Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1090

Search results for: unmanned aerial vehicles

1090 Unmanned Systems in Urban Areas

Authors: Abdullah Beyazkurk, Onur Ozdemir

Abstract:

The evolution of warfare has been affected from technological developments to a large extent. Another important factor that affected the evolution of warfare is the space. Technological developments became cornerstones for the organization of the forces on the field, while space of the battlefield gained importance with the introduction of urban areas as 'battlefields'. The use of urban areas as battlefields increased the casualty, while technological developments began to play a remedial role. Thus, the unmanned systems drew attention as the remedy. Today's widely used unmanned aerial vehicles have great effects on the operations. On the other hand, with the increasing urbanization, and the wide use of urban areas as battlefields make it a necessity to benefit from unmanned systems on the ground as well. This study focuses on the use of unmanned aerial systems as well as unmanned ground systems in urban warfare, with regards to their performance and cost affectivity. The study defends that the use of unmanned vehicles will be remedial for increasing casualty rates, while their precision and superhuman capacity will manifest the performance advantage. The findings of this study will help modern armies focus on unmanned systems, especially for the urban, anti-terror, or counter insurgency operations.

Keywords: technology, warfare, urban warfare, unmanned systems, unmanned ground vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
1089 Construction of Large Scale UAVs Using Homebuilt Composite Techniques

Authors: Brian J. Kozak, Joshua D. Shipman, Peng Hao Wang, Blake Shipp

Abstract:

The unmanned aerial system (UAS) industry is growing at a rapid pace. This growth has increased the demand for low cost, custom made and high strength unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The area of most growth is in the area of 25 kg to 200 kg vehicles. Vehicles this size are beyond the size and scope of simple wood and fabric designs commonly found in hobbyist aircraft. These high end vehicles require stronger materials to complete their mission. Traditional aircraft construction materials such as aluminum are difficult to use without machining or advanced computer controlled tooling. However, by using general aviation composite aircraft homebuilding techniques and materials, a large scale UAV can be constructed cheaply and easily. Furthermore, these techniques could be used to easily manufacture cost made composite shapes and airfoils that would be cost prohibitive when using metals. These homebuilt aircraft techniques are being demonstrated by the researchers in the construction of a 75 kg aircraft.

Keywords: composite aircraft, homebuilding, unmanned aerial system industry, UAS, unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV

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1088 A Centralized Architecture for Cooperative Air-Sea Vehicles Using UAV-USV

Authors: Salima Bella, Assia Belbachir, Ghalem Belalem

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of monitoring and cleaning dirty zones of oceans using unmanned vehicles. We present a centralized cooperative architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor ocean regions and clean dirty zones with the help of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Due to the rapid deployment of these unmanned vehicles, it is convenient to use them in oceanic regions where the water pollution zones are generally unknown. In order to optimize this process, our solution aims to detect and reduce the pollution level of the ocean zones while taking into account the problem of fault tolerance related to these vehicles.

Keywords: centralized architecture, fault tolerance, UAV, USV

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
1087 Three-Dimensional Off-Line Path Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Lana Dalawr Jalal

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of offline path planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in complex three-dimensional environment with obstacles, which is modelled by 3D Cartesian grid system. Path planning for UAVs require the computational intelligence methods to move aerial vehicles along the flight path effectively to target while avoiding obstacles. In this paper Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) algorithm is applied to generate the optimal collision free 3D flight path for UAV. The simulations results clearly demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in guiding UAV to the final destination by providing optimal feasible path quickly and effectively.

Keywords: obstacle avoidance, particle swarm optimization, three-dimensional path planning unmanned aerial vehicles

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1086 Implementation of the Interlock Protocol to Enhance Security in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Vikram Prabhu, Mohammad Shikh Bahaei

Abstract:

This paper depicts the implementation of a new infallible technique to protect an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle from cyber-attacks. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) could be vulnerable to cyber-attacks because of jammers or eavesdroppers over the network which pose as a threat to the security of the UAV. In the field of network security, there are quite a few protocols which can be used to establish a secure connection between UAVs and their Operators. In this paper, we discuss how the Interlock Protocol could be implemented to foil the Man-in-the-Middle Attack. In this case, Wireshark has been used as the sniffer (man-in-the-middle). This paper also shows a comparison between the Interlock Protocol and the TCP Protocols using cryptcat and netcat and at the same time highlights why the Interlock Protocol is the most efficient security protocol to prevent eavesdropping over the communication channel.

