Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 82

Search results for: osteoporosis

82 Factors Predicting Preventive Behavior for Osteoporosis in University Students

Authors: Thachamon Sinsoongsud, Noppawan Piaseu


This predictive study was aimed to 1) describe self efficacy for risk reduction and preventive behavior for osteoporosis, and 2) examine factors predicting preventive behavior for osteoporosis in nursing students. Through purposive sampling, the sample included 746 nursing students in a public university in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire on self efficacy and preventive behavior for osteoporosis. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis with stepwise method. Results revealed that majority of the students were female (98.3%) with mean age of 19.86 + 1.26 years. The students had self efficacy and preventive behavior for osteoporosis at moderate level. Self efficacy and level of education could together predicted 35.2% variance of preventive behavior for osteoporosis (p< .001). Results suggest approaches for promoting preventive behavior for osteoporosis through enhancing self efficacy among nursing students in a public university in Bangkok, Thailand.

Keywords: osteoporosis, self-efficacy, preventive behavior, nursing students

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81 The Impact of Exercise on Osteoporosis and Body Composition in Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Hisham Mughrabi


Osteoporosis is one of the most common diseases in the world and, its seriousness lies in the lack of clear symptoms. The researcher aims to identify the impact of sports activities on osteoporosis and the body component of those with mild intellectual disabilities of students in the schools in Saudi Arabia -Medina. The research sample was selected in an intentional manner and consisted of 45 students and they were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 23 individuals participate in sports and the second group consisted of 22 individuals does not participate in sports. The researcher used the descriptive method and collected the data by measuring osteoporosis using and ultrasound osteoporosis screening device (OSTEO PRO B.M. Tech) and measured the body composition by using a Tanita devise (Body Composition Analyzer TBF- 300 Tanita). The results indicated that there was a statistical significant difference between the two comparing groups in osteoporosis measurement and body composition for the benefit of the group of sport participants. The researcher recommended the need to involve individuals with mild intellectual disabilities in physical activities to improve their rate of osteoporosis and body composition as well as to develop sports programs for individuals with mild intellectual disabilities.

Keywords: body composition, mild intellectual disabilities, osteoporosis, physical activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
80 Study on 3D FE Analysis on Normal and Osteoporosis Mouse Models Based on 3-Point Bending Tests

Authors: Tae-min Byun, Chang-soo Chon, Dong-hyun Seo, Han-sung Kim, Bum-mo Ahn, Hui-suk Yun, Cheolwoong Ko


In this study, a 3-point bending computational analysis of normal and osteoporosis mouse models was performed based on the Micro-CT image information of the femurs. The finite element analysis (FEA) found 1.68 N (normal group) and 1.39 N (osteoporosis group) in the average maximum force, and 4.32 N/mm (normal group) and 3.56 N/mm (osteoporosis group) in the average stiffness. In the comparison of the 3-point bending test results, the maximum force and the stiffness were different about 9.4 times in the normal group and about 11.2 times in the osteoporosis group. The difference between the analysis and the test was greatly significant and this result demonstrated improvement points of the material properties applied to the computational analysis of this study. For the next study, the material properties of the mouse femur will be supplemented through additional computational analysis and test.

Keywords: 3-point bending test, mouse, osteoporosis, FEA

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79 Analysis of OPG Gene Polymorphism T245G (rs3134069) in Slovak Postmenopausal Women

Authors: I. Boroňová, J. Bernasovská, J. Kľoc, Z. Tomková, E. Petrejčíková, S. Mačeková, J. Poráčová, M. M. Blaščáková


Osteoporosis is a common multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component characterized by reduced bone mass and increased risk of fractures. Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The aim of our study was to identify the genotype and allele distribution of T245G polymorphism in OPG gene in Slovak postmenopausal women. A total of 200 unrelated Slovak postmenopausal women with diagnosed osteoporosis and 200 normal controls were genotyped for T245G (rs3134069) polymorphism of OPG gene. Genotyping was performed using the Custom Taqman®SNP Genotyping assays. Genotypes and alleles frequencies showed no significant differences (p=0.5551; p=0.6022). The results of the present study confirm the importance of T245G polymorphism in OPG gene in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

Keywords: OPG gene, T245G polymorphism, osteoporosis, T245G polymorphism, real-time PCR

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78 Alteration of Bone Strength in Osteoporosis of Mouse Femora: Computational Study Based on Micro CT Images

Authors: Changsoo Chon, Sangkuy Han, Donghyun Seo, Jihyung Park, Bokku Kang, Hansung Kim, Keyoungjin Chun, Cheolwoong Ko


The purpose of the study is to develop a finite element model based on 3D bone structural images of Micro-CT and to analyze the stress distribution for the osteoporosis mouse femora. In this study, results of finite element analysis show that the early osteoporosis of mouse model decreased a bone density in trabecular region; however, the bone density in cortical region increased.

