Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3481

Search results for: wind tunnel testing

3481 Experimental Investigation of Tip-Speed-Ratio Effects on Wake Dynamics of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Paul Bayron, Richard Kelso, Rey Chin


Wind tunnel experiments were performed in the KC closed-circuit wind tunnel in the University of Adelaide to study the influence of tip-speed-ratio (

Keywords: hotwire anemometry, wake dynamics, wind tunnel, wind turbines

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
3480 Aerodynamics and Aeroelastics Studies of Hanger Bridge with H-Beam Profile Using Wind Tunnel

Authors: Matza Gusto Andika, Malinda Sabrina, Syarie Fatunnisa


Aerodynamic and aeroelastics studies on the hanger bridge profile are important to analyze the aerodynamic phenomenon and Aeroelastics stability of hanger. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a model of H-beam profile from hanger bridge. The purpose of this study is to investigate steady aerodynamic characteristics such as lift coefficient (Cl), drag coefficient (Cd), and moment coefficient (Cm) under the different angle of attack for preliminary prediction of aeroelastics stability problems. After investigation the steady aerodynamics characteristics from the model, dynamic testing is also conducted in wind tunnel to know the aeroelastics phenomenon which occurs at the H-beam hanger bridge profile. The studies show that the torsional vortex induced vibration occur when the wind speed is 7.32 m/s until 9.19 m/s with maximum amplitude occur when the wind speed is 8.41 m/s. The result of wind tunnel testing is matching to hanger vibration where occur in the field, so wind tunnel studies has successful to model the problem. In order that the H-beam profile is not good enough for the hanger bridge and need to be modified to minimize the Aeroelastics problem. The modification can be done with structure dynamics modification or aerodynamics modification.

Keywords: aerodynamics, aeroelastic, hanger bridge, h-beam profile, vortex induced vibration, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
3479 Studies on Performance of an Airfoil and Its Simulation

Authors: Rajendra Roul


The main objective of the project is to bring attention towards the performance of an aerofoil when exposed to the fluid medium inside the wind tunnel. This project aims at involvement of civil as well as mechanical engineering thereby making itself as a multidisciplinary project. The airfoil of desired size is taken into consideration for the project to carry out effectively. An aerofoil is the shape of the wing or blade of propeller, rotor or turbine. Lot of experiment have been carried out through wind-tunnel keeping aerofoil as a reference object to make a future forecast regarding the design of turbine blade, car and aircraft. Lift and drag now become the major identification factor for any design industry which shows that wind tunnel testing along with software analysis (ANSYS) becomes the mandatory task for any researchers to forecast an aerodynamics design. This project is an initiative towards the mitigation of drag, better lift and analysis of wake surface profile by investigating the surface pressure distribution. The readings has been taken on airfoil model in Wind Tunnel Testing Machine (WTTM) at different air velocity 20m/sec, 25m/sec, 30m/sec and different angle of attack 00,50,100,150,200. Air velocity and pressures are measured in several ways in wind tunnel testing machine by use to measuring instruments like Anemometer and Multi tube manometer. Moreover to make the analysis more accurate Ansys fluent contribution become substantial and subsequently the CFD simulation results. Analysis on an Aerofoil have a wide spectrum of application other than aerodynamics including wind loads in the design of buildings and bridges for structural engineers.

Keywords: wind-tunnel, aerofoil, Ansys, multitube manometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
3478 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles in the Wind Tunnel and Water Tunnel

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale


The simulation in wind tunnel is used thoroughly to model real situations of drainages of air. Besides the automotive industry, a great number of applications can be numbered: dispersion of pollutant, studies of pedestrians comfort and dispersion of particles. This work had the objective of visualizing the characteristics aerodynamics of two automobiles in different ways. To accomplish that drainage of air a fan that generated a speed exists (measured with anemometer of hot thread) of 4,1m/s and 4,95m/s. To visualize the path of the air through the cars, in the wind tunnel, smoke was used, obtained with it burns of vegetable oil. For “to do smoke” vegetable oil was used, that was burned for a tension of 20 V generated by a thread of 2,5 mm. The cars were placed inside of the wind tunnel with the drainage of “air-smoke” and photographed, registering like this the path lines around them, in the 3 different speeds.