Keywords: interlock protocol, Diffie-Hellman algorithm, unmanned aerial vehicles, control station, man-in-the-middle attack, Wireshark

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
1085 Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Parametric Programming Based Cascade Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Dao Phuong Nam, Do Trong Tan, Pham Tam Thanh, Le Duy Tung, Tran Hoang Anh

Abstract:

This paper considers the problem of cascade control system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Due to the complicated modelling technique of UAV, it is necessary to separate them into two subsystems. The proposed cascade control structure is a hierarchical scheme including a robust control for inner subsystem based on H infinity theory and trajectory generator using genetic algorithm (GA), outer loop control law based on multi-parametric programming (MPP) technique to overcome the disadvantage of a big amount of calculations. Simulation results are presented to show that the equivalent path has been found and obtained by proposed cascade control scheme.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, GA, H infinity, multi-parametric programming, MPP, unmanned aerial vehicles, UAVs

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
1084 Aerodynamic Effects of Ice and Its Influences on Flight Characteristics of Low Speed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: I. McAndrew, K. L. Witcher, E. Navarro

Abstract:

This paper presents the theory and application of low-speed flight for unmanned aerial vehicles when subjected to surface environmental conditions such as ice on the leading edge and upper surface. A model was developed and tested in a wind tunnel to see how theory compares with practice at various speed including take-off, landing and operational applications where head winds substantially alter parameters. Furthermore, a comparison is drawn with maned operations and how that this subject is currently under-supported with accurate theory or knowledge for designers or operators to make informed decision or accommodate individual applications. The effects of ice formation for lift and drag are determined for a range of different angles of attacks.

Keywords: aerodynamics, environmental influences, glide path ratio, unmanned vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1083 [Keynote Talk]: Aerodynamic Effects of Ice and Its Influences on Flight Characteristics of Low Speed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: I. McAndrew, K. L. Witcher, E. Navarro

Abstract:

This paper presents the theory and application of low speed flight for unmanned aerial vehicles when subjected to surface environmental conditions such as ice on the leading edge and upper surface. A model was developed and tested in a wind tunnel to see how theory compares with practice at various speed including take-off, landing and operational applications where head winds substantially alter parameters. Furthermore, a comparison is drawn with maned operations and how that this subject is currently under supported with accurate theory or knowledge for designers or operators to make informed decision or accommodate individual applications. The effects of ice formation for lift and drag are determined for a range of different angles of attacks.

Keywords: aerodynamics, low speed flight, unmanned vehicles, environmental influences

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
1082 Brain-Computer Interface Based Real-Time Control of Fixed Wing and Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Ravi Vishwanath, Saumya Kumaar, S. N. Omkar

Abstract:

Brain-computer interfacing (BCI) is a technology that is almost four decades old, and it was developed solely for the purpose of developing and enhancing the impact of neuroprosthetics. However, in the recent times, with the commercialization of non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) headsets, the technology has seen a wide variety of applications like home automation, wheelchair control, vehicle steering, etc. One of the latest developed applications is the mind-controlled quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle. These applications, however, do not require a very high-speed response and give satisfactory results when standard classification methods like Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLPC). Issues are faced when there is a requirement for high-speed control in the case of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles where such methods are rendered unreliable due to the low speed of classification. Such an application requires the system to classify data at high speeds in order to retain the controllability of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method of classification which uses a combination of Common Spatial Paradigm and Linear Discriminant Analysis that provides an improved classification accuracy in real time. A non-linear SVM based classification technique has also been discussed. Further, this paper discusses the implementation of the proposed method on a fixed-wing and VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, classification, machine learning, unmanned aerial vehicles

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1081 Path Planning for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Adaptive Probabilistic Sampling Algorithm

Authors: Long Cheng, Tong He, Iraj Mantegh, Wen-Fang Xie

Abstract:

Path planning is essential for UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) with autonomous navigation in unknown environments. In this paper, an adaptive probabilistic sampling algorithm is proposed for the GPS-denied environment, which can be utilized for autonomous navigation system of multiple UAVs in a dynamically-changing structured environment. This method can be used for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) solutions and in autonomous urban aerial mobility, where a number of platforms are expected to share the airspace. A path network is initially built off line based on available environment map, and on-board sensors systems on the flying UAVs are used for continuous situational awareness and to inform the changes in the path network. Simulation results based on MATLAB and Gazebo in different scenarios and algorithms performance measurement show the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed technique in unknown environments.

