Search results for: Ahmad Ali Khan
1567 Controlled Size Synthesis of ZnO and PEG-ZnO NPs and Their Biological Evaluation
Authors: Mahnoor Khan, Bashir Ahmad, Khizar Hayat, Saad Ahmad Khan, Laiba Ahmad, Shumaila Bashir, Abid Ali Khan
Abstract:The objective of this study was to synthesize the smallest possible size of ZnO NPs using a modified wet chemical synthesis method and to prepare core shell using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as shell material. Advanced and sophisticated techniques were used to confirm the synthesis, size, and shape of these NPs. Rounded, clustered NPs of size 5.343 nm were formed. Both the plain and core shell NPs were tested against MDR bacteria (E. cloacae, E. amnigenus, Shigella, S. odorifacae, Citrobacter, and E. coli). Both of the NPs showed excellent antibacterial properties, whereas E. cloacae showed maximum zone of inhibition of 16 mm, 27 mm, and 32 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml, and 1500 μg/ml, respectively for plain ZnO NPs and 18 mm, 28 mm and 35 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml and 1500 μg/ml for core shell NPs. These NPs were also biocompatible on human red blood cells showing little hemolysis of only 4% for 70 μg/ml for plain NPs and 1.5% for 70 μg/ml for core shell NPs. Core shell NPs were highly biocompatible because of the PEG. Their therapeutic effect as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer treatment was also monitored. The cytotoxicity of ZnO and PEG-ZnO was evaluated using MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that these NPs could generate ROS inside tumor cells after irradiation which in turn initiates an apoptotic pathway leading to cell death hence proving to be an effective candidate for PDT.
Keywords: ZnO, hemolysis, cytotoxiciy assay, photodynamic therapy, antibacterialProcedia PDF Downloads 53
1566 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics
Authors: Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam, Faiz Ahmad
Abstract:In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.
Keywords: partial discharges, condition monitoring, insulation defects, degradation and corrosion, PMMAProcedia PDF Downloads 377
1565 Automated Localization of Palpebral Conjunctiva and Hemoglobin Determination Using Smart Phone Camera
Authors: Faraz Tahir, M. Usman Akram, Albab Ahmad Khan, Mujahid Abbass, Ahmad Tariq, Nuzhat Qaiser
Abstract:The objective of this study was to evaluate the Degree of anemia by taking the picture of the palpebral conjunctiva using Smartphone Camera. We have first localized the region of interest from the image and then extracted certain features from that Region of interest and trained SVM classifier on those features and then, as a result, our system classifies the image in real-time on their level of hemoglobin. The proposed system has given an accuracy of 70%. We have trained our classifier on a locally gathered dataset of 30 patients.
Keywords: anemia, palpebral conjunctiva, SVM, smartphoneProcedia PDF Downloads 405
1564 Green It-Outsourcing Assurance Model for It-Outsourcing Vendors
Authors: Siffat Ullah Khan, Rahmat Ullah Khan, Rafiq Ahmad Khan, Habibullah Khan
Abstract:Green IT or green computing has emerged as a fast growing business paradigm in recent years in order to develop energy-efficient Software and peripheral devices. With the constant evolution of technology and the world critical environmental status, all private and public information technology (IT) businesses are moving towards sustainability. We identified, through systematic literature review and questionnaire survey, 9 motivators, in total, faced by vendors in IT-Outsourcing relationship. Amongst these motivators 7 were ranked as critical motivators. We also identified 21, in total, practices for addressing these critical motivators. Based on these inputs we have developed Green IT-Outsourcing Assurance Model (GITAM) for IT-Outsourcing vendors. The model comprises four different levels. i.e. Initial, White, Green and Grey. Each level comprises different critical motivators and their relevant practices. We conclude that our model, GITAM, will assist IT-Outsourcing vendors in gauging their level in order to manage IT-Outsourcing activities in a green and sustainable fashion to assist the environment and to reduce the carbon emission. The model will assist vendors in improving their current level by suggesting various practices. The model will contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of Green IT.