Keywords: aerodynamics, vehicle drag, vegetable oil, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
3477 Implementation of a Low-Cost Instrumentation for an Open Cycle Wind Tunnel to Evaluate Pressure Coefficient

Authors: Cristian P. Topa, Esteban A. Valencia, Victor H. Hidalgo, Marco A. Martinez


Wind tunnel experiments for aerodynamic profiles display numerous advantages, such as: clean steady laminar flow, controlled environmental conditions, streamlines visualization, and real data acquisition. However, the experiment instrumentation usually is expensive, and hence, each test implies a incremented in design cost. The aim of this work is to select and implement a low-cost static pressure data acquisition system for a NACA 2412 airfoil in an open cycle wind tunnel. This work compares wind tunnel experiment with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and parametric analysis. The experiment was evaluated at Reynolds of 1.65 e5, with increasing angles from -5° to 15°. The comparison between the approaches show good enough accuracy, between the experiment and CFD, additional parametric analysis results differ widely from the other methods, which complies with the lack of accuracy of the lateral approach due its simplicity.

Keywords: wind tunnel, low cost instrumentation, experimental testing, CFD simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
3476 Analysis of Simple Mechanisms to Continuously Vary Mach Number in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Facility

Authors: Prateek Kishore, T. M. Muruganandam


Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles are generally capable of producing a constant Mach number flow in the test section of the wind tunnel. As a result, most of the supersonic vehicles are widely designed using steady state flow characteristics which may have errors while facing unsteady situations. This study aims to explore the possibility of varying the Mach number of the flow during wind tunnel operation. The nozzle walls are restricted to be inflexible for cooling near the throat due to high stagnation temperature requirement of the flow to simulate the conditions as experienced by the vehicle. Two simple independent mechanisms, rotation and translation of nozzle walls have been analyzed and the nozzle ranges have been optimized to vary the Mach number from Mach 2 to Mach 5 using minimum number of nozzles in the wind tunnel.

Keywords: method of characteristics, nozzle, supersonic wind tunnel, variable mach number

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
3475 Study on Shape Coefficient of Large Statue Building Based on CFD

Authors: Wang Guangda, Ma Jun, Zhao Caiqi, Pan Rui


Wind load is the main control load of large statue structures. Due to the irregular plane and elevation and uneven outer contour, statues’ shape coefficient can not pick up from the current code. Currently a common practice is based on wind tunnel test. But this method is time-consuming and high cost. In this paper, based on the fundamental theory of CFD, using fluid dynamics software of Fluent 15.0, a few large statue structure of 40 to 70m high, which are located in china , including large fairy statues and large Buddha statues, are analyzed by numerical wind tunnel. The results are contrasted with the recommended values in load code and the wind tunnel test results respectively. Results show that the shape coefficient has a good reliability by the numerical wind tunnel method of this kind of building. This will has a certain reference value of wind load values for large statues’ structure.

Keywords: large statue structure, shape coefficient, irregular structure, wind tunnel test, numerical wind tunnel simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
3474 Investigation of Effects and Hazards of Wind Flow on Buildings in Multiple Arrangements Using CFD

Authors: S. C. Gupta


The wind flow over several buildings lying in close vicinity in urban areas generates flow interference effects causing problems related to pedestrian comfort and ventilation within the buildings. This promoted a lot of research interest in the recent years. Airflow over a building creates a positive pressure zone on the upstream side and negative pressure zones (cavities or eddy zones) on the roof and all other sides. Large eddy simulation model is used along with sub-grid-scale model to numerically simulate turbulence for this purpose. The basis of flow outside the building is the pressure difference (between the wind and building interior). Wind Tunnel models are fabricated and tested in the subsonic wind tunnel. Theoretical results are compared with the experimental data. Newer configuration is tried for favorable effects in recovering static pressure values. Results obtained are seen very encouraging. The proposed exhaustive research investigation through numerical simulations and the experimental work are described and some interesting findings are brought out.