Keywords: micro-CT, finite element analysis, osteoporosis, bone strength

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77 TNFRSF11B Gene Polymorphisms A163G and G11811C in Prediction of Osteoporosis Risk

Authors: I. Boroňová, J.Bernasovská, J. Kľoc, Z. Tomková, E. Petrejčíková, D. Gabriková, S. Mačeková


Osteoporosis is a complex health disease characterized by low bone mineral density, which is determined by an interaction of genetics with metabolic and environmental factors. Current research in genetics of osteoporosis is focused on identification of responsible genes and polymorphisms. TNFRSF11B gene plays a key role in bone remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype and allele distribution of A163G (rs3102735) osteoprotegerin gene promoter and G1181C (rs2073618) osteoprotegerin first exon polymorphisms in the group of 180 unrelated postmenopausal women with diagnosed osteoporosis and 180 normal controls. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes using standard methodology. Genotyping for presence of different polymorphisms was performed using the Custom Taqman®SNP Genotyping assays. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested for each SNP in the groups of participants using the chi-square (χ2) test. The distribution of investigated genotypes in the group of patients with osteoporosis were as follows: AA (66.7%), AG (32.2%), GG (1.1%) for A163G polymorphism; GG (19.4%), CG (44.4%), CC (36.1%) for G1181C polymorphism. The distribution of genotypes in normal controls were follows: AA (71.1%), AG (26.1%), GG (2.8%) for A163G polymorphism; GG (22.2%), CG (48.9%), CC (28.9%) for G1181C polymorphism. In A163G polymorphism the variant G allele was more common among patients with osteoporosis: 17.2% versus 15.8% in normal controls. Also, in G1181C polymorphism the phenomenon of more frequent occurrence of C allele in the group of patients with osteoporosis was observed (58.3% versus 53.3%). Genotype and allele distributions showed no significant differences (A163G: χ2=0.270, p=0.605; χ2=0.250, p=0.616; G1181C: χ2= 1.730, p=0.188; χ2=1.820, p=0.177). Our results represents an initial study, further studies of more numerous file and associations studies will be carried out. Knowing the distribution of genotypes is important for assessing the impact of these polymorphisms on various parameters associated with osteoporosis. Screening for identification of “at-risk” women likely to develop osteoporosis and initiating subsequent early intervention appears to be most effective strategy to substantially reduce the risks of osteoporosis.

Keywords: osteoporosis, real-time PCR method, SNP polymorphisms

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76 Survey on Awareness, Knowledge and Practices: Managing Osteoporosis among Practitioners in a Tertiary Hospital, Malaysia

Authors: P. H. Tee, S. M. Zamri, K. M. Kasim, S. K. Tiew


This study evaluates the management of osteoporosis in a tertiary care government hospital in Malaysia. As the number of admitted patients having osteoporotic fractures is on the rise, osteoporotic medications are an increasing financial burden to government hospitals because they account for half of the orthopedic budget and expenditure. Comprehensive knowledge among practitioners is important to detect early and avoid this preventable disease and its serious complications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, and practices in managing osteoporosis among practitioners in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah (HTAR), Klang. A questionnaire from an overseas study in managing osteoporosis among primary care physicians is adapted to Malaysia’s Clinical Practice Guideline of Osteoporosis 2012 (revised 2015) and international guidelines were distributed to all orthopedic practitioners in HTAR Klang (including surgeons, orthopedic medical officers), endocrinologists, rheumatologists and geriatricians. The participants were evaluated on their expertise in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment decision and medications for osteoporosis. Collected data were analyzed for all descriptive and statistical analyses as appropriate. All 45 participants responded to the questionnaire. Participants scored highest on expertise in prevention, followed by diagnosis, treatment decision and lastly, medication. Most practitioners stated that own-initiated continuing professional education from articles and books was the most effective way to update their knowledge, followed by attendance in conferences on osteoporosis. This study confirms the importance of comprehensive training and education regarding osteoporosis among tertiary care physicians and surgeons, predominantly in pharmacotherapy, to deliver wholesome care for osteoporotic patients.

Keywords: awareness, knowledge, osteoporosis, practices

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75 Preparation and Characterization of Poly (ε-caprolactone) Loaded with Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrid Intercalated with Alendronate for Osteoporosis Treatment

Authors: Seyedeh Faranak Baniahmad, Soroor Yousefi


Osteoporosis is a bone disease which increases the bone fracture risk, reduces the bone mineral density (BMD) and alters the amount and variety of proteins in bones. Antiresorptive therapy is one the most popular Osteoporosis treatment methods. In this method the bisphosphonates, hormones, calcitonin or the selective estrogen receptor modulators is replaced. In order to reduce undesirable effects and to increase the bioavailability of drug agents, the controlled drug delivery systems have been utilized. In current study, the controlled release of Alendronate from LDH-PCL with (0, 5, 10, 15 % wt. of LDH) was investigated. The results showed that the release of alendronate from the lamellar LDH incorporated into the PCL matrix is much slower than the release of alendronate from the PCL. Therefore such systems are very promising, in which the antiresorptive drug has to remain in the matrix for longer time and can be released in controlled manner.

Keywords: osteoporosis, alendronate, poly (ε–caprolactone), layered double hydroxide

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74 The Relationship between Osteoporosis-Related Knowledge and Physical Activity among Women Age over 50 Years