Keywords: Green IT-outsourcing Assurance Model (GITAM), Systematic Literature Review, Empirical Study, Case StudyProcedia PDF Downloads 173
1563 Case Study of Child Labour in Pakistan
Authors: Ahmad Ali Ansari, Hassan Arshad, Basharat Hussani, Adnan Raza, Ahmad Ali Khan
Abstract:Child labor is a kind of an issue which was found all over the world, but now the first world countries like countries in Europe and America (USA) got hold of it up to a large extent but Underdeveloped or the developing countries including Pakistan are still a victim of this issue. The following attempt has been made in this research article to figure out the main reasons of child labor in underdeveloped countries especially in Pakistan and also some of the issues are discussed which are hindering the solution of child labor in Pakistan. In this research we interviewed 70 working children in the area of Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Taxila and Hatar who belonged to the different parts of the country and figured out the basic causes of the child labor in Pakistan, what are its bad effects on the young one who is a victim of it and we also put a light on what the government of Pakistan is doing in this context and what the government still have to do.
Keywords: child labour, Pakistan, case study, underdeveloped countriesProcedia PDF Downloads 564
1562 Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues
Authors: Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Sajid, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asif Idrees, Iahtasham Khan, Aman Ullah Khan, Sajid Umar, Raheela Akhtar
Abstract:The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.
Keywords: Lohi sheep, lead acetate, edible tissue, histopathologyProcedia PDF Downloads 382
1561 Ecological Investigations for the Control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Selected Study Districts of Punjab, Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Muhammad Abdullah Malik, Muhammad Saqib, Faiz Ahmad Raza, Waseem Akram
Abstract:Aedes (Ae.) aegypti, the vector of pathogens of one health significance, has gained currency over the last decade. The present study reports the prevalence of A. aegypti larvae in indoor and outdoor niches from the three districts of different agro-geo-climatic zones of Punjab, including Chakwal (north), Faisalabad (central), and Dera Ghazi Khan (south). Mosquito larvae were collected, preserved, and transferred for identification. The relevant data were collected on a predesigned questionnaire. Stegomyia indices, including House Index (HI), Breteau Index (BI), and Container Index (CI), were calculated. The association of different breeding containers with the prevalence of Ae. aegypti larvae were estimated through Chi-square analysis. The highest Stegomyia indices were calculated in Chakwal (HI = 46.61%, BI = 91.67%, and CI = 15.28%) as compared to Faisalabad (HI = 34.11%, BI = 68.75% and, CI = 13.04%) and DG Khan (HI = 28.39%, BI = 68.23% and, CI = 11.29%), respectively. Irrespective of the geographical area, earthen jars, water tanks, and tree holes were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the abundance of Ae. aegypti larvae. However, tires and plastic bottles in Faisalabad and DG Khan while flower tubs and plastic buckets in Faisalabad and Chakwal were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the larval abundance. The results are a maiden attempt to correlate the magnitude of Ae. aegypti larvae in various microclimatic niches of Punjab, Pakistan, which might help in policy-making for preventive management of the menace.
Keywords: Aedes aegypti, ecology, breeding habitats, Stegomyia indices, breeding containersProcedia PDF Downloads 49
1560 A Cross Culture Analysis of Medicinal Plants and Phytotherapies: Highly Effective for Gastropathic Disorders among Three Ethnic Communities of South West Pakistan
Authors: Sheikh Z. Ul Abidin, Raees Khan, Rainer W. Bussmann, Mushtaq Ahmad, Shayan Jamshed, Humera Jabeen, Ajmal Khan
Abstract:Gastropathic disorders are increasing rapidly and millions patients are reported every years across the world. Herbal medicines and traditional phytotherapies are very effective for many diseases including gastropathic ailments. Many communities and study region have their own unique remedies for such diseases. The current study was aimed to investigate and document high valued medicinal plants and folk remedies for different gastropathic disorders among the three ethnic groups of three regions in South West Pakistan. A total of 104 semi-structured interviews involving experts of traditional knowledge in 21 localities of the three regions (D.I. Khan, Zhob and Mianwali) were conducted. The interviews were especially focused on the documentation of folk herbal remedies. The collected data was analyzed using different quantitative methods. The highly effective plants from all localities were identified with the help of local interviewers and collected for proper taxonomic identification. A total of 56 medicinal plants and 33 effective recipes for 12 gastropathic diseases were documented from all the three ethnic groups in 21 localities. Fabaceae and Asteraceae were most prominently used for different gastropathic diseases. Diarrhea, vomiting and dysentery were the most commonly diseases treated with herbal remedies. It was observed that the three communities shared knowledge about the use of medicinal plants, 35 species were commonly reported from all three areas. However, each community had also their own unique uses of medicinal plants, e.g. 23 plants species were only used in Zhob, 20 plant species were only reported in D.I. Khan and 16 species in Mianwali. The present study reveals that different communities and ethnic groups share some traditional knowledge and also have their own unique knowledge of plants utilization. Gastropathic disorder is increasing very rapidly and the traditional cross-cultural knowledge of medicinal plants use can be very effective for its cure.
