Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2910

Search results for: Convolutional Neural Network

2910 Bayesian Deep Learning Algorithms for Classifying COVID-19 Images

Authors: I. Oloyede

Abstract:

The study investigates the accuracy and loss of deep learning algorithms with the set of coronavirus (COVID-19) images dataset by comparing Bayesian convolutional neural network and traditional convolutional neural network in low dimensional dataset. 50 sets of X-ray images out of which 25 were COVID-19 and the remaining 20 were normal, twenty images were set as training while five were set as validation that were used to ascertained the accuracy of the model. The study found out that Bayesian convolution neural network outperformed conventional neural network at low dimensional dataset that could have exhibited under fitting. The study therefore recommended Bayesian Convolutional neural network (BCNN) for android apps in computer vision for image detection.

Keywords: BCNN, CNN, Images, COVID-19, Deep Learning.

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2909 Facial Emotion Recognition with Convolutional Neural Network Based Architecture

Authors: Koray U. Erbas

Abstract:

Neural networks are appealing for many applications since they are able to learn complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. As the number of neurons and layers in a neural network increase, it is possible to represent more complex relationships with automatically extracted features. Nowadays Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are widely used in Computer Vision problems such as; classification, object detection, segmentation image editing etc. In this work, Facial Emotion Recognition task is performed by proposed Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based DNN architecture using FER2013 Dataset. Moreover, the effects of different hyperparameters (activation function, kernel size, initializer, batch size and network size) are investigated and ablation study results for Pooling Layer, Dropout and Batch Normalization are presented.

Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network, Deep Learning, Deep Learning Based FER, Facial Emotion Recognition.

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2908 Slice Bispectrogram Analysis-Based Classification of Environmental Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Katsumi Hirata

Abstract:

Certain systems can function well only if they recognize the sound environment as humans do. In this research, we focus on sound classification by adopting a convolutional neural network and aim to develop a method that automatically classifies various environmental sounds. Although the neural network is a powerful technique, the performance depends on the type of input data. Therefore, we propose an approach via a slice bispectrogram, which is a third-order spectrogram and is a slice version of the amplitude for the short-time bispectrum. This paper explains the slice bispectrogram and discusses the effectiveness of the derived method by evaluating the experimental results using the ESC‑50 sound dataset. As a result, the proposed scheme gives high accuracy and stability. Furthermore, some relationship between the accuracy and non-Gaussianity of sound signals was confirmed.

Keywords: Bispectrum, convolutional neural network, environmental sound, slice bispectrogram, spectrogram.

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2907 Detection of Keypoint in Press-Fit Curve Based on Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Shoujia Fang, Guoqing Ding, Xin Chen

Abstract:

The quality of press-fit assembly is closely related to reliability and safety of product. The paper proposed a keypoint detection method based on convolutional neural network to improve the accuracy of keypoint detection in press-fit curve. It would provide an auxiliary basis for judging quality of press-fit assembly. The press-fit curve is a curve of press-fit force and displacement. Both force data and distance data are time-series data. Therefore, one-dimensional convolutional neural network is used to process the press-fit curve. After the obtained press-fit data is filtered, the multi-layer one-dimensional convolutional neural network is used to perform the automatic learning of press-fit curve features, and then sent to the multi-layer perceptron to finally output keypoint of the curve. We used the data of press-fit assembly equipment in the actual production process to train CNN model, and we used different data from the same equipment to evaluate the performance of detection. Compared with the existing research result, the performance of detection was significantly improved. This method can provide a reliable basis for the judgment of press-fit quality.

Keywords: Keypoint detection, curve feature, convolutional neural network, press-fit assembly.

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2906 Automatic Classification of Periodic Heart Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Jia Xin Low, Keng Wah Choo

Abstract:

This paper presents an automatic normal and abnormal heart sound classification model developed based on deep learning algorithm. MITHSDB heart sounds datasets obtained from the 2016 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge database were used in this research with the assumption that the electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded simultaneously with the heart sounds (phonocardiogram, PCG). The PCG time series are segmented per heart beat, and each sub-segment is converted to form a square intensity matrix, and classified using convolutional neural network (CNN) models. This approach removes the need to provide classification features for the supervised machine learning algorithm. Instead, the features are determined automatically through training, from the time series provided. The result proves that the prediction model is able to provide reasonable and comparable classification accuracy despite simple implementation. This approach can be used for real-time classification of heart sounds in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), e.g. remote monitoring applications of PCG signal.

