**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**52

# Search results for: Calculus

##### 52 Calculus-based Runtime Verification

**Authors:**
Xuan Qi,
Changzhi Zhao

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
calculus,
eagle logic,
monitor synthesis,
runtime verification

##### 51 Some Remarks About Riemann-Liouville and Caputo Impulsive Fractional Calculus

**Authors:**
M. De la Sen

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Rimann- Liouville fractional calculus,
Caputofractional derivative,
Dirac delta,
Distributional derivatives,
Highorderdistributional derivatives.

##### 50 The Boundary Element Method in Excel for Teaching Vector Calculus and Simulation

**Authors:**
Stephen Kirkup

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Boundary element method,
laplace equation,
vector calculus,
simulation,
education.

##### 49 Sinc-Galerkin Method for the Solution of Problems in Calculus of Variations

**Authors:**
M. Zarebnia,
N. Aliniya

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Calculus of variation; Sinc functions; Galerkin; Numerical method

##### 48 Non-Polynomial Spline Method for the Solution of Problems in Calculus of Variations

**Authors:**
M. Zarebnia,
M. Hoshyar,
M. Sedaghati

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Calculus of variation; Non-polynomial spline functions; Numerical method

##### 47 Exterior Calculus: Economic Profit Dynamics

**Authors:**
Troy L. Story

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Differential geometry,
exterior calculus,
Hamiltonian
geometry,
mathematical economics,
economic functions,
and
dynamics

##### 46 Exterior Calculus: Economic Growth Dynamics

**Authors:**
Troy L. Story

**Abstract:**

Mathematical models of dynamics employing exterior calculus are mathematical representations of the same unifying principle; namely, the description of a dynamic system with a characteristic differential one-form on an odd-dimensional differentiable manifold leads, by analysis with exterior calculus, to a set of differential equations and a characteristic tangent vector (vortex vector) which define transformations of the system. Using this principle, a mathematical model for economic growth is constructed by proposing a characteristic differential one-form for economic growth dynamics (analogous to the action in Hamiltonian dynamics), then generating a pair of characteristic differential equations and solving these equations for the rate of economic growth as a function of labor and capital. By contracting the characteristic differential one-form with the vortex vector, the Lagrangian for economic growth dynamics is obtained.

**Keywords:**
Differential geometry,
exterior calculus,
Hamiltonian geometry,
mathematical economics.

##### 45 Unconventional Calculus Spreadsheet Functions

**Authors:**
Chahid K. Ghaddar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Calculus functions,
nonlinear systems,
differential algebraic equations,
solvers,
spreadsheet.

##### 44 Open Educational Resource in Online Mathematics Learning

**Authors:**
Haohao Wang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Online learning,
Open Educational Resources,
Multimedia,
Technology.

##### 43 Riemann-Liouville Fractional Calculus and Multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev Differentiation and Integration with Multiindex Mittag-Leffler Function

**Authors:**
U.K. Saha,
L.K. Arora

**Abstract:**

The multiindex Mittag-Leffler (M-L) function and the multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev (D-G-L) differentiation and integration play a very pivotal role in the theory and applications of generalized fractional calculus. The object of this paper is to investigate the relations that exist between the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus and multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev differentiation and integration with multiindex Mittag-Leffler function.

**Keywords:**
Multiindex Mittag-Leffler function,
Multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev differentiation and integration,
Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals and derivatives.

##### 42 A Mathematical Model Approach Regarding the Children’s Height Development with Fractional Calculus

**Authors:**
Nisa Özge Önal,
Kamil Karaçuha,
Göksu Hazar Erdinç,
Banu Bahar Karaçuha,
Ertuğrul Karaçuha

**Abstract:**

The study aims to use a mathematical approach with the fractional calculus which is developed to have the ability to continuously analyze the factors related to the children’s height development. Until now, tracking the development of the child is getting more important and meaningful. Knowing and determining the factors related to the physical development of the child any desired time would provide better, reliable and accurate results for childcare. In this frame, 7 groups for height percentile curve (3th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th) of Turkey are used. By using discrete height data of 0-18 years old children and the least squares method, a continuous curve is developed valid for any time interval. By doing so, in any desired instant, it is possible to find the percentage and location of the child in Percentage Chart. Here, with the help of the fractional calculus theory, a mathematical model is developed. The outcomes of the proposed approach are quite promising compared to the linear and the polynomial method. The approach also yields to predict the expected values of children in the sense of height.

