Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: criminology

25 A Correlational Study: Dark Triad and Self-Restraint among Criminology Students

Authors: Mary Heather Lee T. Walker, Audilon Benjamin Madamba, Mizheal Vstrechnny Vidal, Rogelio Angeles, John Rhey Banag, Lorraine Martin

Abstract:

Criminology students are the future police officers of the country that plays a major role in protecting the citizens. Their behavior must be thoroughly assessed before given a badge of responsibility. Therefore, it is important to highlight their Dark Triad that is composed of Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy which are considered to be controversial variables in the present while self-restraint is considered to be their way of controlling themselves especially in their line of work. The researchers used convenience and random sampling and found the respondents from a private school. Thus, the study’s aim is to determine whether there is a relationship among these variables. Machiavellianism and Psychopathy is linked to Self-Restraint except Narcissism. There are lots of factors that resulted into this.

Keywords: criminology, dark triad, self-restraint, students

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24 The Applicability of Western Environmental Criminology Theories to the Arabic Context

Authors: Nawaf Alotaibi, Andy Evans, Alison Heppenstall, Nick Malleson

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Throughout the last two decades, motor vehicle theft (MVT) has accounted for the largest proportion of property crime incidents in Saudi Arabia (SA). However, to date, few studies have investigated SA’s MVT problem. Those that have are primarily focused on the characteristics of car thieves, and most have overlooked any spatial-temporal distribution of MVT incidents and the characteristics of victims. This paper represents the first step in understanding this problem by reviewing the existing MVT studies contextualised within the theoretical frameworks developed in environmental criminology theories – originating in the West – and exploring to what extent they are relevant to the SA context. To achieve this, the paper has identified a range of key features in SA that are different from typical Western contexts, that could limit the appropriateness and capability of applying existing environmental criminology theories. Furthermore, despite these Western studies reviewed so far having introduced a number of explanatory variables for MVT rates, a range of significant elements are apparently absent in the current literature and this requires further analysis. For example, almost no attempts have been made to quantify the associations between the locations of vehicle theft, recovery of stolen vehicles, joyriding and traffic volume.

Keywords: environmental criminology theories, motor vehicle theft, Saudi Arabia, spatial analysis

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23 Generalization of Clustering Coefficient on Lattice Networks Applied to Criminal Networks

Authors: Christian H. Sanabria-Montaña, Rodrigo Huerta-Quintanilla

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A lattice network is a special type of network in which all nodes have the same number of links, and its boundary conditions are periodic. The most basic lattice network is the ring, a one-dimensional network with periodic border conditions. In contrast, the Cartesian product of d rings forms a d-dimensional lattice network. An analytical expression currently exists for the clustering coefficient in this type of network, but the theoretical value is valid only up to certain connectivity value; in other words, the analytical expression is incomplete. Here we obtain analytically the clustering coefficient expression in d-dimensional lattice networks for any link density. Our analytical results show that the clustering coefficient for a lattice network with density of links that tend to 1, leads to the value of the clustering coefficient of a fully connected network. We developed a model on criminology in which the generalized clustering coefficient expression is applied. The model states that delinquents learn the know-how of crime business by sharing knowledge, directly or indirectly, with their friends of the gang. This generalization shed light on the network properties, which is important to develop new models in different fields where network structure plays an important role in the system dynamic, such as criminology, evolutionary game theory, econophysics, among others.

Keywords: clustering coefficient, criminology, generalized, regular network d-dimensional

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22 The Development of Psychosis in Offenders and Its Relationship to Crime

Authors: Belinda Crissman

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Serious mental disorder is greatly overrepresented in prisoners compared to the general community, with consequences for prison management, recidivism and the prisoners themselves. Incarcerated individuals with psychotic disorders experience insufficient detection and treatment and higher rates of suicide in custody. However direct evidence to explain the overrepresentation of individuals with psychosis in prisons is sparse. The current study aimed to use a life course criminology perspective to answer two key questions: 1) What is the temporal relationship between psychosis and offending (does first mental health contact precede first recorded offence, or does the offending precede the mental health diagnosis)? 2) Are there key temporal points or system contacts prior to incarceration that could be identified as opportunities for early intervention? Data from the innovative Queensland Linkage project was used to link individuals with their corrections, health and relevant social service systems to answer these questions.