Keywords: Convolutional neural network, discrete wavelet transform, deep learning, heart sound classification.

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2905 Classification of Computer Generated Images from Photographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Chaitanya Chawla, Divya Panwar, Gurneesh Singh Anand, M. P. S Bhatia

Abstract:

This paper presents a deep-learning mechanism for classifying computer generated images and photographic images. The proposed method accounts for a convolutional layer capable of automatically learning correlation between neighbouring pixels. In the current form, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) will learn features based on an image's content instead of the structural features of the image. The layer is particularly designed to subdue an image's content and robustly learn the sensor pattern noise features (usually inherited from image processing in a camera) as well as the statistical properties of images. The paper was assessed on latest natural and computer generated images, and it was concluded that it performs better than the current state of the art methods.

Keywords: Image forensics, computer graphics, classification, deep learning, convolutional neural networks.

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2904 Research on Reservoir Lithology Prediction Based on Residual Neural Network and Squeeze-and- Excitation Neural Network

Authors: Li Kewen, Su Zhaoxin, Wang Xingmou, Zhu Jian Bing

Abstract:

Conventional reservoir prediction methods ar not sufficient to explore the implicit relation between seismic attributes, and thus data utilization is low. In order to improve the predictive classification accuracy of reservoir lithology, this paper proposes a deep learning lithology prediction method based on ResNet (Residual Neural Network) and SENet (Squeeze-and-Excitation Neural Network). The neural network model is built and trained by using seismic attribute data and lithology data of Shengli oilfield, and the nonlinear mapping relationship between seismic attribute and lithology marker is established. The experimental results show that this method can significantly improve the classification effect of reservoir lithology, and the classification accuracy is close to 70%. This study can effectively predict the lithology of undrilled area and provide support for exploration and development.

Keywords: Convolutional neural network, lithology, prediction of reservoir lithology, seismic attributes.

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2903 A Combined Neural Network Approach to Soccer Player Prediction

Authors: Wenbin Zhang, Hantian Wu, Jian Tang

Abstract:

An artificial neural network is a mathematical model inspired by biological neural networks. There are several kinds of neural networks and they are widely used in many areas, such as: prediction, detection, and classification. Meanwhile, in day to day life, people always have to make many difficult decisions. For example, the coach of a soccer club has to decide which offensive player to be selected to play in a certain game. This work describes a novel Neural Network using a combination of the General Regression Neural Network and the Probabilistic Neural Networks to help a soccer coach make an informed decision.

Keywords: General Regression Neural Network, Probabilistic Neural Networks, Neural function.

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2902 MarginDistillation: Distillation for Face Recognition Neural Networks with Margin-Based Softmax

Authors: Svitov David, Alyamkin Sergey

Abstract:

The usage of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in conjunction with the margin-based softmax approach demonstrates the state-of-the-art performance for the face recognition problem. Recently, lightweight neural network models trained with the margin-based softmax have been introduced for the face identification task for edge devices. In this paper, we propose a distillation method for lightweight neural network architectures that outperforms other known methods for the face recognition task on LFW, AgeDB-30 and Megaface datasets. The idea of the proposed method is to use class centers from the teacher network for the student network. Then the student network is trained to get the same angles between the class centers and face embeddings predicted by the teacher network.

Keywords: ArcFace, distillation, face recognition, margin-based softmax.

