Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 485

Search results for: constructive alignment

485 LORA: A Learning Outcome Modelling Approach for Higher Education

Authors: Aqeel Zeid, Hasna Anees, Mohamed Adheeb, Mohamed Rifan, Kalpani Manathunga

Abstract:

To achieve constructive alignment in a higher education program, a clear set of learning outcomes must be defined. Traditional learning outcome definition techniques such as Bloom’s taxonomy are not written to be utilized by the student. This might be disadvantageous for students in student-centric learning settings where the students are expected to formulate their own learning strategies. To solve the problem, we propose the learning outcome relation and aggregation (LORA) model. To achieve alignment, we developed learning outcome, assessment, and resource authoring tools which help teachers to tag learning outcomes during creation. A pilot study was conducted with an expert panel consisting of experienced professionals in the education domain to evaluate whether the LORA model and tools present an improvement over the traditional methods. The panel unanimously agreed that the model and tools are beneficial and effective. Moreover, it helped them model learning outcomes in a more student centric and descriptive way.

Keywords: learning design, constructive alignment, Bloom’s taxonomy, learning outcome modelling

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484 Measurement and Monitoring of Graduate Attributes via iCGPA Implementation and ACADEMIA Programming: UNIMAS Case Study

Authors: Shanti Faridah Salleh, Azzahrah Anuar, Hamimah Ujir, Rohana Sapawi, Wan Hashim Wan Ibrahim, Noraziah Abdul Wahab, Majina Sulaiman, Raudhah Ahmadi, Al-Khalid Othman, Johari Abdullah

Abstract:

Integrated Cumulative Grade Point Average or iCGPA is an evaluation and reporting system that represents a comprehensive development of students’ achievement in their academic programs. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, UNIMAS has started its implementation of iCGPA in 2016. iCGPA is driven by the Outcome-Based Education (OBE) system that has been long integrated into the higher education in Malaysia. iCGPA is not only a tool to enhance the OBE concept through constructive alignment but it is also an integrated mechanism to assist various stakeholders in making decisions or planning for program improvement. The outcome of this integrated system is the reporting of students’ academic performance in terms of cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills), and affective (attitude) of which the students acquire throughout the duration of their study. The iCGPA reporting illustrates the attainment of student’s attribute in the eight domains of learning outcomes listed in the Malaysian Qualifications Framework (MQF). This paper discusses on the implementation of iCGPA in UNIMAS on the policy and strategy to direct the whole university to implement the iCGPA. The steps and challenges in integrating the exsting Outcome-Based Education and utilising iCGPA as a tool to quantify the students’ achievement are also highlighted in this paper. Finally, the ACADEMIA system, which is a dedicated centralised program ensure the implementation of iCGPA is a success has been developed. This paper discusses the structure and the analysis of ACADEMIA program and concludes the analysis made on the improvement made on the implementation of constructive alignment in all 40 programs involves in iCGPA implementation.

Keywords: constructive alignment, holistic graduates, mapping of assessment, programme outcome

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483 Model Canvas and Process for Educational Game Design in Outcome-Based Education

Authors: Ratima Damkham, Natasha Dejdumrong, Priyakorn Pusawiro

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This paper explored the solution in game design to help game designers in the educational game designing using digital educational game model canvas (DEGMC) and digital educational game form (DEGF) based on Outcome-based Education program. DEGMC and DEGF can help designers develop an overview of the game while designing and planning their own game. The way to clearly assess players’ ability from learning outcomes and support their game learning design is by using the tools. Designers can balance educational content and entertainment in designing a game by using the strategies of the Business Model Canvas and design the gameplay and players’ ability assessment from learning outcomes they need by referring to the Constructive Alignment. Furthermore, they can use their design plan in this research to write their Game Design Document (GDD). The success of the research was evaluated by four experts’ perspectives in the education and computer field. From the experiments, the canvas and form helped the game designers model their game according to the learning outcomes and analysis of their own game elements. This method can be a path to research an educational game design in the future.

Keywords: constructive alignment, constructivist theory, educational game, outcome-based education

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482 Methodology for Obtaining Static Alignment Model

Authors: Lely A. Luengas, Pedro R. Vizcaya, Giovanni Sánchez

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In this paper, a methodology is presented to obtain the Static Alignment Model for any transtibial amputee person. The proposed methodology starts from experimental data collected on the Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, Colombia. The effects of transtibial prosthesis malalignment on amputees were measured in terms of joint angles, center of pressure (COP) and weight distribution. Some statistical tools are used to obtain the model parameters. Mathematical predictive models of prosthetic alignment were created. The proposed models are validated in amputees and finding promising results for the prosthesis Static Alignment. Static alignment process is unique to each subject; nevertheless the proposed methodology can be used in each transtibial amputee.