Keywords: mental disorder, crime, life course criminology, prevention

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21 An Examination of Criminology and Cyber Crime in Contemporary Society

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

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The evolving global environment has as of late seen formative difficulties bordering on cyber crime and its attendant effects. This paper looks at what constitutes an offense of cyber crime under the tenets of International Law as no nation can lay bona-fide claim in managing cyber crime as a criminal phenomenon. Therefore, there has been a plethora of ideological, conceptual and mental propositions of policies aimed at domesticating cyber crimes – an international crime. These policies were as a result of parochial consideration and social foundations which negate the spirit of internationally accepted procedures. The study also noted that the non-domestication of cyber crime laws by most countries has led to an increase in cyber crimes and its attendant effects have remained unabated. The author has pointed out emerging international rules as a panacea for a sustainable cyber crime-free society. The paper relied on documentary evidence and hence scooped much of the data from secondary sources such as text books, journals, articles and periodicals and more so, opinion papers, emanating from international criminal court. It concludes that the necessary recommendations made in this paper, if fully adopted, shall go a long way in maintaining a cyber crime-free society. Ultimately, the domestic and international law mechanisms capable of dealing with cyber crime offenses should be expanded and be made proactive in order to deal with the demands of modern day challenges.

Keywords: criminology, cyber crime, domestic law, international law

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20 Hacking's 'Between Goffman and Foucault': A Theoretical Frame for Criminology

Authors: Tomás Speziale

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This paper aims to analyse how Ian Hacking states the theoretical basis of his research on the classification of people. Although all his early philosophical education had been based in Foucault, it is also true that Erving Goffman’s perspective provided him with epistemological and methodological tools for understanding face-to-face relationships. Hence, all his works must be thought of as social science texts that combine the research on how the individuals are constituted ‘top-down’ (as in Foucault), with the inquiry into how people renegotiate ‘bottom-up’ the classifications about them. Thus, Hacking´s proposal constitutes a middle ground between the French Philosopher and the American Sociologist. Placing himself between both authors allows Hacking to build a frame that is expected to adjust to Social Sciences’ main particularity: the fact that they study interactive kinds. These are kinds of people, which imply that those who are classified can change in certain ways that prompt the need for changing previous classifications themselves. It is all about the interaction between the labelling of people and the people who are classified. Consequently, understanding the way in which Hacking uses Foucault’s and Goffman’s theories is essential to fully comprehend the social dynamic between individuals and concepts, what Bert Hansen had called dialectical realism. His theoretical proposal, therefore, is not only valuable because it combines diverse perspectives, but also because it constitutes an utterly original and relevant framework for Sociological theory and particularly for Criminology.

Keywords: classification of people, Foucault's archaeology, Goffman's interpersonal sociology, interactive kinds

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19 Historical Memory and Social Representation of Violence in Latin American Cinema: A Cultural Criminology Approach

Authors: Maylen Villamanan Alba

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Latin America is marked by its history: conquest, colonialism, and slavery left deep footprints in most Latin American countries. Also, the past century has been affected by wars, military dictatorships, and political violence, which profoundly influenced Latin American popular culture. Consequently, reminiscences of historical crimes are frequently present in daily life, media, public opinion, and arts. This legacy is remembered in novels, paintings, songs, and films. In fact, Latin American cinema has a trend which refers to the verisimilitude with reality in fiction films. These films about historical violence are narrated as fictional characters, but their stories are based on real historical contexts. Therefore, cultural criminology has considered films as a significant field to understand social representations of violence related to historical crimes. The aim of the present contribution is to analyze the legacy of past and historical memory in social representations of violence in Latin American cinema as a critical approach to historical crimes. This qualitative research is based on content analysis. The sample is seven multi-award winning films of the International Festival of New Latin American Cinema of Havana. The films selected are Kamchatka, Argentina (2002); Carandiru, Brazil (2003); Enlightened by fire, Argentina (2005); Post-mortem, Chile (2010); No, Chile (2012) Wakolda; Argentina (2013) and The Clan, Argentina (2015). Cultural criminology highlights that cinema shapes meanings of social practices such as historical crimes. Critical criminology offers a critical theory framework to interpret Latin American cinema. This analysis reveals historical conditions deeply associated with power relationships, policy, and inequality issues. As indicated by this theory, violence is characterized as a structural process based on social asymmetries. These social asymmetries are crossed by social scopes, including institutional and personal dimensions. Thus, institutions of the states are depicted through personal stories of characters involved with human conflicts. Intimacy and social background are linked in the personages who simultaneously perform roles such as soldiers, policemen, professionals or inmates and they are at the same time depict as human beings with family, gender, racial, ideological or generational issues. Social representations of violence related to past legacy are a portrait of historical crimes perpetrated against Latin American citizens. Thereby, they have contributed to political positions, social behaviors, and public opinion. The legacy of these historical crimes suggests a path that should never be taken again. It means past legacy is a reminder, a warning, and a historic lesson for Latin American people. Social representations of violence are permeated by historical memory as denunciation under a critical approach.