Authors: P. Tardi, B. Szilagyi, A. Makai, P. Acs, M. Hock, M. Jaromi


Osteoporosis is becoming a major public health problem, particularly in postmenopausal women, as the incidence of this disease is getting higher. Nowadays, one of the most common chronic musculoskeletal diseases is osteoporosis. Osteoporosis-related knowledge is an important contributor to prevent or to treat osteoporosis. The most important strategies to prevent or treat the disease are increasing the level of physical activity at all ages, cessation of smoking, reduction of alcohol consumption, adequate dietary calcium, and vitamin D intake. The aim of the study was to measure the osteoporosis-related knowledge and physical activity among women age over 50 years. For the measurements, we used the osteoporosis questionnaire (OPQ) to examine the disease-specific knowledge and the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) to measure the quantity and quality of the physical activity. The OPQ is a self-administered 20-item questionnaire with five categories: general information, risk factors, investigations, consequences, and treatment. There are four choices per question (one of them is the 'I do not know'). The filler gets +1 for a good answer, -1 point for a bad answer, and 0 for 'I do not know' answer. We contacted with 326 women (63.08 ± 9.36 year) to fill out the questionnaires. Descriptive analysis was carried out, and we calculated Spearman's correlation coefficient to examine the relationship between the variables. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel, and all statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 24). The participants of the study (n=326) reached 8.76 ± 6.94 points on OPQ. Significant (p < 0.001) differences were found in the results of OPQ according to the highest level of education. It was observed that the score of the participants with osteoporosis (10.07 ± 6.82 points) was significantly (p=0.003) higher than participants without osteoporosis (9.38 ± 6.66 points) and the score of those women (6.49 ± 6.97 points) who did not know that osteoporosis exists in their case. The GPAQ results showed the sample physical activity in the dimensions of vigorous work (479.86 ± 684.02 min/week); moderate work (678.16 ± 804.5 min/week); travel (262.83 ± 380.27 min/week); vigorous recreation (77.71 ± 123.46 min/week); moderate recreation (115.15 ± 154.82 min/week) and total weekly physical activity (1645.99 ± 1432.88 min/week). Significant correlations were found between the osteoporosis-related knowledge and the physical activity in travel (R=0.21; p < 0.001), vigorous recreation (R=0.35; p < 0.001), moderate recreation (R=0.35; p < 0.001), total vigorous minutes/week (R=0.15; p=0.001) and total moderate minutes/week (R=0.13; p=0.04) dimensions. According to the results that were achieved, the highest level of education significantly determines osteoporosis-related knowledge. Physical activity is an important contributor to prevent or to treat osteoporosis, and it showed a significant correlation with osteoporosis-related knowledge. Based on the results, the development of osteoporosis-related knowledge may help to improve the level of physical activity, especially recreation. Acknowledgment: Supported by the ÚNKP-20-1 New National Excellence Program of The Ministry for Innovation and Technology from the Source of the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund.

Keywords: osteoporosis, osteoporosis-related knowledge, physical activity, prevention

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73 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing in Androgen-Deficient Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad N. Shuid, Azri Jalil, Sabarul A. Mokhtar, Mohd F. Khamis, Norliza Muhammad


Micro-CT provides a 3-D image of fracture callus, which can be used to calculate quantitative parameters. In this study, micro-CT was used to assess the fracture healing of orchidectomised rats, an androgen-deficient osteoporosis model. The effect of testosterone (hormone replacement) on fracture healing was also assessed with micro-CT. The rats were grouped into orchidectomised-control (ORX), sham-operated (SHAM), and orchidectomised; and injected with testosterone intramuscularly once weekly (TEN). Treatment duration was six weeks. The fracture was induced and fixed with plates and screws in the right tibia of all the rats. An in vitro micro-CT was used to scan the fracture callus area which consisted of 100 axial slices above and below fracture line. The analysis has shown that micro-CT was able to detect a significant difference in the fracture healing rate of ORX and TEN groups. In conclusion, micro-CT can be used to assess fracture healing in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. This imaging tool can be used to test agents that influence fracture healing in the androgen-deficient model.

Keywords: androgen, fracture, orchidectomy, osteoporosis

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72 Medical Image Classification Using Legendre Multifractal Spectrum Features

Authors: R. Korchiyne, A. Sbihi, S. M. Farssi, R. Touahni, M. Tahiri Alaoui


Trabecular bone structure is important texture in the study of osteoporosis. Legendre multifractal spectrum can reflect the complex and self-similarity characteristic of structures. The main objective of this paper is to develop a new technique of medical image classification based on Legendre multifractal spectrum. Novel features have been developed from basic geometrical properties of this spectrum in a supervised image classification. The proposed method has been successfully used to classify medical images of bone trabeculations, and could be a useful supplement to the clinical observations for osteoporosis diagnosis. A comparative study with existing data reveals that the results of this approach are concordant.

Keywords: multifractal analysis, medical image, osteoporosis, fractal dimension, Legendre spectrum, supervised classification

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71 Nursing Experience in Improving Physical and Mental Well-Being of a Patient with Premature Menopause Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia in Nursing-Led Multi-Discipline Care

Authors: Huang Chiung Chiu


This article is about the nursing experience of assisting an outpatient with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia through a multi-discipline care model. The nursing period is from September 22nd, 2020, to December 7th, 2020, collecting data through interviews with the patient, observation, and physical assessment. It was found that the main health problems were insufficient nutrition, less physical need, insomnia, and potentially dangerous falls. As an outpatient nurse, the author observed that in recent years, the age group of women with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia had shifted downward. Integrated multi-disciplinary interventions were provided upon the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Under the outpatient care setting, the collaborative team works between the doctors, nutritionists, osteoporosis educators, rehabilitates, physical therapists and other specialized teams were applied to provide individualized, integrated multi-disciplinary care. Through empathy and the establishment of attentive care, companionship and trust, we discussed care plans and treatment guidelines with the case, providing accurate, complete disease information and feedback education to strengthen the patient’s knowledge and motivation for exercise. Nursing guidance regarding the dietary nutrition and adjustment of daily routine was provided to increase the self-care ability, improve the health problems of muscle weakness and insomnia, and prevent falls. For patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and sarcopenia, it is recommended that the nurses coordinate the multi-discipline integrated care model, adjust patients’ lifestyle and diet, and establish a regular exercise plan so that the cases can be evaluated holistically to improve the quality of care and physical and mental comfort.

