Publications | World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61
61 Aircraft Supplier Selection using Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making Process with Proximity Measure Method for Determinate Fuzzy Set Ranking Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Aircraft supplier selection process, which is considered as a fundamental supply chain problem, is a multi-criteria group decision problem that has a significant impact on the performance of the entire supply chain. In practical situations are frequently incomplete and uncertain information, making it difficult for decision-makers to communicate their opinions on candidates with precise and definite values. To solve the aircraft supplier selection problem in an environment of incomplete and uncertain information, proximity measure method is proposed. It uses determinate fuzzy numbers. The weights of each decision maker are equally predetermined and the entropic criteria weights are calculated using each decision maker's decision matrix. Additionally, determinate fuzzy numbers, it is proposed to use the weighted normalized Minkowski distance function and Hausdorff distance function to determine the ranking order patterns of alternatives. A numerical example for aircraft supplier selection is provided to further demonstrate the applicability, effectiveness, validity and rationality of the proposed method.

Keywords: Aircraft supplier selection, multiple criteria decision making, fuzzy sets, determinate fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets, proximity measure method, Minkowski distance function, Hausdorff distance function, PMM, MCDM

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60 Exploring the Role of Hydrogen to Achieve the Italian Decarbonization Targets Using an Open-Source Energy System Optimization Model

Authors: A. Balbo, G. Colucci, M. Nicoli, L. Savoldi

Abstract:

Hydrogen is expected to become an undisputed player in the ecological transition throughout the next decades. The decarbonization potential offered by this energy vector provides various opportunities for the so-called “hard-to-abate” sectors, including industrial production of iron and steel, glass, refineries and the heavy-duty transport. In this regard, Italy, in the framework of decarbonization plans for the whole European Union, has been considering a wider use of hydrogen to provide an alternative to fossil fuels in hard-to-abate sectors. This work aims to assess and compare different options concerning the pathway to be followed in the development of the future Italian energy system in order to meet decarbonization targets as established by the Paris Agreement and by the European Green Deal, and to infer a techno-economic analysis of the required asset alternatives to be used in that perspective. To accomplish this objective, the Energy System Optimization Model TEMOA-Italy is used, based on the open-source platform TEMOA and developed at PoliTo as a tool to be used for technology assessment and energy scenario analysis. The adopted assessment strategy includes two different scenarios to be compared with a business-as-usual one, which considers the application of current policies in a time horizon up to 2050. The studied scenarios are based on the up-to-date hydrogen-related targets and planned investments included in the National Hydrogen Strategy and in the Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan, with the purpose of providing a critical assessment of what they propose. One scenario imposes decarbonization objectives for the years 2030, 2040 and 2050, without any other specific target. The second one (inspired to the national objectives on the development of the sector) promotes the deployment of the hydrogen value-chain. These scenarios provide feedback about the applications hydrogen could have in the Italian energy system, including transport, industry and synfuels production. Furthermore, the decarbonization scenario where hydrogen production is not imposed, will make use of this energy vector as well, showing the necessity of its exploitation in order to meet pledged targets by 2050. The distance of the planned policies from the optimal conditions for the achievement of Italian objectives is clarified, revealing possible improvements of various steps of the decarbonization pathway, which seems to have as a fundamental element Carbon Capture and Utilization technologies for its accomplishment. In line with the European Commission open science guidelines, the transparency and the robustness of the presented results are ensured by the adoption of the open-source open-data model such as the TEMOA-Italy.

Keywords: Decarbonization, energy system optimization models, hydrogen, open-source modeling, TEMOA.

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59 Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of Biomimetic Scaffold of Gelatin/Zn-Incorporated 58S Bioactive Glass

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Hosseini, Amirhossein Moghanian

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research was to design a biomimetic system by freeze-drying method for evaluating the effect of adding 5 and 10 mol. % of zinc (Zn) in 58S bioactive glass and gelatin (5ZnBG/G and 10ZnBG/G) in terms of structural and biological changes. The structural analyses of samples were performed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Also, 3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity tests were carried out for investigation of MC3T3-E1 cell behaviors. The SEM results demonstrated the spherical shape of the formed hydroxyapatite (HA) phases and also HA characteristic peaks were detected by XRD spectroscopy after 3 days of immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Meanwhile, FTIR spectra proved that the intensity of P–O peaks for 5ZnBG/G was more than 10ZnBG/G and control samples. Moreover, the results of ALP activity test illustrated that the optimal amount of Zn (5ZnBG/G) caused a considerable enhancement in bone cell growth. Taken together, the scaffold with 5 mol.% Zn was introduced as an optimal sample because of its higher biocompatibility, in vitro bioactivity and growth of MC3T3-E1 cells in comparison with other samples in bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: Scaffold, gelatin, modified bioactive glass, ALP, bone tissue engineering.

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58 Determinate Fuzzy Set Ranking Analysis for Combat Aircraft Selection with Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Using the aid of Hausdorff distance function and Minkowski distance function, this study proposes a novel method for selecting combat aircraft for Air Force. In order to do this, the proximity measure method was developed with determinate fuzzy degrees based on the relationship between attributes and combat aircraft alternatives. The combat aircraft selection attributes were identified as payloadability, maneuverability, speedability, stealthability, and survivability. Determinate fuzzy data from the combat aircraft attributes was then aggregated using the determinate fuzzy weighted arithmetic average operator. For the selection of combat aircraft, correlation analysis of the ranking order patterns of options was also examined. A numerical example from military aviation is used to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Combat aircraft selection, multiple criteria decision making, fuzzy sets, determinate fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets, proximity measure method, Hausdorff distance function, Minkowski distance function, PMM, MCDM

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57 Localising Gauss's Law and the Electric Charge Induction on a Conducting Sphere

Authors: Sirapat Lookrak, Anol Paisal

Abstract:

Space debris has numerous manifestations including ferro-metalize and non-ferrous. The electric field will induce negative charges to split from positive charges inside the space debris. In this research, we focus only on conducting materials. The assumption is that the electric charge density of a conducting surface is proportional to the electric field on that surface due to Gauss's law. We are trying to find the induced charge density from an external electric field perpendicular to a conducting spherical surface. An object is a sphere on which the external electric field is not uniform. The electric field is, therefore, considered locally. The localised spherical surface is a tangent plane so the Gaussian surface is a very small cylinder and every point on a spherical surface has its own cylinder. The electric field from a circular electrode has been calculated in near-field and far-field approximation and shown Explanation Touchless manoeuvring space debris orbit properties. The electric charge density calculation from a near-field and far-field approximation is done.

Keywords: Near-field approximation, far-field approximation, localized Gauss’s law, electric charge density.

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56 A Block Cipher for Resource-Constrained IoT Devices

Authors: Muhammad Rana, Quazi Mamun, Rafiqul Islam

Abstract:

In the Internet of Things (IoT), many devices are connected and accumulate a sheer amount of data. These Internet-driven raw data need to be transferred securely to the end-users via dependable networks. Consequently, the challenges of IoT security in various IoT domains are paramount. Cryptography is being applied to secure the networks for authentication, confidentiality, data integrity and access control. However, due to the resource constraint properties of IoT devices, the conventional cipher may not be suitable in all IoT networks. This paper designs a robust and effective lightweight cipher to secure the IoT environment and meet the resource-constrained nature of IoT devices. We also propose a symmetric and block-cipher based lightweight cryptographic algorithm. The proposed algorithm increases the complexity of the block cipher, maintaining the lowest computational requirements possible. The proposed algorithm efficiently constructs the key register updating technique, reduces the number of encryption rounds, and adds a layer between the encryption and decryption processes.

Keywords: Internet of Things, IoT, cryptography block cipher, s-box, key management, IoT security.

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55 Use of Technology to Improve Students’ Attitude in Learning Mathematics of Non-Mathematics Undergraduate Students

Authors: Asia Majeed

Abstract:

This paper will investigate a form of learning mathematics by integrating technology in mathematics specifically for the university first-year calculus class to support students’ engagement in learning which influences students' conceptual and procedural understanding of the calculus content in a better way. The students with good grades in high school calculus generally struggle in first-year university calculus classes in learning mathematical analysis concepts. This problem has to be addressed. If this problem is not resolved, then most likely students with less ability to do mathematics might not able to complete their degrees. In this work, MATLAB is used to help students in learning and in improving calculus concepts.

Keywords: Calculus, first-year university students, teaching strategies, MATLAB.

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54 The Prostitute’s Body in Diasporic Space: Sexualized China and Chineseness in Yu Dafu’s Sinking and Yan Geling’s The Lost Daughter of Happiness

Authors: Haizhi Wu

Abstract:

Sexualization brings together the interdependent experiences of prostitution and diaspora, establishing a masculine structure where a female’s body mediates the hegemony and sexuality of men from different races. Between eroticism and homesickness, writers of the Chinese diaspora develop sensual approaches to reflect on the diasporic experience and sexual frustration. Noticeably, Yu Dafu in Sinking and Yan Geling in The Lost Daughter of Happiness both take an interest in sexual encounters between an immature teen client and an erotically powerful prostitute in Japan or America, both countries considered colonizers in Chinese history. Both are utilizing the metaphor of body-space interplay to hint at the out-of-text transnational interactions, two writers, however, present distinct understandings of their bond with history and memory of the semi-colonial, semi-feudal China. Examining prostitutes’ bodies in multi-layer diasporic spaces, the central analysis of this paper works on the sexual, colonial, and historical representations of this bodily symbol and the prostitution’s engagement in negotiating with diaspora and “Chineseness”.