Keywords: path planning, adaptive probabilistic sampling, obstacle avoidance, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, unknown environments

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1080 3D Guidance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Sliding Mode Approach

Authors: M. Zamurad Shah, M. Kemal Ozgoren, Raza Samar

Abstract:

This paper presents a 3D guidance scheme for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed guidance scheme is based on the sliding mode approach using nonlinear sliding manifolds. Generalized 3D kinematic equations are considered here during the design process to cater for the coupling between longitudinal and lateral motions. Sliding mode based guidance scheme is then derived for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system using the proposed nonlinear manifolds. Instead of traditional sliding surfaces, nonlinear sliding surfaces are proposed here for performance and stability in all flight conditions. In the reaching phase control inputs, the bang-bang terms with signum functions are accompanied with proportional terms in order to reduce the chattering amplitudes. The Proposed 3D guidance scheme is implemented on a 6-degrees-of-freedom (6-dof) simulation of a UAV and simulation results are presented here for different 3D trajectories with and without disturbances.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles, sliding mode control, 3D guidance, nonlinear sliding manifolds

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
1079 Implementing Delivery Drones in Logistics Business Process: Case of Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Nikola Vlahovic, Blazenka Knezevic, Petra Batalic

Abstract:

In this paper, we will present a research about feasibility of implementing unmanned aerial vehicles, also known as 'drones', in logistics. Research is based on available information about current incentives and experiments in application of delivery drones in commercial use. Overview of current pilot projects and literature, as well as an overview of detected challenges, will be compiled and presented. Based on these findings, we will present a conceptual model of business process that implements delivery drones in business to business logistic operations. Business scenario is based on a pharmaceutical supply chain. Simulation modeling will be used to create models for running experiments and collecting performance data. Comparative study of the presented conceptual model will be given. The work will outline the main advantages and disadvantages of implementing unmanned aerial vehicles in delivery services as a supplementary distribution channel along the supply chain.

Keywords: business process, delivery drones, logistics, simulation modelling, unmanned aerial vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1078 Map Matching Performance under Various Similarity Metrics for Heterogeneous Robot Teams

Authors: M. C. Akay, A. Aybakan, H. Temeltas

Abstract:

Aerial and ground robots have various advantages of usage in different missions. Aerial robots can move quickly and get a different sight of view of the area, but those vehicles cannot carry heavy payloads. On the other hand, unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are slow moving vehicles, since those can carry heavier payloads than unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In this context, we investigate the performances of various Similarity Metrics to provide a common map for Heterogeneous Robot Team (HRT) in complex environments. Within the usage of Lidar Odometry and Octree Mapping technique, the local 3D maps of the environment are gathered.  In order to obtain a common map for HRT, informative theoretic similarity metrics are exploited. All types of these similarity metrics gave adequate as allowable simulation time and accurate results that can be used in different types of applications. For the heterogeneous multi robot team, those methods can be used to match different types of maps.

Keywords: common maps, heterogeneous robot team, map matching, informative theoretic similarity metrics

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1077 Conceptual Design of Unmanned Aerial Targets

Authors: M. Adamski, J. Cwiklak

Abstract:

The contemporary battlefield creates a demand for more costly and highly advanced munitions. Training personnel responsible for operations, as well as an immediate execution of combat tasks, which engage real assets, is unrealistic and economically not feasible. Owing to a wide array of exploited simulators and various types of imitators, it is possible to reduce the costs. One of the effective elements of training, which can be applied in the training of all service branches, are imitators of aerial targets. This research serves as an introduction to the commencement of design analysis over a real aerial target imitator. Within the project, the basic aerodynamic calculations were made, which enabled to determine its geometry, design layout, performance, as well as the mass balance of individual components. The conducted calculations of the parameters of flight characteristics come closer to the real performance of such unmanned aerial vehicles.