Keywords: multi-discipline care model, premature menopause, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, insomnia

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70 Improval of Fracture Healing of Osteoporotic Bone by Lovastatin-Incorporated Poly-(DL-Lactide)

Authors: Nurul Izzah Ibrahim, Isa Naina Mohamed, Norazlina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid


Osteoporosis disease delays fracture healing. Statins have shown potential for osteoporosis and to promote fracture healing. The effects of statin can be further potentiated by combining it with a carrier known as poly-(DL-lactide), which would provide persistent release of statin to the fracture site. This study was designed to investigate the effects of direct injection of poly-(DL-lactide)-incorporated lovastatin on fracture healing of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated (SO), ovariectomized-control rats (OVxC) and poly-(DL-lactide)-incorporated lovastatin (OVx+Lov) groups. The OVx+Lov group was given a single injection of 750 µg/kg lovastatin particles incorporated with poly-(DL-lactide). After 4 weeks, the fractured tibiae were dissected out for biomechanical assessments of the callus. The OVx+Lov group showed significantly better callus strength than the OVxC group (p<0.05). In conclusion, a single injection of lovastatin-incorporated poly-(DL-lactide) was able to promote better fracture healing of osteoporotic bone.

Keywords: statins, fracture healing, osteoporosis, poly-(DL-lactide)

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69 Effective Factors on Self-Care in Women with Osteoporosis: A Study with Content Analysis Approach

Authors: Arezoo Fallahi, Siamak Derakhshan, Parvaneh Taymoori, Babak Nematshahrbabaki


Background: Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease, is an important health care issue. Not only the cost of disease is high but also is one of the causes of disability and mortality and effect on quality of life. Although self-care is effective on disease, s control and treatment but still effective factors on self-care of patient, s viewpoint have not been survey. The aim of this study was to explore effective factors on self-care in women with osteoporosis. Materials and methods: This study was done by conventional content analysis approach in year 2014. Through purposeful sampling 15 women referred to bone mass densitometry centers participated in this study. Inclusion criteria were: Women older than 50 years old with osteoporosis, final diagnosis of osteoporosis for over six –month period, T-score index below -2.5 (lower back or hip), drug use by patients with a physician’s prescription, ability in speaking and attending to participate in the study. Data was collected by face to face and group semi-structure deep interviews and analyzed via content analysis method. To support of rigor of data, criteria credibility, confirmability and transferability were used. Results: during data analysis five categories developed: “hope and disability in the face of illness”, “mutual roles of physician”, “role of family” and “administrative centers and organizations”. To perform self-care behaviors, the participations of this study emphasized on pay attention to their own healthy, regarding patients' rights by physician, pay attention to women's health by men, and the role of media especially radio and television. Conclusion: the finding of the study showed that women’s responsibility with osteoporosis for their health is not a factor but it is multifactorial. Increasing life expectancy in patients, attention to patients needs by physician, increasing health promotion programs in the media and enhancing role of family may provide conditions and infrastructure to empowerment women in doing self-care behavior.

Keywords: women, osteoporosis, self-care, content analysis

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68 Bone Mineral Density in Long-Living Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Svetlana V. Topolyanskaya, Tatyana A. Eliseeva, Olga N. Vakulenko, Leonid I. Dvoretski


Introduction: Limited data are available on osteoporosis in centenarians. Therefore, we evaluated bone mineral density in long-living patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: 202 patients hospitalized with CAD were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The patients' age ranged from 90 to 101 years. The majority of study participants (64.4%) were women. The main exclusion criteria were any disease or medication that can lead to secondary osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Normal lumbar spine BMD was observed in 40.9%, osteoporosis – in 26.9%, osteopenia – in 32.2% of patients. Normal proximal femur BMD values were observed in 21.3%, osteoporosis – in 39.9%, and osteopenia – in 38.8% of patients. Normal femoral neck BMD was registered only in 10.4% of patients, osteoporosis was observed in 60.4%, osteopenia in 29.2%. Significant positive correlation was found between all BMD values and body mass index of patients (p < 0.001). Positive correlation was registered between BMD values and serum uric acid (p=0.0005). The likelihood of normal BMD values with hyperuricemia increased 3.8 times, compared to patients with normal uric acid, who often have osteoporosis (Odds Ratio=3.84; p = 0.009). Positive correlation was registered between all BMD values and body mass index (p < 0.001). Positive correlation between triglycerides levels and T-score (p=0.02), but negative correlation between BMD and HDL-cholesterol (p=0.02) were revealed. Negative correlation between frailty severity and BMD values (p=0.01) was found. Positive correlation between BMD values and functional abilities of patients assessed using Barthel index (r=0,44; p=0,000002) and IADL scale (r=0,36; p=0,00008) was registered. Fractures in history were observed in 27.6% of patients. Conclusions: The study results indicate some features of BMD in long-livers. In the study group, significant relationships were found between bone mineral density on the one hand, and patients' functional abilities on the other. It is advisable to further study the state of bone tissue in long-livers involving a large sample of patients.