Keywords: cross cultural, ethnic groups, gastropathy, phytotherapies, South West PakistanProcedia PDF Downloads 217
1559 Laser Additive Manufacturing: A Literature Review
Authors: Pranav Mohan Parki, C. Mallika Parveen, Tahseen Ahmad Khan, Mihika Shivkumar
Abstract:Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the several manufacturing processes in use today. AM comprises of techniques such as ‘Selective Laser Sintering’ and ‘Selective Laser Melting’ etc. along with other equipment and materials has been developed way back in 1980s, although major use of these methods has risen during the last decade. AM seems to be the most efficient way when compared to the traditional machining procedures. Still many problems continue to hinder its progress to becoming the most widely used of all. This paper contributes to the better understanding of AM and also aims at providing viable solutions to these problems, which may further help in enabling AM to become the most flaw free production method.
Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM), 3D printing, prototype, laser sinteringProcedia PDF Downloads 310
1558 Effect of Crude Flowers Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco Flowers on Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Cheddar Cheese
Authors: Usman Mir Khan, Ishtiaque Ahmad, Saima Inayat, H. M. Arslan Amin, Muhammad Ayaz, Nisar Ahmad
Abstract:Citrus reticulata Blanco crude flowers extract (CFE) at four different concentration (1, 2, 3 and 4%, v/v) were used as natural milk coagulant instead of rennet to apply for Cheddar cheese making from buffalo milk. The physicochemical properties and nutrition composition of Cheddar cheeses were compared with cheese made with 0.002% (v/v) rennet (control cheese). Physico-chemical of Cheddar cheese showed that cheese made with 1% and 2% of CFE had a crumbly and slightly softer texture of cheese. While, cheeses containing 3 and 4% CFE had semi-hard textural properties of curd similar to rennet added cheese. The CFE made cheese had moisture 37 %, fat 45 % on dry basis similar to rennet made Cheddar cheese. Protein analysis shows that CFE made cheese had significant higher protein content than control. The Cheddar cheese with 3% and 1% CFE were preferred by consumers instead of 2% and 4% CFE for their taste, texture/appearance and overall acceptability. Conclusively, CFE coagulated Cheddar cheese fulfills the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics and at the same time provides nutritional health benefits.
Keywords: cheddar cheese, Citrus reticulata Blanco, buffalo milk, milk coagulantProcedia PDF Downloads 220
1557 Assessment of the Professional Competencies of Agriculture Officers in North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Khalid Nawab, Shahid Ali, Mubashir Habib, Shakirullah Khan, Sajjad Ahmad, Javid Ullah, Ikramul Haq
Abstract:Professionally competent Agriculture Officers (AOs) can play an important role in the development of agriculture in the country. This study was conducted in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Pakistan) to assess professional competencies of Agriculture Officers (AOs) in January 2007. Data were collected from all (112) AOs through a mailed questionnaire. The study examines existing level of professional competencies of AOs and the required level of possessed competencies needed by them for their job performance in the areas of participatory extension methodologies. Both the possessed and required levels of competencies were scaled from 1-5 on Liker scale, 1 being very low and 5 being very high. . The study revealed a numerical difference between possessed and required levels regarding the professional competencies of the participatory extension methodology. It was also observed that higher levels of job experience increase the professional competencies in participatory extension methodology. It is recommended that periodic training and refresher courses are arranged for AOs so that their learning may become more practicable to diffuse agricultural innovations among members of participatory learning groups and convey modern technologies to the end users.
Keywords: professional competency, agriculture officers, assessment and participatory extension methodology, participatory extensionProcedia PDF Downloads 263
1556 On Paranorm Zweier I-Convergent Sequence Spaces
Authors: Nazneen Khan, Vakeel A. Khan
Abstract:In this article we introduce the Paranorm Zweier I-convergent sequence spaces, for a sequence of positive real numbers. We study some topological properties, prove the decomposition theorem and study some inclusion relations on these spaces.