Keywords: information theory, prediction model, prosthetic alignment, transtibial prosthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
481 3D Shape Knitting: Loop Alignment on a Surface with Positive Gaussian Curvature

Authors: C. T. Cheung, R. K. P. Ng, T. Y. Lo, Zhou Jinyun

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This paper aims at manipulating loop alignment in knitting a three-dimensional (3D) shape by its geometry. Two loop alignment methods are introduced to handle a surface with positive Gaussian curvature. As weft knitting is a two-dimensional (2D) knitting mechanism that the knitting cam carrying the feeders moves in two directions only, left and right, the knitted fabric generated grows in width and length but not in depth. Therefore, a 3D shape is required to be flattened to a 2D plane with surface area preserved for knitting. On this flattened plane, dimensional measurements are taken for loop alignment. The way these measurements being taken derived two different loop alignment methods. In this paper, only plain knitted structure was considered. Each knitted loop was taken as a basic unit for loop alignment in order to achieve the required geometric dimensions, without the inclusion of other stitches which give textural dimensions to the fabric. Two loop alignment methods were experimented and compared. Only one of these two can successfully preserve the dimensions of the shape.

Keywords: 3D knitting, 3D shape, loop alignment, positive Gaussian curvature

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480 Measuring Business Strategy and Information Systems Alignment

Authors: Amit Saraswat, Ruchi Tewari

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Purpose: The research paper aims at understanding the alignment of business and IT in the Indian context and the business value attached to such an alignment. Methodology: The study is conducted in two stages. Stage one: Bibliographic research was conducted to evolve the parameters for defining alignment. Stage two: Evolving a model for strategic alignment to conduct an empirical study. The model is defined in terms of four fundamental domains of strategic management choice – business strategy, information strategy, organizational structure, and information technology structure. A survey through a questionnaire was conducted across organizations from 4 different industries and Structure Equation Modelling (SEM) technique is used for validating the model. Findings: In the Indian scenario all the subscales of alignment could not be validated. It could be validated that organizational strategy impacts information strategy and information technology structure. Research Limitations: The study is limited to the Indian context. Business IT alignment may be culture dependent so further research is required to validate the model in other cultures. Originality/Value: In the western world several models of alignment of business strategy and information systems is available but they do not measure the extent of alignment which the current study in the Indian context. Findings of the study can be used by managers in strategizing and understanding their business and information systems needs holistically and cohesively leading to efficient use of resources and output.

Keywords: business strategy, information technology (IT), business IT alignment, SEM

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479 A Comparative Assessment Method For Map Alignment Techniques

Authors: Rema Daher, Theodor Chakhachiro, Daniel Asmar

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In the era of autonomous robot mapping, assessing the goodness of the generated maps is important, and is usually performed by aligning them to ground truth. Map alignment is difficult for two reasons: first, the query maps can be significantly distorted from ground truth, and second, establishing what constitutes ground truth for different settings is challenging. Most map alignment techniques to this date have addressed the first problem, while paying too little importance to the second. In this paper, we propose a benchmark dataset, which consists of synthetically transformed maps with their corresponding displacement fields. Furthermore, we propose a new system for comparison, where the displacement field of any map alignment technique can be computed and compared to the ground truth using statistical measures. The local information in displacement fields renders the evaluation system applicable to any alignment technique, whether it is linear or not. In our experiments, the proposed method was applied to different alignment methods from the literature, allowing for a comparative assessment between them all.

Keywords: assessment methods, benchmark, image deformation, map alignment, robot mapping, robot motion

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478 Alignment between Understanding and Assessment Practice among Secondary School Teachers

Authors: Eftah Bte Moh, Hj Abdullah Izazol Binti Idris, Abd. Aziz Bin Abd. Shukor

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This study aimed to identify the alignment of understanding and assessment practices among secondary school teachers. The study was carried out using quantitative descriptive study. The sample consisted of 164 teachers who taught Form 1 and 2 from 11 secondary schools in the district of North Kinta, Perak, Malaysia. Data were obtained from 164 respondents who answered Expectation Alignment Understanding and Practices of School Assessment (PEKDAPS) questionnaire. The data were analysed using SPSS 17.0 +. The Cronbach alpha value obtained through PEKDAPS questionnaire pilot study was 0.86. The results showed that teachers' performance in PEKDAPS based on the mean value was less than 3, which means that perfect alignment does not occur between the understanding and practices of school assessment. Two major PEKDAPS sub-constructs of articulation across grade and age and usability of the system were higher than the moderate alignment of the understanding and practices of school assessment (Min=2.0). The content was focused on PEKDAPs sub-constructs which showed lower than the moderate alignment of the understanding and practices of school assessment (Min=2.0). Another two PEKDAPS sub-constructs of transparency and fairness and the pedagogical implications showed moderate alignment (2.0). The implications of the study is that teachers need to fully understand the importance of alignment among components of assessment, learning and teaching and learning objectives as strategies to achieve quality assessment process.