Keywords: osteoporosis, bone mineral density, centenarians, coronary artery disease

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67 Levels of CTX1 in Premenopausal Osteoporotic Women Study Conducted in Khyberpuktoonkhwa Province, Pakistan

Authors: Mehwish Durrani, Rubina Nazli, Muhammad Abubakr, Muhammad Shafiq


Objectives: To evaluate the high socio-economic status, urbanization, and decrease ambulation can lead to early osteoporosis in women reporting from Peshawar region. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study was done. Sample size was 100 subjects, using 30% proportion of osteoporosis, 95% confidence level, and 9% margin of error under WHO software for sample size determination. Place and Duration of study: This study was carried out in the tertiary referral health care facilities of Peshawar viz PGMI Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Ethical approval for the study was taken from the Institutional Ethical Research board (IERD) at Post Graduate Medical Institute, Hayatabad Medical Complex, and Peshawar.The study was done in six months time period. Patients and Methods: Levels of CTX1 as a marker of bone degradation in radiographically assessed perimenopausal women was determined. These females were randomly selected and screened for osteoporosis. Hemoglobin in gm/dl, ESR by Westergren method as millimeter in 1 hour, Serum Ca mg/dl, Serum alkaline Phosphatase international units per liter radiographic grade of osteoporosis according to Singh index as 1-6 and CTX 1 level in pg/ml. Results: High levels of CTX1 was observed in perimenopausal osteoporotic women which were radiographically diagnosed as osteoporotic patients. The High socio-economic class also predispose to osteoporosis. Decrease ambulation another risk factor showed significant association with the increased levels of CTX1. Conclusion: The results of this study propose that minimum ambulation and high socioeconomic class both had significance association with the increase levels of serum CTX1, which in turn will lead to osteoporosis and to its complications.

Keywords: osteoporosis, CTX1, perimenopausal women, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Khyberpuktoonkhwa

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66 Screening Post-Menopausal Women for Osteoporosis by Complex Impedance Measurements of the Dominant Arm

Authors: Yekta Ülgen, Fırat Matur


Cole-Cole parameters of 40 post-menopausal women are compared with their DEXA bone mineral density measurements. Impedance characteristics of four extremities are compared; left and right extremities are statistically same, but lower extremities are statistically different than upper ones due to their different fat content. The correlation of Cole-Cole impedance parameters to bone mineral density (BMD) is observed to be higher for a dominant arm. With the post menopausal population, ANOVA tests of the dominant arm characteristic frequency, as a predictor for DEXA classified osteopenic and osteoporotic population around the lumbar spine, is statistically very significant. When used for total lumbar spine osteoporosis diagnosis, the area under the Receiver Operating Curve of the characteristic frequency is 0.875, suggesting that the Cole-Cole plot characteristic frequency could be a useful diagnostic parameter when integrated into standard screening methods for osteoporosis. Moreover, the characteristic frequency can be directly measured by monitoring frequency driven the angular behavior of the dominant arm without performing any complex calculation.

Keywords: bioimpedance spectroscopy, bone mineral density, osteoporosis, characteristic frequency, receiver operating curve

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65 Trabecular Bone Radiograph Characterization Using Fractal, Multifractal Analysis and SVM Classifier

Authors: I. Slim, H. Akkari, A. Ben Abdallah, I. Bhouri, M. Hedi Bedoui


Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of micro-architectural bone tissue, which provokes an increased risk of fracture. This work treats the texture characterization of trabecular bone radiographs. The aim was to analyze according to clinical research a group of 174 subjects: 87 osteoporotic patients (OP) with various bone fracture types and 87 control cases (CC). To characterize osteoporosis, Fractal and MultiFractal (MF) methods were applied to images for features (attributes) extraction. In order to improve the results, a new method of MF spectrum based on the q-stucture function calculation was proposed and a combination of Fractal and MF attributes was used. The Support Vector Machines (SVM) was applied as a classifier to distinguish between OP patients and CC subjects. The features fusion (fractal and MF) allowed a good discrimination between the two groups with an accuracy rate of 96.22%.

Keywords: fractal, micro-architecture analysis, multifractal, osteoporosis, SVM

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64 Evaluation of the Laser and Partial Vibration Stimulation on Osteoporosis

Authors: Ji Hyung Park, Dong-Hyun Seo, Young-Jin Jung, Han Sung Kim


The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the laser and partial vibration stimulation on the mice tibia with morphological characteristics. Twenty female C57BL/6 mice (12 weeks old) were used for the experiment. The study was carried out on four groups of animals each consisting of five mice. Four groups of mice were ovariectomized. Animals were scanned at 0 and 2 weeks after ovariectomy by using micro-computed tomography to estimate morphological characteristics of tibial trabecular bone. Morphological analysis showed that structural parameters of multi-stimuli group appear significantly better phase in BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, Tb.Sp, and than single stimulation groups. However, single stimulation groups didn’t show significant effect on tibia with Sham group. This study suggests that multi-stimuli may restrain the change as the degenerate phase on osteoporosis in the mice tibia.

Keywords: laser, partial vibration, osteoporosis, in-vivo micro-CT, mice

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63 The Role of Bone Marrow Fatty Acids in the Early Stage of Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis

Authors: Sizhu Wang, Cuisong Tang, Lin Zhang, Guangyu Tang


Objective: We aimed to detect the composition of bone marrow fatty acids early after ovariectomized (OVX) surgery and explore the potential mechanism. Methods: Thirty-two female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (12 weeks) were randomly divided into OVX group and Sham group (N=16/group), and received ovariectomy or sham surgery respectively. After 3 and 28 days, eight rats in each group were sacrificed to detect the composition of bone marrow fatty acids by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and evaluate the trabecular bone microarchitecture by micro-CT. Significant different fatty acids in the early stage of post-menopausal osteoporosis were selected by OPLS-DA and t test. Then selected fatty acids were further studied in the process of osteogenic differentiation through RT-PCR and Alizarin Red S staining. Results: An apparent sample clustering and group separation were observed between OVX group and sham group three days after surgery, which suggested the role of bone marrow fatty acids in the early stage of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Specifically, myristate, palmitoleate and arachidonate were found to play an important role in classification between OVX group and sham group. We further investigated the effect of palmitoleate and arachidonate on osteogenic differentiation and found that palmitoleate promoted the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells while arachidonate inhibited this process. Conclusion: Profound bone marrow fatty acids changes have taken place in the early stage of post-menopausal osteoporosis. Bone marrow fatty acids may begin to affect osteogenic differentiation shortly after deficiency of estrogen.