Keywords: ideal, filter, I-convergence, I-nullity, paranormProcedia PDF Downloads 379
1555 A Comparative Analysis of Social Stratification in the Participation of Women in Agricultural Activity: A Case Study of District Khushab (Punjab) and D. I. Khan (KPK), Pakistan
Authors: Sohail Ahmad Umer
Abstract:Since last few decades a question is raising on the subject of the importance of women in different societies of the world particularly in the developing societies of Asia and Africa. Female population constitutes almost 50% of the total population of the world and is playing a significant role in the economy with male population. In Pakistan, a developing country of Asia with majority of Muslim population, working women role is more focused. Women of rural background who are working as voluntary workers and their working hours are neither recorded nor recognized. Agricultural statistics shows that the female participation rate is below 40% while other sources claim them below 20%. Here in present study, another effort has been made to compare the women role in two different provinces of Pakistan to analyze the participation of women in agricultural activities like sowing, picking, irrigating the fields, harvesting and threshing of crops, caring and feeding of the animals, collecting the firewood and etc,as without these activities the farming would be incomplete. One hundred villages in the district Khushab (Punjab) and one hundred villages in district D.I.Khan (KPK) were selected and 33% of the families of each village have been interviewed to study their input in agriculture work. Another important feature is the social stratification therefore the contribution by different variables like the ownership, tenancy, education and caste has also been studied.
Keywords: caste, social stratification, tenancy, voluntary workersProcedia PDF Downloads 299
1554 Jalal-Ale-Ahmad and ‘Critical Consciousness’: A Comparative Study
Authors: Zohreh Ramin
Abstract:One of the most important contributions that Edward Said has had in the realm of critical theory is his insistence on the worldliness of the text and the critic. By this, Said meant that the critic and the text must be considered in their ‘material’ contexts. Foregrounding the substantial role of a critic as embodying what he refers to as ‘critical consciousness’, a true critic, Said maintains, is one who can stand between the ‘dominant culture’ and ‘the totalizing forms of critical systems.’ Considered as one of Iran’s major contemporary intellectuals, Jalal Ale Ahmad is responsible for introducing the idea of ‘Westoxication’ in Iran, constructing a social paradigm of the necessity to return to tradition in contemporary Iran. The present paper intends to study Al-Ahmad’s definition of the orient versus the occident, his criticism of the ‘machination’ of contemporary Iranian society, and his solution to the problem of ‘Westoxication’. The objective of this study is to see whether Ale Ahmad can be considered as embodying the spirit of ‘critical consciousness’ as described by Said as the necessary tool in the hands of an intellectual who is simultaneously attached filitavely to his culture but can detach himself affilitavely through employing critical consciousness.
Keywords: Westoxication, filiative, affiliative, machinationProcedia PDF Downloads 111
1553 Optimization of Machining Parameters by Using Cryogenic Media
Authors: Shafqat Wahab, Waseem Tahir, Manzoor Ahmad, Sarfraz Khan, M. Azam
Abstract:Optimization and analysis of tool flank wear width and surface finish of alloy steel rods are studied in the presence of cryogenic media (LN2) by using Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404- WF 4215). Robust design concept of Taguchi L9(34) method and ANOVA is applied to determine the contribution of key cutting parameters and their optimum conditions. Through analysis, it revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear width while surface finish is mostly dependent on feed rate.
Keywords: turning, cryogenic fluid, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface roughness, taguchiProcedia PDF Downloads 586
1552 The Potential Factors Relating to the Decision of Return Migration of Myanmar Migrant Workers: A Case Study in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province
Authors: Musthaya Patchanee
Abstract:The aim of this research is to study potential factors relating to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province by conducting a random sampling of 400 people aged between 15-59 who migrated from Myanmar. The information collected through interviews was analyzed to find a percentage and mean using the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis. The results have shown that 33.25% of Myanmar migrant workers want to return to their home country within the next 1-5 years, 46.25%, in 6-10 years and the rest, in over 10 years. The factors relating to such decision can be concluded that the scale of the decision of return migration has a positive relationship with a statistical significance at 0.05 with a conformity with friends and relatives (r=0.886), a relationship with family and community (r=0.782), possession of land in hometown (r=0.756) and educational level (r=0.699). However, the factor of property possession in Prachuap Khiri Khan is the only factor with a high negative relationship (r=0.-537). From the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis, the results have shown that the conformity with friends and relatives and educational level factors are influential to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, which can predict the decision at 86.60% and the multiple regression equation from the analysis is Y= 6.744+1.198 conformity + 0.647 education.