Keywords: Latin American cinema, historical memory, social representation, violence

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18 Skills and Abilities Expected from Professionals Conducting Serious Crimes Investigations: A Descriptive Study from Turkey

Authors: Burak M. Gonultas

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Criminal investigation provides a practical contribution to this process while criminology provides a theoretical background in the apprehension of criminals arrest and clarification of crimes. However, studies on criminal investigation, which is a practical aspect of this process, are not sufficient. Every crime involves different dynamics in terms of investigation. But investigations of serious crimes are versatile and contains complex processes because of cases they are conducted. Therefore, professionals who conduct serious crime investigations differ in some aspects from others in the field. The most fundamental element of this differentiation is skills and abilities of these professionals. According to Eurostat data, Turkey is in an important position in terms of homicide rates. Therefore, in Turkey practice of serious crime investigation is specialized. The present study aims to research the skills and abilities expected from professionals in conducting an effective serious criminal investigation in Turkey and so aims to offer a number of suggestions. 25 emerged ability and skills collected from literature were asked to professionals (n=289) with semi-structured form according to 5 provinces with the highest and 2 provinces with the lowest number of serious crime cases. Three data categories were collected during experience: 1- Five most important skills and abilities, 2- The most important skills for knowledge and inquiry management and 3- Ability and skills that stand out for five stages of serious criminal investigation. The most rated skills and abilities are investigative skill (13%, n=134), planning/designing (9,2%, n=95) and interpersonal relations/communication (8,8%, n=91) in 1010 skills and abilities. While the 1st and 2nd suggest elections of these professionals, the 3rd also suggests how and what type of training will be given to these professionals. This practice differs from other studies in the area in terms of separately addressing the skills and abilities expected in stages of investigation and in terms of selected methodology.

Keywords: ability, criminal investigation, criminology, homicide, serious crimes, skill, Turkey

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17 Medical Examiner Collection of Comprehensive, Objective Medical Evidence for Conducted Electrical Weapons and Their Temporal Relationship to Sudden Arrest

Authors: Michael Brave, Mark Kroll, Steven Karch, Charles Wetli, Michael Graham, Sebastian Kunz, Dorin Panescu

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Background: Conducted electrical weapons (CEW) are now used in 107 countries and are a common law enforcement less-lethal force practice in the United Kingdom (UK), United States of America (USA), Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and others. Use of these devices is rarely temporally associated with the occurrence of sudden arrest-related deaths (ARD). Because such deaths are uncommon, few Medical Examiners (MEs) ever encounter one, and even fewer offices have established comprehensive investigative protocols. Without sufficient scientific data, the role, if any, played by a CEW in a given case is largely supplanted by conjecture often defaulting to a CEW-induced fatal cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the difficulty in investigating individual deaths, the lack of information also detrimentally affects being able to define and evaluate the ARD cohort generally. More comprehensive, better information leads to better interpretation in individual cases and also to better research. The purpose of this presentation is to provide MEs with a comprehensive evidence-based checklist to assist in the assessment of CEW-ARD cases. Methods: PUBMED and Sociology/Criminology data bases were queried to find all medical, scientific, electrical, modeling, engineering, and sociology/criminology peer-reviewed literature for mentions of CEW or synonymous terms. Each paper was then individually reviewed to identify those that discussed possible bioelectrical mechanisms relating CEW to ARD. A Naranjo-type pharmacovigilance algorithm was also employed, when relevant, to identify and quantify possible direct CEW electrical myocardial stimulation. Additionally, CEW operational manuals and training materials were reviewed to allow incorporation of CEW-specific technical parameters. Results: Total relevant PUBMED citations of CEWs were less than 250, and reports of death extremely rare. Much relevant information was available from Sociology/Criminology data bases. Once the relevant published papers were identified, and reviewed, we compiled an annotated checklist of data that we consider critical to a thorough CEW-involved ARD investigation. Conclusion: We have developed an evidenced-based checklist that can be used by MEs and their staffs to assist them in identifying, collecting, documenting, maintaining, and objectively analyzing the role, if any, played by a CEW in any specific case of sudden death temporally associated with the use of a CEW. Even in cases where the collected information is deemed by the ME as insufficient for formulating an opinion or diagnosis to a reasonable degree of medical certainty, information collected as per the checklist will often be adequate for other stakeholders to use as a basis for informed decisions. Having reviewed the appropriate materials in a significant number of cases careful examination of the heart and brain is likely adequate. Channelopathy testing should be considered in some cases, however it may be considered cost prohibitive (aprox $3000). Law enforcement agencies may want to consider establishing a reserve fund to help manage such rare cases. The expense may stay the enormous costs associated with incident-precipitated litigation.