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2901 Real-Time Recognition of Dynamic Hand Postures on a Neuromorphic System

Authors: Qian Liu, Steve Furber

Abstract:

To explore how the brain may recognise objects in its general,accurate and energy-efficient manner, this paper proposes the use of a neuromorphic hardware system formed from a Dynamic Video Sensor (DVS) silicon retina in concert with the SpiNNaker real-time Spiking Neural Network (SNN) simulator. As a first step in the exploration on this platform a recognition system for dynamic hand postures is developed, enabling the study of the methods used in the visual pathways of the brain. Inspired by the behaviours of the primary visual cortex, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are modelled using both linear perceptrons and spiking Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (LIF) neurons. In this study’s largest configuration using these approaches, a network of 74,210 neurons and 15,216,512 synapses is created and operated in real-time using 290 SpiNNaker processor cores in parallel and with 93.0% accuracy. A smaller network using only 1/10th of the resources is also created, again operating in real-time, and it is able to recognise the postures with an accuracy of around 86.4% - only 6.6% lower than the much larger system. The recognition rate of the smaller network developed on this neuromorphic system is sufficient for a successful hand posture recognition system, and demonstrates a much improved cost to performance trade-off in its approach.

Keywords: Spiking neural network (SNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), posture recognition, neuromorphic system.

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2900 Pose Normalization Network for Object Classification

Authors: Bingquan Shen

Abstract:

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have demonstrated their effectiveness in synthesizing 3D views of object instances at various viewpoints. Given the problem where one have limited viewpoints of a particular object for classification, we present a pose normalization architecture to transform the object to existing viewpoints in the training dataset before classification to yield better classification performance. We have demonstrated that this Pose Normalization Network (PNN) can capture the style of the target object and is able to re-render it to a desired viewpoint. Moreover, we have shown that the PNN improves the classification result for the 3D chairs dataset and ShapeNet airplanes dataset when given only images at limited viewpoint, as compared to a CNN baseline.

Keywords: Convolutional neural networks, object classification, pose normalization, viewpoint invariant.

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2899 Causal Relation Identification Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Knowledge Based Features

Authors: Tharini N. de Silva, Xiao Zhibo, Zhao Rui, Mao Kezhi

Abstract:

Causal relation identification is a crucial task in information extraction and knowledge discovery. In this work, we present two approaches to causal relation identification. The first is a classification model trained on a set of knowledge-based features. The second is a deep learning based approach training a model using convolutional neural networks to classify causal relations. We experiment with several different convolutional neural networks (CNN) models based on previous work on relation extraction as well as our own research. Our models are able to identify both explicit and implicit causal relations as well as the direction of the causal relation. The results of our experiments show a higher accuracy than previously achieved for causal relation identification tasks.

Keywords: Causal relation identification, convolutional neural networks, natural Language Processing, Machine Learning.

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2898 Optimizing the Capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Segmentation and Pattern Recognition

Authors: Yalong Jiang, Zheru Chi

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the factors which determine the capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model and propose the ways to evaluate and adjust the capacity of a CNN model for best matching to a specific pattern recognition task. Firstly, a scheme is proposed to adjust the number of independent functional units within a CNN model to make it be better fitted to a task. Secondly, the number of independent functional units in the capsule network is adjusted to fit it to the training dataset. Thirdly, a method based on Bayesian GAN is proposed to enrich the variances in the current dataset to increase its complexity. Experimental results on the PASCAL VOC 2010 Person Part dataset and the MNIST dataset show that, in both conventional CNN models and capsule networks, the number of independent functional units is an important factor that determines the capacity of a network model. By adjusting the number of functional units, the capacity of a model can better match the complexity of a dataset.

Keywords: CNN, capsule network, capacity optimization, character recognition, data augmentation; semantic segmentation.

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2897 A Survey of Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Convolutional Neural Network Accelerators

Authors: Wei Zhang

Abstract:

With the rapid development of deep learning, neural network and deep learning algorithms play a significant role in various practical applications. Due to the high accuracy and good performance, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) especially have become a research hot spot in the past few years. However, the size of the networks becomes increasingly large scale due to the demands of the practical applications, which poses a significant challenge to construct a high-performance implementation of deep learning neural networks. Meanwhile, many of these application scenarios also have strict requirements on the performance and low-power consumption of hardware devices. Therefore, it is particularly critical to choose a moderate computing platform for hardware acceleration of CNNs. This article aimed to survey the recent advance in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based acceleration of CNNs. Various designs and implementations of the accelerator based on FPGA under different devices and network models are overviewed, and the versions of Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) are compared to present our own critical analysis and comments. Finally, we give a discussion on different perspectives of these acceleration and optimization methods on FPGA platforms to further explore the opportunities and challenges for future research. More helpfully, we give a prospect for future development of the FPGA-based accelerator.

