Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: oocysts

8 Anticoccidial Activity of Vitis venifera Extract on Oocysts of Different Eimeria Species of Chicken

Authors: Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Asif Raza, Kashif Hussain

Abstract:

In the current experiment, in vitro anticoccidial potential of Vitis venifera (grape seed) extract was evaluated. For this purpose, an in vitro sporulation inhibition assay was used. Collected oocysts of different Eimeria species of chicken were exposed to six different concentrations (w/v) of Vitis venifera extract (TAE) in 10% dimethylsulphoxide solution (DMSO). Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and potassium dichromate solution (K₂Cr₂O₇) served as control groups. Results of the study revealed that Vitis venifera extract (TAE) showed an inhibitory effect on sporulation (%) and damage (%) of Eimeria oocysts in a dose-dependent manner as compared to both control groups. Vitis venifera extract also damaged the morphology of oocysts in terms of shape, size, and number of sporocysts.

Keywords: Vitis venifera, in vitro, Eimeria, oocysts

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7 A Comparative Evaluation of Broiler Strains Chickens, Arbor Acres, and Ross in Experimental Coccidiosis

Authors: S. S. R. Shojaei, S. Kord Afshari

Abstract:

The study was initiated to compare the production and defecation of Eimerial oocysts of two internationally reputed broiler strains under the local environmental and management conditions. 40 one-day old male chickens of Arbor Acres strain and ROSS strain (20 chicks from each strain) used in this study and were divided randomly into four control and challenge groups. Feed and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. At 15 d of age, chickens of challenge groups (from each strain) were individually inoculated with a mixture of 50000 of sporulated oocysts of 4 species including of E. acervulina (20%), E. maxima (40%), E. tenella (25%) and E. necatrix (15%) and also from the fourth day after Eimerial challenge, faecal droppings (litter samples) were collected 10 days consecutively for counting oocyst per gram (OPG). The results indicated that in the challenge groups, there was an increasing process of OPG in days of 4 to 7 post challenging and the pick level of OPG was seen at seventh day after challenging. From day 8 to 9, decreasing of OPG was happened. This decreasing continues with mild, fast and mild process to day of 13. Respectively and totally the average of OPG in the Arbor Acres group was lower than the group Ross in all days post inoculation and this difference was significant according to t-test. According to the obtained results in this study and since oocyst index almost always is considered as one of the most important indicators for coccidiosis evaluation, it can be realized that in the same surveillance condition the regarding the severity evaluation of coccidiosis, Arbor Acres strain broilers shed less oocysts than Ross strain broilers.

Keywords: arbor acres, ross, coccidiosis, OPG

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6 Prevalence of Eimeria spp in Cattle in Anatolia Region, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik, Onur Ceylan

Abstract:

Bovine coccidiosis is a protozoan infection caused by coccidia parasites of the genus Eimeria which develops in the small and the large intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in cattle. This study was conducted between March 2014 and April 2015, involved 624 fecal samples of cattle. Cattle were grouped according to their age as follows: 6-12, 12-24 and >24 months. In a retrospective study from these faecal samples of cattle submitted to the University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Parasitology were evaluated regarding the prevalence of Eimeria spp. In the laboratory, faecal samples were examined by Fulleborn saturated salt flotation technique and examined under a microscope for the presence of protozoan oocysts. Eimeria oocysts were found in 4.8% of all the samples. Eimeria infection was detected in 11.8%, 5.3% and 0.4% of the cattle in the age groups, respectively. This study showed that Eimeria infection was commonly seen in 6-24-month-old cattle. Further epidemiological investigation on economic significance and species composition of bovine coccidiosis needs to be pursued.

Keywords: cattle, diarrhea, Eimeria spp, Turkey

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5 Detection of Cryptosporidium Oocysts by Acid-Fast Staining Method and PCR in Surface Water from Tehran, Iran

Authors: Mohamad Mohsen Homayouni, Niloofar Taghipour, Ahmad Reza Memar, Niloofar Khalaji, Hamed Kiani, Seyyed Javad Seyyed Tabaei

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite; its oocysts in surface water are a global health problem. Due to the low number of parasites in the water resources and the lack of laboratory culture, rapid and sensitive method for detection of the organism in the water resources is necessarily required. We applied modified acid-fast staining and PCR for the detection of the Cryptosporidium spp. and analysed the genotypes in 55 samples collected from surface water. Methods: Over a period of nine months, 55 surface water samples were collected from the five rivers in Tehran, Iran. The samples were filtered by using cellulose acetate membrane filters. By acid fast method, initial identification of Cryptosporidium oocyst were carried out on surface water samples. Then, nested PCR assay was designed for the specific amplification and analysed the genotypes. Results: Modified Ziehl-Neelsen method revealed 5–20 Cryptosporidium oocysts detected per 10 Liter. Five out of the 55 (9.09%) surface water samples were found positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by Ziehl-Neelsen test and seven (12.7%) were found positive by nested PCR. The staining results were consistent with PCR. Seven Cryptosporidium PCR products were successfully sequenced and five gp60 subtypes were detected. Our finding of gp60 gene revealed that all of the positive isolates were Cryptosporidium parvum and belonged to subtype families IIa and IId. Conclusion: Our investigations were showed that collection of water samples were contaminated by Cryptosporidium, with potential hazards for the significant health problem. This study provides the first report on detection and genotyping of Cryptosporidium species from surface water samples in Iran, and its result confirmed the low clinical incidence of this parasite on the community.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium spp., membrane filtration, subtype, surface water, Iran