Keywords: school based assessment, alignment, understanding, assessment practices

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477 An Efficient Algorithm for Global Alignment of Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

Authors: Duc Dong Do, Ngoc Ha Tran, Thanh Hai Dang, Cao Cuong Dang, Xuan Huan Hoang

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Global aligning two protein-protein interaction networks is an essentially important task in bioinformatics/computational biology field of study. It is a challenging and widely studied research topic in recent years. Accurately aligned networks allow us to identify functional modules of proteins and/ororthologous proteins from which unknown functions of a protein can be inferred. We here introduce a novel efficient heuristic global network alignment algorithm called FASTAn, including two phases: the first to construct an initial alignment and the second to improve such alignment by exerting a local optimization repeated procedure. The experimental results demonstrated that FASTAn outperformed the state-of-the-art global network alignment algorithm namely SPINAL in terms of both commonly used objective scores and the run-time.

Keywords: FASTAn, Heuristic algorithm, biological network alignment, protein-protein interaction networks

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476 The Effects of Key Factors in Traffic-Oriented Road Alignment Adjustment for Low Emissions Profile: A Case Study in Norway

Authors: Gaylord K. Booto, Marinelli Giuseppe, Helge Brattebø, Rolf A. Bohne

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Emissions reduction has emerged among the principal targets in the process of planning and designing road alignments today. Intelligent road design methods that can result in optimized alignment constitute concrete and innovative responses towards better alternatives and more sustainable road infrastructures. As the largest amount of emissions of road infrastructures occur in the operation stage, it becomes very important to consider traffic weight and distribution in alignment design process. This study analyzes the effects of four traffic factors (i.e. operating speed, vehicle category, technology and fuel type) on adjusting the vertical alignment of a given road, using optimization techniques. Further, factors’ effects are assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, and the emission profiles of resulting alignment alternatives are compared.

Keywords: alignment adjustment, emissions reduction, optimization, traffic-oriented

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475 Neither ‘Institutional’ nor ‘Remedial’: Court-Ordered Trusts in English and Canadian Private Law

Authors: Adam Reilly

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The major claim of this paper is that both the English and Canadian branches of the common law have been ill-served by the 'institutional'/'remedial' taxonomy of constructive trusts; what shall be termed the 'orthodox taxonomy'.  The orthodox taxonomy is found both within the case law and the attendant academic commentary.  In truth, the orthodox taxonomy is especially dangerous because it contains a kernel of truth together with a misconception; the interplay of both has caused more harm than the misconception alone would have managed.  The kernel of truth is that some trusts arise automatically when the necessary facts occur ('institutional') and other trusts arise only by way of court order ('remedial').  The misconception is that these two labels represent an exhaustive nomenclature of two distinct 'kinds' of constructive trust such that any particular constructive trust must necessarily be 'institutional' if it is not 'remedial' and vice versa.  The central difficulty is that our understanding of 'remedial' trusts is relatively poor, with the result that anyone using the orthodox taxonomy shall be led astray in one of three ways: (i) by rejecting it wholesale; (ii) by adopting one ‘type’ of trust to the exclusion of the other (as in English law); or (iii) by applying it as an analytical device with sub-optimal results which are difficult to defend.  This paper shall seek to resolve these difficulties by clarifying the criteria for identifying and distinguishing true 'remedial' constructive trusts.  It shall then provide some working examples of how English and Canadian private law at present misunderstand constructive trusts and how that misunderstanding might be resolved once we distinguish the orthodox taxonomy's kernel of truth from the misconception outlined above.

Keywords: comparative law, constructive trusts, equitable remedies, remedial constructive trusts

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474 A Robust and Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter for the Air Fine Alignment of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System/GPS

Authors: Jian Shi, Baoguo Yu, Haonan Jia, Meng Liu, Ping Huang

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Adapting to the flexibility of war, a large number of guided weapons launch from aircraft. Therefore, the inertial navigation system loaded in the weapon needs to undergo an alignment process in the air. This article proposes the following methods to the problem of inaccurate modeling of the system under large misalignment angles, the accuracy reduction of filtering caused by outliers, and the noise changes in GPS signals: first, considering the large misalignment errors of Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS)/GPS, a more accurate model is made rather than to make a small-angle approximation, and the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) algorithms are used to estimate the state; then, taking into account the impact of GPS noise changes on the fine alignment algorithm, the innovation adaptive filtering algorithm is introduced to estimate the GPS’s noise in real-time; at the same time, in order to improve the anti-interference ability of the air fine alignment algorithm, a robust filtering algorithm based on outlier detection is combined with the air fine alignment algorithm to improve the robustness of the algorithm. The algorithm can improve the alignment accuracy and robustness under interference conditions, which is verified by simulation.