Keywords: decision of return migration, factors of return migration, Myanmar migrant workers, Prachuap Khiri Khan ProvinceProcedia PDF Downloads 424
1551 Application of Hydrologic Engineering Centers and River Analysis System Model for Hydrodynamic Analysis of Arial Khan River
Authors: Najeeb Hassan, Mahmudur Rahman
Abstract:Arial Khan River is one of the main south-eastward outlets of the River Padma. This river maintains a meander channel through its course and is erosional in nature. The specific objective of the research is to study and evaluate the hydrological characteristics in the form of assessing changes of cross-sections, discharge, water level and velocity profile in different stations and to create a hydrodynamic model of the Arial Khan River. Necessary data have been collected from Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) and Center for Environment and Geographic Information Services (CEGIS). Satellite images have been observed from Google earth. In this study, hydrodynamic model of Arial Khan River has been developed using well known steady open channel flow code Hydrologic Engineering Centers and River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) using field surveyed geometric data. Cross-section properties at 22 locations of River Arial Khan for the years 2011, 2013 and 2015 were also analysed. 1-D HEC-RAS model has been developed using the cross sectional data of 2015 and appropriate boundary condition is being used to run the model. This Arial Khan River model is calibrated using the pick discharge of 2015. The applicable value of Mannings roughness coefficient (n) is adjusted through the process of calibration. The value of water level which ties with the observed data to an acceptable accuracy is taken as calibrated model. The 1-D HEC-RAS model then validated by using the pick discharges from 2009-2018. Variation in observed water level in the model and collected water level data is being compared to validate the model. It is observed that due to seasonal variation, discharge of the river changes rapidly and Mannings roughness coefficient (n) also changes due to the vegetation growth along the river banks. This river model may act as a tool to measure flood area in future. By considering the past pick flow discharge, it is strongly recommended to improve the carrying capacity of Arial Khan River to protect the surrounding areas from flash flood.
Keywords: BWDB, CEGIS, HEC-RASProcedia PDF Downloads 106
1550 A Next Generation Multi-Scale Modeling Theatre for in silico Oncology
Authors: Safee Chaudhary, Mahnoor Naseer Gondal, Hira Anees Awan, Abdul Rehman, Ammar Arif, Risham Hussain, Huma Khawar, Zainab Arshad, Muhammad Faizyab Ali Chaudhary, Waleed Ahmed, Muhammad Umer Sultan, Bibi Amina, Salaar Khan, Muhammad Moaz Ahmad, Osama Shiraz Shah, Hadia Hameed, Muhammad Farooq Ahmad Butt, Muhammad Ahmad, Sameer Ahmed, Fayyaz Ahmed, Omer Ishaq, Waqar Nabi, Wim Vanderbauwhede, Bilal Wajid, Huma Shehwana, Muhammad Tariq, Amir Faisal
Abstract:Cancer is a manifestation of multifactorial deregulations in biomolecular pathways. These deregulations arise from the complex multi-scale interplay between cellular and extracellular factors. Such multifactorial aberrations at gene, protein, and extracellular scales need to be investigated systematically towards decoding the underlying mechanisms and orchestrating therapeutic interventions for patient treatment. In this work, we propose ‘TISON’, a next-generation web-based multiscale modeling platform for clinical systems oncology. TISON’s unique modeling abstraction allows a seamless coupling of information from biomolecular networks, cell decision circuits, extra-cellular environments, and tissue geometries. The platform can undertake multiscale sensitivity analysis towards in silico biomarker identification and drug evaluation on cellular phenotypes in user-defined tissue geometries. Furthermore, integration of cancer expression databases such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Human Proteome Atlas (HPA) facilitates in the development of personalized therapeutics. TISON is the next-evolution of multiscale cancer modeling and simulation platforms and provides a ‘zero-code’ model development, simulation, and analysis environment for application in clinical settings.
Keywords: systems oncology, cancer systems biology, cancer therapeutics, personalized therapeutics, cancer modellingProcedia PDF Downloads 124
1549 Critical Success Factors Quality Requirement Change Management
Authors: Jamshed Ahmad, Abdul Wahid Khan, Javed Ali Khan
Abstract:Managing software quality requirements change management is a difficult task in the field of software engineering. Avoiding incoming changes result in user dissatisfaction while accommodating to many requirement changes may delay product delivery. Poor requirements management is solely considered the primary cause of the software failure. It becomes more challenging in global software outsourcing. Addressing success factors in quality requirement change management is desired today due to the frequent change requests from the end-users. In this research study, success factors are recognized and scrutinized with the help of a systematic literature review (SLR). In total, 16 success factors were identified, which significantly impacted software quality requirement change management. The findings show that Proper Requirement Change Management, Rapid Delivery, Quality Software Product, Access to Market, Project Management, Skills and Methodologies, Low Cost/Effort Estimation, Clear Plan and Road Map, Agile Processes, Low Labor Cost, User Satisfaction, Communication/Close Coordination, Proper Scheduling and Time Constraints, Frequent Technological Changes, Robust Model, Geographical distribution/Cultural differences are the key factors that influence software quality requirement change. The recognized success factors and validated with the help of various research methods, i.e., case studies, interviews, surveys and experiments. These factors are then scrutinized in continents, database, company size and period of time. Based on these findings, requirement change will be implemented in a better way.