Keywords: aerial target, aerodynamics, imitator, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
1076 Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Geohazard Mapping: Case Study Dominica

Authors: Michael Mickson

Abstract:

The recent development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been increasing the number of technical solutions that can be used to identify, map, and manage the effects of geohazards. UAVs are generally cheaper and more versatile than traditional remote-sensing techniques, and they can be therefore considered as a good alternative for the acquisition of imagery and other remote sensing data before, during and after a natural hazard event. This study aims to use UAV for investigating areas susceptible to high mobility flows such as debris flow in Dominica, especially after the 2017 Hurricane Maria. The use of UAVs in identifying, mapping and managing of natural hazards helps to mitigate the negative effects of natural hazards on livelihood, properties and the built environment.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), geohazards, remote sensing, mapping, Dominica

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1075 Health Monitoring and Failure Detection of Electronic and Structural Components in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Gopi Kandaswamy, P. Balamuralidhar

Abstract:

Fully autonomous small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly being used in many commercial applications. Although a lot of research has been done to develop safe, reliable and durable UAVs, accidents due to electronic and structural failures are not uncommon and pose a huge safety risk to the UAV operators and the public. Hence there is a strong need for an automated health monitoring system for UAVs with a view to minimizing mission failures thereby increasing safety. This paper describes our approach to monitoring the electronic and structural components in a small UAV without the need for additional sensors to do the monitoring. Our system monitors data from four sources; sensors, navigation algorithms, control inputs from the operator and flight controller outputs. It then does statistical analysis on the data and applies a rule based engine to detect failures. This information can then be fed back into the UAV and a decision to continue or abort the mission can be taken automatically by the UAV and independent of the operator. Our system has been verified using data obtained from real flights over the past year from UAVs of various sizes that have been designed and deployed by us for various applications.

Keywords: fault detection, health monitoring, unmanned aerial vehicles, vibration analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
1074 Risk Assessment for Aerial Package Delivery

Authors: Haluk Eren, Ümit Çelik

Abstract:

Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have begun to attract intense interest. UAVs started to use for many different applications from military to civilian use. Some online retailer and logistics companies are testing the UAV delivery. UAVs have great potentials to reduce cost and time of deliveries and responding to emergencies in a short time. Despite these great positive sides, just a few works have been done for routing of UAVs for package deliveries. As known, transportation of goods from one place to another may have many hazards on delivery route due to falling hazards that can be exemplified as ground objects or air obstacles. This situation refers to wide-range insurance concept. For this reason, deliveries that are made with drones get into the scope of shipping insurance. On the other hand, air traffic was taken into account in the absence of unmanned aerial vehicle. But now, it has been a reality for aerial fields. In this study, the main goal is to conduct risk analysis of package delivery services using drone, based on delivery routes.

Keywords: aerial package delivery, insurance estimation, territory risk map, unmanned aerial vehicle, route risk estimation, drone risk assessment, drone package delivery

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1073 Autonomous Flight Performance Improvement of Load-Carrying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Active Morphing

Authors: Tugrul Oktay, Mehmet Konar, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed, Murat Aydin, Firat Sal, Murat Onay, Mustafa Soylak

Abstract:

In this paper, it is aimed to improve autonomous flight performance of a load-carrying (payload: 3 kg and total: 6kg) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) through active wing and horizontal tail active morphing and also integrated autopilot system parameters (i.e. P, I, D gains) and UAV parameters (i.e. extension ratios of wing and horizontal tail during flight) design. For this purpose, a loadcarrying UAV (i.e. ZANKA-II) is manufactured in Erciyes University, College of Aviation, Model Aircraft Laboratory is benefited. Optimum values of UAV parameters and autopilot parameters are obtained using a stochastic optimization method. Using this approach autonomous flight performance of UAV is substantially improved and also in some adverse weather conditions an opportunity for safe flight is satisfied. Active morphing and integrated design approach gives confidence, high performance and easy-utility request of UAV users.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles, morphing, autopilots, autonomous performance

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1072 Dynamic Modeling of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Petro-Engine

Authors: Khaled A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda

Abstract:

In the following article, we present the dynamic simulation of an unmanned aerial vehicle with main fuel engine in the middle to carry most of the weight. This configuration will increase the flight time of the vehicle for a given payload size as opposed to the traditional quad rotor, where only DC motors are used. A parametric study to investigate the effect of the propellers ratio (main rotor propeller diameter to secondary rotor propeller diameter), the angle of incidence of the main rotor and the twist angle of the main rotor blades on selected performance criteria is presented.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), quadrotor, petrol quadcopter, flying robot