**Keywords:**
Children growth percentile,
children physical development,
fractional calculus,
linear and polynomial model.

##### 41 The Gasoil Hydrofining Kinetics Constants Identification

**Authors:**
C. Patrascioiu,
V. Matei,
N. Nicolae

**Abstract:**

The paper describes the experiments and the kinetic parameters calculus of the gasoil hydrofining. They are presented experimental results of gasoil hidrofining using Mo and promoted with Ni on aluminum support catalyst. The authors have adapted a kinetic model gasoil hydrofining. Using this proposed kinetic model and the experimental data they have calculated the parameters of the model. The numerical calculus is based on minimizing the difference between the experimental sulf concentration and kinetic model estimation.

**Keywords:**
Hydrofining,
kinetic,
modeling,
optimization.

##### 40 Fractional-Order PI Controller Tuning Rules for Cascade Control System

**Authors:**
Truong Nguyen Luan Vu,
Le Hieu Giang,
Le Linh

**Abstract:**

The fractional–order proportional integral (FOPI) controller tuning rules based on the fractional calculus for the cascade control system are systematically proposed in this paper. Accordingly, the ideal controller is obtained by using internal model control (IMC) approach for both the inner and outer loops, which gives the desired closed-loop responses. On the basis of the fractional calculus, the analytical tuning rules of FOPI controller for the inner loop can be established in the frequency domain. Besides, the outer loop is tuned by using any integer PI/PID controller tuning rules in the literature. The simulation study is considered for the stable process model and the results demonstrate the simplicity, flexibility, and effectiveness of the proposed method for the cascade control system in compared with the other methods.

**Keywords:**
Fractional calculus,
fractional–order proportional integral controller,
cascade control system,
internal model control approach.

##### 39 Development of Active Learning Calculus Course for Biomedical Program

**Authors:**
Mikhail Bouniaev

**Abstract:**

The paper reviews design and implementation of a Calculus Course required for the Biomedical Competency Based Program developed as a joint project between The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, and the University of Texas’ Institute for Transformational Learning, from the theoretical perspective as presented in scholarly work on active learning, formative assessment, and on-line teaching. Following a four stage curriculum development process (objective, content, delivery, and assessment), and theoretical recommendations that guarantee effectiveness and efficiency of assessment in active learning, we discuss the practical recommendations on how to incorporate a strong formative assessment component to address disciplines’ needs, and students’ major needs. In design and implementation of this project, we used Constructivism and Stage-by-Stage Development of Mental Actions Theory recommendations.

**Keywords:**
Active learning,
assessment,
Calculus,
cognitive demand,
constructivism,
mathematics,
Stage-by-Stage Development of Mental Action Theory.

##### 38 A Stochastic Approach of Mitochondrial Dynamics

**Authors:**
Athanasios T. Alexiou,
Maria M. Psiha,
John A. Rekkas,
Panayiotis M. Vlamos

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Mitochondrial Dynamics,
P-Calculus,
StochasticModeling.

##### 37 Refinement of Object-Z Specifications Using Morgan-s Refinement Calculus

**Authors:**
Mehrnaz Najafi,
Hassan Haghighi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Formal method,
Formal specification,
Formalprogram development,
Morgan's Refinement Calculus,
Object-Z

##### 36 Mechanized Proof of Resistance of Denial of Service Attacks in Voting Protocol with ProVerif

**Abstract:**

Resistance of denial of service attacks is a key security requirement in voting protocols. Acquisti protocol plays an important role in development of internet voting protocols and claims its security without strong physical assumptions. In this study firstly Acquisti protocol is modeled in extended applied pi calculus, and then resistance of denial of service attacks is proved with ProVerif. The result is that it is not resistance of denial of service attacks because two denial of service attacks are found. Finally we give the method against the denial of service attacks.

