Specific Biomarker Level and Function Outcome Changes in Treatment of Patients with Frozen Shoulder Using Dextrose Prolotherapy Injection
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Specific Biomarker Level and Function Outcome Changes in Treatment of Patients with Frozen Shoulder Using Dextrose Prolotherapy Injection

Authors: Nuralam Sam, Irawan Yusuf, Irfan Idris, Endi Adnan


Frozen shoulder (FS) is an insidious, painful condition caused by an inflammatory condition that causes fibrosis of the glenohumeral joint capsule, which causes progressive stiffness and restriction of the active and passive range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder. The studies of FS are still limited. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial involved participants with FS. The study participants were divided into two groups. The Prolotherapy group was the study group, and the Normal Saline (NS) group was the control group. Both groups were given injections at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and Tissue Inhibitor Metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were measured at week six and week 12 after the last injection. The Disabilities of The Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Score and ROM were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6 before and after injection and week 12. Comparative analysis was performed using repeated measures Paired T-Test, and data processing to assess correlation was using ANOVA. The result showed a significant decrease in The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score in prolotherapy injection patients in each measurement week (p < 0.05). While the measurement of ROM, each direction of shoulder motion showed a significant difference in average each week, from week 0 to week 6 (p < 0.05). Dextrose prolotherapy injection results significantly improved the functional outcome of the shoulder joint and ROM. They did not show significant results in assessing the specific biomarker, MMP-1, and TIMP-1, in tissue repair. This study suggests an alternative to injection prolotherapy in FS patients; it has minimal adverse effects and is efficient in time and cost.

Keywords: Frozen Shoulder, ROM, DASH Score, prolotherapy, MMP-1, TIMP-1.

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