Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6426

Search results for: human beings

6426 Thailand and Procession of Trafficking Human Beings (Women and Children)

Authors: Kawinphat Lertpongmanee

Abstract:

The problems of trafficking human beings were continuously violent in Thailand. The problems occurred from a variety of factors such as unemployment, agricultural workers’ urban immigration, sex tour, attitude of materialism society, divorced family, unsavourily effected law, and officers’ ignorance. The purposes of this study were to study the structure, connection, a number of trafficking human beings in Thailand. Qualitative and quantitative and results of previous research were used in this research. The previous procurers, interested persons, experienced people, human beings-aiding organization, and women-children rights organization were interviewed in depth. The field was used in a variety of regions. The findings showed that the structure and connection of trafficking human beings and their values are $8,750 million. There are 240,000 people in trafficked human beings. The trend of trafficking human beings grows continuously. It is changed according to economic circumstance, society and culture, and law. The state must be aware of its problem. The law is enacted by adding high penalty for serious fear.

Keywords: human trade, prostitution trafficking, trafficking in women and children, Thailand

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6425 Eating Constitutes Human Dignity: A Metaphysical Anthropology Perspective

Authors: Sri Poedjiastoeti

Abstract:

One of the traits of living beings is eating. As the living beings, people must provide their life by taking material. They must assimilate for themselves with substances. They grow and develop themselves by changing what they eat and digest into their own substance. This happened in the so-called eating. This article aims to analyze distinction between human beings and other infrahumans when facing and eating food. It uses the analytical description with metaphysical anthropology approach. As a result, to give the expression that eating is not simply to put food in mouth, chew and swallow it. Eating constitutes a sacred ceremonial if it is done in accordance with human dignity. They face food with distance and moderation as well as civilize or make their behaviour better for it. Accordingly, they are being to be human.

Keywords: human beings, behaviour, eating, dignity

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6424 The Role of Human Beings as Caliphs in Preserving Nature

Authors: Firdaus Khairi Abdul Kadir, Nazihah Rusli, Noor Aisyah Abdul Aziz

Abstract:

Islam is a comprehensive religion encompassing all aspects of society’s life such as social, economic, political, cultural and environmental. The environment is part of the manifestation of God’s greatness which has pearls of wisdom, bestowed upon human beings to make them realize that everything is in the hands of God (Allah SWT). However, the equilibrium of nature could be disturbed from the excessive exploitation by humans’ hands. As a caliph on this earth, it is the responsibility of human beings to look after the environment proactively. Besides, Islam calls for the execution of accountable development and respecting the principles of sustainability. Therefore, this study focuses on the role of human beings as caliphs on this earth who are responsible for nature and their acts in conserving and preserving the environment based on the approach of religious education. This study also used the research method of the survey library.

Keywords: environment, human beings, caliph, tauhid, Allah SWT

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6423 The Active Subject and the Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings: Material and Procedural Criminal Law Approaches

Authors: Andrei Nastas, Sergiu Cernomopret

Abstract:

This research addresses trafficking in human beings, in terms of the active subject and the victim of this crime, through the prism of national and international regulations in material and procedural criminal matters. For the correlative approach of both mentioned aspects, the active subject and the victim of trafficking in human beings, the research addresses both its constituent elements and the way to prevent and combat this phenomenon through criminal proceedings. As follows, trafficking in human beings, from a material criminal point of view, involves two subjects of this crime (active subject - offender and passive subject - victim), while their procedural status differs depending on the case (victim or injured party). The result of the research highlights some clarifications, which find a theoretical-practical basis in the legal provisions, the specialized doctrine, and the judicial practice.

Keywords: victim, active subject, abuse, injured party, crime

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6422 Government Responses to the Survivors of Trafficking in Human Beings: A Study of Albania

Authors: Irida Agolli Nasufi, Anxhela Bruci

Abstract:

This paper presents Albanian government policies regarding the reintegration process for returning Albanian survivors of trafficking in human beings. Focusing on an in-depth analysis of governmental, non-governmental documents and semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with service providers and trafficking survivors. Furthermore, this paper will especially focus on the governmental efforts to provide support to the survivors, focusing on their needs and challenges. This study explores the conditions and actual services provided to the survivors of trafficking in human beings that are in the reintegration process in Albania. Moreover, it examines the responsible mechanisms accountable for the reintegration process, by analysing synergies between governmental and non-governmental organisations. Also, this paper explores the governmental approach towards trafficking survivors and apprises policymakers to undertake changes and reforms in their future actions.