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1071 Mobility-Aware Relay Selection in Two Hop Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Network

Authors: Tayyaba Hussain, Sobia Jangsher, Saqib Ali, Saqib Ejaz

Abstract:

Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAV’s) have gained great popularity due to their remoteness, ease of deployment and high maneuverability in different applications like real-time surveillance, image capturing, weather atmospheric studies, disaster site monitoring and mapping. These applications can involve a real-time communication with the ground station. However, altitude and mobility possess a few challenges for the communication. UAV’s at high altitude usually require more transmit power. One possible solution can be with the use of multi hops (UAV’s acting as relays) and exploiting the mobility pattern of the UAV’s. In this paper, we studied a relay (UAV’s acting as relays) selection for a reliable transmission to a destination UAV. We exploit the mobility information of the UAV’s to propose a Mobility-Aware Relay Selection (MARS) algorithm with the objective of giving improved data rates. The results are compared with Non Mobility-Aware relay selection scheme and optimal values. Numerical results show that our proposed MARS algorithm gives 6% better achievable data rates for the mobile UAV’s as compared with Non MobilityAware relay selection scheme. On average a decrease of 20.2% in data rate is achieved with MARS as compared with SDP solver in Yalmip.

Keywords: mobility aware, relay selection, time division multiple acess, unmanned aerial vehicle

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1070 Integrating Human Preferences into the Automated Decisions of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Arwa Khannoussi, Alexandru-Liviu Olteanu, Pritesh Narayan, Catherine Dezan, Jean-Philippe Diguet, Patrick Meyer, Jacques Petit-Frere

Abstract:

Due to the nature of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) missions, it is important that the decisions of a UAV stay consistent with the priorities of an operator, while at the same time allowing them to be easily audited and explained. We propose a multi-layer decision engine that integrates the operator (human) preferences by using the Multi-Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA) methods. A software implementation of a UAV simulator and of the decision engine is presented to highlight the advantage of using such techniques on high-level decisions. We demonstrate that, with such a preference-based decision engine, the decisions of the UAV are compatible with the priorities of the operator, which in turn increases her/his confidence in its autonomous behavior.

Keywords: autonomous UAV, multi-criteria decision aiding, multi-layers decision engine, operator's preferences, traceable decisions, UAV simulation

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1069 Skew Planar Wheel Antenna for First Person View of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Raymond Yudhi Purba, Levy Olivia Nur, Radial Anwar

Abstract:

This research presents the design and measurement of a skew planar wheel antenna that is used to visualize the first person view perspective of unmanned aerial vehicles. The antenna has been designed using CST Studio Suite 2019 to have voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) ≤ 2, return loss ≤ -10 dB, bandwidth ≥ 100 MHz to covering outdoor access point band from 5.725 to 5.825 GHz, omnidirectional radiation pattern, and elliptical polarization. Dimensions of skew planar wheel antenna have been modified using parameter sweep technique to provide good performances. The simulation results provide VSWR 1.231, return loss -19.693 dB, bandwidth 828.8 MHz, gain 3.292 dB, and axial ratio 9.229 dB. Meanwhile, the measurement results provide VSWR 1.237, return loss -19.476 dB, bandwidth 790.5 MHz, gain 3.2034 dB, and axial ratio 4.12 dB.

Keywords: skew planar wheel, cloverleaf, first-person view, unmanned aerial vehicle, parameter sweep

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1068 Registration of Multi-Temporal Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Images for Facility Monitoring

Authors: Dongyeob Han, Jungwon Huh, Quang Huy Tran, Choonghyun Kang

Abstract:

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been used for surveillance, monitoring, inspection, and mapping. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for automatic registration of UAV images for monitoring facilities such as building, green house, and civil structures. The two-step process is applied; 1) an image matching technique based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Feature) and RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus), 2) bundle adjustment of multi-temporal images. Image matching to find corresponding points is one of the most important steps for the precise registration of multi-temporal images. We used the SURF algorithm to find a quick and effective matching points. RANSAC algorithm was used in the process of finding matching points between images and in the bundle adjustment process. Experimental results from UAV images showed that our approach has a good accuracy to be applied to the change detection of facility.