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4 Eimeria spp. in Naturally Infected Calves

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici

Abstract:

Bovine coccidiosis is a protozoan disease caused by various species of Eimeria and most signs of disease are chronic or subclinical. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in calves in Konya, in Turkey. The study, conducted from January- February 2015, involved 240 faecal samples of calves in the age groups of <1 month, 1-3 months and >3 months in Konya city centre, in Turkey. In a retrospective study from these faecal samples of calves submitted to the University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Parasitology were evaluated regarding the prevalence of Eimeria spp. Faecal samples were examined by Fulleborn saturated salt floatation technique. Eimeria oocysts were found in 8.33% of all samples. The positivity rates in each of the age groups were different. According to the age groups (<1 month, 1-3 months and >3 months), the Eimeria spp. were determined as 0.83, 22.73 and 7.41%, respectively. After examination of stool, detected oocysts were sporulated in 2.5% potassium dichromate at 22º C and species were identified as E. cylindrica, E. zuernii, E. ellipsoidalis, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. auburnensis, E. canadensis, E. illinoisensis and E. brasiliensis in infected calves. In conclusion, the highest prevalence was observed in the age group of 1-3 months. The presence of Eimeria species in calves demonstrated for the first time in the Konya region in Turkey. Other etiologic agents should also be investigated in calves more seriously. Further molecular epidemiological studies should be performed in this community.

Keywords: Eimeria spp., calves, diarrhea, bovine coccidiosis

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3 Importance of Cryptosporidiosis in Dairy Calves

Authors: Mohammad Asadpour

Abstract:

Cryptosporidium spp. is zoonotic pathogens transmissible from a variety of animals to humans and is a considerable public health concern. Calves have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. Parasite has a different species that are the cases of zoonotic disease in immunodeficient people and neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium oocysts are extremely resistant to chlorine and other physical cases that commonly used in drinking water. Reproduction of resistant oocytes is a way for this monoxenous parasite to remain in the environment. Cryptosporidium parvum is the most important species that has human and cattle genotypes. Cryptosporidium is one of the most important causes of diarrhea in neonatal calves and also, one of the four causes of diarrhea symptoms in pre-weaned calves. Because of the incompetent immune system in calves, Cryptosporidium infection is the cause of a lot of problems in raising farms.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium spp, dairy calves, importance, veterinary medicine

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2 Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Free-Living Wild Birds by Using Carbol Fuchsin Staining Methods in Konya, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik

Abstract:

Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most common parasitic infection in domesticated, caged, wild birds. Cryptosporidium sp. has been reported in over 30 avian species worldwide. Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium galli are recognised avian species of Cryptosporidium. This study was carried out to determine the prevalance of Cryptosporidium sp. in wild birds in Konya province, Turkey. Faecal samples were collected from 65 wild birds including 52 Podicipedidae (Podiceps cristatus), 11 Rallidae (Fulicia Atra), 2 Anitadia (Aytha ferina). Faecal samples were stained with Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technigue, they were examined under light microscope for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyts. Among the 65 faecal samples, 11 (16.9%) were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. The results of this study indicate that wild birds may play an important role in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, Cryptosporidiosis has suggested zoonotic potential and thus warrant further attention. In addition, biological and genetic studies are required to provide more information on Cryptosporidiosis.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium sp, wild birds, Konya, Turkey

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1 Inactivation of Root-Knot Nematode Eggs Meloidogyne enterolobii in Irrigation Water Treated with Ozone

Authors: I. A. Landa-Fernandez, I. Monje-Ramirez, M. T. Orta-Ledesma

Abstract:

Every year plant-parasitic nematodes diminish the yield of high-value crops worldwide causing important economic losses. Currently, Meloidogyne enterolobii has increased its importance due to its high aggressiveness, increasing geographical distribution and host range. Root-knot nematodes inhabit the rhizosphere soil around plant roots. However, they can come into contact with irrigation water. Thus, plant-parasitic nematodes can be transported by water, as eggs or juveniles. Due to their high resistance, common water disinfection methods are not effective for inactivating these parasites. Ozone is the most effective disinfectant for microbial inactivation. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that ozone treatment is an alternative method control in irrigation water of the root-knot nematode M. enterolobii. It has been shown that ozonation is an effective treatment for the inactivation of protozoan cysts and oocysts (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) and for other species of the genus Meloidogyne (M. incognita), but not for the enterolobii specie. In this study, the strain of M. enterolobii was isolated from tomatoes roots. For the tests, eggs were used and were inoculated in water with similar characteristics of irrigation water. Subsequently, the disinfection process was carried out in an ozonation unit. The performance of the treatments was evaluated through the egg's viability by assessing its structure by optical microscopy. As a result of exposure to ozone, the viability of the nematode eggs was reduced practically in its entirety; with dissolved ozone levels in water close to the standard concentration (equal to 0.4 mgO₃/L), but with high contact times (greater than 4 min): 0.2 mgO₃/L for 15 minutes or 0.55 mgO₃/L for 10 minutes. Additionally, the effect of temperature, alkalinity and organic matter of the water was evaluated. Ozonation is effective and a promising alternative for the inactivation of nematodes in irrigation water, which could contribute to diminish the agricultural losses caused by these organisms.

Keywords: inactivation process, irrigation water treatment, ozonation, plant-parasite nematodes

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