Keywords: Chineseness, Diasporic spaces, Prostitutes’s bodies, Sexualization.

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53 An AI-Based Dynamical Resource Allocation Calculation Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Zhou Luchen, Wu Yubing, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar

Abstract:

As the scale of the network becomes larger and more complex than before, the density of user devices is also increasing. The development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) networks is able to collect and transform data in an efficient way by using software-defined networks (SDN) technology. This paper proposed a three-layer distributed and dynamic cluster architecture to manage UAVs by using an AI-based resource allocation calculation algorithm to address the overloading network problem. Through separating services of each UAV, the UAV hierarchical cluster system performs the main function of reducing the network load and transferring user requests, with three sub-tasks including data collection, communication channel organization, and data relaying. In this cluster, a head node and a vice head node UAV are selected considering the CPU, RAM, and ROM memory of devices, battery charge, and capacity. The vice head node acts as a backup that stores all the data in the head node. The k-means clustering algorithm is used in order to detect high load regions and form the UAV layered clusters. The whole process of detecting high load areas, forming and selecting UAV clusters, and moving the selected UAV cluster to that area is proposed as offloading traffic algorithm.

Keywords: k-means, resource allocation, SDN, UAV network, unmanned aerial vehicles.

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52 Didactical and Semiotic Affordance of GeoGebra in a Productive Mathematical Discourse

Authors: I. Benning

Abstract:

Using technology to expand the learning space is critical for a productive mathematical discourse. This is a case study of two teachers who developed and enacted GeoGebra-based mathematics lessons following their engagement in a two-year professional development. The didactical and semiotic affordance of GeoGebra in widening the learning space for a productive mathematical discourse was explored. The approach of thematic analysis was used for lesson artefact, lesson observation, and interview data. The results indicated that constructing tools in GeoGebra provided a didactical milieu where students used them to explore mathematical concepts with little or no support from their teacher. The prompt feedback from the GeoGebra motivated students to practice mathematical concepts repeatedly in which they privately rethink their solutions before comparing their answers with that of their colleagues. The constructing tools enhanced self-discovery, team spirit, and dialogue among students. With regards to the semiotic construct, the tools widened the physical and psychological atmosphere of the classroom by providing animations that served as virtual concrete to enhance the recording, manipulation, testing of a mathematical idea, construction, and interpretation of geometric objects. These findings advance the discussion of widening the classroom for a productive mathematical discourse within the context of the mathematics curriculum of Ghana and similar sub-Saharan African countries.

Keywords: GeoGebra, theory of didactical situation, semiotic mediation, mathematics laboratory, mathematical discussion.

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51 A Convolutional Neural Network-Based Vehicle Theft Detection, Location, and Reporting System

Authors: Michael Moeti, Khuliso Sigama, Thapelo Samuel Matlala

Abstract:

One of the principal challenges that the world is confronted with is insecurity. The crime rate is increasing exponentially, and protecting our physical assets, especially in the motorist sector, is becoming impossible when applying our own strength. The need to develop technological solutions that detect and report theft without any human interference is inevitable. This is critical, especially for vehicle owners, to ensure theft detection and speedy identification towards recovery efforts in cases where a vehicle is missing or attempted theft is taking place. The vehicle theft detection system uses Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to recognize the driver's face captured using an installed mobile phone device. The location identification function uses a Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine the real-time location of the vehicle. Upon identification of the location, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology is used to report or notify the vehicle owner about the whereabouts of the vehicle. The installed mobile app was implemented by making use of Python as it is undoubtedly the best choice in machine learning. It allows easy access to machine learning algorithms through its widely developed library ecosystem. The graphical user interface was developed by making use of JAVA as it is better suited for mobile development. Google's online database (Firebase) was used as a means of storage for the application. The system integration test was performed using a simple percentage analysis. 60 vehicle owners participated in this study as a sample, and questionnaires were used in order to establish the acceptability of the system developed. The result indicates the efficiency of the proposed system, and consequently, the paper proposes that the use of the system can effectively monitor the vehicle at any given place, even if it is driven outside its normal jurisdiction. More so, the system can be used as a database to detect, locate and report missing vehicles to different security agencies.

Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network, CNN, location identification, tracking, GPS, GSM.

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50 An Overview of Project Management Application in Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sajith Sajeev

Abstract:

The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widespread in engineering and industry, including aerospace, automotive, and energy. CFD simulations necessitate the use of intricate mathematical models and a substantial amount of computational power to accurately describe the behavior of fluids. The implementation of CFD projects can be difficult, and a well-structured approach to project management is required to assure the timely and cost-effective delivery of high-quality results. This paper's objective is to provide an overview of project management in CFD, including its problems, methodologies, and best practices. The study opens with a discussion of the difficulties connected with CFD project management, such as the complexity of the mathematical models, the need for extensive computational resources, and the difficulties associated with validating and verifying the results. In addition, the study examines the project management methodologies typically employed in CFD, such as the Traditional/Waterfall model, Agile and Scrum. Comparisons are made between the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, and suggestions are made for their effective implementation in CFD projects. The study concludes with a discussion of the best practices for project management in CFD, including the utilization of a well-defined project scope, a clear project plan, and effective teamwork. In addition, it highlights the significance of continuous process improvement and the utilization of metrics to monitor progress and discover improvement opportunities. This article is a resource for project managers, researchers, and practitioners in the field of CFD. It can aid in enhancing project outcomes, reducing risks, and enhancing the productivity of CFD projects. This paper provides a complete overview of project management in CFD and is a great resource for individuals who wish to implement efficient project management methods in CFD projects.

Keywords: Project management, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Traditional/Waterfall methodology, agile methodology, scrum methodology.

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49 Approximated Solutions of Two-Point Nonlinear Boundary Problem by a Combination of Taylor Series Expansion and Newton Raphson Method

Authors: Chinwendu. B. Eleje, Udechukwu P. Egbuhuzor

Abstract:

One of the difficulties encountered in solving nonlinear Boundary Value Problems (BVP) by many researchers is finding approximated solutions with minimum deviations from the exact solutions without so much rigor and complications. In this paper, we propose an approach to solve a two point BVP which involves a combination of Taylor series expansion method and Newton Raphson method. Furthermore, the fourth and sixth order approximated solutions are obtained and we compare their relative error and rate of convergence to the exact solution. Finally, some numerical simulations are presented to show the behavior of the solution and its derivatives.

Keywords: Newton Raphson method, non-linear boundary value problem, Taylor series approximation, Michaelis-Menten equation.

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48 An Exploration of Cross-Cultural Behaviour: The Characteristics of Chinese Consumers’ Decision Making in Europe

Authors: Yongsheng Guo, Xiaoxian Zhu, Mandella Osei-Assibey Bonsu

Abstract:

This study explores the effects of national culture on consumer behaviour by identifying the characteristics of Chinese consumers’ decision making in Europe. It offers a better understanding of how cultural factors affect consumers’ behaviour, and how consumers make decisions in other nations with different culture. It adopted a grounded theory approach and conducted 24 in-depth interviews. Grounded theory models are developed to link the causal conditions, process, and consequences. Results reveal that some cultural factors including conservatism, emotionality, acquaintance community, long-term orientation and principles affect Chinese consumers when making purchase decisions in Europe. Most Chinese consumers plan and prepare their expenditure and stay in Europe as cultural learners, and purchase durable products or assets as investment, and share their experiences within a community. This study identified potential problems such as political and social environment, complex procedures, and restrictions. This study found that external factors influence internal factors and then internal characters determine consumer behaviour. This study proposes that cultural traits developed in convergence evolution through social selection and Chinese consumers persist most characters but adapt some perceptions and actions overtime in other countries. This study suggests that cultural marketing could be adopted by companies to reflect consumers’ preferences. Agencies, shops, and the authorities could take actions to reduce the complexity and restrictions.

Keywords: National culture, consumer behaviour, cultural marketing, decision making.

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47 An Empirical Investigation of Big Data Analytics: The Financial Performance of Users versus Vendors

Authors: Evisa Mitrou, Nicholas Tsitsianis, Supriya Shinde

Abstract:

In the age of digitisation and globalisation, businesses have shifted online and are investing in big data analytics (BDA) to respond to changing market conditions and sustain their performance. Our study shifts the focus from the adoption of BDA to the impact of BDA on financial performance. We explore the financial performance of both BDA-vendors (business-to-business) and BDA-clients (business-to-customer). We distinguish between the five BDA-technologies (big-data-as-a-service (BDaaS), descriptive, diagnostic, predictive, and prescriptive analytics) and discuss them individually. Further, we use four perspectives (internal business process, learning and growth, customer, and finance) and discuss the significance of how each of the five BDA-technologies affect the performance measures of these four perspectives. We also present the analysis of employee engagement, average turnover, average net income, and average net assets for BDA-clients and BDA-vendors. Our study also explores the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on business continuity for both BDA-vendors and BDA-clients.

Keywords: BDA-clients, BDA-vendors, big data analytics, financial performance.

