation fluid, usually referred to as kick, from entering into the wellbore during drilling. Oil well control is one of the most important aspects of drilling operations. Improper handling of kicks in oil well control can result in blowouts with very grave consequences, including the loss of valuable resources. Even though the cost of a blowout (as a result of improper/no oil well control) can easily reach several millions of US dollars, the monetary loss is not as serious as the other damages that can occur: irreparable damage to the environment, waste of valuable resources, ruined equipment, and most importantly, the safety and lives of personnel on the drilling rig. In this paper, case study of a well is discussed with field data showing the properties of the well. The whole procedure of controlling this well is illustrated in this which may be helpful for professional dealing with such kind of problems.

Keywords: kick control, kill sheet, oil well, gas drilling

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77 Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Ayad Sleibi Mustafa, Ahmed Abdulkadhim Mohsin, Layth Noori Ali

Abstract:

The deterioration of solid waste management in Baghdad city is considered as a great challenge in terms of human health and environment. Baghdad city is divided into thirteen districts which are distributed on both Tigris River banks. The west bank is Al-Karkh and the east bank is Al-Rusafa. Municipal Solid Waste Management is one of the most complicated problems facing the environment in Iraq. Population growth led to increase waste production and more load of the waste to the limited capacity infrastructure. The problems of municipal solid waste become more serious after the war in 2003. More waste is disposed in underground landfills in Baghdad with little or no concern for both human health and environment. The results showed that the total annually predicted solid waste is increasing for the period 2015-2030. Municipal solid waste in 2030 will be 6,427,773 tons in Baghdad city according to the population growth rate of 2.4%. This increase is estimated to be approximately 30%.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, solid waste composition and characteristics, Baghdad city, environment, human health

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76 Effect of a Stepwise Discontinuity on a 65 Degree Delta Wing

Authors: Nishit L. Sanil, Raza M. Khan

Abstract:

Increasing lift effectively at higher angles of attack has always been a daunting challenge in aviation especially on a delta wing. These are used on military jet fighter planes and has some undesirable characteristics, notably flow separation at high angles of attack and high drag at low speeds. In order to solve this problem, a design modification is modeled on a delta wing which would increase the lift so that we can improve maneuverability. To attain an increase in the lift of a 65 degree delta wing at higher angles of attack, a step-wise discontinuity is created at the upper surface of the delta wing. A normal delta wing is validated for comparison which would thereby give us a measure of flow separation and coefficient of lift affected by the modification. The results obtained deliver a significant increase in lift at higher angles of attack thereby delaying stall. Hence the benefits of the modification would aid the potential designs of aircraft’s in the time to come.

Keywords: coefficient of lift, delta wing, flow separation, step-wise discontinuity

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75 Multi Antenna Systems for 5G Mobile Phones

Authors: Muhammad N. Khan, Syed O. Gillani, Mohsin Jamil, Tarbia Iftikhar

Abstract:

With the increasing demand of bandwidth and data rate, there is a dire need to implement antenna systems in mobile phones which are able to fulfill user requirements. A monopole antenna system with multi-antennas configurations is proposed considering the feasibility and user demand. The multi-antenna structure is referred to as multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna system. The multi-antenna system comprises of 4 antennas operating below 6 GHz frequency bands for 4G/LTE and 4 antenna for 5G applications at 28 GHz and the dimension of board is 120 × 70 × 0.8mm3. The suggested designs is feasible with a structure of low-profile planar-antenna and is adaptable to smart cell phones and handheld devices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first design compared to the literature by having integrated antenna system for two standards, i.e., 4G and 5G. All MIMO antenna systems are simulated on commercially available software, which is high frequency structures simulator (HFSS).

Keywords: high frequency structures simulator (HFSS), mutli-input multi-output (MIMO), monopole antenna, slot antenna

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74 Mechanical Properties of ECAP-Biomedical Titanium Materials: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee

Abstract:

The wide use of titanium (Ti) materials in medicine gives impetus to a search for development new techniques with elevated properties such as strength, corrosion resistance and Young's modulus close to that of bone tissue. This article presents the most recent state of the art on the use of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique in evolving mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained bio-grade Ti materials. Over past few decades, research activities in this area have grown enormously and have produced interesting results, including achieving the combination of conflicting properties that are desirable for biomedical applications by severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing. A comprehensive review of the most recent work in this area is systematically presented. The challenges in processing ultrafine-grained Ti materials are identified and discussed. An overview of the biomedical Ti alloys processed with ECAP technique is given in this review, along with a summary of their effect on the important mechanical properties that can be achieved by SPD processing. The paper also offers insights in the mechanisms underlying SPD.

Keywords: mechanical properties, ECAP, titanium, biomedical applications

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