Keywords: bone marrow fatty acids, GC-MS, osteoblast, osteoporosis, post-menopausal

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62 Osteoporosis and Weight Gain – Two Major Concerns for Menopausal Women - a Physiotherapy Perspective

Authors: Renu Pattanshetty


The aim of this narrative review is to highlight the impact of menopause on osteoporosis and weight gain. The review also aims to summarize physiotherapeutic strategies to combat the same.A thorough literature search was conducted using electronic databases like MEDline, PUBmed, Highwire Press, PUBmed Central for English language studies that included search terms like menopause, osteoporosis, obesity, weight gain, exercises, physical activity, physiotherapy strategies from the year 2000 till date. Out of 157 studies that included metanalyses, critical reviews and randomized clinical trials, a total of 84 were selected that met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of obesity is increasing world - wide and is reaching epidemic proportions even in the menopausal women. Prevalence of abdominal obesity is almost double than that general obesity with rates in the US with 65.5% in women ages 40-59 years and 73.8 in women aged 60 years or more. Physical activities and exercises play a vital role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and weight gain related to menopause that aim to boost the general well-being and any symptoms brought about by natural body changes. Endurance exercises lasting about 30 minutes /day for 5 days/ week has shown to decrease weight and prevent weight gain. In addition, strength training with at least 8 exercises of 8-12 repetitions working for whole body and for large muscle groups has shown to result positive outcomes. Hot flashes can be combatted through yogic breathing and relaxation exercises. Prevention of fall strategies and resistance training are key to treat diagnosed cases of osteoporosis related to menopause. One to three sets with five to eight repetitions of four to six weight bearing exercises have shown positive results. Menopause marks an important time for women to evaluate their risk of obesity and osteoporosis. It is known fact that bone benefit from exercises are lost when training is stopped, hence, practicing bone smart habits and strict adherence to recommended physical activity programs are recommended which are enjoyable, safe and effective.

Keywords: menopause, osteoporosis, obesity, weight gain, exercises, physical activity, physiotherapy strategies

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61 Screening of Osteoporosis in Aging Populations

Authors: Massimiliano Panella, Sara Bortoluzzi, Sophia Russotto, Daniele Nicolini, Carmela Rinaldi


Osteoporosis affects more than 200 million people worldwide. About 75% of osteoporosis cases are undiagnosed or diagnosed only when a bone fracture occurs. Since osteoporosis related fractures are significant determinants of the burden of disease and health and social costs of aging populations, we believe that this is the early identification and treatment of high-risk patients should be a priority in actual healthcare systems. Screening for osteoporosis by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is not cost-effective for general population. An alternative is pulse-echo ultrasound (PEUS) because of the minor costs. To this end, we developed an early detection program for osteoporosis with PEUS, and we evaluated is possible impact and sustainability. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 1,050 people in Italy. Subjects with >1 major or >2 minor risk factors for osteoporosis were invited to PEUS bone mass density (BMD) measurement at the proximal tibia. Based on BMD values, subjects were classified as healthy subjects (BMD>0.783 g/cm²) and pathological including subjects with suspected osteopenia (0.783≤BMD>0.719 g/cm²) or osteoporosis (BMD ≤ 0.719 g/cm²). The responder rate was 60.4% (634/1050). According to the risk, PEUS scan was recommended to 436 people, of whom 300 (mean age 45.2, 81% women) accepted to participate. We identified 240 (80%) healthy and 60 (20%) pathological subjects (47 osteopenic and 13 osteoporotic). We observed a significant association between high risk people and reduced bone density (p=0.043) with increased risks for female gender, older ages, and menopause (p<0.01). The yearly cost of the screening program was 8,242 euros. With actual Italian fracture incidence rates in osteoporotic patients, we can reasonably expect in 20 years that at least 6 fractures will occur in our sample. If we consider that the mean costs per fracture in Italy is today 16,785 euros, we can estimate a theoretical cost of 100,710 euros. According to literature, we can assume that the early treatment of osteoporosis could avoid 24,170 euros of such costs. If we add the actual yearly cost of the treatments to the cost of our program and we compare this final amount of 11,682 euros to the avoidable costs of fractures (24,170 euros) we can measure a possible positive benefits/costs ratio of 2.07. As a major outcome, our study let us to early identify 60 people with a significant bone loss that were not aware of their condition. This diagnostic anticipation constitutes an important element of value for the project, both for the patients, for the preventable negative outcomes caused by the fractures, and for the society in general, because of the related avoidable costs. Therefore, based on our finding, we believe that the PEUS based screening performed could be a cost-effective approach to early identify osteoporosis. However, our study has some major limitations. In fact, in our study the economic analysis is based on theoretical scenarios, thus specific studies are needed for a better estimation of the possible benefits and costs of our program.