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46 Breakdown Voltage Measurement of High Voltage Transformers Oils Using an Active Microwave Resonator Sensor

Authors: Ahmed A. Al-Mudhafar, Ali A. Abduljabar, Hayder Jawad Albattat

Abstract:

This work suggests a microwave resonator sensor (MRS) device for measuring the oil’s breakdown voltage of high voltage transformers. A precise high-sensitivity sensor is designed and manufactured based on a microstrip split ring resonator (SRR). To improve the sensor sensitivity, a radio frequency (RF) amplifier of 30 dB gain is linked through a transmission line of 50Ω. The sensor operates at a microwave band (L) with a quality factor of 1.35 × 105 when it is loaded with an empty tube. In this work, the sensor has been tested with three samples of high voltage transformer oil of different ages (new, middle, and damaged) where the quality factor differs with each sample. A mathematical model was built to calculate the breakdown voltage of the transformer oils and the accuracy of the results was higher than 90%.

Keywords: Active resonator sensor, oil breakdown voltage, transformers oils, quality factor.

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45 Transformational Leaders and Challenges in COVID-19 Virtual Work Environments

Authors: Valarie A. Williams

Abstract:

This paper is a nonempirical analysis of existing literature on virtual leadership, transformational leadership, and remote work cultures. This paper will provide insight into how virtual workplaces can utilize transformational leadership styles to overcome challenges that have become a reality due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Many organizations were forced into remote work to remain viable. It investigates the obstacles of working from home and the challenges leaders face in coaching and development. Employees lack face-to-face interactions and begin to feel isolated. Leaders cannot have in-person meetings and conversations and struggle to engage and encourage employees. In acknowledging the different dynamics of virtual work environments, organizations can make the necessary adjustments to best support employees. This paper reviews prior research studies and applies what is known to assist with current obstacles. This paper addresses how transformational leadership will assist in overcoming challenges within virtual work environments.

Keywords: Challenges in remote work, transformational leadership, virtual leadership, virtual work environments.

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44 Modeling and Stability Analysis of Viral Propagation in Wireless Mesh Networking

Authors: Haowei Chen, Kaiqi Xiong

Abstract:

We have developed a better model for understanding the dynamics of malware spread in WMNs in this paper. The suggested model provides an insight into how viral propagation with energy exhaustion and various dispersed node densities might function. Based on a theoretical examination of the suggested model, we conclude that the threshold parameter could be used to identify the dynamics of viral spread globally. When the threshold is less than 1, the virus may be contained, but if it is greater than 1, a pandemic may result. Lastly, we discuss the various viral propagation strategies in relation to the distributed node densities and communication radii in WMNs. The aforementioned numerical simulation findings could serve as a guarantee of the theoretical analyses’ correctness.

Keywords: Bluetooth Security, Malware Propagation, Wireless Mesh Networks, Stability Analysis.

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43 Effect of Sand Particle Transportation in Oil and Gas Pipeline Erosion

Authors: Christopher Deekia Nwimae, Nigel Simms, Liyun Lao

Abstract:

Erosion in a pipe bends caused by particles is a major concern in the oil and gas fields and might cause breakdown to production equipment. This work investigates the effect of sand particle transport in an elbow using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. Two-way coupled Euler-Lagrange and discrete phase model is employed to calculate the air/solid particle flow in the elbow. Generic erosion model in Ansys fluent and three particle rebound models are used to predict the erosion rate on the 90° elbows. The model result is compared with experimental data from the open literature validating the CFD-based predictions which reveals that due to the sand particles impinging on the wall of the elbow at high velocity, a point on the pipe elbow were observed to have started turning red due to velocity increase and the maximum erosion locations occur at 48°.

Keywords: Erosion, prediction, elbow, computational fluid dynamics, CFD.

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42 Application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems Technique for Modeling of Postweld Heat Treatment Process of Pressure Vessel Steel ASTM A516 Grade 70

Authors: Omar Al Denali, Abdelaziz Badi

Abstract:

The ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel is a suitable material used for the fabrication of boiler pressure vessels working in moderate and lower temperature services, and it has good weldability and excellent notch toughness. The post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) or stress-relieving heat treatment has significant effects on avoiding the martensite transformation and resulting in high hardness, which can lead to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was implemented to predict the material tensile strength of PWHT experiments. The ANFIS models presented excellent predictions, and the comparison was carried out based on the mean absolute percentage error between the predicted values and the experimental values. The ANFIS model gave a Mean Absolute Percentage Error of 0.556%, which confirms the high accuracy of the model.

Keywords: Prediction, post-weld heat treatment, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, ANFIS, mean absolute percentage error.

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41 Finite Element Method for Calculating Temperature Field of Main Cable of Suspension Bridge

Authors: Heng Han, Zhilei Liang, Xiangong Zhou

Abstract:

In this paper, the finite element method is used to study the temperature field of the main cable of the suspension bridge, and the calculation method of the average temperature of the cross-section of the main cable suitable for the construction control of the cable system is proposed. By comparing and analyzing the temperature field of the main cable with five diameters, a reasonable diameter limit for calculating the average temperature of the cross section of the main cable by finite element method is proposed. The results show that the maximum error of this method is less than 1 ℃, which meets the requirements of construction control accuracy. For the main cable with a diameter greater than 400 mm, the surface temperature measuring points combined with the finite element method shall be used to calculate the average cross-section temperature.

Keywords: Suspension bridge, main cable, temperature field, finite element.

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40 Personalized Email Marketing Strategy: A Reinforcement Learning Approach

Authors: Lei Zhang, Tingting Xu, Jun He, Zhenyu Yan, Roger Brooks

Abstract:

Email marketing is one of the most important segments of online marketing. Email content is vital to customers. Different customers may have different familiarity with a product, so a successful marketing strategy must personalize email content based on individual customers’ product affinity. In this study, we build our personalized email marketing strategy with three types of emails: nurture, promotion, and conversion. Each type of emails has a different influence on customers. We investigate this difference by analyzing customers’ open rates, click rates and opt-out rates. Feature importance from response models is also analyzed. The goal of the marketing strategy is to improve the click rate on conversion-type emails. To build the personalized strategy, we formulate the problem as a reinforcement learning problem and adopt a Q-learning algorithm with variations. The simulation results show that our model-based strategy outperforms the current marketer’s strategy.

Keywords: Email marketing, email content, reinforcement learning, machine learning, Q-learning.

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39 Creative Art Practice in Response to Climate Change: How Art Transforms and Frames New Approaches to Speculative Ecological and Sustainable Futures

Authors: Wenwen Liu, Robert Burton, Simon McKeown

Abstract:

Climate change is seriously threatening human security and development, leading to global warming and economic, political, and social chaos. Many artists have created visual responses that challenge perceptions on climate change, actively guiding people to think about the climate issues and potential crises after urban industrialization and explore positive solutions. This project is an interdisciplinary and intertextual study where art practice is informed by culture, philosophy, psychology, ecology, and science. By correlating theory and artistic practice, it studies how art practice creates a visual way of understanding climate issues and uses art as a way of exploring speculative futures. In the context of practical-based research, arts-based practice as research and creative practice as interdisciplinary research are applied alternately to seek the original solution and new knowledge. Through creative art practice, this project has established visual ways of looking at climate change and has developed it into a model to generate more possibilities, an alternative social imagination. It not only encourages people to think and find a sustainable speculative future conducive to all species but also proves that people have the ability to realize positive futures.

Keywords: Climate change, creative practice as interdisciplinary research, arts-based practice as research, creative art practice, speculative future.

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38 Mechanical Properties of D2 Tool Steel Cryogenically Treated Using Controllable Cooling

Authors: A. Rabin, G. Mazor, I. Ladizhenski, R. Z. Shneck

Abstract:

The hardness and hardenability of AISI D2 cold work tool steel with conventional quenching (CQ), deep cryogenic quenching (DCQ) and rapid deep cryogenic quenching heat treatments caused by temporary porous coating based on magnesium sulfate was investigated. Each of the cooling processes was examined from the perspective of the full process efficiency, heat flux in the austenite-martensite transformation range followed by characterization of the temporary porous layer made of magnesium sulfate using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), surface and core hardness and hardenability using Vickers hardness technique. The results show that the cooling rate (CR) at the austenite-martensite transformation range has a high influence on the hardness of the studied steel.

Keywords: AISI D2, controllable cooling, magnesium sulfate coating, rapid cryogenic heat treatment, temporary porous layer.

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37 A Review on Design and Fabrication of Fuel Fired Crucible Furnace

Authors: Oluwaseyi O. Taiwo, Adeolu A. Adediran, Abayomi A. Akinwande, Frank C. Okoyeh

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The use of fuel fired crucible furnace is essential in the foundries of developing countries owing to the luxury of electricity. Fuel fired crucible furnace are commonly used in recycling, casting, research and training activities in tertiary institutions, therefore, several attempts are being made to improve the performance and service life of fuel fired crucible. The current study reviews the sequential stages involved in the designs and fabrication of fuel fired crucible furnace which include; design, material selection, modelling and simulation as well as performance evaluation. The study shows that selecting appropriate materials for the different units in the fabrication process is important to the efficiency and service life of fuel fired crucible furnaces. Also, efficiency and performance of fuel fired furnaces are independent of cost of fabrication and their capacity. The importance of modelling and simulation tools in the fabrication process are identified while their non-frequent usage in several works is observed. The need to widen performance evaluations in further studies beyond efficiency determination to give a more detailed assessment of fuel fired crucible furnaces is also observed.