Keywords: Deep learning, field programmable gate array, FPGA, hardware acceleration, convolutional neural networks, CNN.

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2896 Attention Based Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Simultaneous Detection and Segmentation of Optic Disc in Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Gautam Sarkar, Ashis K. Dhara

Abstract:

Accurate segmentation of the optic disc is very important for computer-aided diagnosis of several ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertensive retinopathy. The paper presents an accurate and fast optic disc detection and segmentation method using an attention based fully convolutional network. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of extended MESSIDOR database and the trained model is used for segmentation of optic disc. The false positives are removed based on morphological operation and shape features. The result is evaluated using three-fold cross-validation on six public fundus image databases such as DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, AV-INSPIRE, CHASE DB1 and MESSIDOR. The attention based fully convolutional network is robust and effective for detection and segmentation of optic disc in the images affected by diabetic retinopathy and it outperforms existing techniques.

Keywords: Ocular diseases, retinal fundus image, optic disc detection and segmentation, fully convolutional network, overlap measure.

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2895 Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Bearings Based on Nonlinear Dimensional Reduction Combined with Timing Signals

Authors: Zhongmin Wang, Wudong Fan, Hengshan Zhang, Yimin Zhou

Abstract:

In data-driven prognostic methods, the prediction accuracy of the estimation for remaining useful life of bearings mainly depends on the performance of health indicators, which are usually fused some statistical features extracted from vibrating signals. However, the existing health indicators have the following two drawbacks: (1) The differnet ranges of the statistical features have the different contributions to construct the health indicators, the expert knowledge is required to extract the features. (2) When convolutional neural networks are utilized to tackle time-frequency features of signals, the time-series of signals are not considered. To overcome these drawbacks, in this study, the method combining convolutional neural network with gated recurrent unit is proposed to extract the time-frequency image features. The extracted features are utilized to construct health indicator and predict remaining useful life of bearings. First, original signals are converted into time-frequency images by using continuous wavelet transform so as to form the original feature sets. Second, with convolutional and pooling layers of convolutional neural networks, the most sensitive features of time-frequency images are selected from the original feature sets. Finally, these selected features are fed into the gated recurrent unit to construct the health indicator. The results state that the proposed method shows the enhance performance than the related studies which have used the same bearing dataset provided by PRONOSTIA.

Keywords: Continuous wavelet transform, convolution neural network, gated recurrent unit, health indicators, remaining useful life.

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2894 A Literature Survey of Neural Network Applications for Shunt Active Power Filters

Authors: S. Janpong, K-L. Areerak, K-N. Areerak

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the reviews of the application of neural network in shunt active power filter (SAPF). From the review, three out of four components of SAPF structure, which are harmonic detection component, compensating current control, and DC bus voltage control, have been adopted some of neural network architecture as part of its component or even substitution. The objectives of most papers in using neural network in SAPF are to increase the efficiency, stability, accuracy, robustness, tracking ability of the systems of each component. Moreover, minimizing unneeded signal due to the distortion is the ultimate goal in applying neural network to the SAPF. The most famous architecture of neural network in SAPF applications are ADALINE and Backpropagation (BP).

Keywords: Active power filter, neural network, harmonic distortion, harmonic detection and compensation, non-linear load.