**Keywords:**
Applied pi calculus,
protocol state,
symbolic model,
availability.

##### 35 An Implementation of MacMahon's Partition Analysis in Ordering the Lower Bound of Processing Elements for the Algorithm of LU Decomposition

**Authors:**
Halil Snopce,
Ilir Spahiu,
Lavdrim Elmazi

**Abstract:**

A lot of Scientific and Engineering problems require the solution of large systems of linear equations of the form bAx in an effective manner. LU-Decomposition offers good choices for solving this problem. Our approach is to find the lower bound of processing elements needed for this purpose. Here is used the so called Omega calculus, as a computational method for solving problems via their corresponding Diophantine relation. From the corresponding algorithm is formed a system of linear diophantine equalities using the domain of computation which is given by the set of lattice points inside the polyhedron. Then is run the Mathematica program DiophantineGF.m. This program calculates the generating function from which is possible to find the number of solutions to the system of Diophantine equalities, which in fact gives the lower bound for the number of processors needed for the corresponding algorithm. There is given a mathematical explanation of the problem as well. Keywordsgenerating function, lattice points in polyhedron, lower bound of processor elements, system of Diophantine equationsand : calculus.

**Keywords:**
generating function,
lattice points in polyhedron,
lower bound of processor elements,
system of Diophantine equations and calculus.

##### 34 Calculus Logarithmic Function for Image Encryption

**Authors:**
Adil AL-Rammahi

**Abstract:**

When we prefer to make the data secure from various attacks and fore integrity of data, we must encrypt the data before it is transmitted or stored. This paper introduces a new effective and lossless image encryption algorithm using a natural logarithmic function. The new algorithm encrypts an image through a three stage process. In the first stage, a reference natural logarithmic function is generated as the foundation for the encryption image. The image numeral matrix is then analyzed to five integer numbers, and then the numbers’ positions are transformed to matrices. The advantages of this method is useful for efficiently encrypting a variety of digital images, such as binary images, gray images, and RGB images without any quality loss. The principles of the presented scheme could be applied to provide complexity and then security for a variety of data systems such as image and others.

**Keywords:**
Linear Systems,
Image Encryption,
Calculus.

##### 33 Myths and Strategies for Teaching Calculus in English for Taiwanese Students: A Report Based on Three-Years of Practice

**Authors:**
Shin-Shin Kao

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Calculus,
English,
teaching evaluation,
teaching strategy,
vocabulary.

##### 32 A Differential Calculus Based Image Steganography with Crossover

**Authors:**
Srilekha Mukherjee,
Subha Ash,
Goutam Sanyal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Steganography,
Crossover,
Differential Calculus,
Peak Signal to Noise Ratio,
Cross-correlation Coefficient.

##### 31 Some Investigations on Higher Mathematics Scores for Chinese University Student

**Authors:**
Xun Ge,
Jingju Qian

**Abstract:**

To investigate some relations between higher mathe¬matics scores in Chinese graduate student entrance examination and calculus (resp. linear algebra, probability statistics) scores in subject's completion examination of Chinese university, we select 20 students as a sample, take higher mathematics score as a decision attribute and take calculus score, linear algebra score, probability statistics score as condition attributes. In this paper, we are based on rough-set theory (Rough-set theory is a logic-mathematical method proposed by Z. Pawlak. In recent years, this theory has been widely implemented in the many fields of natural science and societal science.) to investigate importance of condition attributes with respective to decision attribute and strength of condition attributes supporting decision attribute. Results of this investigation will be helpful for university students to raise higher mathematics scores in Chinese graduate student entrance examination.

**Keywords:**
Rough set,
higher mathematics scores,
decision attribute,
condition attribute.

##### 30 On the Need to have an Additional Methodology for the Psychological Product Measurement and Evaluation

**Authors:**
Corneliu Sofronie,
Roxana Zubcov

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
complementary methodology,
connection approach,
networks without scaling,
quantum psychology.