Keywords: policies, social services, service user, trafficking in human beings, government

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6421 Agency Beyond Metaphysics of Subjectivity

Authors: Erik Kuravsky

Abstract:

One of the problems with a post-structuralist account of agency is that it appears to reject the freedom of an acting subject, thus seeming to deny the very phenomenon of agency. However, this is only a problem if we think that human beings can be agents exclusively in terms of being subjects, that is, if we think agency subjectively. Indeed, we tend to understand traditional theories of human freedom (e.g., Plato’s or Kant’s) in terms of a peculiar ability of the subject. The paper suggests to de-subjectivize agency with the help of Heidegger’s later thought. To do it, ir argues that classical theories of agency may indeed be interpreted as subject-oriented (sometimes even by their authors), but do not have to be read as such. Namely, the claim is that what makes agency what it is, what is essential in agency, is not its belonginess to a subject, but its ontological configuration. We may say that agency “happens,” and that there is a very specific ontological characteristics to this happening. The argument of the paper is that we can find these characteristic in the classical accounts of agency and that these characteristics are sufficient to distinguish human freedom from other natural phenomena. In particular, it offers to think agency not as one of human characteristics, but as an ontological event in which human beings take part. Namely, agency is a (non-human) characteristic of the different modes in which the experienceable existence of beings is determined by Being. To be an agent then is to participate in such ontological determination. What enables this participation is the ways human beings non-thematically understand the ontological difference. For example, for Plato, one acts freely only if one is led by an idea of the good, while for Kant the imperative for free action is categorial. The agency of an agent is thus dependent on the differentiation between ideas/categories and beings met in experience – one is “free” from contingent sensibility in terms of what is different from it ontologically. In this light, modern dependence on subjectivity is evident in the fact that the ontological difference is thought as belonging to one’s thinking, consciousness etc. That is, it is taken subjectively. A non-subjective account of agency, on the other hand, requires thinking this difference as belonging to Being itself, and thinking human beings as a medium within which occurs the non-human force of ontological differentiation.

Keywords: Heidegger, freedom, agency, poststructuralism

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6420 The Onus of Human to Society in Accordance with Constitution and Traditions

Authors: Qamar Raza

Abstract:

This paper deals with the human concern and onus which every person should provide to his/her society. Especially the rules and regulations described in constitution or traditions which we have inherited from ancestors should be followed, and also our lives should be led in accordance with them. The main concern of paper would be personal behavior with others in a good manner especially what he/she should exercise for society’s welfare. As human beings are the fundamental organ of society, who play a crucial role in reforming the society, they should try their best to develop it as well as maintain harmony, peace, we-feeling and mutual contact in the society. Focusing on how the modern society and its elements keep society successful. Regulations of our constitution and tradition are essential for reforming the society. In a nutshell, a human has to mingle in his society and keep mutual respect and understand the value of others as well as for himself.

Keywords: constitution, human beings, society, traditions

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6419 Discovering the Real Psyche of Human Beings

Authors: Sheetla Prasad

Abstract:

The objective of this study is ‘discovering the real psyche of human beings for prediction of mode, direction and strength of the potential of actions of the individual. The human face was taken as a source of central point to search for the route of real psyche. Analysis of the face architecture (shape and salient features of face) was done by three directional photographs ( 600 left and right and camera facing) of human beings. The shapes and features of the human face were scaled in 177 units on the basis of face–features locations (FFL). The mathematical analysis was done of FFLs by self developed and standardized formula. At this phase, 800 samples were taken from the population of students, teachers, advocates, administrative officers, and common persons. The finding shows that real psyche has two external rings (ER). These ER are itself generator of two independent psyches (manifested and manipulated). Prima-facie, it was proved that micro differences in FFLs have potential to predict the state of art of the human psyche. The potential of psyches was determined by the saving and distribution of mental energy. It was also mathematically proved.

Keywords: face architecture, psyche, potential, face functional ratio, external rings

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6418 Trafficking in Children as a Qualified Form of the Crime of Trafficking in Human Beings

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

Abstract:

Trafficking in children, especially vulnerable victims, is a qualified form of committing the crime of human trafficking, and a special form of abuse and violation of children's rights. Given that trafficking in children is dangerous, but also a specific form of crime in relation to trafficking in human beings, this paper will in the first part indicate the forms of trafficking in children (trafficking in children for sexual exploitation, child pornography, and pedophilia, exploitation of labor, begging, performance of criminal acts, adoption, marriage and participation in armed conflicts). The second part references the international documents which regulate this matter as well as the solutions in national criminal legislations of Republic of Croatia and Republic of Serbia. It points to the essential features and characteristics of the victims, according to sex, age, and citizenship, as well as the age of children at the stage of solicitation and recruitment and the status of the family from which the child comes from. The work includes a special emphasis on international police cooperation in the fight against trafficking in children. Concluding remarks set out proposals de lege ferenda that can be of significant impact, particularly on prevention, and then also on repression in combating this serious crime.