Keywords: osteoporosis, prevention, public health, screening

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60 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing with Targeted Delivery of Tocotrienol in Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Isa Naina Mohamed, Nurul Izzah Ibrahim, Norazlina Mohamed


Studies have shown that oral tocotrienol, a potent vitamin E, promoted fracture healing of osteoporotic bone. In this study, tocotrienol was combined with a polymer carrier (PLGA), and injected to the fracture site. The slow and constant release of tocotrienol particles would promote fracture healing of post-menopausal osteoporosis rat model. Fracture healing was assessed using micro-CT. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomised or sham-operated and the left tibiae were fractured and fixed with plate and screws. The fractures were created at the upper third of the left tibiae. The rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated (SO), ovariectomised-control (OVxC) and PLGA-incorporated tocotrienol treatment (OVx + TT) groups. After 4 weeks, the OVx + TT group showed significantly better callus fracture healing than the OVxC group. In conclusion, tocotrienol-incorporated PLGA was able to promote fracture healing of osteoporotic bone.

Keywords: osteoporosis, micro-CT, tocotrienol, PLGA, fracture

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59 Assessment on the Improvement of the Quality of Life after One Year of Regular Physical Activity and Treatment in Patients with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

Authors: Stoyanka Georgieva Vladeva, Elena Kirilova Kirilova, Nikola Kirilov Kirilov


Summary: WHO (World Health Organization) recommends the elder people a certain amount of regular physical activity in order to prevent some of the health issues. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the chronic diseases which requires the maintaining of regular physical activity. The regular activity combined with an adequate medical treatment greatly improves the quality of life of the patient. Objectives: Assessment of the effect of the regular physical activity recommended by WHO on the quality of life in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Material and methods: For the period of one year 68 female patients treated with Denosumab have been monitored. The bone density has been measured with the DEXA method in accordance to the T-score. No patients having any oncologic diseases and secondary osteoporosis have been included in the study. The subjects have been divided into groups by their age. The first group – women aged under 65 years (27 subjects) and the second group – women aged over 65 years (41 subjects). All patients have been advised to maintain regular physical activity included in the recommendations of the WHO in accordance with the age and the disease. The quality of life has been assessed in the beginning and at the end of the one-year period using the SF 36V2 questionnaire. Results: Only 31% of the subjects have engaged into regular increased physical activities for the whole period. Among them are mostly patients of the second group (aged over 65 years, 71%). The women from the both groups who were engaging into regular activities for this one-year period all experience an improvement of the quality of life. These results show that older patients understand the necessity of the physical activity for their health. The comparison of the output data to the scales of physical activity, durability, body pain, vitality, social activity and emotional stability has found an improvement at the end of the period in all patients. The osteodensitometry showed general improvement of the T-score. Patients with additional visits to their rheumatologist have better results. Conclusion: Combination of regular physical activity in accordance to the recommendations of WHO and medical treatment including anti-osteoporotic drugs improves the quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Keywords: elderly patients, osteoporosis, physical activity, quality of life

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58 Increasing Solubility and Bioavailability of Fluvastatin through Transdermal Nanoemulsion Gel Delivery System for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Makula Ajitha


Fluvastatin has been reported for increasing bone mineral density in osteoporosis since last decade. Systemically administered drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism, thus very small amount of drug reaches the bone tissue which is highly insignificant. The present study aims to deliver fluvastatin in the form of nanoemulsion (NE) gel directly to the bone tissue through transdermal route thereby bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism. The NE formulation consisted of isopropyl myristate as oil, tween 80 as surfactant, transcutol as co-surfactant and water as the aqueous phase. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using aqueous titration method and NE’s obtained were subjected to thermodynamic-kinetic stability studies. The stable NE formulations were evaluated for their droplet size, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-sized formulations were incorporated into 0.5% carbopol 934 gel matrix. Ex-vivo permeation behaviour of selected formulations through rat skin was investigated and compared with the conventional formulations (suspension and emulsion). Further, in-vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried using male Wistar rats. The optimized NE formulations mean droplet size was 11.66±3.2 nm with polydispersity index of 0.117. Permeation flux of NE gel formulations was found significantly higher than the conventional formulations i.e. suspension and emulsion. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed significant increase in bioavailability (1.25 fold) of fluvastatin than oral formulation. Thus, it can be concluded that NE gel was successfully developed for transdermal delivery of fluvastatin for the treatment of osteoporosis.

Keywords: fluvastatin, nanoemulsion gel, osteoporosis, transdermal

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57 Relation between Biochemical Parameters and Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

Authors: Shokouh Momeni, Mohammad Reza Salamat, Ali Asghar Rastegari


Background: Osteoporosis is the most prevalent metabolic bone disease in postmenopausal women associated with reduced bone mass and increased bone fracture. Measuring bone density in the lumbar spine and hip is a reliable measure of bone mass and can therefore specify the risk of fracture. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) is an accurate non-invasive system measuring the bone density, with low margin of error and no complications. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between biochemical parameters with bone density in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 87 postmenopausal women referred to osteoporosis centers in Isfahan. Bone density was measured in the spine and hip area using DXA system. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and magnesium were measured by autoanalyzer and serum levels of vitamin D were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Results: The mean parameters of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and magnesium did not show a significant difference between the two groups(P-value>0.05). In the control group, the relationship between alkaline phosphatase and BMC and BA in the spine was significant with a correlation coefficient of -0.402 and 0.258, respectively(P-value<0.05) and BMD and T-score in the femoral neck area showed a direct and significant relationship with phosphorus(Correlation=0.368; P-value=0.038). There was a significant relationship between the Z-score with calcium(Correlation=0.358; P-value=0.044). Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between the values ​​of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and magnesium parameters and bone density (spine and hip) in postmenopaus

Keywords: osteoporosis, menopause, bone mineral density, vitamin d, calcium, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus

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56 Bone Mineral Density in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Postmenopausal Egyptian Female Patients: Correlation with Fetuin-A Level and Metabolic Parameters