Keywords: ARD, CEW, police, TASER

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16 Forensic Detection of Errors Permitted by the Witnesses in Their Testimony

Authors: Lev Bertovsky

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The purpose of this study was to determine the reasons for the formation of false testimony from witnesses and make recommendations on the recognition of such cases. During the studies, which were based on the achievements of professionals in the field of psychology, as well as personal investigative practice, the stages of perception of the information were studied, as well as the process of its reclaim from the memory and transmission to the communicator upon request. Based on the principles of the human brain, kinds of conscientious witness mistakes were systematized. Proposals were formulated for the optimization of investigative actions in cases where the witnesses make an honest mistake with respect to the effects previously observed by them.

Keywords: criminology, eyewitness testimony, honest mistake, information, investigator, investigation, questioning

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15 Journey to Cybercrime and Crime Opportunity: Quantitative Analysis of Cyber Offender Spatial Decision Making

Authors: Sinchul Back, Sun Ho Kim, Jennifer LaPrade, Ilju Seong

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Due to the advantage of using the Internet, cybercriminals can reach target(s) without border controls. Prior research on criminology and crime science has largely been void of empirical studies on journey-to-cybercrime and crime opportunity. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand more about cyber offender spatial decision making associated with crime opportunity factors (i.e., co-offending, offender-stranger). Data utilized in this study were derived from 306 U.S. Federal court cases of cybercrime. The findings of this study indicated that there was a positive relationship between co-offending and journey-to-cybercrime, whereas there was no link between offender-stranger and journey-to-cybercrime. Also, the results showed that there was no relationship between cybercriminal sex, age, and journey-to-cybercrime. The policy implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

Keywords: co-offending, crime opportunity, journey-to-cybercrime, offender-stranger

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14 Boosting Crime Scene Investigations Capabilities through Crime Script Analysis

Authors: Benoit Leclerc

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The concept of scripts and the role that crime scripts has been playing in criminology during the last decade is reviewed. Particularly illuminating is the potential use of scripts not only to understand and disrupt offender scripts (e.g., commonly referred as crime scripts) but to capture victim and guardian scripts to increase the likelihood of preventing crime. Similarly, the concept of scripts is applied to forensic science – another field that can benefit from script analysis. First, similar to guardian scripts, script analysis can illuminate the process of completing crime scene investigations for those who investigate (crime scene investigators or other professionals involved in crime scene investigations), and as a result, provide a range of intervention-points to improve the success of these investigations. Second, script analysis can also provide valuable information on offenders’ crime-commission processes for crime scene investigators and highlight a number of ‘contact points’ that could be targeted during investigations.

Keywords: crime scripts, crime scene investigation, script analysis, situational crime prevention

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13 Collective Efficacy and Rural Migration in Urban China—Social Determinants on Urbanization, Social Integration and Civic Engagement

Authors: Ziwei Qi

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This paper focuses on issues on Urbanization, Rural Migration and Neighborhood Collective Efficacy in urban China. The urbanization and migration trend and policies in China will be discussed and the various mechanisms through which social structures affect economic action and the consequent of social disequilibrium due to urbanization will be discussed. The positive and negative propositions on urbanization will also be highlighted. The primary methodologies applied in the paper will be the theoretical application and empirical implication on urbanization in developing countries. Western sociological theories, including theories in urban criminology /sociology including social disorganization, theories of social capital and collective efficacy will be applied and analyzed to test the market society in Chinese economic and cultural setting.

Keywords: collective efficacy, civic engagement, rural migration, urbanization

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12 Group Decision Making through Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set TOPSIS Method Using New Hybrid Score Function

Authors: Syed Talib Abbas Raza, Tahseen Ahmed Jilani, Saleem Abdullah

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This paper presents interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets based TOPSIS method for group decision making. The interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set is a mutation of an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set and soft set. In group decision making problems IVIFSS makes the process much more algebraically elegant. We have used weighted arithmetic averaging operator for aggregating the information and define a new Hybrid Score Function as metric tool for comparison between interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. In an illustrative example we have applied the developed method to a criminological problem. We have developed a group decision making model for integrating the imprecise and hesitant evaluations of multiple law enforcement agencies working on target killing cases in the country.