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2893 A Survey of Sentiment Analysis Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Pingping Lin, Xudong Luo, Yifan Fan

Abstract:

Sentiment analysis is a very active research topic. Every day, Facebook, Twitter, Weibo, and other social media, as well as significant e-commerce websites, generate a massive amount of comments, which can be used to analyse peoples opinions or emotions. The existing methods for sentiment analysis are based mainly on sentiment dictionaries, machine learning, and deep learning. The first two kinds of methods rely on heavily sentiment dictionaries or large amounts of labelled data. The third one overcomes these two problems. So, in this paper, we focus on the third one. Specifically, we survey various sentiment analysis methods based on convolutional neural network, recurrent neural network, long short-term memory, deep neural network, deep belief network, and memory network. We compare their futures, advantages, and disadvantages. Also, we point out the main problems of these methods, which may be worthy of careful studies in the future. Finally, we also examine the application of deep learning in multimodal sentiment analysis and aspect-level sentiment analysis.

Keywords: Natural language processing, sentiment analysis, document analysis, multimodal sentiment analysis, deep learning.

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2892 Applications of Cascade Correlation Neural Networks for Cipher System Identification

Authors: B. Chandra, P. Paul Varghese

Abstract:

Crypto System Identification is one of the challenging tasks in Crypt analysis. The paper discusses the possibility of employing Neural Networks for identification of Cipher Systems from cipher texts. Cascade Correlation Neural Network and Back Propagation Network have been employed for identification of Cipher Systems. Very large collection of cipher texts were generated using a Block Cipher (Enhanced RC6) and a Stream Cipher (SEAL). Promising results were obtained in terms of accuracy using both the Neural Network models but it was observed that the Cascade Correlation Neural Network Model performed better compared to Back Propagation Network.

Keywords: Back Propagation Neural Networks, CascadeCorrelation Neural Network, Crypto systems, Block Cipher, StreamCipher.

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2891 Performance Evaluation of Distributed Deep Learning Frameworks in Cloud Environment

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Fang-An Kuo, Chau-Yi Chou, Yu-Bin Fang

Abstract:

2016 has become the year of the Artificial Intelligence explosion. AI technologies are getting more and more matured that most world well-known tech giants are making large investment to increase the capabilities in AI. Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed, and deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses deep neural network to train a machine to learn  features directly from data. Deep learning realizes many machine learning applications which expand the field of AI. At the present time, deep learning frameworks have been widely deployed on servers for deep learning applications in both academia and industry. In training deep neural networks, there are many standard processes or algorithms, but the performance of different frameworks might be different. In this paper we evaluate the running performance of two state-of-the-art distributed deep learning frameworks that are running training calculation in parallel over multi GPU and multi nodes in our cloud environment. We evaluate the training performance of the frameworks with ResNet-50 convolutional neural network, and we analyze what factors that result in the performance among both distributed frameworks as well. Through the experimental analysis, we identify the overheads which could be further optimized. The main contribution is that the evaluation results provide further optimization directions in both performance tuning and algorithmic design.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, convolutional neural networks.

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2890 Deep Learning Based, End-to-End Metaphor Detection in Greek with Recurrent and Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Konstantinos Perifanos, Eirini Florou, Dionysis Goutsos

Abstract:

This paper presents and benchmarks a number of end-to-end Deep Learning based models for metaphor detection in Greek. We combine Convolutional Neural Networks and Recurrent Neural Networks with representation learning to bear on the metaphor detection problem for the Greek language. The models presented achieve exceptional accuracy scores, significantly improving the previous state-of-the-art results, which had already achieved accuracy 0.82. Furthermore, no special preprocessing, feature engineering or linguistic knowledge is used in this work. The methods presented achieve accuracy of 0.92 and F-score 0.92 with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and bidirectional Long Short Term Memory networks (LSTMs). Comparable results of 0.91 accuracy and 0.91 F-score are also achieved with bidirectional Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) and Convolutional Recurrent Neural Nets (CRNNs). The models are trained and evaluated only on the basis of training tuples, the related sentences and their labels. The outcome is a state-of-the-art collection of metaphor detection models, trained on limited labelled resources, which can be extended to other languages and similar tasks.

Keywords: Metaphor detection, deep learning, representation learning, embeddings.