Keywords: building, image matching, temperature, unmanned aerial vehicle

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1067 An Artificial Potential Field Based Swarm Algorithm for Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Kemal Guven, Andac T. Samiloglu

Abstract:

In this study, an artificial potential field based swarm algorithm has been developed to establish line formation with fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles. Total potential field for each agent was calculated according to the determined target location and the position of each agent. For each agent, heading angle and speed values were determined using potential field vector. Performance verifications of the swarm controller methods and algorithms have been studied primarily for situations where dynamics are not in the calculation. First of all, UAVs are modeled as simple massless points. Line formation algorithms were verified with limited maneuver models (simplified dynamic behavior). For this purpose, Matlab program was used. The algorithms determined as a result of these studies were used in the Gazebo environment, where the dynamics of UAVs, such as mass, thrust forces, and weather conditions, are calculated and thus have more realistic models. Delta wing model was chosen as the aircraft model. The heading and speed values obtained with the output of the swarm algorithm are used as reference in flight controls of the UAVs. Thrust control was done by using PID controller in order to reach the desired flight speed values in aircraft in the Gazebo environment. Heading was controlled by using roll angle of UAVs. Flight with line formation was carried out with a swarm of 5 UAVs in Gazebo platform.

Keywords: artificial potential field, swarm algorithm, unmanned aerial vehicles, multi agent systems

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1066 Vision-Based Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Recurrent Neural Networks

Authors: Yao-Hong Tsai

Abstract:

Due to the sensor technology, video surveillance has become the main way for security control in every big city in the world. Surveillance is usually used by governments for intelligence gathering, the prevention of crime, the protection of a process, person, group or object, or the investigation of crime. Many surveillance systems based on computer vision technology have been developed in recent years. Moving target tracking is the most common task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to find and track objects of interest in mobile aerial surveillance for civilian applications. The paper is focused on vision-based collision avoidance for UAVs by recurrent neural networks. First, images from cameras on UAV were fused based on deep convolutional neural network. Then, a recurrent neural network was constructed to obtain high-level image features for object tracking and extracting low-level image features for noise reducing. The system distributed the calculation of the whole system to local and cloud platform to efficiently perform object detection, tracking and collision avoidance based on multiple UAVs. The experiments on several challenging datasets showed that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle, object tracking, deep learning, collision avoidance

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1065 Autonomous Landing of UAV on Moving Platform: A Mathematical Approach

Authors: Mortez Alijani, Anas Osman

Abstract:

Recently, the popularity of Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has skyrocketed amidst the unprecedented events and the global pandemic, as they play a key role in both the security and health sectors, through surveillance, taking test samples, transportation of crucial goods and spreading awareness among civilians. However, the process of designing and producing such aerial robots is suppressed by the internal and external constraints that pose serious challenges. Landing is one of the key operations during flight, especially, the autonomous landing of UAVs on a moving platform is a scientifically complex engineering problem. Typically having a successful automatic landing of UAV on a moving platform requires accurate localization of landing, fast trajectory planning, and robust control planning. To achieve these goals, the information about the autonomous landing process such as the intersection point, the position of platform/UAV and inclination angle are more necessary. In this study, the mathematical approach to this problem in the X-Y axis based on the inclination angle and position of UAV in the landing process have been presented. The experimental results depict the accurate position of the UAV, intersection between UAV and moving platform and inclination angle in the landing process, allowing prediction of the intersection point.

Keywords: autonomous landing, inclination angle, unmanned aerial vehicles, moving platform, X-Y axis, intersection point

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1064 A Research on the Benefits of Drone Usage in Industry by Determining Companies Using Drone in the World

Authors: Ahmet Akdemir, Güzide Karakuş, Leyla Polat

Abstract:

Aviation that has been arisen in accordance with flying request that is existing inside of people, has not only made life easier by making a great contribution to humanity; it has also accelerated globalization by reducing distances between countries. It is seen that the growth rate of aviation industry has reached the undreamed level when it is looked back on. Today, the last point in aviation is unmanned aerial vehicles that are self-ventilating and move in desired coordinates without any onboard pilot. For those vehicles, there are two different control systems are developed. In the first type of control, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) moves according to instructions of a remote control. UAV that moves with a remote control is named as drone; it can be used personally. In the second one, there is a flight plan that is programmed and placed inside of UAV before flight. Recently, drones have started to be used in unimagined areas and utilize specific, important benefits for any industry. Within this framework, this study answers the question that is drone usage would be beneficial for businesses or not. To answer this question, applied basic methodologies are determining businesses using drone in the world, their purposes to use drone, and then, comparing their economy as before drone and after drone. In the end of this study, it is seen that many companies in different business areas use drone in logistics support, and it makes their work easier than before. This paper has contributed to academic literature about this subject, and it has introduced the benefits of drone usage for businesses. In addition, it has encouraged businesses that they keep pace with this technological age by following the developments about drones.

Keywords: aviation, drone, drone in business, unmanned aerial vehicle

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1063 Multidisciplinary and Multilevel Design Methodology of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Enhanced Collaborative Optimization

Authors: Pedro F. Albuquerque, Pedro V. Gamboa, Miguel A. Silvestre

Abstract:

The present work describes the implementation of the Enhanced Collaborative Optimization (ECO) multilevel architecture with a gradient-based optimization algorithm with the aim of performing a multidisciplinary design optimization of a generic unmanned aerial vehicle with morphing technologies. The concepts of weighting coefficient and a dynamic compatibility parameter are presented for the ECO architecture. A routine that calculates the aircraft performance for the user defined mission profile and vehicle’s performance requirements has been implemented using low fidelity models for the aerodynamics, stability, propulsion, weight, balance and flight performance. A benchmarking case study for evaluating the advantage of using a variable span wing within the optimization methodology developed is presented.

Keywords: multidisciplinary, multilevel, morphing, enhanced collaborative optimization

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1062 Architecture for Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based Autonomous Precision Agriculture Systems

Authors: Ebasa Girma, Nathnael Minyelshowa, Lebsework Negash

Abstract:

The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in precision agriculture has seen a huge increase recently. As such, systems that aim to apply various algorithms on the field need a structured framework of abstractions. This paper defines the various tasks of the UAVs in precision agriculture and models them into an architectural framework. The presented architecture is built on the context that there will be minimal physical intervention to do the tasks defined with multiple coordinated and cooperative UAVs. Various tasks such as image processing, path planning, communication, data acquisition, and field mapping are employed in the architecture to provide an efficient system. Besides, different limitation for applying Multi-UAVs in precision agriculture has been considered in designing the architecture. The architecture provides an autonomous end-to-end solution, starting from mission planning, data acquisition, and image processing framework that is highly efficient and can enable farmers to comprehensively deploy UAVs onto their lands. Simulation and field tests show that the architecture offers a number of advantages that include fault-tolerance, robustness, developer, and user-friendliness.

Keywords: deep learning, multi-UAVs, precision agriculture, UAVs architecture

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1061 Controlling Drone Flight Missions through Natural Language Processors Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Sylvester Akpah, Selasi Vondee

Abstract:

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) as they are also known, drones have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their ubiquitous nature and boundless applications in the areas of communication, surveying, aerial photography, weather forecasting, medical delivery, surveillance amongst others. Operated remotely in real-time or pre-programmed, drones can fly autonomously or on pre-defined routes. The application of these aerial vehicles has successfully penetrated the world due to technological evolution, thus a lot more businesses are utilizing their capabilities. Unfortunately, while drones are replete with the benefits stated supra, they are riddled with some problems, mainly attributed to the complexities in learning how to master drone flights, collision avoidance and enterprise security. Additional challenges, such as the analysis of flight data recorded by sensors attached to the drone may take time and require expert help to analyse and understand. This paper presents an autonomous drone control system using a chatbot. The system allows for easy control of drones using conversations with the aid of Natural Language Processing, thus to reduce the workload needed to set up, deploy, control, and monitor drone flight missions. The results obtained at the end of the study revealed that the drone connected to the chatbot was able to initiate flight missions with just text and voice commands, enable conversation and give real-time feedback from data and requests made to the chatbot. The results further revealed that the system was able to process natural language and produced human-like conversational abilities using Artificial Intelligence (Natural Language Understanding). It is recommended that radio signal adapters be used instead of wireless connections thus to increase the range of communication with the aerial vehicle.

Keywords: artificial ntelligence, chatbot, natural language processing, unmanned aerial vehicle

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