Keywords: group decision making, interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set, TOPSIS, score function, criminology

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11 Aliens in Space: Reflections on an Applied Theatre Project in a Medium Secure Hospital

Authors: Ashley Barnes

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This paper will consider the ways in which varied notions of Space played a central role in a 12-week drama project with patients in a Medium Secure Hospital in the UK. In the project, the patients devised and performed a series of sketches, inspired by Science Fiction films, which echoed their own experience of alienation. During the project, the familiar and rigorously regulated Activity Room became a site of imagination, adventure and laughter; transforming the atmosphere of the hospital and allowing the patients to be transported to another space entirely. A space that was as much in their heads as in the physical domain. It will be argued that, although work created in an institution such as a Medium Secure Hospital is infused with hegemonic associations and meanings, the starting point for such work should be to seek an empty space in which the participants can allow their imaginations to be released. This work sits within a range of contexts and will be consciously interdisciplinary. It will draw from Human Geography and Criminology, as well as Performance and Applied Theatre Literature. It is hoped that this paper will build upon the literature that relates to the very particular environment of Secure Hospitals and to provide a starting point for further practical exploration.

Keywords: criminal justice, mental health, science fiction films, space and place

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10 Mapping the Relationship between Elements of Urban Morphology Density of Crime

Authors: Fabio Salvador Aparecido Santos, Spencer Chainey, Richard Wortley

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Urban morphology can be understood as the study of the physical form of cities through its elements. Crime, at this turn, can be oversimplified as an action that breaks the rules established in a certain society. This study involves these two subjects through the relationship between elements of urban morphology and density of crime occurrences. We consider that there is a research gap about the influence of urban features on crime occurrences using statistic methods and mapping techniques on Geographic Information Systems. The investigation will comprehend three main phases. The first phase involves examining how theoretical principles associated with urban morphology can be viewed in terms of their influence on crime patterns. The second phase involves the development of tools to be used to model elements of urban morphology, and measure the relationship between these urban morphological elements and patterns of crime. The third phase involves determining the extent to which elements of the urban environment can contribute to crime reduction. Understanding the relationship between urban morphology and crime patterns in a Latin American context will help highlight the influence urban planning has on the crime problems that emerge in these settings, and how effectively urban planning can contribute to reducing crime.

Keywords: Agent-based Modelling, Environmental Criminology, Geographic Information System, Urban Morphology

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9 Victim and Active Subject of the Crime of Violence in Family Reflected in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova

Authors: Nastas Andrei

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Ensuring accessible and functional justice is one of the priority objectives of judicial reform, and protecting the family against any acts that may harm its existence is one of the first priorities that have determined the need to defend the social order. In this context, the correlative approach of the victim and the aggressor becomes relevant as a subject of the crime of domestic violence. Domestic violence is a threat of physical, moral, or material harm, externalized now or in the past, or its provocation, which is characterized by a constant tendency to escalate and a high probability of repetitiveness in the relationship between the social partners, regardless of their legal status or domicile.Studying the legal support to identify the particularities of the victim and the subject of the crime of domestic violence facilitates the identification of the determinants of this crime, therefore, the development of means to prevent domestic violence. The scientific research has been effectuated on the base of the proper and authentic empirical data obtained from the analysis of the judicial practice in the matter of domestic violence, as well as being based on the most recent scientific issues in the field of the Substantive Criminal Law and other branches of science (criminology, psychology, sociology, pedagogy). As a result of the study performed, there have been formulated conclusions and interpretations able to be used in the science of the Substantive Criminal law, as well as in the practice of application of the legal norm in the matter of domestic violence.

Keywords: family violence, victim, crime, violence

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8 A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Abiotic Environmental Variables on Early Diptera Carrion Colonizers in Algiers, Algeria

Authors: M. Taleb, G. Tail, F. Z. Kara, B. Djedouani T. Moussa

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Necrophagous insects usually colonize cadavers within a short time after death. However, they are influenced by weather conditions, and their distribution and activity vary according to different time scales, which can affect the post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. As no data have been published in Algeria on necrophagous insects visiting corpses, two field surveys were conducted in July 2012 and March 2013 at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology (INCC) using rabbit carcasses (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.). The trials were designed to identify the necrophagous Diptera fauna of Algiers, Algeria and examine their variations according to environmental variables. Four hundred and eighteen Diptera adults belonging to five families were captured during this study. The species which were identified on human corpses in different regions of Algeria were also observed on the rabbit carcasses. Although seasonal variations of the species were observed, their abundance did not significantly vary between the two seasons. In addition to seasonal effects, the ambient temperature, the wind speed, and precipitation affect the number of trapped flies. These conclusions highlight the necessity of considering the environmental factors at a scene to estimate the post-mortem interval accurately. It is hoped that these findings provide basic information regarding the necrophagous Diptera fauna of Algeria.