Keywords: air alignment, fine alignment, inertial navigation system, integrated navigation system, UKF

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473 CompPSA: A Component-Based Pairwise RNA Secondary Structure Alignment Algorithm

Authors: Ghada Badr, Arwa Alturki

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The biological function of an RNA molecule depends on its structure. The objective of the alignment is finding the homology between two or more RNA secondary structures. Knowing the common functionalities between two RNA structures allows a better understanding and a discovery of other relationships between them. Besides, identifying non-coding RNAs -that is not translated into a protein- is a popular application in which RNA structural alignment is the first step A few methods for RNA structure-to-structure alignment have been developed. Most of these methods are partial structure-to-structure, sequence-to-structure, or structure-to-sequence alignment. Less attention is given in the literature to the use of efficient RNA structure representation and the structure-to-structure alignment methods are lacking. In this paper, we introduce an O(N2) Component-based Pairwise RNA Structure Alignment (CompPSA) algorithm, where structures are given as a component-based representation and where N is the maximum number of components in the two structures. The proposed algorithm compares the two RNA secondary structures based on their weighted component features rather than on their base-pair details. Extensive experiments are conducted illustrating the efficiency of the CompPSA algorithm when compared to other approaches and on different real and simulated datasets. The CompPSA algorithm shows an accurate similarity measure between components. The algorithm gives the flexibility for the user to align the two RNA structures based on their weighted features (position, full length, and/or stem length). Moreover, the algorithm proves scalability and efficiency in time and memory performance.

Keywords: alignment, RNA secondary structure, pairwise, component-based, data mining

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472 A Similarity/Dissimilarity Measure to Biological Sequence Alignment

Authors: Muhammad A. Khan, Waseem Shahzad

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Analysis of protein sequences is carried out for the purpose to discover their structural and ancestry relationship. Sequence similarity determines similar protein structures, similar function, and homology detection. Biological sequences composed of amino acid residues or nucleotides provide significant information through sequence alignment. In this paper, we present a new similarity/dissimilarity measure to sequence alignment based on the primary structure of a protein. The approach finds the distance between the two given sequences using the novel sequence alignment algorithm and a mathematical model. The algorithm runs at a time complexity of O(n²). A distance matrix is generated to construct a phylogenetic tree of different species. The new similarity/dissimilarity measure outperforms other existing methods.

Keywords: alignment, distance, homology, mathematical model, phylogenetic tree

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471 Alignment of Information System Strategy and Green Information System Strategy: Comprehension and A Review of the Literature

Authors: Wartika Memed Purawinata, Kridanto Surendro, Husni Sastramiharja, Iping Supriana S.

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The information system is one of the contributors to environmental degradation and pollution are known to be released, such as the increasing of use of IT equipment and energy consumption , life cycles of IT equipment are getting shorter, IT equipment waste disposal and so on, therefore the information system should have a role in related environmental issues. Organization need to develop the ability of green to minimize negative impacts on the environment. Although the green information system is an important topic, many organizations fail to manage the environment in a way that is adequate because they ignore aspect of strategy. Alignment strategy is very important to ensure that all people do the activities of the organization headed in the same direction. Alignment strategy helps organization, determine which is more important for organization, and then make road mad to achieve the organization goal. Therefore, this paper discusses the review of the alignment, information systems strategy, and IS green strategy. With this discussion is expected there is an understanding about the alignment of information systems strategy and strategy of green IS, and its relationship with the achievement of business goals that have commitment to reduce the negative impact of information systems on the environment.

Keywords: alignment, strategy, information system, green

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470 Contextual Distribution for Textual Alignment

Authors: Yuri Bizzoni, Marianne Reboul

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Our program compares French and Italian translations of Homer’s Odyssey, from the XVIth to the XXth century. We focus on the third point, showing how distributional semantics systems can be used both to improve alignment between different French translations as well as between the Greek text and a French translation. Although we focus on French examples, the techniques we display are completely language independent.