Keywords: trafficking in children, trafficking in human beings, child as a victim of human trafficking, children’s rights

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6417 Uniqueness of Fingerprint Biometrics to Human Dynasty: A Review

Authors: Siddharatha Sharma

Abstract:

With the advent of technology and machines, the role of biometrics in society is taking an important place for secured living. Security issues are the major concern in today’s world and continue to grow in intensity and complexity. Biometrics based recognition, which involves precise measurement of the characteristics of living beings, is not a new method. Fingerprints are being used for several years by law enforcement and forensic agencies to identify the culprits and apprehend them. Biometrics is based on four basic principles i.e. (i) uniqueness, (ii) accuracy, (iii) permanency and (iv) peculiarity. In today’s world fingerprints are the most popular and unique biometrics method claiming a social benefit in the government sponsored programs. A remarkable example of the same is UIDAI (Unique Identification Authority of India) in India. In case of fingerprint biometrics the matching accuracy is very high. It has been observed empirically that even the identical twins also do not have similar prints. With the passage of time there has been an immense progress in the techniques of sensing computational speed, operating environment and the storage capabilities and it has become more user convenient. Only a small fraction of the population may be unsuitable for automatic identification because of genetic factors, aging, environmental or occupational reasons for example workers who have cuts and bruises on their hands which keep fingerprints changing. Fingerprints are limited to human beings only because of the presence of volar skin with corrugated ridges which are unique to this species. Fingerprint biometrics has proved to be a high level authentication system for identification of the human beings. Though it has limitations, for example it may be inefficient and ineffective if ridges of finger(s) or palm are moist authentication becomes difficult. This paper would focus on uniqueness of fingerprints to the human beings in comparison to other living beings and review the advancement in emerging technologies and their limitations.

Keywords: fingerprinting, biometrics, human beings, authentication

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6416 Human Trafficking the Kosovar Perspective of Fighting the Phenomena through Police and Civil Society Cooperation

Authors: Samedin Mehmeti

Abstract:

The rationale behind this study is considering combating and preventing the phenomenon of trafficking in human beings from a multidisciplinary perspective that involves many layers of the society. Trafficking in human beings is an abhorrent phenomenon highly affecting negatively the victims and their families in both human and material aspect, sometimes causing irreversible damages. The longer term effects of this phenomenon, in countries with a weak economic development and extremely young and dynamic population, such as Kosovo, without proper measures to prevented and control can cause tremendous damages in the society. Given the fact that a complete eradication of this phenomenon is almost impossible, efforts should be concentrated at least on the prevention and controlling aspects. Treating trafficking in human beings based on traditional police tactics, methods and proceedings cannot bring satisfactory results. There is no doubt that a multi-disciplinary approach is an irreplaceable requirement, in other words, a combination of authentic and functional proactive and reactive methods, techniques and tactics. Obviously, police must exercise its role in preventing and combating trafficking in human beings, a role sanctioned by the law, however, police role and contribution cannot by any means considered complete if all segments of the society are not included in these efforts. Naturally, civil society should have an important share in these collaborative and interactive efforts especially in preventive activities such as: awareness on trafficking risks and damages, proactive engagement in drafting appropriate legislation and strategies, law enforcement monitoring and direct or indirect involvement in protective and supporting activities which benefit the victims of trafficking etc.

Keywords: civil society, cooperation, police, human trafficking

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6415 Spiritual Health in View of Islamic Mysticism

Authors: Maryam Bakhtyar-Pegah Akrami

Abstract:

The relationship between spiritual health and spirituality is one of the important is that in recent years, the research about it is expanding and due to the rich heritage of the in this field of study and research in this important field more than before and we will come to spiritual life and healthier than before. In this research, we provide the following and the basics of Islamic Mysticism in the realm of spiritual health thoughts. This research is based on a descriptive method and comparison with analytical-method to data collected. The findings show that human beings due to this pivotal topic of full Islamic slab, and mental and physical education with the sought to reach the human place are complete, we can provide the basics along with new discussions of spiritual health help human beings to spiritual education along with our faiths in the reconstruction of the spiritual foundations of spiritual health are extremely helpful

Keywords: spirituality, health, Islam, mysticism, perfect human

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6414 The Five Aggregates in Buddhism and Natural Sciences: A Revolutionary Perspective of Nature

Authors: Choo Fatt Foo

Abstract:

The Five Aggregates is core to Buddhism teaching. According to Buddhism, human beings and all sentient beings are made up of nothing but the Five Aggregates. If that is the case, the Five Aggregates must be found in all natural sciences. So far, there has not been any systematic connection between the Five Aggregates and natural sciences. This study aims at identifying traces of the Five Aggregates in various levels of natural sciences and pointing possible directions for future research. The following areas are briefly explored to identify the connection with the Five Aggregates: physics, chemistry, organic chemistry, DNA, cell, and human body and brain. Traces of the Five Aggregates should be found in each level of this hierarchy of natural sciences for human and sentient beings to be said to be made up of the Five Aggregates. This study proposes a hierarchical structure of nature cutting every level with the Five Aggregates and the Four Great Elements as its basis. The structure proposed by this study would revolutionize how we look at nature. Hopefully, better understanding of sciences in this manner will steer the application of scientific methods and technology towards a brighter future with compassion and tolerance.

Keywords: the five aggregates, Buddhism, four great elements, physics, calabi-yau manifold

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6413 Development of Real Time System for Human Detection and Localization from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Optical and Thermal Sensor and Visualization on Geographic Information Systems Platform

Authors: Nemi Bhattarai

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAVs) in search and rescue (SAR) operations, disaster management, and many more areas where information about the location of human beings are important. This research will primarily focus on the use of optical and thermal camera via UAV platform in real-time detection, localization, and visualization of human beings on GIS. This research will be beneficial in disaster management search of lost humans in wilderness or difficult terrain, detecting abnormal human behaviors in border or security tight areas, studying distribution of people at night, counting people density in crowd, manage people flow during evacuation, planning provisions in areas with high human density and many more.