Keywords: Crucible furnace, furnace design, fabrication, fuel.

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36 An Induction Motor Drive System with Intelligent Supervisory Control for Water Networks Including Storage Tank

Authors: O. S. Ebrahim, K. O. Shawky, M. A. Badr, P. K. Jain

Abstract:

This paper describes an efficient; low-cost; high-availability; induction motor (IM) drive system with intelligent supervisory control for water distribution networks including storage tank. To increase the operational efficiency and reduce cost, the IM drive system includes main pumping unit and an auxiliary voltage source inverter (VSI) fed unit. The main unit comprises smart star/delta starter, regenerative fluid clutch, switched VAR compensator, and hysteresis liquid-level controller. Three-state energy saving mode (ESM) is defined at no-load and a logic algorithm is developed for best energetic cost reduction. To reduce voltage sag, the supervisory controller operates the switched VAR compensator upon motor starting. To provide smart star/delta starter at low cost, a method based on current sensing is developed for interlocking, malfunction detection, and life–cycles counting and used to synthesize an improved fuzzy logic (FL) based availability assessment scheme. Furthermore, a recurrent neural network (RNN) full state estimator is proposed to provide sensor fault-tolerant algorithm for the feedback control. The auxiliary unit is working at low flow rates and improves the system efficiency and flexibility for distributed generation during islanding mode. Compared with doubly-fed IM, the proposed one ensures 30% working throughput under main motor/pump fault conditions, higher efficiency, and marginal cost difference. This is critically important in case of water networks. Theoretical analysis, computer simulations, cost study, as well as efficiency evaluation, using timely cascaded energy-conservative systems, are performed on IM experimental setup to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed drive and control.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, ANN, Availability Assessment, Cloud Computing, Energy Saving, Induction Machine, IM, Supervisory Control, Fuzzy Logic, FL, Pumped Storage.

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35 Indicators as Early Warning Signal Performance to Solve Underlying Safety Problem before They Emerge as Accident Risks

Authors: Benson Chizubem

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Because of the severe hazards that substantially impact workers' lives and assets lost, the oil and gas industry has established a goal of establishing zero occurrences or accidents in operations. Using leading indicators to measure and assess an organization's safety performance is a proactive approach to safety management. Also, it will provide early warning signals to solve inherent safety issues before they lead to an accident in the study industry. The analysis of these indicators' performance was based on a questionnaire-based methodology. A total number of 1000 questionnaires were disseminated to the workers, of which 327 were returned to the researcher team. The data collected were analysed to evaluate their safety perceptions on indicators performance. Data analysis identified safety training, safety system, safety supervision, safety rules and procedures, safety auditing, strategies and policies, management commitment, safety meeting and safety behaviour, as potential leading indicators that are capable of measuring organizational safety performance and as capable of providing early warning signals of weak safety area in an operational environment. The findings of this study have provided safety researchers and industrial safety practitioners with helpful information on the improvement of the existing safety monitoring process in the oil and gas industry, both locally and globally, as proactive actions.

Keywords: Early warning, safety, accident risks, oil and gas industry.

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34 Dam Operation Management Criteria during Floods: Case Study of Dez Dam in Southwest Iran

Authors: Ali Heidari

Abstract:

This paper presents the principles for improving flood mitigation operation in multipurpose dams and maximizing reservoir performance during flood occurrence with a focus on the real-time operation of gated spillways. The criteria of operation include the safety of dams during flood management, minimizing the downstream flood risk by decreasing the flood hazard and fulfilling water supply and other purposes of the dam operation in mid and long terms horizons. The parameters deemed to be important include flood inflow, outlet capacity restrictions, downstream flood inundation damages, economic revenue of dam operation, and environmental and sedimentation restrictions. A simulation model was used to determine the real-time release of the Dez Dam located in the Dez Rivers in southwest Iran, considering the gate regulation curves for the gated spillway. The results of the simulation model show that there is a possibility to improve the current procedures used in the real-time operation of the dams, particularly using gate regulation curves and early flood forecasting system results. The Dez Dam operation data show that in one of the best flood control records, 17% of the total active volume and flood control pool of the reservoir have not been used in decreasing the downstream flood hazard despite the availability of a flood forecasting system.

Keywords: Dam operation, flood control criteria, Dez Dam, Iran.

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33 Teachers’ Emotional Experience in Online Classes in Adult Education in Selected European Countries

Authors: Andreas Ahrens, Jelena Zascerinska

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Emotions are crucial in online classes in adult education. Despite that, a little attention was devoted to the emotional experience of being an online teacher in the field of andragogy, and the online teacher’s emotional perspectives in ever changing environments have to be analysed. The paper aims at the analysis of teachers’ emotional experience in online classes in adult education in selected European countries. The research tends to propose implications for training of teachers who work in online classes in adult education. The survey was conducted in April 2022. In the selected European countries 78 respondents took part in the study. Among them, 30 respondents represented Germany, 28 respondents Greece, and 20 respondents were from Italy. The theoretical findings allow defining teacher emotional experience. The analysis of the elements of the respondents’ emotional experience allows concluding that teachers’ attitude to online classes has to be developed. The key content for teacher training is presented. Directions of further work are proposed.

Keywords: Adult education, online classes, teacher emotional experience, European countries.

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32 Assessing Applicability of Kevin Lynch’s Framework of The Image of the City in the Case of the Walled City of Jaipur

Authors: Jay Patel

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This research is about investigating the ‘image’ of the city, and asks whether this ‘image’ holds any significance that can be changed. Kevin Lynch in the book ‘The Image of the City’ develops a framework that breaks down the city’s image into five physical elements. These elements (Paths, Edge, Nodes, Districts, and Landmarks), according to Lynch assess the legibility of the urbanscapes, that emerged from his perception-based study in three different cities (New Jersey, Los Angeles, and Boston) in the USA. The aim of this research is to investigate whether Lynch’s framework can be applied within an Indian context or not. If so, what are the possibilities and whether the imageability of Indian cities can be depicted through the Lynch’s physical elements or it demands an extension to the framework by either adding or subtracting a physical attribute. For this research project, the walled city of Jaipur was selected, as it is considered one of the futuristic designed cities of all time in India. The other significant reason for choosing Jaipur was that it is a historically planned city with solid historical, touristic and local importance; allowing an opportunity to understand the application of Lynch's elements to the city's image. In other words, it provides an opportunity to examine how the disadvantages of a city's implicit program (its relics of bygone eras) can be converted into assets by improving the imageability of the city. To obtain data, a structured semi-open ended interview method was chosen. The reason for selecting this method explicitly was to gain qualitative data from the users rather than collecting quantitative data from closed-ended questions. This allowed in-depth understanding and applicability of Kevin Lynch’s framework while assessing what needs to be added. The interviews were conducted in Jaipur that yielded varied inferences that were different from the expected learning outcomes, highlighting the need for extension on Lynch’s physical elements to achieve city’s image. Whilst analyzing the data, there were few attributes found that defined the image of Jaipur. These were categorized into two: a Physical aspect (streets and arcade entities, natural features, temples and temporary/informal activities) and Associational aspects (History, culture and tradition, medium of help in wayfinding, and intangible aspects).

Keywords: Imageability, Kevin Lynch, People’s Perception, associational aspects, physical aspects.

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31 Corrosion Mitigation in Gas Facilities Piping through the Use of Fusion Bond Epoxy Coated Pipes and Corrosion Resistant Alloy Girth Welds

Authors: Saad Alkhaldi, Fadi Ghammas, Tariq Alghamdi, Stefano Alexandirs

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The operating conditions and corrosive nature of the process fluid in the Haradh and Hawiyah areas are subjecting facility piping to undesirable corrosion phenomena. Therefore, production headers inside remote headers have been internally cladded with high alloy material to mitigate the corrosion damage mechanism. Corrosion mitigation in the jump-over lines, constructed between the existing flowlines and the newly constructed facilities to provide operational flexibility, is proposed. This corrosion mitigation system includes the application of fusion bond epoxy (FBE) coating on the internal surface of the pipe and depositing corrosion-resistant alloy (CRA) weld layers at pipe and fittings ends to protect the carbon steel material. In addition, high alloy CRA weld material is used to deposit the girth weld between the 90-degree elbows and mating internally coated segments. A rigorous testing and qualification protocol was established prior to actual adoption at the Haradh and Hawiyah Field Gas Compression Program, currently being executed by Saudi Aramco. The proposed mitigation system, aimed at applying the cladding at the ends of the internally FBE coated pipes/elbows, will resolve field joint coating challenges, eliminate the use of approximately 1700 breakout flanges, and prevent the potential hydrocarbon leaks.

Keywords: Corrosion, FBE coated sour service, cost savings.