Keywords: wind flow, buildings, static pressure wind tunnel testing, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
3473 Experimental Study of Flag Flutter in Uniform Flow

Authors: A. Sadeghi, M. Sedghi, M. R. Emami Azadi, R. Gharraei Khosroshahi


Flags are objects with very low bending stiffness and under wind forces start to vibrate and finally to flutter. Even in lower velocities of wind their flutter can be seen. In this research physical property of fabric is determined by performing tensile tests. Then with performing laboratory experiments in wind tunnel, determination of initial flapping speed and also study of displacement amplitude at leech and calculation of their frequency would be targeted. Laboratory tests are performed in a wind tunnel and with different velocities of wind flow for specimens with different dimensions. The results show that extension of specimens' width increase flutter initiation velocity and increase of specimen length decreases it. Also by increasing wind velocity displacement amplitude at leech of specimens are decreased. This displacement has a straight relation with specimens' length and width.

Keywords: flag, flutter, wind velocity, flutter amplitudes, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
3472 Experimental Investigation of Cup Anemometer under Static and Dynamic Wind Direction Changes: Evaluation of Directional Sensitivity

Authors: Vaibhav Rana, Nicholas Balaresque


The 3-cup anemometer is the most commonly used instrument for wind speed measurement and, consequently, for the wind resource assessment. Though the cup anemometer shows accurate measurement under quasi-static conditions, there is uncertainty in the measurement when subjected to field measurement. Sensitivity to the angle of attacks with respect to horizontal plane, dynamic response, and non-linear behavior in calibration due to friction. The presented work aimed to identify the sensitivity of anemometer to non-horizontal flow. The cup anemometer was investigated under low wind speed wind tunnel, first under the static flow direction changes and second under the dynamic direction changes, at a different angle of attacks, under the similar conditions of reference wind tunnel speeds. The cup anemometer response under both conditions was evaluated and compared. The results showed the anemometer under dynamic wind direction changes is highly sensitive compared to static conditions.

Keywords: wind energy, cup anemometer, directional sensitivity, dynamic behavior, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
3471 Measurement of Turbulence with PITOT Static Tube in Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

Authors: Gopikrishnan, Bharathiraja, Boopalan, Jensin Joshua


The Pitot static tube has proven their values and practicability in measuring velocity of fluids for many years. With the aim of extensive usage of such Pitot tube systems, one of the major enabling technologies is to use the design and fabricate a high sensitive pitot tube for the purpose of calibration of the subsonic wind tunnel. Calibration of wind tunnel is carried out by using different instruments to measure variety of parameters. Using too many instruments inside the tunnel may not only affect the fluid flow but also lead to drag or losses. So, it is essential to replace the different system with a single system that would give all the required information. This model of high sensitive Pitot tube has been designed to ease the calibration process. It minimizes the use of different instruments and this single system is capable of calibrating the wind tunnel test section. This Pitot static tube is completely digitalized and so that the velocity data`s can be collected directly from the instrument. Since the turbulence factors are dependent on velocity, the data’s that are collected from the pitot static tube are then processed and the level of turbulence in the fluid flow is calculated. It is also capable of measuring the pressure distribution inside the wind tunnel and the flow angularity of the fluid. Thus, the well-designed high sensitive Pitot static tube is utilized in calibrating the tunnel and also for the measurement of turbulence.

Keywords: pitot static tube, turbulence, wind tunnel, velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
3470 Effect of Porous Multi-Layer Envelope System on Effective Wind Pressure of Building Ventilation

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo


Building ventilation performance is an important indicator of indoor comfort. However, in addition to the geometry of the building or the proportion of the opening, the ventilation performance is also very much related to the actual wind pressure of the building. There are more and more contemporary building designs built with multi-layer exterior envelope. Due to ventilation and view observatory requirement, the porous outer layer of the building is commonly adopted and has a significant wind damping effect, causing the phenomenon of actual wind pressure loss. However, the relationship between the wind damping effect and the actual wind pressure is not linear. This effect can make the indoor ventilation of the building rationalized to reasonable range under the condition of high wind pressure, and also maintain a good amount of ventilation performance under the condition of low wind pressure. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were carried out to simulate the different wind pressures flow through the porous outer layer, and observe the actual wind pressure strength engage with the window layer to find the decreasing relationship between the damping effect of the porous shell and the wind pressure. Experiment specimen scale was designed to be 1:50 for testing real-world building conditions; the study found that the porous enclosure has protective shielding without affecting low-pressure ventilation. Current study observed the porous skin may damp more wind energy to ease the wind pressure under high-speed wind. Differential wind speed may drop the pressure into similar pressure level by using porous skin. The actual mechanism and value of this phenomenon will need further study in the future.