Keywords: UAV, human detection, real-time, localization, visualization, haar-like, GIS, thermal sensor

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6412 Gender Inequality and Human Trafficking

Authors: Kimberly McCabe

Abstract:

The trafficking of women and children for abuse and exploitation is not a new problem under the umbrella of human trafficking; however, over the last decade, the problem has attracted increased attention from international governments and non-profits attempting to reduce victimization and provide services for survivors. Research on human trafficking suggests that the trafficking of human beings is, largely, a symptom of poverty. As the trafficking of human beings may be viewed as a response to the demand for people for various forms of exploitation, a product of poverty, and a consequence of the subordinate positions of women and children in society, it reaches beyond randomized victimization. Hence, human trafficking, and especially the trafficking of women and children, goes beyond the realm of poorness. Therefore, to begin to understand the reasons for the existence of human trafficking, one must identify and consider not only the immediate causes but also those underlying structural determinants that facilitate this form of victimization. Specifically, one must acknowledge the economic, social, and cultural factors that support human trafficking. This research attempts to study human trafficking at the country level by focusing on economic, social, and cultural characteristics. This study focuses on inequality and, in particular, gender inequality as related to legislative attempts to address human trafficking. Within the design of this project is the use of the US State Department’s tier classification system for Trafficking in Persons (TIP) and the USA CIA Fact Sheet of country characteristics for over 150 countries in an attempt to model legal outcomes as related to human trafficking. Results of this research demonstrate the significance of characteristics beyond poverty as related to country-level responses to human trafficking.

Keywords: child trafficking, gender inequality, human trafficking, inequality

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6411 Examination of the Self-Expression Model with Reference to Luxury Watches with Particular Regard of the Buying-Reasons

Authors: Christopher Benedikt Jakob

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Human beings are intrigued by luxury watches for decades. It is fascinating that customers pay an enormous amount of money for specific wristwatch models. It is fascinating that customers of the luxury watch industry accept a yearly price increase. This behavior increases their desirability even more. Luxury watches are perceived as status symbols, but they are additionally accepted as a currency without the disadvantage of currency fluctuations. It is obvious that the symbolic value is more important as the functional value with reference to the buying-reasons as regards luxury watches. Nowadays human beings do not need a wristwatch to read the time. Tablets, notebooks, smartphones, the watch in the car and watches on public places are used to inform people about the current time. This is one of the reasons why there is a trend that people do not wear wristwatches anymore. Due to these facts, this study has the intention to give answers to the question why people invest an enormous amount of money on the consumption of luxury watches and why those watches are seen as a status symbol. The study examines why the luxury watch industry records significant growth rates. The self-expression model is used as an appropriate methodology to find reasons why human beings purchase specific luxury watches. This evaluative approach further discusses if human beings are aware of their current self and their ideal self and how they express them. Furthermore, the research critically evaluates the people’s social self and their ideal social self. One of the goals is to identify if customers know why they like specific luxury watches and dislike others although they have the same quality and cost comparable prices.

Keywords: luxury watch, brand awareness, buying-behaviour, consumer, self-expression

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6410 Research on Spatial Pattern and Spatial Structure of Human Settlement from the View of Spatial Anthropology – A Case Study of the Settlement in Sizhai Village, City of Zhuji, Zhejiang Province, China

Authors: Ni Zhenyu

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A human settlement is defined as the social activities, social relationships and lifestyles generated within a certain territory, which is also relatively independent territorial living space and domain composed of common people. Along with the advancement of technology and the development of society, the idea, presented in traditional research, that human settlements are deemed as substantial organic integrity with strong autonomy, are more often challenged nowadays. Spatial form of human settlements is one of the most outstanding external expressions with its subjectivity and autonomy, nevertheless, the projections of social, economic activities on certain territories are even more significant. What exactly is the relationship between human beings and the spatial form of the settlements where they live in? a question worth thinking over has been raised, that if a new view, a spatial anthropological one , can be constructed to review and respond to spatial form of human settlements based on research theories and methods of cultural anthropology within the profession of architecture. This article interprets how the typical spatial form of human settlements in the basin area of Bac Giang Province is formed under the collective impacts of local social order, land use condition, topographic features, and social contracts. A particular case of the settlement in Sizhai Village, City of Zhuji, Zhejiang Province is chosen to study for research purpose. Spatial form of human settlements are interpreted as a modeled integrity affected corporately by dominant economy, social patterns, key symbol marks and core values, etc.. Spatial form of human settlements, being a structured existence, is a materialized, behavioral, and social space; it can be considered as a place where human beings realize their behaviors and a path on which the continuity of their behaviors are kept, also for social practice a territory where currant social structure and social relationships are maintained, strengthened and rebuilt. This article aims to break the boundary of understanding that spatial form of human settlements is pure physical space, furthermore, endeavors to highlight the autonomy status of human beings, focusing on their relationships with certain territories, their interpersonal relationships, man-earth relationships and the state of existence of human beings, elaborating the deeper connotation behind spatial form of human settlements.