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2889 Spline Basis Neural Network Algorithm for Numerical Integration

Authors: Lina Yan, Jingjing Di, Ke Wang

Abstract:

A new basis function neural network algorithm is proposed for numerical integration. The main idea is to construct neural network model based on spline basis functions, which is used to approximate the integrand by training neural network weights. The convergence theorem of the neural network algorithm, the theorem for numerical integration and one corollary are presented and proved. The numerical examples, compared with other methods, show that the algorithm is effective and has the characteristics such as high precision and the integrand not required known. Thus, the algorithm presented in this paper can be widely applied in many engineering fields.

Keywords: Numerical integration, Spline basis function, Neural network algorithm

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2888 Automatic Number Plate Recognition System Based on Deep Learning

Authors: T. Damak, O. Kriaa, A. Baccar, M. A. Ben Ayed, N. Masmoudi

Abstract:

In the last few years, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) systems have become widely used in the safety, the security, and the commercial aspects. Forethought, several methods and techniques are computing to achieve the better levels in terms of accuracy and real time execution. This paper proposed a computer vision algorithm of Number Plate Localization (NPL) and Characters Segmentation (CS). In addition, it proposed an improved method in Optical Character Recognition (OCR) based on Deep Learning (DL) techniques. In order to identify the number of detected plate after NPL and CS steps, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) algorithm is proposed. A DL model is developed using four convolution layers, two layers of Maxpooling, and six layers of fully connected. The model was trained by number image database on the Jetson TX2 NVIDIA target. The accuracy result has achieved 95.84%.

Keywords: Automatic number plate recognition, character segmentation, convolutional neural network, CNN, deep learning, number plate localization.

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2887 A Convolutional Deep Neural Network Approach for Skin Cancer Detection Using Skin Lesion Images

Authors: Firas Gerges, Frank Y. Shih

Abstract:

Malignant Melanoma, known simply as Melanoma, is a type of skin cancer that appears as a mole on the skin. It is critical to detect this cancer at an early stage because it can spread across the body and may lead to the patient death. When detected early, Melanoma is curable. In this paper we propose a deep learning model (Convolutional Neural Networks) in order to automatically classify skin lesion images as Malignant or Benign. Images underwent certain pre-processing steps to diminish the effect of the normal skin region on the model. The result of the proposed model showed a significant improvement over previous work, achieving an accuracy of 97%.

Keywords: Deep learning, skin cancer, image processing, melanoma.

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2886 Investigation of Artificial Neural Networks Performance to Predict Net Heating Value of Crude Oil by Its Properties

Authors: Mousavian, M. Moghimi Mofrad, M. H. Vakili, D. Ashouri, R. Alizadeh

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to use artificial neural networks computing technology for estimating the net heating value (NHV) of crude oil by its Properties. The approach is based on training the neural network simulator uses back-propagation as the learning algorithm for a predefined range of analytically generated well test response. The network with 8 neurons in one hidden layer was selected and prediction of this network has been good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: Neural Network, Net Heating Value, Crude Oil, Experimental, Modeling.

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2885 Avoiding Catastrophic Forgetting by a Dual-Network Memory Model Using a Chaotic Neural Network

Authors: Motonobu Hattori

Abstract:

In neural networks, when new patterns are learned by a network, the new information radically interferes with previously stored patterns. This drawback is called catastrophic forgetting or catastrophic interference. In this paper, we propose a biologically inspired neural network model which overcomes this problem. The proposed model consists of two distinct networks: one is a Hopfield type of chaotic associative memory and the other is a multilayer neural network. We consider that these networks correspond to the hippocampus and the neocortex of the brain, respectively. Information given is firstly stored in the hippocampal network with fast learning algorithm. Then the stored information is recalled by chaotic behavior of each neuron in the hippocampal network. Finally, it is consolidated in the neocortical network by using pseudopatterns. Computer simulation results show that the proposed model has much better ability to avoid catastrophic forgetting in comparison with conventional models.