Keywords: multi-layer facade, porous media, wind damping, wind tunnel test, building ventilation

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3469 CFD Simulation Research on a Double Diffuser for Wind Turbines

Authors: Krzysztof Skiba, Zdzislaw Kaminski


Wind power is based on a variety of construction solutions to convert wind energy into electrical energy. These constructions are constrained by the correlation between their energy conversion efficiency and the area they occupy. Their energy conversion efficiency can be improved by wind tunnel tests of a rotor as a diffuser to optimize shapes of aerodynamic elements, to adapt these elements to changing conditions and to increase airflow intensity. This paper discusses the results of computer simulations and aerodynamic analyzes of this innovative diffuser design. The research aims at determining the aerodynamic phenomena triggered by the airflow inside this construction, and developing a design to improve the efficiency of the wind turbine. The research results enable us to design a diffuser with a double Venturi nozzle and specially shaped blades. The design of this type uses Bernoulli’s law on the behavior of the flowing medium in the tunnel of a decreasing diameter. The air flowing along the tunnel changes its velocity so the rotor inside such a decreased tunnel diameter rotates faster in this airflow than does the wind outside this tunnel, which makes the turbine more efficient. Additionally, airflow velocity is improved by applying aerodynamic rings with extended trailing edges to achieve controlled turbulent vortices.

Keywords: wind turbine, renewable energy, cfd, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
3468 Influences of High Rise Buildings on Local Air Flow Characteristics on External Surfaces of Neighboring Buildings

Authors: Meral Yucel, Vildan Ok


This study indicates the wind effects of 49-storey height four towers on a high-density urban area-consisting of 10-12 storey height buildings called Goztepe in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, four towers and close environments are modeled in 1/500 scale for wind tunnel test. Three neighboring buildings are chosen to find out the pressure coefficient changes on the surfaces of the buildings according to the construction order of these four towers and wind directions. Results were compared with the 'TS 498 Wind Standard of Tall Buildings in Istanbul' which is prepared by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality in 2009.

Keywords: high rise buildings, pressure coefficients, wind tunnel experiments, wind standard of tall buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
3467 An Analytical Study of Small Unmanned Arial Vehicle Dynamic Stability Characteristics

Authors: Abdelhakam A. Noreldien, Sakhr B. Abudarag, Muslim S. Eltoum, Salih O. Osman


This paper presents an analytical study of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) dynamic stability derivatives. Simulating SUAV dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the earliest design stages is too important and more efficient design aspect. The approach suggested in this paper is using the wind tunnel experiment to collect the aerodynamic data and get the dynamic stability derivatives. AutoCAD Software was used to draw the case study (wildlife surveillance SUAV). The SUAV is scaled down to be 0.25% of the real SUAV dimensions and converted to a wind tunnel model. The model was tested in three different speeds for three different attitudes which are; pitch, roll and yaw. The wind tunnel results were then used to determine the case study stability derivative values, and hence it used to calculate the roots of the characteristic equation for both longitudinal and lateral motions. Finally, the characteristic equation roots were found and discussed in all possible cases.