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30 Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Cement on Soil-Municipal Solid Incineration Fly Ash Mix Properties

Authors: G. Aouf, D. Tabbal, A. Sabsabi, R. Aouf

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The aim of this study is to assess the viability of utilizing Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash (MSWIFA) with Ordinary Portland cement as soil reinforcement materials for geotechnical engineering applications. A detailed experimental program is carried out followed by analysis of results. Soil samples were prepared by adding cement to MSWIFA-soil mix at different percentages. Then, a series of laboratory tests were performed namely: Sieve analysis, Atterberg limits tests, Unconfined compression test, and Proctor tests. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of adding the cement at different percentages on the unconfined compression strength, maximum dry density (MDD), and optimum moisture content (OMC) of clayey soil-MSWIFA. The variations of admixtures’ contents were 10%, 20%, and 30% for MSWIFA by dry total weight of soil and 10%, 15%, and 20% for Portland cement by dry total weight of the mix. The test results reveal that adding MSWIFA to the soil up to 20% increased the MDD of the mixture and decreased the OMC, then an opposite trend for results were found when the percentage of MSWIFA exceeds 20%. This is due to the low specific gravity of MSWIFA and to the greater water absorption of MSWIFA. The laboratory tests also indicate that the Unconfined Compression Test values were found to be increased for all the mixtures with curing periods of 7, 14, and 28 days. It is also observed that the cement increased the strength of the finished product of the mix of soil and MSWIFA.

Keywords: Clayey soil, cement, Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash, MSWIFA, unconfined compression strength.

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29 On the Difference between Cultural and Religious Identities: A Case Study of Christianity and Islam in Some African and Asian Countries

Authors: Mputu Ngandu Simon

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Culture and religion are two of the most significant markers of an individual or group`s identity. Religion finds its expression in a given culture and culture is the costume in which a religion is dressed. In other words, there is a crucial relationship between religion and culture which should not be ignored. On the one hand, religion influences the way in which a culture is consumed. A person`s consumption of a certain cultural practice is influenced by his/her religious identity. On the other hand, the cultural identity plays an important role on how a religion is practiced by its adherents. Some cultural practices become more credible when interpreted in religious terms just as religious doctrines and dogmas need cultural interpretation to be understood by a given people, in a given context. This relationship goes so deep that sometimes the boundaries between culture and religion become blurred and people end up mixing religion and culture. In some cases, the two are considered to be one and the same thing. However, despite this apparent sameness, religion and culture are two distinct aspects of identity and they should always be considered as such. One results from knowledge while the other has beliefs as its foundation. This paper explores the difference between cultural and religious identities by drawing from existing literature on this topic as a whole, before applying that knowledge to two specific case studies: Christianity among San people of Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, and Islam in Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Iran.

Keywords: Belief, identity, knowledge, culture, religion.

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28 Using the PARIS Method for Multiple Criteria Decision Making in Unmanned Combat Aircraft Evaluation and Selection

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Unmanned combat aircraft (UCA) are expanding significantly in several defense industries, along with artificial intelligence improvements in highly precise technology. UCA is crucial in military settings for targeting enemy elements, and objects. UCA is also utilized for highly precise reconnaissance and surveillance tasks. To select the best alternative for critical missions, a methodical and effective strategy for UCA selection is required. Multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodologies are ideally equipped to handle the complexity of alternative aircraft selection. To analyze UCA alternatives for the selection process, an integrated methodology built on the objective criteria weights and preference analysis for reference ideal solution (PARIS). First, the weights of essential elements are determined using the average weight (AW), standard deviation (SW) and entropy weight (EW) approach. The weights of the evaluation criteria affect the decision-making process. The aircraft choices in the decision problem are then ranked using objective criteria weights along with the PARIS technique. The validation and sensitivity analysis of the proposed MCDM approach are discussed.

Keywords: unmanned combat aircraft (UCA), multiple criteria decision making, MCDM, PARIS

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27 Optimal Design of Motorcycle Crash Bar Using CAD and Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Sharon S. Wu, Yong S. Park

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This project aims to study and evaluate the motorcycle crash bar, which is used to reduce injuries caused by side impacts to the motorcycle, and then develop an improved design using the engineering design process theory based on the current benchmark crash bar in order to lower the severity of motorcycle crash injuries. For this purpose, simulations for the crash bar are set up so that it travels at an angle towards a fixed concrete wall and collides at certain velocities. 3D CAD models are first designed in SolidWorks and dynamic crash simulations are then carried out using ANSYS to determine the lowest maximum Von-Mises stress over time and deformations by adjusting the parameters used in manufacturing the crash bar, including the velocity of the crash, material used, geometries with various radius fillets, and different thicknesses for the bar. The results of the simulation are used to determine the optimum parameters for a safer crash bar to withstand higher stress and deformation. Specifically, the von-Mises stress was reduced by at least 75% compared with the benchmark design by choosing aluminum alloy and a true unibar design.

Keywords: Crash bar, crash simulation, engineering design, motorcycle safety.

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26 Descriptive Study of Libyan Steles of Grande Kabylia, Algeria

Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia

Abstract:

The Libyan steles contain a good number of inscriptions. We find them on blocks of sandstone in the northern part of Grande Kabylia, Algeria. Three Libyan steles recently discovered are added to the currently known and published documents which enrich the Libyan heritage of this region. The aim of this article is to make a descriptive study of the Libyan inscriptions of these steles in order to better understand the characteristics of each stele by comparing them to the different stele already known in the region. It is certain that if other similar specimens were to be added to those we already possess, knowledge of the Libyan would gradually become clearer. The Kabylia region is certainly full of these remains that have not yet been brought to light.

Keywords: Libyan stele, Libyan inscriptions, Paintings, Engraving, Kaylie.

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25 Validating Condition-Based Maintenance Algorithms Through Simulation

Authors: Marcel Chevalier, Léo Dupont, Sylvain Marié, Frédérique Roffet, Elena Stolyarova, William Templier, Costin Vasile

Abstract:

Industrial end users are currently facing an increasing need to reduce the risk of unexpected failures and optimize their maintenance. This calls for both short-term analysis and long-term ageing anticipation. At Schneider Electric, we tackle those two issues using both Machine Learning and First Principles models. Machine learning models are incrementally trained from normal data to predict expected values and detect statistically significant short-term deviations. Ageing models are constructed from breaking down physical systems into sub-assemblies, then determining relevant degradation modes and associating each one to the right kinetic law. Validating such anomaly detection and maintenance models is challenging, both because actual incident and ageing data are rare and distorted by human interventions, and incremental learning depends on human feedback. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to simulate physics, systems and humans – including asset maintenance operations – in order to validate the overall approaches in accelerated time and possibly choose between algorithmic alternatives.

Keywords: Degradation models, ageing, anomaly detection, soft sensor, incremental learning.

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24 Investigation of the Effect of Pressure Changes on the Gas Proportional Detector

Authors: S. M. Golgoun, S. M. Taheri

Abstract:

Investigation of radioactive contamination of personnel working in radiation centers to identify radioactive materials and then measure the potential contamination and eliminate it has always been considered. Various ways have been proposed to detect radiation so far and different detectors have been designed. A gas sealed proportional counter is one of these detectors which has special working conditions. In this research, a gas sealed detector of proportional counter type was made and then its various parameters were investigated. Some parameters are influential on their working conditions and one of these most important parameters is the internal pressure of the proportional gas-filled detector. In this experimental research, we produced software for examination and altering high voltage, registering data, and calculating efficiency of the detector. By this, we investigated different gas pressure effects on detector efficiency and proposed optimizing working conditions of this detector. After reviewing the results, we suggested a range between 20-30 mbar pressure for this gas sealed detector.

Keywords: Gas sealed detector, proportional detector, gas pressure measurement, counter.

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23 Appraisal of Relativistic Effects on GNSS Receiver Positioning

Authors: I. Yakubu, Y. Y. Ziggah, E. A. Gyamera

Abstract:

The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) started with the launch of the United State Department of Defense Global Positioning System (GPS). GNSS systems has grown over the years to include: GLONASS (Russia); Galileo (European Union); BeiDou (China). Any GNSS architecture consists of three major segments: Space, Control and User Segments. Errors such as; multipath, ionospheric and tropospheric effects, satellite clocks, receiver noise and orbit errors (relativity effect) have significant effects on GNSS positioning. To obtain centimeter level accuracy, the impacts of the relative motion of the satellites and earth need to be taken into account. This paper discusses the relevance of the theory of relativity as a source of error for GNSS receivers for position fix based on available relevant literature. Review of relevant literature reveals that due to relativity; Time dilation, Gravitational frequency shift and Sagnac effect cause significant influence on the use of GNSS receivers for positioning by an error range of ± 2.5 m based on pseudo-range computation.

Keywords: GNSS, relativistic effects, pseudo-range, accuracy.

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22 Unmanned Combat Aircraft Selection using Fuzzy Proximity Measure Method in Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

The decision to select an unmanned combat aircraft is complicated since several options and conflicting criteria must be considered at simultaneously. When making multiple criteria decision, it is important to consider the selected evaluation criteria, including priceability, payloadability, stealthability, speedability , and survivability. The fundamental goal of the study is to select the best unmanned combat aircraft by taking these evaluation criteria into account. The optimal aircraft was chosen using the fuzzy proximity measure method, which enables decision-makers to designate preferences as standard fuzzy set numbers during the multiple criteria decision-making process. To assess the applicability of the proposed approach, a numerical example is provided. Finally, by comparing determined unmanned combat aircraft, the proposed method produced a successful application, and the best aircraft was selected.