Keywords: global software development, requirement engineering, systematic literature review, success factorsProcedia PDF Downloads 140
1548 Library Anxiety among Library and Information Science Students at Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak, Pakistan: A Bostick Approach
Authors: Saeed Ullah Jan, Shafaq, Sumbul
Abstract:Anxiety is one of the most common emotions and is a normal reaction to danger or a threat. It is a normal reaction to stress and can be beneficial in some situations. It can alert us to dangers and help us prepare and pay attention. The prime aim of this study was to examine the level of anxiety of Library and Information Science students at the Department of Library and Information Science, Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak. A survey method was used for the completion of this study. The response of male respondents was better than female LIS students at the Department of Library and Information Science, Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak. The librarians should have to focus on the information needs of the university students. Special training needs to be arranged for female students to improve their library usage and readership rate.
Keywords: library-anxiety, library anxiety-students, library anxiety -students-Pakistan, stressProcedia PDF Downloads 105
1547 Biological Applications of CNT Inherited Polyaniline Nano-Composites
Authors: Yashfeen Khan, Anees Ahmad
Abstract:In the last few decades, nano-composites have been the topic of interest. Presently, the modern era enlightens the synthesis of hybrid nano-composites over their individual counterparts because of higher application potentials and synergism. Recently, CNT hybrids have demonstrated their pronounced capability as effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions (the root trouble) and organic contaminants due to their high specific surface area, enhanced reactivity, and sequestration characteristics. The present abstract discusses removal efficiencies of organic, inorganic pollutants through CNT/PANI/ composites. It also represents the widespread applications of CNT like monitoring biological systems, biosensors, as heat resources for treating cancer, fire retardant applications of polymer/CNT composites etc. And considering the same, this article aims to brief the scenario of CNT-PANI nano-composites.
Keywords: biosensors, CNT, hybrids, polyaniline, synergismProcedia PDF Downloads 315
1546 Comparision of Statistical Variables for Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Children in Measles Cases in Khyber Pukhtun Khwa
Authors: Inayatullah Khan, Afzal Khan, Hamzullah Khan, Afzal Khan
Abstract:Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare different statistical variables for vaccinated and unvaccinated children in measles cases. Material and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted at Isolation ward, Department of Paediatrics, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar, from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 566 admitted cases of measles were enrolled. Data regarding age, sex, address, vaccination status, measles contact, hospital stay and outcome was collected and recorded on a proforma. History of measles vaccination was ascertained either by checking the vaccination cards or on parental recall. Result: In 566 cases of measles, 211(39%) were vaccinated and 345 (61%) were unvaccinated. Three hundred and ten (54.80%) patients were males and 256 (45.20%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1.The age range was from 1 year to 14 years with mean age with SD of 3.2 +2 years. Majority (371, 65.5%) of the patients were 1-3 years old. Mean hospital stay was 3.08 days with a range of 1-10 days and a standard deviation of ± 1.15. History of measles contact was present in 393 (69.4%) cases. Fourty eight patients were expired with a mortality rate of 8.5%. Conclusion: Majority of the children in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa are unvaccinated and unprotected against measles. Among vaccinated children, 39% of children attracted measles which indicate measles vaccine failure. This figure is clearly higher than that accepted for measles vaccine (2-10%).