Keywords: model, simulating, SUAV, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
3466 Half Model Testing for Canard of a Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft

Authors: Anwar U. Haque, Waqar Asrar, Ashraf Ali Omar, Erwin Sulaeman, Jaffer Sayed Mohamed Ali


Due to the interference effects, the intrinsic aerodynamic parameters obtained from the individual component testing are always fundamentally different than those obtained for complete model testing. Consideration and limitation for such testing need to be taken into account in any design work related to the component buildup method. In this paper, the scaled model of a straight rectangular canard of a hybrid buoyant aircraft is tested at 50 m/s in IIUM-LSWT (Low-Speed Wind Tunnel). Model and its attachment with the balance are kept rigid to have results free from the aeroelastic distortion. Based on the velocity profile of the test section’s floor; the height of the model is kept equal to the corresponding boundary layer displacement. Balance measurements provide valuable but limited information of the overall aerodynamic behavior of the model. Zero lift coefficient is obtained at -2.2o and the corresponding drag coefficient was found to be less than that at zero angles of attack. As a part of the validation of low fidelity tool, the plot of lift coefficient plot was verified by the experimental data and except the value of zero lift coefficient, the overall trend has under-predicted the lift coefficient. Based on this comparative study, a correction factor of 1.36 is proposed for lift curve slope obtained from the panel method.

Keywords: wind tunnel testing, boundary layer displacement, lift curve slope, canard, aerodynamics

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3465 Wind Interference Effects on Various Plan Shape Buildings Under Wind Load

Authors: Ritu Raj, Hrishikesh Dubey


This paper presents the results of the experimental investigations carried out on two intricate plan shaped buildings to evaluate aerodynamic performance of the building. The purpose is to study the associated environment arising due to wind forces in isolated and interference conditions on a model of scale 1:300 with a prototype having 180m height. Experimental tests were carried out at the boundary layer wind tunnel considering isolated conditions with 0° to 180° isolated wind directions and four interference conditions of twin building (separately for both the models). The research has been undertaken in Terrain Category-II, which is the most widely available terrain in India. A comparative assessment of the two models is performed out in an attempt to comprehend the various consequences of diverse conditions that may emerge in real-life situations, as well as the discrepancies amongst them. Experimental results of wind pressure coefficients of Model-1 and Model-2 shows good agreement with various wind incidence conditions with minute difference in the magnitudes of mean Cp. On the basis of wind tunnel studies, it is distinguished that the performance of Model-2 is better than Model-1in both isolated as well as interference conditions for all wind incidences and orientations respectively.

Keywords: interference factor, tall buildings, wind direction, mean pressure-coefficients

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3464 Designing a Low Speed Wind Tunnel for Investigating Effects of Blockage Ratio on Heat Transfer of a Non-Circular Tube

Authors: Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Taher Maarefdoost


Effect of blockage ratio on heat transfer from non-circular tube is studied experimentally. For doing this experiment a suction type low speed wind tunnel with test section dimension of 14×14×40 and velocity in rage of 7-20 m/s was designed. The blockage ratios varied between 1.5 to 7 and Reynolds number based on equivalent diameter varies in range of 7.5×103 to 17.5×103. The results show that by increasing blockage ratio from 1.5 to 7, drag coefficient of the cam shaped tube decreased about 55 percent. By increasing Reynolds number, Nusselt number of the cam shaped tube increases about 40 to 48 percent in all ranges of blockage ratios.

Keywords: wind tunnel, non-circular tube, blockage ratio, experimental heat transfer, cross-flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
3463 An investigation of Leading Edge and Trailing Edge Corrugation for Low Reynolds Number Application

Authors: Syed Hassan Raza Shah, Mohammad Mohammad Ali


The flow over a smoothly profiled airfoil at a low Reynolds number is highly susceptible to separate even at a very low angle of attack. An investigation was made to study the effect of leading-edge and trailing-edge corrugation with the spanwise change in the ridges resulted due to the change in the chord length for an infinite wing. The wind tunnel results using NACA0018 wings revealed that leading and trailing edge corrugation did not have any benefit in terms of aerodynamic efficiency or delayed stall. The leading edge and trailing edge corrugation didn't change the lift curve slope, with the leading edge corrugation wing stalling first in the range of Reynolds number of 50,000 to 125,000.

Keywords: leading and trailing edge corrugations, low reynolds number, wind tunnel testing, NACA0018

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
3462 Effects of Wind Load on the Tank Structures with Various Shapes and Aspect Ratios

Authors: Doo Byong Bae, Jae Jun Yoo, Il Gyu Park, Choi Seowon, Oh Chang Kook


There are several wind load provisions to evaluate the wind response on tank structures such as API, Euro-code, etc. the assessment of wind action applying these provisions is made by performing the finite element analysis using both linear bifurcation analysis and geometrically nonlinear analysis. By comparing the pressure patterns obtained from the analysis with the results of wind tunnel test, most appropriate wind load criteria will be recommended.