Keywords: standard fuzzy sets (SFS), unmanned combat aircraft selection, multiple criteria decision making (MCDM), multiple criteria group decision making (MCGDM), proximity measure method (PMM)

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21 Blockchain for Decentralized Finance: Impact, Challenges and Remediation

Authors: Rishabh Garg

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Blockchain technology can allow remote, untrusted parties in the banking and financial sector to reach consensus on the state of databases without the involvement of gatekeepers. Like a bookkeeper, it can manage all financial transactions including payments, settlements, fundraising, securities management, loans, credits and trade finance. It can outperform existing systems in terms of identity verification, asset transfers, peer-to-peer transfers, hedge funds, security and auditability. Blockchain-based decentralized finance (DeFi) is a new financial protocol. Being open and programmable, it enables various DeFi use-cases, including asset management, tokenization, tokenized derivatives, decentralized autonomous organizations, data analysis and valuation, payments, lending and borrowing, insurance, margin trading, prediction market, gambling and yield-farming, etc. In addition, it can ease financial transactions, cash-flow, use of programmable currency, no-loss lotteries, etc. This paper aims to assess the potential of decentralized finance by leveraging the blockchain-enabled Ethereum platform as an alternative to traditional finance. The study also aims to find out the impact of decentralized finance on prediction markets, quadratic funding and crowd-funding, together with the potential challenges and solutions associated with its implementation.

Keywords: Advance trading, crowd funding, exchange tokens, fund aggregation, margin trading, quadratic funding, smart contracts, streaming money, token derivatives.

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20 Study of the Flow Structure in a Penstock in Unsteady Regime

Authors: F. Nkontchou Ngongang, M. Tchawe Tchawe, B. Djeumako, B. Kenmeugne

Abstract:

In this work, the flow structure in the Songloulou dam, is visualized in a time interval to observe the different fluid layers in our structure. Firstly, the three-dimensional modelling of the penstock is carried out in the software Gambit, followed by calculations in Fluent that proceeds introduction of boundary conditions. After calculation, we identified four periods corresponding to four regimes. In the first, spanning from 0.00 to 1.50s, we have the non-developed hydraulically rough turbulent regime, characterized by abrupt variations with modifications of the velocity fields. The second extends from 1.50 to 3.50s, where we have the transition regime characterized by slight variations and modifications of the velocity fields but with a great difference of the values of the current lines. From 3.50 to 5.00s, we encounter the third, which is the fully developed turbulent hydraulically rough regime, characterized by fields that vary no more, but have minute differences in the streamlines. The last period is from 5.00s and more, where we have a flow that is almost stationary, hence there are no changes in the fields.

Keywords: Unsteady flow, penstock, friction coefficient, hydroelectric dam.

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19 Specific Biomarker Level and Function Outcome Changes in Treatment of Patients with Frozen Shoulder Using Dextrose Prolotherapy Injection

Authors: Nuralam Sam, Irawan Yusuf, Irfan Idris, Endi Adnan

Abstract:

Frozen shoulder (FS) is an insidious, painful condition caused by an inflammatory condition that causes fibrosis of the glenohumeral joint capsule, which causes progressive stiffness and restriction of the active and passive range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder. The studies of FS are still limited. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial involved participants with FS. The study participants were divided into two groups. The Prolotherapy group was the study group, and the Normal Saline (NS) group was the control group. Both groups were given injections at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and Tissue Inhibitor Metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were measured at week six and week 12 after the last injection. The Disabilities of The Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Score and ROM were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6 before and after injection and week 12. Comparative analysis was performed using repeated measures Paired T-Test, and data processing to assess correlation was using ANOVA. The result showed a significant decrease in The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score in prolotherapy injection patients in each measurement week (p < 0.05). While the measurement of ROM, each direction of shoulder motion showed a significant difference in average each week, from week 0 to week 6 (p < 0.05). Dextrose prolotherapy injection results significantly improved the functional outcome of the shoulder joint and ROM. They did not show significant results in assessing the specific biomarker, MMP-1, and TIMP-1, in tissue repair. This study suggests an alternative to injection prolotherapy in FS patients; it has minimal adverse effects and is efficient in time and cost.

Keywords: Frozen Shoulder, ROM, DASH Score, prolotherapy, MMP-1, TIMP-1.

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18 Statistical Analysis and Impact Forecasting of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles on the Environment: Case Study in the State of Maryland

Authors: Alireza Ansariyar, Safieh Laaly

Abstract:

Over the last decades, the vehicle industry has shown increased interest in integrating autonomous, connected, and electrical technologies in vehicle design with the primary hope of improving mobility and road safety while reducing transportation’s environmental impact. Using the State of Maryland (M.D.) in the United States as a pilot study, this research investigates Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) fuel consumption and air pollutants including Carbon Monoxide (CO), Particulate Matter (PM), and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and utilizes meaningful linear regression models to predict CAV’s environmental effects. Maryland transportation network was simulated in VISUM software, and data on a set of variables were collected through a comprehensive survey. The number of pollutants and fuel consumption were obtained for the time interval 2010 to 2021 from the macro simulation. Eventually, four linear regression models were proposed to predict the amount of C.O., NOx, PM pollutants, and fuel consumption in the future. The results highlighted that CAVs’ pollutants and fuel consumption have a significant correlation with the income, age, and race of the CAV customers. Furthermore, the reliability of four statistical models was compared with the reliability of macro simulation model outputs in the year 2030. The error of three pollutants and fuel consumption was obtained at less than 9% by statistical models in SPSS. This study is expected to assist researchers and policymakers with planning decisions to reduce CAV environmental impacts in M.D.

Keywords: Connected and autonomous vehicles, statistical model, environmental effects, pollutants and fuel consumption, VISUM, linear regression models.

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17 Customer Churn Prediction Using Four Machine Learning Algorithms Integrating Feature Selection and Normalization in the Telecom Sector

Authors: Alanoud Moraya Aldalan, Abdulaziz Almaleh

Abstract:

A crucial part of maintaining a customer-oriented business in the telecommunications industry is understanding the reasons and factors that lead to customer churn. Competition between telecom companies has greatly increased in recent years, which has made it more important to understand customers’ needs in this strong market. For those who are looking to turn over their service providers, understanding their needs is especially important. Predictive churn is now a mandatory requirement for retaining customers in the telecommunications industry. Machine learning can be used to accomplish this. Churn Prediction has become a very important topic in terms of machine learning classification in the telecommunications industry. Understanding the factors of customer churn and how they behave is very important to building an effective churn prediction model. This paper aims to predict churn and identify factors of customers’ churn based on their past service usage history. Aiming at this objective, the study makes use of feature selection, normalization, and feature engineering. Then, this study compared the performance of four different machine learning algorithms on the Orange dataset: Logistic Regression, Random Forest, Decision Tree, and Gradient Boosting. Evaluation of the performance was conducted by using the F1 score and ROC-AUC. Comparing the results of this study with existing models has proven to produce better results. The results showed the Gradients Boosting with feature selection technique outperformed in this study by achieving a 99% F1-score and 99% AUC, and all other experiments achieved good results as well.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Gradient Boosting, Logistic Regression, Churn, Random Forest, Decision Tree, ROC, AUC, F1-score.

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16 Sentiment Analysis of Fake Health News Using Naive Bayes Classification Models

Authors: Danielle Shackley, Yetunde Folajimi

Abstract:

As more people turn to the internet seeking health related information, there is more risk of finding false, inaccurate, or dangerous information. Sentiment analysis is a natural language processing technique that assigns polarity scores of text, ranging from positive, neutral and negative. In this research, we evaluate the weight of a sentiment analysis feature added to fake health news classification models. The dataset consists of existing reliably labeled health article headlines that were supplemented with health information collected about COVID-19 from social media sources. We started with data preprocessing, tested out various vectorization methods such as Count and TFIDF vectorization. We implemented 3 Naive Bayes classifier models, including Bernoulli, Multinomial and Complement. To test the weight of the sentiment analysis feature on the dataset, we created benchmark Naive Bayes classification models without sentiment analysis, and those same models were reproduced and the feature was added. We evaluated using the precision and accuracy scores. The Bernoulli initial model performed with 90% precision and 75.2% accuracy, while the model supplemented with sentiment labels performed with 90.4% precision and stayed constant at 75.2% accuracy. Our results show that the addition of sentiment analysis did not improve model precision by a wide margin; while there was no evidence of improvement in accuracy, we had a 1.9% improvement margin of the precision score with the Complement model. Future expansion of this work could include replicating the experiment process, and substituting the Naive Bayes for a deep learning neural network model.

Keywords: Sentiment analysis, Naive Bayes model, natural language processing, topic analysis, fake health news classification model.