Keywords: forensic entomology, necrophagous diptera, post-mortem interval, abiotic factors, Algeria

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7 Analysis to the Characterization of Self-Esteem of Students in Eulogio 'Amang' Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology: A Foundation of Conceptualizing Substantial Plan of Action

Authors: Eriberto R. Astorga Jr., Herbert D. Vertucio, Evelyn M. Polison

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This study was conducted in order to determine the analysis with regards to the Characterization of Self-Esteem of EARIST Students according to their origin of self-esteem and low self-esteem as well as its causes. The respondents of this study are three thousand three hundred twenty three (3,323) randomly selected students from eight colleges of EARIST such as Arts and Sciences, Education, Public Administration and Criminology, Business Administration, Hospitality Management, Architecture and Fine Arts, Engineering, and Industrial Technology. A survey was conducted by using a validated questionnaire for information gathering about respondents profile and different factors relating to self-esteem of students such as self-origin, familial and social relationship, financial situation and education. Frequency, percentage, ranking and standards deviation, standard t-test and ANOVA were applied to investigate the differences of the answers of the respondents to the origin of their self-esteem and the reasons for low self-esteem. The results revealed that there are no significant differences in the origin of their self-esteem and the reasons of low esteem as to the eight group of respondent’s. Moreover, most causes of low esteem are caused by hearing a comment or experiencing an incident that has a negative impact student mentally and emotionally, poor health, being bullied, lack of support from family, friends, and job loss, experiencing verbal and sexual abuse and are in a violent relationship, feelings of isolation, divorce, dysfunctional family, death and lack of achievement at work and at school, trying to conform to stereotypes and prove our independence from our parents.

Keywords: characterization, plan of action, profile, self-esteem

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6 Social Ties and Integration of the Offenders

Authors: C. Chaillou

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The dominant theoretical approaches in Criminology are interested in the phenomenon of delinquency from the question of the management of the risks incurred by the population. Thus, this research advocate prevention of this phenomenon by a tracking of early disorders in children. Treatments offered to rely on medical research (genetics and biology are cited as a reference) and assuming a high naturalization of delinquent behaviour. Programs that are offered also reduce to a recovery of the deviant behaviour, and rely readily on behavioral guidelines, with an educational grant. Public policy then rely on these programs to prevent unwanted behaviour within a given population and to reduce the risk for the company. This is the case in France, with national institutes making (juvenile) violence a public health problem. We consider that other approaches, issues of sociology, are more relevant to the treatment of offenders. These approaches are moving, not on its prevention, but from its inputs and its outputs. Several modalities of entries and exits of delinquency can find and analyze in terms of process. We assume that there is a dynamic inherent in the individual and it is important to take into account the environment of the offender. These different types of processes can illuminate from the derived work of the Psychoanalytical psychopathology and lead to more effective treatment of delinquent acts. Psychoanalytic concepts have enabled us to offer a new look means to treat delinquency, placing several types of relationship with the other and relating to the clinical structure and the uniqueness of the case, we have been able to enter subjective and unconscious logics at work in delinquent acts. This research has facilitated the reduction of these types of subjective responses and proposed others, opening to a reintegration of offenders in a social link them being more favourable and in a longer term.

Keywords: delinquency, insertion, social link, unconscious

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5 The Role of Digital Technology in Crime Prevention: A Case Study of Cellular Forensics Unit, Capital City Police Peshawar

Authors: Muhammad Ashfaq

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Main theme: This prime focus of this study is on the role of digital technology in crime prevention, with special focus on Cellular Forensic Unit, Capital City Police Peshawar-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Objective(s) of the study: The prime objective of this study is to provide statistics, strategies, and pattern of analysis used for crime prevention in Cellular Forensic Unit of Capital City Police Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Research Method and Procedure: Qualitative method of research has been used in the study for obtaining secondary data from research wing and Information Technology (IT) section of Peshawar police. Content analysis was the method used for the conduction of the study. This study is delimited to Capital City Police and Cellular Forensic Unit Peshawar-KP, Pakistan. information technologies. Major finding(s): It is evident that the old traditional approach will never provide solutions for better management in controlling crimes. The best way to control crimes and promotion of proactive policing is to adopt new technologies. The study reveals that technology have transformed police more effective and vigilant as compared to traditional policing. The heinous crimes like abduction, missing of an individual, snatching, burglaries, and blind murder cases are now traceable with the help of technology. Recommendation(s): From the analysis of the data, it is reflected that Information Technology (IT) expert should be recruited along with research analyst to timely assist and facilitate operational as well as investigation units of police. A mobile locator should be Provided to Cellular Forensic Unit to timely apprehend the criminals. Latest digital analysis software should be provided to equip the Cellular Forensic Unit.