Keywords: classical receptions, computational linguistics, distributional semantics, Homeric poems, machine translation, translation studies, text alignment

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469 Design Criteria for an Internal Information Technology Cost Allocation to Support Business Information Technology Alignment

Authors: Andrea Schnabl, Mario Bernhart

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The controlling instrument of an internal cost allocation (IT chargeback) is commonly used to make IT costs transparent and controllable. Information Technology (IT) became, especially for information industries, a central competitive factor. Consequently, the focus is not on minimizing IT costs but on the strategic aligned application of IT. Hence, an internal IT cost allocation should be designed to enhance the business-IT alignment (strategic alignment of IT) in order to support the effective application of IT from a company’s point of view. To identify design criteria for an internal cost allocation to support business alignment a case study analysis at a typical medium-sized firm in information industry is performed. Documents, Key Performance Indicators, and cost accounting data over a period of 10 years are analyzed and interviews are performed. The derived design criteria are evaluated by 6 heads of IT departments from 6 different companies, which have an internal IT cost allocation at use. By applying these design criteria an internal cost allocation serves not only for cost controlling but also as an instrument in strategic IT management.

Keywords: accounting for IT services, Business IT Alignment, internal cost allocation, IT controlling, IT governance, strategic IT management

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468 Influence of Bilateral and Unilateral Flatfoot on Pelvic Alignment

Authors: Mohamed Taher Eldesoky, Enas Elsayed Abutaleb

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Background: The changes in foot posture possibly generate changes in the pelvic alignment, although, there is lack of evidence about the effects of bilateral and unilateral flatfoot on possible changes in pelvic alignment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of flatfoot on the sagittal and frontal planes of pelvic postures. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects, aged 18–40 years, were assigned into three groups. 20 healthy subjects, 19 subjects with bilateral flexible second-degree flat foot, and 17 subjects with unilateral flexible second-degree flat foot. 3D assessment of the pelvis using the formetric-II device was used to evaluate pelvic alignment in the frontal and sagittal planes by measuring pelvic inclination and pelvic tilt angles. Results: ANOVA test with LSD test were used for statistical analysis. Both Unilateral and bilateral second degree flatfoot produced significant (P < 0.05) pelvic anteversion in comparison to the healthy subjects (P < 0.05), but the bilateral flatfoot subjects seemed to have more anteversion than the unilateral subjects. Unilateral flatfoot caused a significant (P<0.05) lateral pelvic tilt in the direction of the affected side in comparison to the healthy and bilateral flatfoot subjects. Conclusion: The bilateral and unilateral second degree flatfoot changed pelvic alignment. Both of them led to increases of pelvic anteversion while the unilateral one caused lateral pelvic tilt toward the affected side. Thus, foot posture should be considered when assessing patients with pelvic misalignment and disorders.

Keywords: bilateral flatfoot, unilateral flatfoot, pelvic alignment, foot posture

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467 Empowering Leadership and Constructive Voice: A Sequential Mediation Analysis

Authors: Umamaheswara Rao Jada, Susmita Mukhopadhyay

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In the present highly complex, dynamic and interdependent organizational environment, employees' ideas, opinions and suggestions which is technically referred to as ‘constructive employee voice’ is increasingly being recognized and valued. Literature has consistently demonstrated the relevance of leadership in employee voicing behavior, however the new form of leadership, ‘empowering leadership’ has not been given much attention. The study, therefore, devotes itself to the effort to explore the impact of this new form of leadership on employee voice behavior and the interplay with leader member exchange (LMX) and psychological safety as mediators in the same. The study utilizes structural equation modeling for analyzing the data collected from 310 Indian service industry employees through the questionnaire developed for the study. The findings of the study demonstrate the significant impact of empowering form of leadership on employees’ constructive voice behavior. Additionally, supporting results were observed for the mediating impact of leader member exchange (LMX) and psychological safety between empowering leadership and employees’ constructive voice behavior. The results of this study provide insights into the intervening mechanisms by linking leaders’ empowering behavior with employees’ constructive voice, while also highlighting the potential importance of LMX relationship in organizations and psychological safety in the context of constructive voice behavior. The study brings forth the relevance of the new form of leadership, ‘empowering leadership’ for fostering the better exchange of ideas, opinions, and suggestions between leaders and followers which tend to benefit the organization, providing empirical evidence of the sequential mediation of LMX and psychological safety. The piece of work is assumed to benefit the leaders in organizations by providing them the basis for adopting empowering form of leadership in light of results displayed.