Keywords: catastrophic forgetting, chaotic neural network, complementary learning systems, dual-network

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2884 A Sentence-to-Sentence Relation Network for Recognizing Textual Entailment

Authors: Isaac K. E. Ampomah, Seong-Bae Park, Sang-Jo Lee

Abstract:

Over the past decade, there have been promising developments in Natural Language Processing (NLP) with several investigations of approaches focusing on Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). These models include models based on lexical similarities, models based on formal reasoning, and most recently deep neural models. In this paper, we present a sentence encoding model that exploits the sentence-to-sentence relation information for RTE. In terms of sentence modeling, Convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) adopt different approaches. RNNs are known to be well suited for sequence modeling, whilst CNN is suited for the extraction of n-gram features through the filters and can learn ranges of relations via the pooling mechanism. We combine the strength of RNN and CNN as stated above to present a unified model for the RTE task. Our model basically combines relation vectors computed from the phrasal representation of each sentence and final encoded sentence representations. Firstly, we pass each sentence through a convolutional layer to extract a sequence of higher-level phrase representation for each sentence from which the first relation vector is computed. Secondly, the phrasal representation of each sentence from the convolutional layer is fed into a Bidirectional Long Short Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) to obtain the final sentence representations from which a second relation vector is computed. The relations vectors are combined and then used in then used in the same fashion as attention mechanism over the Bi-LSTM outputs to yield the final sentence representations for the classification. Experiment on the Stanford Natural Language Inference (SNLI) corpus suggests that this is a promising technique for RTE.

Keywords: Deep neural models, natural language inference, recognizing textual entailment, sentence-to-sentence relation.

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2883 Optimum Neural Network Architecture for Precipitation Prediction of Myanmar

Authors: Khaing Win Mar, Thinn Thu Naing

Abstract:

Nowadays, precipitation prediction is required for proper planning and management of water resources. Prediction with neural network models has received increasing interest in various research and application domains. However, it is difficult to determine the best neural network architecture for prediction since it is not immediately obvious how many input or hidden nodes are used in the model. In this paper, neural network model is used as a forecasting tool. The major aim is to evaluate a suitable neural network model for monthly precipitation mapping of Myanmar. Using 3-layerd neural network models, 100 cases are tested by changing the number of input and hidden nodes from 1 to 10 nodes, respectively, and only one outputnode used. The optimum model with the suitable number of nodes is selected in accordance with the minimum forecast error. In measuring network performance using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), experimental results significantly show that 3 inputs-10 hiddens-1 output architecture model gives the best prediction result for monthly precipitation in Myanmar.

Keywords: Precipitation prediction, monthly precipitation, neural network models, Myanmar.

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2882 Some Remarkable Properties of a Hopfield Neural Network with Time Delay

Authors: Kelvin Rozier, Vladimir E. Bondarenko

Abstract:

It is known that an analog Hopfield neural network with time delay can generate the outputs which are similar to the human electroencephalogram. To gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of rhythm generation by the Hopfield neural networks and to study the effects of noise on their activities, we investigated the behaviors of the networks with symmetric and asymmetric interneuron connections. The neural network under the study consists of 10 identical neurons. For symmetric (fully connected) networks all interneuron connections aij = +1; the interneuron connections for asymmetric networks form an upper triangular matrix with non-zero entries aij = +1. The behavior of the network is described by 10 differential equations, which are solved numerically. The results of simulations demonstrate some remarkable properties of a Hopfield neural network, such as linear growth of outputs, dependence of synchronization properties on the connection type, huge amplification of oscillation by the external uniform noise, and the capability of the neural network to transform one type of noise to another.

Keywords: Chaos, Hopfield neural network, noise, synchronization

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2881 Development of Gas Chromatography Model: Propylene Concentration Using Neural Network

Authors: Areej Babiker Idris Babiker, Rosdiazli Ibrahim

Abstract:

Gas chromatography (GC) is the most widely used technique in analytical chemistry. However, GC has high initial cost and requires frequent maintenance. This paper examines the feasibility and potential of using a neural network model as an alternative whenever GC is unvailable. It can also be part of system verification on the performance of GC for preventive maintenance activities. It shows the performance of MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP) with Backpropagation structure. Results demonstrate that neural network model when trained using this structure provides an adequate result and is suitable for this purpose. cm.

Keywords: Analyzer, Levenberg-Marquardt, Gas chromatography, Neural network

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