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15 Evaluating the Validity of Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Dispersion in a Complex Urban Geometry Using Two Sets of Experimental Measurements

Authors: Mohammad R. Kavian Nezhad, Carlos F. Lange, Brian A. Fleck

Abstract:

This research presents the validation study of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model developed to simulate the scalar dispersion emitted from rooftop sources around the buildings at the University of Alberta North Campus. The ANSYS CFX code was used to perform the numerical simulation of the wind regime and pollutant dispersion by solving the 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations on a building-scale high-resolution grid. The validation study was performed in two steps. First, the CFD model performance in 24 cases (eight wind directions and three wind speeds) was evaluated by comparing the predicted flow fields with the available data from the previous measurement campaign designed at the North Campus, using the standard deviation method (SDM), while the estimated results of the numerical model showed maximum average percent errors of approximately 53% and 37% for wind incidents from the North and Northwest, respectively. Good agreement with the measurements was observed for the other six directions, with an average error of less than 30%. In the second step, the reliability of the implemented turbulence model, numerical algorithm, modeling techniques, and the grid generation scheme was further evaluated using the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST) dispersion dataset. Different statistical measures, including the fractional bias (FB), the mean geometric bias (MG), and the normalized mean square error (NMSE), were used to assess the accuracy of the predicted dispersion field. Our CFD results are in very good agreement with the field measurements.

Keywords: CFD, plume dispersion, complex urban geometry, validation study, wind flow.

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14 The Computational Psycholinguistic Situational-Fuzzy Self-Controlled Brain and Mind System under Uncertainty

Authors: Ben Khayut, Lina Fabri, Maya Avikhana

Abstract:

The modern Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) models cannot: a) independently, situationally, and continuously function without of human intelligence, used for retraining and reprogramming the ANI’s models, and b) think, understand, be conscious, and cognize under uncertainty and changing of the environmental objects. To eliminate these shortcomings and build a new generation of Artificial Intelligence systems, the paper proposes a Conception, Model, and Method of Computational Psycholinguistic Cognitive Situational-Fuzzy Self-Controlled Brain and Mind System (CPCSFSCBMSUU). This system uses a neural network as its computational memory, and activates functions of the perception, identification of real objects, fuzzy situational control, and forming images of these objects. These images and objects are used for modeling their psychological, linguistic, cognitive, and neural values of properties and features, the meanings of which are identified, interpreted, generated, and formed taking into account the identified subject area, using the data, information, knowledge, accumulated in the Memory. The functioning of the CPCSFSCBMSUU is carried out by its subsystems of the: fuzzy situational control of all processes, computational perception, identifying of reactions and actions, Psycholinguistic Cognitive Fuzzy Logical Inference, Decision Making, Reasoning, Systems Thinking, Planning, Awareness, Consciousness, Cognition, Intuition, and Wisdom. In doing so are performed analysis and processing of the psycholinguistic, subject, visual, signal, sound and other objects, accumulation and using the data, information and knowledge of the Memory, communication, and interaction with other computing systems, robots and humans in order of solving the joint tasks. To investigate the functional processes of the proposed system, the principles of situational control, fuzzy logic, psycholinguistics, informatics, and modern possibilities of data science were applied. The proposed self-controlled system of brain and mind is oriented on use as a plug-in in multilingual subject applications.

Keywords: Computational psycholinguistic cognitive brain and mind system, situational fuzzy control, uncertainty, AI.

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13 Fitness Action Recognition Based on MediaPipe

Authors: Zixuan Xu, Yichun Lou, Yang Song, Zihuai Lin

Abstract:

MediaPipe is an open-source machine learning computer vision framework that can be ported into a multi-platform environment, which makes it easier to use it to recognize human activity. Based on this framework, many human recognition systems have been created, but the fundamental issue is the recognition of human behavior and posture. In this paper, two methods are proposed to recognize human gestures based on MediaPipe, the first one uses the Adaptive Boosting algorithm to recognize a series of fitness gestures, and the second one uses the Fast Dynamic Time Warping algorithm to recognize 413 continuous fitness actions. These two methods are also applicable to any human posture movement recognition.

Keywords: Computer Vision, MediaPipe, Adaptive Boosting, Fast Dynamic Time Warping.

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12 Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making for Unmanned Combat Aircraft Selection Using Proximity Measure Method

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFS), Pythagorean fuzzy sets (PyFS), Picture fuzzy sets (PFS), q-rung orthopair fuzzy sets (q-ROF), Spherical fuzzy sets (SFS), T-spherical FS, and Neutrosophic sets (NS) are reviewed as multidimensional extensions of fuzzy sets in order to more explicitly and informatively describe the opinions of decision-making experts under uncertainty. To handle operations with standard fuzzy sets (SFS), the necessary operators; weighted arithmetic mean (WAM), weighted geometric mean (WGM), and Minkowski distance function are defined. The algorithm of the proposed proximity measure method (PMM) is provided with a multiple criteria group decision making method (MCDM) for use in a standard fuzzy set environment. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, the problem of selecting the best drone for an Air Force procurement request is used. The proximity measure method (PMM) based multidimensional standard fuzzy sets (SFS) is introduced to demonstrate its use with an issue involving unmanned combat aircraft selection.

Keywords: standard fuzzy sets (SFS), unmanned combat aircraft selection, multiple criteria decision making (MCDM), proximity measure method (PMM).

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11 Technologies of Transportation and Communication: Impact in Colonial Punjab

Authors: Mandakini Thakur, Sheena Pall

Abstract:

Technology had been intimately related to colonialism as colonizers found the tools of technology essential to penetrate, organize and develop the unexplored geographical areas which they conquered. Transportation and communication technologies played an important role in consolidating the British rule in India as these were essential components required for quick movement of goods, troops and securing co-ordination between authorities and officials at various levels. The province of Punjab in British India was annexed by the British in 1949 and they immediately started to introduce western technologies of transport and communication for transportation of agricultural produce, security of defence forces and acquiring comprehensive, accurate, and frequent information from every quarter of the region. This paper describes the introduction of western technologies of road and bridge construction, railways, telegraph, telephone, radio transmission and printing press by the British in Colonial Punjab. These technologies created appreciable impact on the colonial Punjabi society which has been highlighted. The paper is intended to contribute to the much needed aspect of History of Technology in colonial Punjab.

Keywords: Colonial Punjab, technology, transportation, communication.

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10 Shear Strength Characteristics of Sand-Particulate Rubber Mixture

Authors: Firas Daghistani, Hossam Abuel Naga

Abstract:

Waste tyres is an ongoing global problem that has a negative effect on the environment. Waste tyres are discarded in stockpiles where they provide harm to the environment in many ways. Finding applications to these materials can help in reducing this global problem. One of these applications is recycling these waste materials and using them in geotechnical engineering. Recycled waste tyre particulates can be mixed with sand to form a lightweight material with varying shear strength characteristics. This research further investigates the inclusion of particulate rubber to sand and whether it can increase or decrease the shear strength characteristics of the mixture. For the experiment, a series of direct shear tests was performed on a poorly graded sand with a mean particle size of 0.32 mm mixed with recycled poorly graded particulate rubber with a mean particle size of 0.51 mm. The shear tests were performed on four normal stresses 30, 55, 105, 200 kPa at a shear rate of 1 mm/minute. Different percentages of particulate rubber content were used in the mixture i.e., 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% of sand dry weight at three density states namely loose, slight dense, and dense state. The size ratio of the mixture, which is the mean particle size of the particulate rubber divided by the mean particle size of the sand, was 1.59. The results identified multiple parameters that can influence the shear strength of the mixture. The parameters were: normal stress, particulate rubber content, mixture gradation, mixture size ratio, and the mixture’s density. The inclusion of particulate rubber to sand showed a decrease to the internal friction angle, and an increase to the apparent cohesion. Overall, the inclusion of particulate rubber did not have a significant influence on the shear strength of the mixture. For all the dense states at the low normal stresses 30, and 55 kPa, the inclusion of particulate rubber showed a slight increase in the shear strength where the peak was at 20-30% rubber content of the sand’s dry weight. On the other hand, at the high normal stresses 105, and 200 kPa, there was a slight decrease in the shear strength.

Keywords: Direct shear, granular material, sand-rubber mixture, shear strength, waste material.

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9 Beginner Physical Sciences Teacher’s Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Promoting Creativity as a 21st-Century Skill on Learners: A Case Study

Authors: Motlhale Judicial Sebatana, Washington Takawira Dudu

Abstract:

This study investigated how one beginner Physical Sciences teacher implemented Problem-Based Learning (PBL) strategy in the teaching and learning of Particulate Nature of Matter (PNM) in the Grade 10 classroom. PBL was implemented to explore how it can promote a 21st-century skill of creativity and enhance understanding of PNM. This study was guided by theoretical framework of Social Interdependence Theory (SIT). This exploratory qualitative case study was conveniently conducted in the North West province, South Africa, where one Physical Sciences teacher was purposefully sampled. A self-developed open-ended questionnaire, portfolio and individual semi-structured interview were used as the methods of generating data for this study. The results show that the participant of this study had no prior knowledge of utilising PBL in the teaching and learning of PNM before the Teacher Professional Development (TPD) programme, no knowledge of creativity as a 21st-century skill, and a successful PBL implementation post TPD to promote creativity.

Keywords: Beginner teachers, physical sciences teachers, problem-based learning, 21st-century skills, creativity skill, particulate nature of matter.