Keywords: criminology-pakistan, crime prevention-KP, digital forensics, digital technology-pakistan

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4 Forensic Entomology in Algeria

Authors: Meriem Taleb, Ghania Tail, Fatma Zohra Kara, Brahim Djedouani, T. Moussa

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Forensic entomology is the use of insects and their arthropod relatives as silent witnesses to aid legal investigations by interpreting information concerning a death. The main purpose of forensic entomology is to establish the postmortem interval or PMI Postmortem interval is a matter of crucial importance in the investigations of homicide and other untimely deaths when the body found is after three days. Forensic entomology has grown immensely as a discipline in the past thirty years. In Algeria, forensic entomology was introduced in 2010 by the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology of the National Gendarmerie (NICC). However, all the work that has been done so far in this growing field in Algeria has been unknown at both the national and international levels. In this context, the aim of this paper is to describe the state of forensic entomology in Algeria. The Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC is the only one of its kind in Algeria. It started its activities in 2010, consisting of two specialists. The main missions of the laboratory are estimation of the PMI by the analysis of entomological evidence, and determination if the body was moved. Currently, the laboratory is performing different tasks such as the expert work required by investigators to estimate the PMI using the insects. The estimation is performed by the accumulated degree days method (ADD) in most of the cases except for those where the cadaver is in dry decay. To assure the quality of the entomological evidence, crime scene personnel are trained by the laboratory of Entomology of the NICC. Recently, undergraduate and graduate students have been studying carrion ecology and insect activity in different geographic locations of Algeria using rabbits and wild boar cadavers as animal models. The Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC has also been involved in some of these research projects. Entomotoxicology experiments are also conducted with the collaboration of the Toxicology Department of the NICC. By dint of hard work that has been performed by the Laboratory of Entomology of the NICC, official bodies have been adopting more and more the use of entomological evidence in criminal investigations in Algeria, which is commendable. It is important, therefore, that steps are taken to fill in the gaps in the knowledge necessary for entomological evidence to have a useful future in criminal investigations in Algeria.

Keywords: forensic entomology, corpse, insects, postmortem interval, expertise, Algeria

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3 Application of Forensic Entomology to Estimate the Post Mortem Interval

Authors: Meriem Taleb, Ghania Tail, Fatma Zohra Kara, Brahim Djedouani, T. Moussa

Abstract:

Forensic entomology has grown immensely as a discipline in the past thirty years. The main purpose of forensic entomology is to establish the post mortem interval or PMI. Three days after the death, insect evidence is often the most accurate and sometimes the only method of determining elapsed time since death. This work presents the estimation of the PMI in an experiment to test the reliability of the accumulated degree days (ADD) method and the application of this method in a real case. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology of the National Gendarmerie, Algeria. The domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus L. was selected as the animal model. On 08th July 2012, the animal was killed. Larvae were collected and raised to adulthood. Estimation of oviposition time was calculated by summing up average daily temperatures minus minimum development temperature (also specific to each species). When the sum is reached, it corresponds to the oviposition day. Weather data were obtained from the nearest meteorological station. After rearing was accomplished, three species emerged: Lucilia sericata, Chrysomya albiceps, and Sarcophaga africa. For Chrysomya albiceps species, a cumulation of 186°C is necessary. The emergence of adults occured on 22nd July 2012. A value of 193.4°C is reached on 9th August 2012. Lucilia sericata species require a cumulation of 207°C. The emergence of adults occurred on 23rd, July 2012. A value of 211.35°C is reached on 9th August 2012. We should also consider that oviposition may occur more than 12 hours after death. Thus, the obtained PMI is in agreement with the actual time of death. We illustrate the use of this method during the investigation of a case of a decaying human body found on 03rd March 2015 in Bechar, South West of Algerian desert. Maggots were collected and sent to the Laboratory of Entomology. Lucilia sericata adults were identified on 24th March 2015 after emergence. A sum of 211.6°C was reached on 1st March 2015 which corresponds to the estimated day of oviposition. Therefore, the estimated date of death is 1st March 2015 ± 24 hours. The estimated PMI by accumulated degree days (ADD) method seems to be very precise. Entomological evidence should always be used in homicide investigations when the time of death cannot be determined by other methods.