Keywords: spatial anthropology, human settlement, spatial pattern, spatial structure

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6409 Muhammad`s Vision of Interaction with Supernatural Beings According to the Hadith in Comparison to Parallels of Other Cultures

Authors: Vladimir A. Rozov

Abstract:

Comparative studies of religion and ritual could contribute better understanding of human culture universalities. Belief in supernatural beings seems to be a common feature of the religion. A significant part of the Islamic concepts that concern supernatural beings is based on a tradition based on the Hadiths. They reflect, among other things, his ideas about a proper way to interact with supernatural beings. These ideas to a large extent follow from the pre-Islamic religious experience of the Arabs and had been reflected in a number of ritual actions. Some of those beliefs concern a particular function of clothing. For example, it is known that Muhammad was wrapped in clothes during the revelation of the Quran. The same thing was performed by pre-Islamic soothsayers (kāhin) and by rival opponents of Muhammad during their trances. Muhammad also turned the clothes inside out during religious rituals (prayer for rain). Besides these specific ways of clothing which prove the external similarity of Muhammad with the soothsayers and other people who claimed the connection with supernatural forces, the pre-Islamic soothsayers had another characteristic feature which is physical flaws. In this regard, it is worth to note Muhammad's so-called "Seal the Prophecy" (h̠ ātam an- nubūwwa) -protrusion or outgrowth on his back. Another interesting feature of Muhammad's behavior was his attitude to eating onion and garlic. In particular, the Prophet didn`t eat them and forbade people who had tasted these vegetables to enter mosques, until the smell ceases to be felt. The reason for this ban on eating onion and garlic is caused by a belief that the smell of these products prevents communication with otherworldly forces. The materials of the Hadith also suggest that Muhammad shared faith in the apotropical properties of water. Both of these ideas have parallels in other cultures of the world. Muhammad's actions supposed to provide an interaction with the supernatural beings are not accidental. They have parallels in the culture of pre-Islamic Arabia as well as in many past and present world cultures. The latter fact can be explained by the similarity of the universal human beliefs in supernatural beings and how they should be interacted with. Later a number of similar ideas shared by the Prophet Muhammad was legitimized by the Islamic tradition and formed the basis of popular Islamic rituals. Thus, these parallels emphasize the commonality of human notions of supernatural beings and also demonstrate the significance of the pre-Islamic cultural context in analyzing the genesis of Islamic religious beliefs.

Keywords: hadith, Prophet Muhammad, ritual, supernatural beings

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6408 The Effect of Human Relation on Employee Performance at Faculty of Economics of Syiah Kuala University

Authors: Yurnalis Usman

Abstract:

In an organization, institution or enterprise, human resource is very important aspect since many human skills cannot be replaced by technology tools even though technology has advanced rapidly now. The relationship among people is very necessary to create a subordinate and leader relation in the assumption that human beings are creatures who have feeling, desires, needs, aspirations and ideas differing from one another. This study on human relation was conducted at the Faculty of Economics of UNSYIAH, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, while the research object is associated with human relations and employee performance in Faculty of Economics of UNSYIAH. To determine the extent of employee relations in Faculty of Economics with fellow employees or superiors, the employees are given some questions. The result shows that human relations influence the employee performance at Faculty of Economics UNSYIAH strongly.

Keywords: human relation, employee performance, communication, Syiah Kuala

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6407 The Diversity in the Concept of Existence from Kierkegaard to Sartre

Authors: Mohammad Motiee

Abstract:

From Kierkegaard to Sartre, the concept of 'being' was debated over various angles in the philosophy of being. Then, the futility, nothingness and absurdity of human condition in the world were all justified and led to a kind of solution by different approaches like Christianity, loss of faith, authentic existence and responsibility. In an extreme concern, the human condition in the world was pondered in different ways and the philosophy of thought tried to render an awareness of such condition for human beings. The present study aims at illustration of some approaches presented by prominent existentialists to justify the controversies in the concept of existence in human life.

Keywords: existence, existentialism, alienation, being

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6406 Weal: The Human Core of Well-Being as Attested by Social and Life Sciences