Authors: Ahmed A. M. Shoaib, Heba A. Esaily, Mahmoud M. Emara, Eman A. E. Badr, Amany S. Khalifa, Mayada M. M., Abdel-Raizk


Background: DM is associated with metabolic bone diseases, osteoporosis, low-impact fractures and falls in geriatrics. Fetuin-A, which is a serum protein produced by the liver and promotes bone mineralization, is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Aim: Evaluation of fetuin-A level and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Egyptian female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their correlation with each other & with other metabolic parameters. Patients and methods: Seventy postmenopausal female patients with type II diabetes and thirty postmenopausal female as control were included in this study. Measurement of Fetuin-A together with metabolic parameters and DXA in wrist, hip and spine, ALP, CBC, FBS, PP2H and HBA1c was done in all participants. Results: - Fetuin-A level was found to be highly significant (p< 0.001) between diabetic and nondiabetic groups and negatively correlated with BMD in spine. No difference in BMD was found between patients and control groups while significant negative correlation was found between FBS and hip BMD (<0.05) and between 2hpp and HBA1c with spine BMD in the diabetic group (<0.05). Osteoporosis represented 12.9% in spine area and 7.2% in hip and wrist areas in diabetic patients, while osteopenia were found in 58.5%, 57.1%, and 37.1% in diabetic patients in spine, wrist, and hip respectively. Conclusion: - type II diabetes cannot be considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis; while glycemic parameters (FBS, 2hpp & HBA1c) and serum Fetuin-A levels were correlated with BMD in diabetics. Good glycemic control can be protective against osteoporosis in diabetic elderly.

Keywords: fetuin-A, BMD, postmenopausal, DM type II

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55 Osteoprotective Effect of Lawsonia inermis

Authors: Suraj Muke, Vikas Mankumare, Sadhana Sathaye


Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease which affects an estimated 25 million people worldwide, leading to 1 million fractures, 40,000 annual deaths and health costs of billions of dollars. It is estimated that about 80% of total osteoporosis patients are women, amongst which majority are above the age of 45 years. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with lack of intestinal calcium absorption, increasing pro-oxidant and inflammatory mediators. Lawsonia inermis is a biennial dicotyledonous herbaceous shrub is reported to possess a high flavonoid, high phenolic and Inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis like Daphneside and Daphnorin. The present study aimed to screen osteoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis (LIM) in rat model along with its antioxidant activity. LIM shows phenolic content 146.3Milligrams of Gallic acid equivalent present per gram of extract and 19.8 Milligrams of rutin per gram of extract of Total flavonoid content with IC50 value 42.99μg/ml. bilateral ovariectomized rat model in which Healthy female wistar rats were used for screening. Treatment with LIM was carried out using graded doses of 25mg/kg, 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg for period of 28 days. The negative control group comprised of ovariectomized rats along with saline treatment for four weeks whereas sham operated rats were used as positive control.LIM showed a decrease in bone turnover by preventing loss of urinary calcium and phosphorous moreover it decreased the alkaline phosphatase levels and loss of bone density is prevented by LIM suggesting decrease in osteoclast activity.

Keywords: antioxidant, osteoclast, osteoporosis, ovariectomized

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54 Hormones and Mineral Elements Associated with Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women in Eastern Slovakia

Authors: M. Mydlárová Blaščáková, J. Poráčová, Z. Tomková, Ľ. Blaščáková, M. Nagy, M. Konečná, E. Petrejčíková, Z. Gogaľová, V. Sedlák, J. Mydlár, M. Zahatňanská, K. Hricová


Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease that results in reduced quality of life, causes decreased bone strength, and changes in their microarchitecture. Mostly postmenopausal women are at risk. In our study, we measured anthropometric parameters of postmenopausal women (104 women of control group – CG and 105 women of osteoporotic group - OG) and determined TSH hormone levels and PTH as well as mineral elements - Ca, P, Mg and enzyme alkaline phosphatase. Through the correlation analysis in CG, we have found association based on age and BMI, P and Ca, as well as Mg and Ca; in OG we determined interdependence based on an association of age and BMI, age and Ca. Using the Student's t test, we found significantly important differences in biochemical parameters of Mg (p ˂ 0,001) and TSH (p ˂ 0,05) between CG and OG.

Keywords: factors, bone mass density, Central Europe, biomarkers

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53 Bone Mineral Density and Quality, Body Composition of Women in the Postmenopausal Period

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Oksana Ivanyk, Nataliia Dzerovych


In the diagnostics of osteoporosis, the gold standard is considered to be bone mineral density; however, X-ray densitometry is not an accurate indicator of osteoporotic fracture risk under all circumstances. In this regard, the search for new methods that could determine the indicators not only of the mineral density, but of the bone tissue quality, is a logical step for diagnostic optimization. One of these methods is the evaluation of trabecular bone quality. The aim of this study was to examine the quality and mineral density of spine bone tissue, femoral neck, and body composition of women depending on the duration of the postmenopausal period, to determine the correlation of body fat with indicators of bone mineral density and quality. The study examined 179 women in premenopausal and postmenopausal periods. The patients were divided into the following groups: Women in the premenopausal period and women in the postmenopausal period at various stages (early, middle, late postmenopause). A general examination and study of the above parameters were conducted with General Electric X-ray densitometer. The results show that bone quality and mineral density probably deteriorate with advancing of postmenopausal period. Total fat and lean mass ratio is not likely to change with age. In the middle and late postmenopausal periods, the bone tissue mineral density of the spine and femoral neck increases along with total fat mass.

Keywords: osteoporosis, bone tissue mineral density, bone quality, fat mass, lean mass, postmenopausal osteoporosis

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