Keywords: forensic entomology, accumulated degree days, postmortem interval, diptera, Algeria

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2 [Keynote Talk]: The Intoxicated Eyewitness: Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Identification Accuracy in Lineup

Authors: Vikas S. Minchekar

Abstract:

The eyewitness is a crucial source of evidence in the criminal judicial system. However, rely on the reminiscence of an eyewitness especially intoxicated eyewitness is not always judicious. It might lead to some serious consequences. Day by day, alcohol-related crimes or the criminal incidences in bars, nightclubs, and restaurants are increasing rapidly. Tackling such cases is very complicated to any investigation officers. The people in that incidents are violated due to the alcohol consumption hence, their ability to identify the suspects or recall these phenomena is affected. The studies on the effects of alcohol consumption on motor activities such as driving and surgeries have received much attention. However, the effect of alcohol intoxication on memory has received little attention from the psychology, law, forensic and criminology scholars across the world. In the Indian context, the published articles on this issue are equal to none up to present day. This field experiment investigation aimed at to finding out the effect of alcohol consumption on identification accuracy in lineups. Forty adult, social drinkers, and twenty sober adults were randomly recruited for the study. The sober adults were assigned into 'placebo' beverage group while social drinkers were divided into two group e. g. 'low dose' of alcohol (0.2 g/kg) and 'high dose' of alcohol (0.8 g/kg). The social drinkers were divided in such a way that their level of blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) will become different. After administering the beverages for the placebo group and liquor to the social drinkers for 40 to 50 minutes of the period, the five-minute video clip of mock crime is shown to all in a group of four to five members. After the exposure of video, clip subjects were given 10 portraits and asked them to recognize whether they are involved in mock crime or not. Moreover, they were also asked to describe the incident. The subjects were given two opportunities to recognize the portraits and to describe the events; the first opportunity is given immediately after the video clip and the second was 24 hours later. The obtained data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe’s posthoc multiple comparison tests. The results indicated that the 'high dose' group is remarkably different from the 'placebo' and 'low dose' groups. But, the 'placebo' and 'low dose' groups are equally performed. The subjects in a 'high dose' group recognized only 20% faces correctly while the subjects in a 'placebo' and 'low dose' groups are recognized 90 %. This study implied that the intoxicated witnesses are less accurate to recognize the suspects and also less capable of describing the incidents where crime has taken place. Moreover, this study does not assert that intoxicated eyewitness is generally less trustworthy than their sober counterparts.

Keywords: intoxicated eyewitness, memory, social drinkers, lineups

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1 A Triple Win: Linking Students, Academics, and External Organisations to Provide Real-World Learning Experiences with Real-World Benefits

Authors: Anne E. Goodenough

Abstract:

Students often learn best ‘on the job’ through holistic real-world projects. They need real-world experiences to make classroom learning applicable and to increase their employability. Academics typically value working on projects where new knowledge is created and have a genuine desire to help students engage with learning and develop new skills. They might also have institutional pressure to enhance student engagement, retention, and satisfaction. External organizations - especially non-governmental bodies, charities, and small enterprises - often have fundamental and pressing questions, but lack the manpower and academic expertise to answer them effectively. They might also be on the lookout for talented potential employees. This study examines ways in which these diverse requirements can be met simultaneously by creating three-way projects that provide excellent academic and real-world outcomes for all involved. It studied a range of innovative projects across natural sciences (biology, ecology, physical geography and social sciences (human geography, sociology, criminology, and community engagement) to establish how to best harness the potential of this powerful approach. Focal collaborations included: (1) development of practitioner-linked modules; (2) frameworks where students collected/analyzed data for link organizations in research methods modules; (3) placement-based internships and dissertations; and (4) immersive fieldwork projects in novel locations to allow students engage first-hand with contemporary issues as diverse as rhino poaching in South Africa, segregation in Ireland, and gun crime in Florida. Although there was no ‘magic formula’ for success, the approach was found to work best when small projects were developed that were achievable in a short time-frame, both to tie into modular curricula and meet the immediacy expectations of many link organizations. Bigger projects were found to work well in some cases, especially when they were essentially a series of linked smaller projects, either running concurrently or successively with each building on previous work. Opportunities were maximized when there were tangible benefits to the link organization as this generally increased organization investment in the project and motivated students too. The importance of finding the right approach for a given project was found to be key: it was vital to ensure that something that could work effectively as an independent research project for one student, for example, was not shoehorned into being a project for multiple students within a taught module. In general, students were very positive about collaboration projects. They identified benefits to confidence, time-keeping and communication, as well as conveying their enthusiasm when their work was of benefit to the wider community. Several students have gone on to do further work with the link organization in a voluntary capacity or as paid staff, or used the experiences to help them break into the ever-more competitive job market in other ways. Although this approach involves a substantial time investment, especially from academics, the benefits can be profound. The approach has strong potential to engage students, help retention, improve student satisfaction, and teach new skills; keep the knowledge of academics fresh and current; and provide valuable tangible benefits for link organizations: a real triple win.

Keywords: authentic learning, curriculum development, effective education, employability, higher education, innovative pedagogy, link organizations, student experience

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