Authors: Gyorgy Folk

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A finite set of cardinal needs define the human core of living well shaped on the evolutionary time scale as attested by social and life sciences of the last decades. Well-being is the purported state of living well. Living of humans akin any other living beings involves the exchange of vital substance with nature, maintaining a supportive symbiosis with an array of other living beings, living up to bonds to kin and exerting efforts to sustain living. A supportive natural environment, access to material resources, the nearness to fellow beings, and life sustaining activity are prerequisites of well-being. Well-living is prone to misinterpretation as an individual achievement, one lives well only and only if bonded to human relationships, related to a place, incorporated in nature. Akin all other forms of it, human life is a self-sustaining arrangement. One may say that the substance of life is life, and not materials, products, and services converted into life. The human being remains shaped on an evolutionary time scale and is enabled within the non-altering core of human being, invariant of cultural differences in earthly space and time. Present paper proposes the introduction of weal, the missing link in the causal chain of societal performance and the goodness of life. Interpreted differently over the ages, cultures and disciplines, instead of well-being, the construct in general use, weal is proposed as the underlying foundation of well-being. Weal stands for the totality of socialised reality as framing well-being for the individual beyond the possibility of deliberate choice. The descriptive approach to weal, mapping it under the guidance of discrete scientific disciplines reveals a limited set of cardinal aspects, labeled here the cardinal needs. Cardinal expresses the fundamental reorientation weal can bring about, needs deliver the sense of sine qua non. Weal is conceived as a oneness mapped along eight cardinal needs. The needs, approached as aspects instead of analytically isolated factors do not require mutually exclusive definitions. To serve the purpose of reorientation, weal is operationalised as a domain in multidimensional space, each dimension encompassing an optimal level of availability of the fundamental satisfiers between the extremes of drastic insufficiency and harmful excess, ensured by actual human effort. Weal seeks balance among the material and social aspects of human being while allows for cultural and individual uniqueness in attaining human flourishing.

Keywords: human well-being, development, economic theory, human needs

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6405 A Study from Language and Culture Perspective of Human Needs in Chinese and Vietnamese Euphemism Languages

Authors: Quoc Hung Le Pham

Abstract:

Human beings are motivated to satisfy the physiological needs and psychological needs. In the fundamental needs, bodily excretion is the most basic one, while physiological excretion refers to the final products produced in the process of discharging the body. This physiological process is a common human phenomenon. For instance, bodily secretion is totally natural, but people of various nationalities through the times avoid saying it directly. Terms like ‘shit’ are often negatively regarded as dirty, smelly and vulgar; it will lead people to negative thinking. In fact, it is in the psychology of human beings to avoid such unsightly terms. Especially in social situations where you have to take care of your image, and you have to release. The best way to solve this is to approach the use of euphemism. People prefer to say it as ‘answering nature's call’ or ‘to pass a motion’ instead. Chinese and Vietnamese nations are referring to use euphemisms to replace bodily secretions, so this research will take this phenomenon as the object aims to explore the similarities and dissimilarities between two languages euphemism. The basic of the niche of this paper is human physiological phenomenon excretion. As the preliminary results show, in expressing bodily secretions the deeply impacting factor is language and cultural factors. On language factor terms, two languages are using assonance to replace human nature discharge, whilst the dissimilarities are metonymy, loan word and personification. On culture factor terms, the convergences are metonymy and application of the semantically-contrary-word-euphemism, whilst the difference is Chinese euphemism using allusion but Vietnamese euphemism does not.

Keywords: cultural factors, euphemism, human needs, language factors

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6404 One Nature under God, and Divisible: Augustine’s “Duality of Man” Applied to the Creation Stories of Genesis

Authors: Elizabeth Latham

Abstract:

The notion that women were created as innately inferior to men has yet to be expelled completely from the theological system of humankind. This question and the biblical exegesis it requires are of paramount importance to feminist philosophy—after all, the study can bear little fruit if we cannot even agree on equality within the theological roots of humanity. Augustine’s “Duality of Man” gives new context to the two creation stories in Genesis, texts especially relevant given the billions of people worldwide that ascribe to them as philosophical realities. Each creation story describes the origin of human beings and is matched with one of Augustine’s two orders of mankind. The first story describes the absolute origin of the human soul and is paired with Augustine’s notion of the “spiritual order” of a human being: divine and eternal, fulfilling the biblical idea that human beings were created in the image and likeness of God. The second creation story, in contrast, depicts those aspects of humanity that distinguish and separate us from God: doubt, fear, and sin. It also introduces gender as a concept for the first time in the Bible. This story is better matched with Augustine’s idea of the “natural order” of humanity, that by which he believes women, in fact, are inferior. In the synthesis of the two sources, one can see that the natural order and any inferiority that it implies are incidental and not intended in our creation. Gender inequality is introduced with and belongs in the category of human imperfection and to cite the Bible as encouraging it constitutes a gross misunderstanding of scripture. This is easy to see when we divide human nature into “spiritual” and “natural” and look carefully at where scripture falls.

Keywords: augustine, bible, duality of man, feminism, genesis

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6403 Approaching the Words Denoting Cognitive Activity in Vietnamese Language in Comparison with English Language

Authors: Thi Phuong Ly Tran

Abstract:

Being a basic and unique to human beings, cognitive activity possesses spiritualistic characteristics and is conveyed through languages. Words that represent rational cognition or processes related to rationality as follow: know, think, understand, doubt, be afraid, remember, forget, think (that), realize (that), find (that), etc. can reflect the process by which human beings have transformed cognitive activities into diversified and delicate manners through linguistic tasks. In this research article, applying the descriptive method and comparative method, we would like to utilize the application of the theoretical system of linguistic characteristics of cognitive verbs in Vietnamese language in comparison with English language. These achievements of this article will meaningfully contribute to highlight characteristics of Vietnamese language and identify the similarities and differences in the linguistic processes of Vietnamese and English people as well as supply more knowledge for social requirements such as foreign language learning, dictionary editing, language teaching in schools.