Keywords: wind load, finite element analysis, linear bifurcation analysis, geometrically nonlinear analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
3461 Aerodynamic Design of Three-Dimensional Bellmouth for Low-Speed Open-Circuit Wind Tunnel

Authors: Harshavardhan Reddy, Balaji Subramanian


A systematic parametric study to find the optimum bellmouth profile by relating geometric and performance parameters to satisfy a set of specifications is reported. A careful aerodynamic design of bellmouth intake is critical to properly direct the flow with minimal losses and maximal flow uniformity into the honeycomb located inside the settling chamber of an indraft wind tunnel, thus improving the efficiency of the entire unit. Design charts for elliptically profiled bellmouths with two different contraction ratios (9 and 18) and three different test section speeds (25 m/s, 50 m/s, and 75 m/s) were presented. A significant performance improvement - especially in the Coefficient of discharge and in the flow angularity and boundary layer thickness at the honeycomb inlet - was observed when an entry corner radius (r/D = 0.08) was added to the bellmouth profile. The nonuniformity at the honeycomb inlet drops by about three times (~1% to 0.3%) when moving from square to regular octagonal cross-section. An octagonal cross-sectioned bellmouth intake with L/d = 0.55, D/d = 1.625, and r/D = 0.08 met all the four target performance specifications and is proposed as the best choice for a low-speed wind tunnel.

Keywords: bellmouth intake, low-speed wind tunnel, coefficient of discharge, nonuniformity, flow angularity, boundary layer thickness, CFD, aerodynamics

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3460 An Experimental (Wind Tunnel) and Numerical (CFD) Study on the Flow over Hills

Authors: Tanit Daniel Jodar Vecina, Adriane Prisco Petry


The shape of the wind velocity profile changes according to local features of terrain shape and roughness, which are parameters responsible for defining the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) profile. Air flow characteristics over and around landforms, such as hills, are of considerable importance for applications related to Wind Farm and Turbine Engineering. The air flow is accelerated on top of hills, which can represent a decisive factor for Wind Turbine placement choices. The present work focuses on the study of ABL behavior as a function of slope and surface roughness of hill-shaped landforms, using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to build wind velocity and turbulent intensity profiles. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are closed using the SST k-ω turbulence model; numerical results are compared to experimental data measured in wind tunnel over scale models of the hills under consideration. Eight hill models with slopes varying from 25° to 68° were tested for two types of terrain categories in 2D and 3D, and two analytical codes are used to represent the inlet velocity profiles. Numerical results for the velocity profiles show differences under 4% when compared to their respective experimental data. Turbulent intensity profiles show maximum differences around 7% when compared to experimental data; this can be explained by not being possible to insert inlet turbulent intensity profiles in the simulations. Alternatively, constant values based on the averages of the turbulent intensity at the wind tunnel inlet were used.

Keywords: Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD), Numerical Modeling, Wind Tunnel

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3459 Wind Comfort and Safety of People in the Vicinity of Tall Buildings

Authors: Mohan Kotamrazu


Tall buildings block and divert strong upper level winds to the ground. These high velocity winds many a time create adverse wind effects at ground level which can be uncomfortable and even compromise the safety of pedestrians and people who frequent the spaces in the vicinity of tall buildings. Discomfort can be experienced around the entrances and corners of tall buildings. Activities such as strolling or sitting in a park, waiting for a bus near a tall building can become highly unpleasant. For the elderly unpleasant conditions can also become dangerous leading to accidents and injuries. Today there is a growing concern among architects, planners and urban designers about the wind environment in the vicinity of tall building. Regulating authorities insist on wind tunnel testing of tall buildings in cities such as Wellington, Auckland, Boston, San Francisco, etc. prior to granting permission for their construction The present paper examines the different ways that tall buildings can induce strong winds at pedestrian level and their impact on people who frequent the spaces around tall buildings.