Keywords: constructive voice, empowering leadership, leader member exchange (LMX), psychological safety, sequential mediation, structural equation modeling

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466 Metaheuristic to Align Multiple Sequences

Authors: Lamiche Chaabane

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In this study, a new method for solving sequence alignment problem is proposed, which is named ITS (Improved Tabu Search). This algorithm is based on the classical Tabu Search (TS). ITS is implemented in order to obtain results of multiple sequence alignment. Several ideas concerning neighbourhood generation, move selection mechanisms and intensification/diversification strategies for our proposed ITS is investigated. ITS have generated high-quality results in terms of measure of scores in comparison with the classical TS and simple iterative search algorithm.

Keywords: multiple sequence alignment, tabu search, improved tabu search, neighbourhood generation, selection mechanisms

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465 Alignment in Earnings Management Research: Italy Looking towards US

Authors: Giulia Leoni, Cristina Florio

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The paper aims to investigate the factors driving the increasing alignment of Italian earnings management (EM) research to US research on the same field. After characterizing the progressive similarity of Italian EM research with respect to US one by means of an historical comparison, the paper relies on a subsequent secondary source analysis to detect the possible causes of said alignment. Once identified that the alignment increased along three subsequent periods, the paper analyses and discusses this incremental similarity according to new institutional sociology (NIS) and highlights the presence of different combination of isomorphic pressures that help explaining this incremental similarity. The paper contributes to the institutional literature by providing evidence of isomorphism in academic research; it also contributes to accounting research by indicating the forces that are able to drive change and development in accounting research at national and international level. The paper also enlarges the explanatory value of NIS in alternative contexts, like academic accounting research.

Keywords: accounting research, earnings management, international comparison, Italy, new institutional sociology, US

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464 Hybridized Simulated Annealing with Chemical Reaction Optimization for Solving to Sequence Alignment Problem

Authors: Ernesto Linan, Linda Cruz, Lucero Becerra

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In this paper, a new hybridized algorithm based on Chemical Reaction Optimization and Simulated Annealing is proposed to solve the alignment sequence Problem. The Chemical Reaction Optimization is a population-based meta-heuristic algorithm based on the principles of a chemical reaction. Simulated Annealing is applied to solve a large number of combinatorial optimization problems of general-purpose. In this paper, we propose hybridization between Chemical Reaction Optimization algorithm and Simulated Annealing in order to solve the Sequence Alignment Problem. An initial population of molecules is defined at beginning of the proposed algorithm, where each molecule represents a sequence alignment problem. In order to simulate inter-molecule collisions, the process of Chemical Reaction is placed inside the Metropolis Cycle at certain values of temperature. Inside this cycle, change of molecules is done due to collisions; some molecules are accepted by applying Boltzmann probability. The results with the hybrid scheme are better than the results obtained separately.

Keywords: chemical reaction optimization, sequence alignment problem, simulated annealing algorithm, metaheuristics

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463 Create a Model of Production and Marketing Strategies in Alignment with Business Strategy Using QFD Approach

Authors: Hamed Saremi, Shahla Saremi

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In today's competitive world, organizations are expected to surpass the competitors and benefit from the resources and benefits. Therefore, organizations need to improve the current performance is felt more than ever that this requires to identify organizational optimal strategies, and consider all strategies simultaneously. In this study, to enhance competitive advantage and according to customer requirements, alignment between business, production and marketing strategies, House of Quality (QFD) approach has been used and zero-one linear programming model has been studied. First, the alignment between production and marketing strategies with business strategy, independent weights of these strategies is calculated. Then with using QFD approach the aligned weights of optimal strategies in each production and marketing field will be obtained and finally the aligned marketing strategies selection with the purpose of allocating budget and specialist human resource to marketing functions will be done that lead to increasing competitive advantage and benefit.

Keywords: marketing strategy, business strategy, strategy alignment, house of quality deployment, production strategy

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462 Leader Personality Traits and Constructive Voice Behavior: Mediating Roles of Empowering Leadership and Leader-Member Exchange

Authors: Umamaheswara Rao Jada, Susmita Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

Employee voice behavior has emerged as an important topic in relation to understanding the paybacks within the organizations. Organizations are expecting employees to contribute in the form of suggestions and ideas that not only help an organization to grow but also survive the turbulent times. Leadership in the organization enables and arouses an individual to offer constructive ideas. The significant impact of leadership is undeniable in a context of creating an environment that promotes a free flow of thoughts and ideas in the organization which in turn is significantly influenced by the personality of the leader. Therefore our study aims at examining the underlying factors which influence employee constructive voice behavior in connection with leader’s personality, empowering form of leadership and leader-member exchange in the organization sequentially. A standardized survey questionnaire was used to collect sample of 272 service executives in India. Smart PLS 2.0 was used to test hypothesis and explore the mediation effect. The result shows that the leader personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were positively related to empowering leadership, whereas neuroticism was unrelated to empowering leadership. Empowering leadership influenced followers’ constructive voice behavior significantly. Furthermore, the relationship was partially mediated by leader member exchange relationship. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings, as well as directions for the future line of research, have been presented in the study.