Keywords: measles, vaccination, immunity, populationProcedia PDF Downloads 364
1545 The Construct of Assessment Instrument for Value, Attitude and Professionalism among Students Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching
Authors: Ahmad Hashim, Thariq Khan Azizuddin Khan, Zulakbal Abd Karim, Nohazira Abdul Karim
Abstract:This research aims to obtain the validity and reliability of a survey instrument to evaluate the values, attitudes, and professionalism of sports science students, from the Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI). It is a survey which is divided into two components namely first; moral, self-esteem, proactive, self-reliant and voluntary and second; ethics and professionalism. Development of the survey instrument is based on the Malaysian Education Development Plan, Higher Education Malaysia. There are 50 items prepared based on the five-point Likert scale which were tested at the pilot test level. It involved 212 research subjects selected based on random sampling. In addition, the research method applied is in the form of pre-experimental one group pre-test-post-test. Results of the analysis showed that overall field expert validity is r = .89, while the Cronbach alpha reliability correlation value of outdoor education instrument evaluation survey is r = .85. Next, this survey was tested again for construct validity using the factor analysis method for statistical analysis which would validate each item tested was supposed to be in the right component. From the analysis, results show that Bartlett's test is significant p < .05 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index range is r = .87. The result showed 39 survey items are produced out of 50 items of the survey based on this factor analysis method. Research has shown that the survey instrument developed is valid and reliable to be used for the Faculty of Sports Sciences and Coaching, UPSI.
Keywords: values, attitudes, professionalism, ethics, professionalismProcedia PDF Downloads 122
1544 Studies on Tolerance of Chickpea to Some Pre and Post Emergence Herbicides
Authors: Rahamdad Khan, Ijaz Ahmad Khan
Abstract:In modern agriculture the herbicides application are considered the most effective and fast in action against all types of weeds. But it’s a fact that the herbicide applicator cannot totally secure the crop plants from the possible herbicide injuries that further leads to several destructive changes in plant biochemistry. For the purpose pots studies were undertaken to test the tolerance order of chickpea against pre- emergence herbicides (Stomp 330 EC- Dual Gold 960 EC) and post- emergence herbicides (Topik 15 WP- Puma Super 75 EW- Isoproturon 500 EW) during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The experimental design was CRD with three replications. Plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of seeds plant-1, nodulation, seed protein contents and other growth related parameters in chickpea were examined during the investigations. The results indicate that all the enquire herbicides gave a significant variation to all recorded parameter of chick pea except nodule fresh and dray weight. Moreover the toxic effect of pre-emergence herbicide on chickpea was found higher as compared to post-emergence herbicides. Minimum chickpea plant height (50.50 cm), number of nodule plant-1 (17.83) and lowest seed protein (14.13 %) was recorded in Stomp 330 EC. Similarly the outmost seeds plant-1 (29.66) and number of nodule plant-1 (21) were found for Puma Super 75 EW. The results further showed that the highest seed protein content (21.75 and 21.15 %) was recorded for control/ untreated and Puma Super 75EW. Taking under concentration the possible negative impact of the herbicides the chemical application must be minimized up to certain extent at which the crop is mostly secure. However chemical weed control has many advantages so we should train our farmer regarding the proper use of agro chemical to minimize the loses in crops while using herbicides.
Keywords: chickpea, herbicides, protein, stomp 330 EC, weedProcedia PDF Downloads 432
1543 Self-Directed-Car on GT Road: Grand Trunk Road
Authors: Rameez Ahmad, Aqib Mehmood, Imran Khan
Abstract:Self-directed car (SDC) that can drive itself from one fact to another without support from a driver. Certain trust that self-directed car obligate the probable to transform the transportation manufacturing while essentially removing coincidences, and cleaning up the environment. This study realizes the effects that SDC (also called a self-driving, driver or robotic) vehicle travel demands and ride scheme is likely to have. Without the typical obstacles that allows detection of a audio vision based hardware and software construction (It (SDC) and cost benefits, the vehicle technologies, Gold (Generic Obstacle and Lane Detection) to a knowledge-based system to predict their potential and consider the shape, color, or balance) and an organized environment with colored lane patterns, lane position ban. Discovery the problematic consequence of (SDC) on GT (grand trunk road) road and brand the car further effectual.
Keywords: SDC, gold, GT, knowledge-based systemProcedia PDF Downloads 298
1542 Effect of Various Durations of Type 2 Diabetes on Muscle Performance
Authors: Santosh Kumar Yadav, Shobha Keswani, Nishat Quddus, Sohrab Ahmad Khan, Zuheb Ahmad Shiddiqui, Varsha Chorsiya
Abstract:Introduction: Early onset diabetes is more aggressive than the late onset diabetes. Diabetic individual has a greater spectrum of life period to suffer from its damage, complications, and long-term disability. This study aimed at assessing knee joint muscle performance under various durations of diabetes. Method and Materials: A total of 30 diabetic subjects (18 male and 12 females) without diabetic neuropathy were included for the study. They were divided into three groups with 5 years, 10 years and 15 years of duration of disease each. Muscle performance was evaluated through strength and flexibility. Peak torque for quadriceps muscle was measured using isokinetic dynamometer. Flexibility for quadriceps and hamstring muscles were measured through Ducan’s Elys test and 90/90 test. Results: The result showed significant difference in muscle strength (p<0.05), flexibility (p≤0.05) between groups. Discussion: Optimal muscle strength and flexibility are vital for musculoskeletal health and functional independence. Conclusion: The reduced muscle performance and functional impairment in nonneuropathic diabetic patients suggest that other mechanism besides neuropathy that contribute to altered biomechanics. These findings of this study project early management of these altered parameters through disease-specific physical therapy and assessment-based intervention. Clinical Relevance: Managing disability is more costly than managing disease. Prompt and timely identification and management strategy can dramatically reduce the cost of care for diabetic patients.