Keywords: cognitive activity, cognitive perspective, Vietnamese language, English language

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6402 Assessment of Base Station Radiation Pollution in Areas of Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya-Turkey

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi, Levent Seyfi

Abstract:

The technological devices are more often being used days by day. Thus, electro magnetic pollution is being more important now than last decades. Especially mobile phones and their base stations are subject to assessment in respect of all living beings health as well as of human beings. In this context, it is worth to evaluate the situation of electromagnetic radiation exposing living beings such as animals. In this study, electromagnetic radiation levels to which sheep are exposed in Konya/Turkey are presented. The electromagnetic radiation is measured at 1800 MHz for GSM base stations. 1085 sheep farms are determined in areas of Konya center region (Selçuklu, Meram, and Karatay) in which sheep and goat breeding is widely carried out. In this study, 790 sheep and goat farms, 10.8 % for total farms in Konya region (7276), having more than 100 animals are assessed. Then, the data obtained are depicted. As a conclusion, the results should be evaluated together with the future measurements to determine the exact effect on health of sheep and their productivity.

Keywords: electromagnetic pollution, sheep housing, sheep and goat farm, environmental pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
6401 Examination of How Do Smart Watches Influence the Market of Luxury Watches with Particular Regard of the Buying-Reasons

Authors: Christopher Benedikt Jakob

Abstract:

In our current society, there is no need to take a look at the wristwatch to know the exact time. Smartphones, the watch in the car or the computer watch, inform us about the time too. Over hundreds of years, luxury watches have held a fascination for human beings. Consumers buy watches that cost thousands of euros, although they could buy much cheaper watches which also fulfill the function to indicate the correct time. This shows that the functional value has got a minor meaning with reference to the buying-reasons as regards luxury watches. For a few years, people have an increased demand to track data like their walking distance per day or to track their sleep for example. Smart watches enable consumers to get information about these data. There exists a trend that people intend to optimise parts of their social life, and thus they get the impression that they are able to optimise themselves as human beings. With the help of smart watches, they are able to optimise parts of their productivity and to realise their targets at the same time. These smart watches are also offered as luxury models, and the question is: how will customers of traditional luxury watches react? Therefore this study has the intention to give answers to the question why people are willing to spend an enormous amount of money on the consumption of luxury watches. The self-expression model, the relationship basis model, the functional benefit representation model and the means-end-theory are chosen as an appropriate methodology to find reasons why human beings purchase specific luxury watches and luxury smart watches. This evaluative approach further discusses these strategies concerning for example if consumers buy luxury watches/smart watches to express the current self or the ideal self and if human beings make decisions on expected results. The research critically evaluates that relationships are compared on the basis of their advantages. Luxury brands offer socio-emotional advantages like social functions of identification and that the strong brand personality of luxury watches and luxury smart watches helps customers to structure and retrieve brand awareness which simplifies the process of decision-making. One of the goals is to identify if customers know why they like specific luxury watches and dislike others although they are produced in the same country and cost comparable prices. It is very obvious that the market for luxury watches especially for luxury smart watches is changing way faster than it has been in the past. Therefore the research examines the market changing parameters in detail.

Keywords: buying-behaviour, brand management, consumer, luxury watch, smart watch

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6400 Artificial Generation of Visual Evoked Potential to Enhance Visual Ability

Authors: A. Vani, M. N. Mamatha

Abstract:

Visual signal processing in human beings occurs in the occipital lobe of the brain. The signals that are generated in the brain are universal for all the human beings and they are called Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Generally, the visually impaired people lose sight because of severe damage to only the eyes natural photo sensors, but the occipital lobe will still be functioning. In this paper, a technique of artificially generating VEP is proposed to enhance the visual ability of the subject. The system uses the electrical photoreceptors to capture image, process the image, to detect and recognize the subject or object. This voltage is further processed and can transmit wirelessly to a BIOMEMS implanted into occipital lobe of the patient’s brain. The proposed BIOMEMS consists of array of electrodes that generate the neuron potential which is similar to VEP of normal people. Thus, the neurons get the visual data from the BioMEMS which helps in generating partial vision or sight for the visually challenged patient. 

Keywords: BioMEMS, neuro-prosthetic, openvibe, visual evoked potential

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6399 International Conference on Comparative Religion and Mythology

Authors: Mara Varelaki

Abstract:

In response to the challenge of the environmental crisis the discipline of environmental ethics examines the relation of human beings towards the environment and the value of the non-human constituents of the surrounding world. In the face of this crisis, assumptions regarding human and nature relations ought to be traced and reexamined because they can cause difficulties in diagnosing problematic attitudes towards the environment and non-human animals. This paper presents the claims that European and the Judea-Christian cosmogonic myths place the human figure in the core of the creation of the cosmos, thus verifying a hierarchical structure where humans occupy the top, and they establish a perception of nature as a non-human other. By doing so, these narratives provide some justification to the notion of the human-nature dichotomy and the human domination over other life forms and ecosystems. These anthropocentric assumptions evolved into what Hilde Lindemann terms master narratives and their influence extents to ecocentric ethical theories which attempt, and often fail, to shed the anthropocentrism of the western ethical tradition. The goal of this paper is (1) to trace the anthropocentric assumptions embedded in western thought and (2) articulate how they maintain their grip on our contemporary understanding of the human relation to and position within the environment, thus showing the need for a method of detecting and bracketing anthropocentric assumptions in social narratives and ethical frameworks.