Keywords: constructive voice, empowering leadership, leader member exchange (LMX), leader personality traits

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461 Model of Production and Marketing Strategies in Alignment with Business Strategy using QFD Approach

Authors: Hamed Saremi, Suzan Taghavy, Shahla Saremi

Abstract:

In today's competitive world, organizations are expected to surpass the competitors and benefit from the resources and benefits. Therefore, organizations need to improve the current performance is felt more than ever that this requires to identify organizational optimal strategies, and consider all strategies simultaneously. In this study, to enhance competitive advantage and according to customer requirements, alignment between business, production and marketing strategies, House of Quality (QFD) approach has been used and zero-one linear programming model has been studied. First, the alignment between production and marketing strategies with business strategy, independent weights of these strategies is calculated. Then with using QFD approach the aligned weights of optimal strategies in each production and marketing field will be obtained and finally the aligned marketing strategies selection with the purpose of allocating budget and specialist human resource to marketing functions will be done that lead to increasing competitive advantage and benefit.

Keywords: strategy alignment, house of quality deployment, production strategy, marketing strategy, business strategy

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460 Comparison Between Two Techniques (Extended Source to Surface Distance and Field Alignment) of Craniospinal Irradiation in The Eclipse Treatment Planning System

Authors: Naima Jannat, Ariful Islam, Sharafat Hossain

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Due to the involvement of the large target volume, Craniospinal Irradiation (CSI) makes it challenging to achieve a uniform dose and it requires a different isocenter. This isocentric junction needs to shift after every five fractions to overcome the possibility of a hot and cold spot. This study aims to evaluate the PTV coverage & sparing OAR between two techniques and shows that the innovative planning technique does not need replanning and reset. The planning method for CSI by Eclipse treatment planning system Field Alignment and Extended SSD technique was developed where 36 Gy in 20 Fraction at the rate of 1.8 Gy was prescribed. The patient was immobilized in the prone position. In the Field Alignment technique, the plan consists of a half beam blocked parallel opposed cranium and a single posterior cervicospine field was developed by sharing the same isocenter, which obviates divergence matching. Further a single field was created to treat the remaining lumbosacral spine. Matching between inferior diverging edge of cervicospine field and superior diverging edge of lumbosacral field, the field alignment option was used, which automatically matches the field edge divergence as per the field alignment rule in Eclips TPS, where the couch was set to 2700. In the Extended SSD technique, two parallel opposed fields were created for the cranium and a single posterior cervicospine field was created where the SSD was from 120-140 cm. Dose-volume histograms were obtained for each organ contoured and for each technique used. In all patient’s maximum dose to PTV is higher for the Extended SSD technique than the Field Alignment technique. The dose to all surrounding structures was increased with the use of a single ESSD when compared to the Field Alignment technique. The average mean dose to Eye, Brain Steam, Kidney, Oesophagus, Heart, Liver, Lung, Ovaries were respectively (58% & 60 %), (103% & 98%), (13% & 15%), (10% & 63%), (12% & 16%), (33% & 30%), (14% & 18%), (69% & 61%) for Field Alignment and ESSD technique. However, the clinical target volume at the spine junction site received a less homogeneous dose with the Field Alignment technique as compared to ESSD. We conclude that, although the use of single field ESSD delivered a more homogenous but its maximum dose is higher than the Field Alignment technique. Also, a huge advantage in the field Alignment technique for CSI is that it doesn’t need replanning and resetting up of patients after every five fractions and 95% prescribed dose was received by more than 95% of PTV in all the planes with the acceptable hot spot.

Keywords: craniospinal irradiation, cranium, cervicospine, immobilize, lumbosacral spine

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459 Influence of Single Source Irradiation on the Homogeneous Alignment of Liquid Crystals Molecules on Glass Substrates

Authors: Sarah Akhtar, Rizwan Mahmood

Abstract:

A detailed study of homogeneous alignment of liquid crystal molecules on a glass substrate will be presented. Thin films of polyimide were coated on several glass substrates. Various methods were employed to prepare coated surfaces to achieve desired alignment; these include traditionally rubbing the surface with a felt cloth then exposing them perpendicular to the easy axis with incandescent light (IL), linearly polarized ultraviolet (LPUVR) and un-polarized ultraviolet (UPUVR) radiation. The quality of the alignment was tested by measuring the tilt angle in the temperature range between 30°C to 55°C. Regression analysis of the data using ‘SigmaPlot’ suggests a gradual increase in tilt angle (1.1°-1.8°) for the rubbed, 0.6° to 3.6° increase for the rubbed plus IL radiated and 1.6° to 4.6° for the rubbed plus UPUVL radiated samples, respectively. However to our surprise, we found tilt angle to be decreasing from 2.4° to 1.6° for the rubbed plus LPUVL radiated samples. We hope that these findings will be helpful in the fabrication of display panels and other electro-optic devices.