Keywords: muscle flexibility, muscle performance, muscle torque, type 2 diabetesProcedia PDF Downloads 268
1541 Scar Removal Stretegy for Fingerprint Using Diffusion
Authors: Mohammad A. U. Khan, Tariq M. Khan, Yinan Kong
Abstract:Fingerprint image enhancement is one of the most important step in an automatic fingerprint identification recognition (AFIS) system which directly affects the overall efficiency of AFIS. The conventional fingerprint enhancement like Gabor and Anisotropic filters do fill the gaps in ridge lines but they fail to tackle scar lines. To deal with this problem we are proposing a method for enhancing the ridges and valleys with scar so that true minutia points can be extracted with accuracy. Our results have shown an improved performance in terms of enhancement.
Keywords: fingerprint image enhancement, removing noise, coherence, enhanced diffusionProcedia PDF Downloads 448
1540 Influence of Argon Gas Concentration in N2-Ar Plasma for the Nitridation of Si in Abnormal Glow Discharge
Authors: K. Abbas, R. Ahmad, I. A. Khan, S. Saleem, U. Ikhlaq
Abstract:Nitriding of p-type Si samples by pulsed DC glow discharge is carried out for different Ar concentrations (30% to 90%) in nitrogen-argon plasma whereas the other parameters like pressure (2 mbar), treatment time (4 hr) and power (175 W) are kept constant. The phase identification, crystal structure, crystallinity, chemical composition, surface morphology and topography of the nitrided layer are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. The XRD patterns reveal the development of different diffraction planes of Si3N4 confirming the formation of polycrystalline layer. FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of bond between Si and N. Results reveal that addition of Ar into N2 plasma plays an important role to enhance the production of active species which facilitate the nitrogen diffusion.
Keywords: crystallinity, glow discharge, nitriding, sputteringProcedia PDF Downloads 315
1539 Effect of Different Weed Management Strategies in Chickpea Yield
Authors: Ijaz Ahmed Khan, Zaheen Ullah, Rahamdad, Gul Hassan
Abstract:A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station Ahmad Wala, Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province during rabi season of 2010-011 to study the effect of different weed management practices on weed control in chickpea under field conditions. The results revealed that treatments showed significant influence on weed density, seed yield kg ha-1 and other growth parameters. Significantly lower weed density (98 m-2) was recorded with the application of Isoproturon 500 EW as compared to control plots having 368.3 weeds m-2. Moreover, significantly highest seed yield (1583.3 kg ha-1) was produced in the plots assigned with Isoproturon 500 EW followed by Eucalyptus extract that produce seed yield of 1416.7 kg ha-1. It was concluded from the study that Isoproturon 500 EW is the best option for controlling weeds and increase the seed yield kg ha-1 of chickpea.
Keywords: chickpea, herbicides, weed control, weeds extractsProcedia PDF Downloads 486
1538 An Automatic Feature Extraction Technique for 2D Punch Shapes
Authors: Awais Ahmad Khan, Emad Abouel Nasr, H. M. A. Hussein, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari
Abstract:Sheet-metal parts have been widely applied in electronics, communication and mechanical industries in recent decades; but the advancement in sheet-metal part design and manufacturing is still behind in comparison with the increasing importance of sheet-metal parts in modern industry. This paper presents a methodology for automatic extraction of some common 2D internal sheet metal features. The features used in this study are taken from Unipunch ™ catalogue. The extraction process starts with the data extraction from STEP file using an object oriented approach and with the application of suitable algorithms and rules, all features contained in the catalogue are automatically extracted. Since the extracted features include geometry and engineering information, they will be effective for downstream application such as feature rebuilding and process planning.
Keywords: feature extraction, internal features, punch shapes, sheet metalProcedia PDF Downloads 546