Keywords: cosmogonies, anthropocentrism, human/nature dichotomy, master narratives, ecocentrism

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6398 A Comparative Approach to the Concept of Incarnation of God in Hinduism and Christianity

Authors: Cemil Kutluturk

Abstract:

This is a comparative study of the incarnation of God according to Hinduism and Christianity. After dealing with their basic ideas on the concept of the incarnation of God, the main similarities and differences between each other will be examined by quoting references from their sacred texts. In Hinduism, the term avatara is used in order to indicate the concept of the incarnation of God. The word avatara is derived from ava (down) and tri (to cross, to save, attain). Thus avatara means to come down or to descend. Although an avatara is commonly considered as an appearance of any deity on earth, the term refers particularly to descents of Vishnu. According to Hinduism, God becomes an avatara in every age and entering into diverse wombs for the sake of establishing righteousness. On the Christian side, the word incarnation means enfleshment. In Christianity, it is believed that the Logos or Word, the Second Person of Trinity, presumed human reality. Incarnation refers both to the act of God becoming a human being and to the result of his action, namely the permanent union of the divine and human natures in the one Person of the Word. When the doctrines of incarnation and avatara are compared some similarities and differences can be found between each other. The basic similarity is that both doctrines are not bound by the laws of nature as human beings are. They reveal God’s personal love and concern, and emphasize loving devotion. Their entry into the world is generally accompanied by extraordinary signs. In both cases, the descent of God allows for human beings to ascend to God. On the other hand, there are some distinctions between two religious traditions. For instance, according to Hinduism there are many and repeated avataras, while Christ comes only once. Indeed, this is related to the respective cyclic and linear worldviews of the two religions. Another difference is that in Hinduism avataras are real and perfect, while in Christianity Christ is also real, yet imperfect; that is, he has human imperfections, except sin. While Christ has never been thought of as a partial incarnation, in Hinduism there are some partial and full avataras. The other difference is that while the purpose of Christ is primarily ultimate salvation, not every avatara grants ultimate liberation, some of them come only to save a devotee from a specific predicament.

Keywords: Avatara, Christianity, Hinduism, incarnation

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
6397 Authentic Connection between the Deity and the Individual Human Being Is Vital for Psychological, Biological, and Social Health

Authors: Sukran Karatas

Abstract:

Authentic energy network interrelations between the Creator and the creations as well as from creations to creations are the most important points for the worlds of physics and metaphysic to unite together and work in harmony, both within human beings, on the other hand, have the ability to choose their own life style voluntarily. However, it includes the automated involuntary spirit, soul and body working systems together with the voluntary actions, which involve personal, cultural and universal, rational or irrational variable values. Therefore, it is necessary for human beings to know the methods of existing authentic energy network connections to be able to communicate correlate and accommodate the physical and metaphysical entities as a proper functioning unity; this is essential for complete human psychological, biological and social well-being. Authentic knowledge is necessary for human beings to verify the position of self within self and with others to regulate conscious and voluntary actions accordingly in order to prevent oppressions and frictions within self and between self and others. Unfortunately, the absence of genuine individual and universal basic knowledge about how to establish an authentic energy network connection within self, with the deity and the environment is the most problematic issue even in the twenty-first century. The second most problematic issue is how to maintain freedom, equality and justice among human beings during these strictly interwoven network connections, which naturally involve physical, metaphysical and behavioral actions of the self and the others. The third and probably the most complicated problem is the scientific identification and the authentication of the deity. This not only provides the whole power and control over the choosers to set their life orders but also to establish perfect physical and metaphysical links as fully coordinated functional energy network. This thus indicates that choosing an authentic deity is the key-point that influences automated, emotional, and behavioral actions altogether, which shapes human perception, personal actions, and life orders. Therefore, we will be considering the existing ‘four types of energy wave end boundary behaviors’, comprising, free end, fixed end boundary behaviors, as well as boundary behaviors from denser medium to less dense medium and from less dense medium to denser medium. Consequently, this article aims to demonstrate that the authentication and the choice of deity has an important effect on individual psychological, biological and social health. It is hoped that it will encourage new researches in the field of authentic energy network connections to establish the best position and the most correct interrelation connections with self and others without violating the authorized orders and the borders of one another to live happier and healthier lives together. In addition, the book ‘Deity and Freedom, Equality, Justice in History, Philosophy, Science’ has more detailed information for those interested in this subject.

Keywords: deity, energy network, power, freedom, equality, justice, happiness, sadness, hope, fear, psychology, biology, sociology

Procedia PDF Downloads 273