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8 A Family of Distributions on Learnable Problems without Uniform Convergence

Authors: César Garza

Abstract:

In supervised binary classification and regression problems, it is well-known that learnability is equivalent to uniform convergence of the hypothesis class, and if a problem is learnable, it is learnable by empirical risk minimization. For the general learning setting of unsupervised learning tasks, there are non-trivial learning problems where uniform convergence does not hold. We present here the task of learning centers of mass with an extra feature that “activates” some of the coordinates over the unit ball in a Hilbert space. We show that the learning problem is learnable under a stable RLM rule. We introduce a family of distributions over the domain space with some mild restrictions for which the sample complexity of uniform convergence for these problems must grow logarithmically with the dimension of the Hilbert space. If we take this dimension to infinity, we obtain a learnable problem for which the uniform convergence property fails for a vast family of distributions.

Keywords: Statistical learning theory, learnability, uniform convergence, stability, regularized loss minimization.

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7 An Experimental Study on the Mechanical Performance of Concrete Enhanced with Graphene Nanoplatelets

Authors: Johana Jaramillo, Robin Kalfat, Dmitriy A. Dikin

Abstract:

The cement production process is one of the major sources of carbon dioxide (CO2), a potent greenhouse gas. Indeed, as a result of its cement manufacturing process, concrete contributes approximately 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to environmental concerns, concrete also has a low tensile and ductility strength, which can lead to cracks. Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) have proven to be an eco-friendly solution for improving the mechanical and durability properties of concrete. The current research investigates the effects of preparing concrete enhanced with GNPs by using different wet dispersions techniques and mixing methods on its mechanical properties. Concrete specimens were prepared with 0.00 wt%, 0.10 wt%, 0.20 wt%, 0.30 wt% and wt% GNPs. Compressive and flexural strength of concrete at age 7 days were determined. The results showed that the maximum improvement in mechanical properties was observed when GNPs content was 0.20 wt%. The compressive and flexural strength were improved by up to 17.5% and 8.6%, respectively. When GNP dispersions were prepared by the combination of a drill and an ultrasonic probe, mechanical properties experienced maximum improvement.

Keywords: Concrete, dispersion techniques, graphene nanoplatelets, mechanical properties, mixing methods.

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6 Distributed System Computing Resource Scheduling Algorithm Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Yitao Lei, Xingxiang Zhai, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar

Abstract:

As the quantity and complexity of computing in large-scale software systems increase, distributed system computing becomes increasingly important. The distributed system realizes high-performance computing by collaboration between different computing resources. If there are no efficient resource scheduling resources, the abuse of distributed computing may cause resource waste and high costs. However, resource scheduling is usually an NP-hard problem, so we cannot find a general solution. However, some optimization algorithms exist like genetic algorithm, ant colony optimization, etc. The large scale of distributed systems makes this traditional optimization algorithm challenging to work with. Heuristic and machine learning algorithms are usually applied in this situation to ease the computing load. As a result, we do a review of traditional resource scheduling optimization algorithms and try to introduce a deep reinforcement learning method that utilizes the perceptual ability of neural networks and the decision-making ability of reinforcement learning. Using the machine learning method, we try to find important factors that influence the performance of distributed system computing and help the distributed system do an efficient computing resource scheduling. This paper surveys the application of deep reinforcement learning on distributed system computing resource scheduling. The research proposes a deep reinforcement learning method that uses a recurrent neural network to optimize the resource scheduling. The paper concludes the challenges and improvement directions for Deep Reinforcement Learning-based resource scheduling algorithms.

Keywords: Resource scheduling, deep reinforcement learning, distributed system, artificial intelligence.

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5 Sensitivity Parameter Analysis of Negative Moment Dynamic Load Allowance of Continuous T-Girder Bridge

Authors: Fan Yang, Ye-lu Wang, Yang Zhao

Abstract:

The dynamic load allowance, as an application result of the vehicle-bridge coupled vibration theory, is an important parameter for bridge design and evaluation. Based on the coupled vehicle-bridge vibration theory, the current work establishes a full girder model of a dynamic load allowance, selects a planar five-degree-of-freedom three-axis vehicle model, solves the coupled vehicle-bridge dynamic response using the APDL language in the spatial finite element program ANSYS, selects the pivot point 2 sections as the representative of the negative moment section, and analyzes the effects of parameters such as travel speed, unevenness, vehicle frequency, span diameter, span number and forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance through orthogonal tests. The influence of parameters such as vehicle speed, unevenness, vehicle frequency, span diameter, span number, and forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance is analyzed by orthogonal tests, and the influence law of each influencing parameter is summarized. It is found that the effects of vehicle frequency, unevenness, and speed on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are significant, among which vehicle frequency has the greatest effect on the negative moment dynamic load allowance; the effects of span number and span diameter on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are relatively small; the effects of forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are negligible.

Keywords: Continuous T-girder bridge, dynamic load allowance, sensitivity analysis, vehicle-bridge coupling.

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4 Toward Understanding and Testing Deep Learning Information Flow in Deep Learning-Based Android Apps

Authors: Jie Zhang, Qianyu Guo, Tieyi Zhang, Zhiyong Feng, Xiaohong Li

Abstract:

The widespread popularity of mobile devices and the development of artificial intelligence (AI) have led to the widespread adoption of deep learning (DL) in Android apps. Compared with traditional Android apps (traditional apps), deep learning based Android apps (DL-based apps) need to use more third-party application programming interfaces (APIs) to complete complex DL inference tasks. However, existing methods (e.g., FlowDroid) for detecting sensitive information leakage in Android apps cannot be directly used to detect DL-based apps as they are difficult to detect third-party APIs. To solve this problem, we design DLtrace, a new static information flow analysis tool that can effectively recognize third-party APIs. With our proposed trace and detection algorithms, DLtrace can also efficiently detect privacy leaks caused by sensitive APIs in DL-based apps. Additionally, we propose two formal definitions to deal with the common polymorphism and anonymous inner-class problems in the Android static analyzer. Using DLtrace, we summarize the non-sequential characteristics of DL inference tasks in DL-based apps and the specific functionalities provided by DL models for such apps. We conduct an empirical assessment with DLtrace on 208 popular DL-based apps in the wild and found that 26.0% of the apps suffered from sensitive information leakage. Furthermore, DLtrace outperformed FlowDroid in detecting and identifying third-party APIs. The experimental results demonstrate that DLtrace expands FlowDroid in understanding DL-based apps and detecting security issues therein.

Keywords: Mobile computing, deep learning apps, sensitive information, static analysis.

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3 Application of Cite Space Software in Visual Analysis of Land Use Coupling Research Progress

Authors: Jing Zhou, Weiqun Su, Naying Luo, Min Shang, Li Wu

Abstract:

The coupling of land use system in geographical research is mainly the coupling of pattern and process, which is essentially the human-land coupling, and is an important part of the research and discussion of human-land relationship. Based on the Web of Science database, the paper titles, authors, keywords, and references from 1997-2020 related to land use coupling were used as data sources to explore the research progress of land use coupling. Cite Space bibliometric tool was used for co-occurrence analysis of the issuing country, issuing institution, co-cited author, disciplinary institution, and keywords. The results are shown as follows: (1) From 1997 to 2020, the United States, China, and Germany rank the top, with more than 250 published papers. Although China ranks second in the number of published papers on foreign literature, it has less centrality and less influence. (2) The top 10 institutions (universities) in the number of published papers (more than 300 articles) are mainly from the United States and China, and the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences has the highest output of papers. At the same time, the phenomenon of multi-institutional cooperation has increased in the field of land use coupling research. (3) From 1997 to 2020, land sensitivity research and the impact of climate change on land use patterns are the main directions of land use coupling research. However, in the past five years, scholars have mainly focused on the coupling research methods of land use and the coupling relationship between ecological and environmental factors and land use.

Keywords: Land use coupling, cite space, knowledge graph, visual analysis, research progress.

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2 Monitoring and Analysis of Bridge Crossing Ground Fissures

Authors: Zhiqing Zhang, Xiangong Zhou, Zihan Zhou

Abstract:

Ground fissures can be seen in some cities all over the world. As a special urban geological disaster, ground fissures in Xi'an have caused great harm to infrastructure. Chang'an Road Interchange in Xi'an City is a bridge across ground fissures. The damage to Chang'an Road interchange is the most serious and typical. To study the influence of ground fissures on the bridge, we established a bridge monitoring system. The main monitoring items include elevation monitoring, structural displacement monitoring, etc. The monitoring results show that the typical failure is mainly reflected in the bridge deck damage caused by horizontal tension and vertical dislocation. For the construction of urban interchange spanning ground fissures, the interchange should be divided reasonably, a simple support structure with less restriction should be adopted, and the monitoring of supports should be strengthened to prevent the occurrence of beam falling.

Keywords: Bridge monitoring, ground fissures, typical disease, structural displacement.

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1 China’s Health Silk Road in the Southeast Asia and Europe during COVID-19

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

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The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an opportune time for China to deploy its health diplomacy around the world. This paper focused on China’s health diplomacy along the path of its Health Silk Road, with particular emphasis on the Southeast Asia and Europe amid COVID-19. This paper employed a retrospective literature review, analyzed China’s health diplomacy in such regions to cultivate bilateral and multilateral relationships. Findings argued that such health diplomacy is a success and China has taken the helm of international public health patronage. This research contributes to the literature in health diplomacy and suggests that amid the ever changing international order, China has exerted great effort in its health diplomacy and established itself as a responsible world power.

Keywords: China’s health silk road, COVID-19, Europe, Middle East.

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