Keywords: homogeneous, liquid crystals, polyimide, tilt angle

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458 The Specificity of Mother's Attitude to a Preschool Child Having Complex Disorders: The Key to Adaptive Functioning

Authors: Alla Tvardovskaya

Abstract:

The family of a child with disabilities is an important mechanism of socialization. The relationship of mother and child with developmental difficulties is a significant predictor of the emergence, development and interiorization of various forms of mental activity. Complex impairments of the child form nonconstructive maternal attitude and destructive behavior strategies that complicate the dyadic relationship ‘mother-child’. The study of psychological characteristics of mother's personality was conducted within four years, and adaptive abilities of a child with a complex disorder were evaluated as well. 25 diads (25 mothers and 25 preschool children aged between 4-7 years with complex developmental disorders) took part in the study. Typological features of mothers rearing deafblind preschoolers are described. Constructive and non-constructive types of mothers’ attitude to a pre-school child with complex disorders are specified. The research shows that mothers of deafblind children are more depressed, they are engaged in children’s rearing more, and at the same time they experience difficulties to control negative emotions towards children or demonstrate impulsive behavior with a high level of anxiety. The correlation analysis of relationships between Vineland scales and the dominant type of mothers’ attitude to a child shows the presence of both general and specific links. Adaptive profile analysis of a child with complex disabilities allows to plan specific ways to increase their adaptation by developing a dyadic constructive relationship system. Techniques to develop constructive parental attitudes toward the child are proposed.

Keywords: adaptive behavior, complex disorder, constructive maternal attitude, deaf-blindness, pre-school child

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457 Safety Approach Highway Alignment Optimization

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Marjan Naderan Tahan, Arman Kadkhodai

Abstract:

An efficient optimization approach, called feasible gate (FG), is developed to enhance the computation efficiency and solution quality of the previously developed highway alignment optimization (HAO) model. This approach seeks to realistically represent various user preferences and environmentally sensitive areas and consider them along with geometric design constraints in the optimization process. This is done by avoiding the generation of infeasible solutions that violate various constraints and thus focusing the search on the feasible solutions. The proposed method is simple, but improves significantly the model’s computation time and solution quality. On the other, highway alignment optimization through Feasible Gates, eventuates only economic model by considering minimum design constrains includes minimum reduce of circular curves, minimum length of vertical curves and road maximum gradient. This modelling can reduce passenger comfort and road safety. In most of highway optimization models, by adding penalty function for each constraint, final result handles to satisfy minimum constraint. In this paper, we want to propose a safety-function solution by introducing gift function.

Keywords: safety, highway geometry, optimization, alignment

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456 Spino-Pelvic Alignment with SpineCor Brace Use in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

Authors: Reham H. Diab, Amira A. A. Abdallah, Eman A. Embaby

Abstract:

Background: The effectiveness of bracing on preventing spino-pelvic alignment deterioration in idiopathic scoliosis has been extensively studied especially in the frontal plane. Yet, there is lack of knowledge regarding the effect of soft braces on spino-pelvic alignment in the sagittal plane. Achieving harmonious sagittal plane spino-pelvic balance is critical for the preservation of physiologic posture and spinal health. Purpose: This study examined the kyphotic angle, lordotic angle and pelvic inclination in the sagittal plane and trunk imbalance in the frontal plane before and after a six-month rehabilitation period. Methods: Nineteen patients with idiopathic scoliosis participated in the study. They were divided into two groups; experimental and control. The experimental group (group I) used the SpineCor brace in addition to a rehabilitation exercise program while the control group (group II) had the exercise program only. The mean ±SD age, weight and height were 16.89±2.15 vs. 15.3±2.5 years; 59.78±6.85 vs. 62.5±8.33 Kg and 162.78±5.76 vs. 159±5.72 cm for group I vs. group II. Data were collected using for metric Π system. Results: Mixed design MANOVA showed that there were significant (p < 0.05) decreases in all the tested variables after the six-month period compared with “before” in both groups. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the kyphotic angle in group I compared with group II after the six-month period. Interpretation and conclusion: SpineCor brace is beneficial in reducing spino-pelvic alignment deterioration in both sagittal and frontal planes.

Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, SpineCor, spino-pelvic alignment, biomechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 248