Keywords: tall buildings, wind effects, wind comfort, wind safety

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3458 An Experimental Investigation into Fluid Forces on Road Vehicles in Unsteady Flows

Authors: M. Sumida, S. Morita


In this research, the effect of unsteady flows acting on road vehicles was experimentally investigated, using an advanced and recently introduced wind tunnel. The aims of this study were to extract the characteristics of fluid forces acting on road vehicles under unsteady wind conditions and obtain new information on drag forces in a practical on-road test. We applied pulsating wind as a representative example of the atmospheric fluctuations that vehicles encounter on the road. That is, we considered the case where the vehicles are moving at constant speed in the air, with large wind oscillations. The experimental tests were performed on the Ahmed-type test model, which is a simplified vehicle model. This model was chosen because of its simplicity and the data accumulated under steady wind conditions. The experiments were carried out with a time-averaged Reynolds number of Re = 4.16x10⁵ and a pulsation period of T = 1.5 s, with amplitude of η = 0.235. Unsteady fluid forces of drag and lift were obtained utilizing a multi-component load cell. It was observed that the unsteady aerodynamic forces differ significantly from those under steady wind conditions. They exhibit a phase shift and an enhanced response to the wind oscillations. Furthermore, their behavior depends on the slant angle of the rear shape of the model.

Keywords: Ahmed body, automotive aerodynamics, unsteady wind, wind tunnel test

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3457 Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles

Authors: Hee-Chang Lim


The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.

Keywords: rectangular bodies, wind direction, aspect ratio, surface pressure distribution, wind-tunnel measurement, k-ε model, DES model, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
3456 Construction of Wind Tunnel for Aerodynamic

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes


The study of the aerodynamics is related to the improvement in the acting of airplanes and automobiles with the objective of being reduced the effect of the attrition of the air on structures, providing larger speeds and smaller consumption of fuel. The application of the knowledge of the aerodynamics not more limits to the aeronautical and automobile industries. In that way, being tried the new demands with relationship to the aerodynamic study in the most several areas of the engineering, this work presents the stages of the project and construction of a wind tunnel for application in aerodynamic rehearsals. Among the several configurations of existent wind tunnels, opted to build open circuit, due to smaller construction complexity and installation; operational simplicity and cost reduced. Belonging to the type blower, to take advantage of a larger efficiency of the motor; and with diffusion so that flowed him of air it wins speed before reaching the section of rehearsals. The guidelines for project were: didactic practices: study of the layer it limits and analyze of the drainages on proof bodies with different geometries. For the pressure variation in the test section a connected manometer used a pitot tube. Quantitative and qualitative results showed to be satisfactory.

Keywords: wind tunnel, aerodynamics, air, airplane

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
3455 Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Cantilever Rectangular Plate Structure on Subsonic Flutter

Authors: Mevlüt Burak Dalmış, Kemal Yaman


In this study, flutter characteristics of cantilever rectangular plate structure under incompressible flow regime are investigated by comparing the results of commercial flutter analysis program ZAERO© with wind tunnel tests conducted in Ankara Wind Tunnel (ART). A rectangular polycarbonate (PC) plate, 5x125x1000 mm in dimensions, is used for both numerical and experimental investigations. Analysis and test results are very compatible with each other. A comparison between two different solution methods (g and k-method) of ZAERO© is also done. It is seen that, k-method gives closer result than the other one. However, g-method results are on conservative side and it is better to use conservative results namely g-method results. Even if the modal analysis results are used for the flutter analysis for this simple structure, a modal test should be conducted in order to validate the modal analysis results to have accurate flutter analysis results for more complicated structures.

Keywords: flutter, plate, subsonic flow, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
3454 Wind Energy Loss Phenomenon Over Volumized Building Envelope with Porous Air Portals

Authors: Ying-chang Yu, Yuan-lung Lo


More and more building envelopes consist of the construction of balconies, canopies, handrails, sun-shading, vertical planters or gardens, maintenance platforms, display devices, lightings, ornaments, and also the most commonly seen double skin system. These components form a uniform but three-dimensional disturbance structure and create a complex surface wind field in front of the actual watertight building interface. The distorted wind behavior would affect the façade performance and building ventilation. Comparing with sole windscreen walls, these three-dimensional structures perform like distributed air portal assembly, and each portal generates air turbulence and consume wind pressure and energy simultaneously. In this study, we attempted to compare the behavior of 2D porous windscreens without internal construction, porous tubular portal windscreens, porous tapered portal windscreens, and porous coned portal windscreens. The wind energy reduction phenomenon is then compared to the different distributed air portals. The experiments are conducted in a physical wind tunnel with 1:25 in scale to simulate the three-dimensional structure of a real building envelope. The experimental airflow was set up to smooth flow. The specimen is designed as a plane with a distributed tubular structure behind, and the control group uses different tubular shapes but the same fluid volume to observe the wind damping phenomenon of various geometries.

Keywords: volumized building envelope, porous air portal, wind damping, wind tunnel test, wind energy loss

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3453 Affordable Aerodynamic Balance for Instrumentation in a Wind Tunnel Using Arduino

Authors: Pedro Ferreira, Alexandre Frugoli, Pedro Frugoli, Lucio Leonardo, Thais Cavalheri


The teaching of fluid mechanics in engineering courses is, in general, a source of great difficulties for learning. The possibility of the use of experiments with didactic wind tunnels can facilitate the education of future professionals. The objective of this proposal is the development of a low-cost aerodynamic balance to be used in a didactic wind tunnel. The set is comprised of an Arduino microcontroller, programmed by an open source software, linked to load cells built by students from another project. The didactic wind tunnel is 5,0m long and the test area is 90,0 cm x 90,0 cm x 150,0 cm. The Weq® electric motor, model W-22 of 9,2 HP, moves a fan with nine blades, each blade 32,0 cm long. The Weq® frequency inverter, model WEGCFW 08 (Vector Inverter) is responsible for wind speed control and also for the motor inversion of the rotational direction. A flat-convex profile prototype of airfoil was tested by measuring the drag and lift forces for certain attack angles; the air flux conditions remained constant, monitored by a Pitot tube connected to a EXTECH® Instruments digital pressure differential manometer Model HD755. The results indicate a good agreement with the theory. The choice of all of the components of this proposal resulted in a low-cost product providing a high level of specific knowledge of mechanics of fluids, which may be a good alternative to teaching in countries with scarce educational resources. The system also allows the expansion to measure other parameters like fluid velocity, temperature, pressure as well as the possibility of automation of other functions.

Keywords: aerodynamic balance, wind tunnel, strain gauge, load cell, Arduino, low-cost education

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3452 Experimental Study of Near Wake of Wind Turbines

Authors: Ramin Rezaei, Terry Ng, Abdollah Afjeh


Near wake development of a wind turbine affects the aerodynamic loads on the tower and the wind turbine. Design considerations of both isolated wind turbines and wind farms must include unsteady wake flow conditions under which the turbines must operate. The consequent aerodynamic loads could lead to over design of wind turbines and adversely affect the cost of wind turbines and, in turn, the cost of energy produced by wind turbines. Reducing the weight of turbine rotors is particularly desirable since larger wind turbine rotors can be utilized without significantly increasing the cost of the supporting structure. Larger rotor diameters produce larger swept areas and consequently greater energy production from the wind thereby reducing the levelized cost of wind energy. To understand the development and structure of the near tower wake of a wind turbine, an experimental study was conducted to describe the flow field of the near wake for both upwind and downwind turbines. The study was conducted under controlled environment of a wind tunnel using a scaled model of a turbine. The NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine was used as a baseline design and was modified as necessary to design and build upwind and downwind scaled wind turbine models. This paper presents the results of the wind tunnel study using turbine models to quantify the near wake of upwind and downwind wind turbine configurations for various lengths of tower-to-turbine spacing. The variations of mean velocity and turbulence are measured using a computer-controlled, traversing hot wire probe. Additionally, smoke flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the wake. The results show a more rapid dissipation of the near wake for an upwind configuration. The results can readily be incorporated into low fidelity system level turbine simulation tools to more accurately account for the wake on the aerodynamic loads of a upwind and downwind turbines.

Keywords: hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine. Hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine

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