##### 29 Further Investigations on Higher Mathematics Scores for Chinese University Students

**Authors:**
Xun Ge

**Abstract:**

Recently, X. Ge and J. Qian investigated some relations between higher mathematics scores and calculus scores (resp. linear algebra scores, probability statistics scores) for Chinese university students. Based on rough-set theory, they established an information system S = (U,CuD,V, f). In this information system, higher mathematics score was taken as a decision attribute and calculus score, linear algebra score, probability statistics score were taken as condition attributes. They investigated importance of each condition attribute with respective to decision attribute and strength of each condition attribute supporting decision attribute. In this paper, we give further investigations for this issue. Based on the above information system S = (U, CU D, V, f), we analyze the decision rules between condition and decision granules. For each x E U, we obtain support (resp. strength, certainty factor, coverage factor) of the decision rule C —>x D, where C —>x D is the decision rule induced by x in S = (U, CU D, V, f). Results of this paper gives new analysis of on higher mathematics scores for Chinese university students, which can further lead Chinese university students to raise higher mathematics scores in Chinese graduate student entrance examination.

**Keywords:**
Rough set,
support,
strength,
certainty factor,
coverage factor.

##### 28 Acceptance of Health Information Application in Smart National Identity Card (SNIC) Using a New I-P Framework

**Authors:**
Ismail Bile Hassan,
Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad

**Abstract:**

This study discovers a novel framework of individual level technology adoption known as I-P (Individual- Privacy) towards health information application in Smart National Identity Card. Many countries introduced smart national identity card (SNIC) with various applications such as health information application embedded inside it. However, the degree to which citizens accept and use some of the embedded applications in smart national identity remains unknown to many governments and application providers as well. Moreover, the factors of trust, perceived risk, Privacy concern and perceived credibility need to be incorporated into more comprehensive models such as extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology known as UTAUT2. UTAUT2 is a mainly widespread and leading theory up to now. This research identifies factors affecting the citizens’ behavioural intention to use health information application embedded in SNIC and extends better understanding on the relevant factors that the government and the application providers would need to consider in predicting citizens’ new technology acceptance in the future. We propose a conceptual framework by combining the UTAUT2 and Privacy Calculus Model constructs and also adding perceived credibility as a new variable. The proposed framework may provide assistance to any government planning, decision, and policy makers involving e-government projects. Empirical study may be conducted in the future to provide proof and empirically validate this I-P framework.

**Keywords:**
Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of
Technology (UTAUT) model,
UTAUT2 model,
Smart National
Identity Card (SNIC),
Health information application,
Privacy
Calculus Model (PCM).

##### 27 Positive Periodic Solutions for a Neutral Impulsive Delay Competition System

**Authors:**
Daiming Wang

**Abstract:**

In this paper, a neutral impulsive competition system with distributed delays is studied by using Mawhin-s coincidence degree theory and the mean value theorem of differential calculus. Sufficient conditions on the existence of positive periodic solution of the system are obtained.

**Keywords:**
Neutral impulsive delay system,
competitive system,
coincidence degree,
periodic solution,
existence.

##### 26 Multigrid Bilateral Filter

**Authors:**
Zongqing Lu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bilateral filter,
multigrid

##### 25 An Unified Approach to Thermodynamics of Power Yield in Thermal, Chemical and Electrochemical Systems

**Authors:**
S. Sieniutycz

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Power yield,
entropy production,
chemical engines,
fuel cells,
exergy.

##### 24 Discovering Liouville-Type Problems for p-Energy Minimizing Maps in Closed Half-Ellipsoids by Calculus Variation Method

**Authors:**
Lina Wu,
Jia Liu,
Ye Li

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bochner Formula,
Stokes’ Theorem,
Cauchy-Schwarz
Inequality,
first and second variation formulas,
Hardy-Sobolev type
inequalities,
Liouville-type problem,
p-harmonic map.

##### 23 Existence of Iterative Cauchy Fractional Differential Equation

**Authors:**
Rabha W. Ibrahim

**Abstract:**

Our main aim in this paper is to use the technique of non expansive operators to more general iterative and non iterative fractional differential equations (Cauchy type ). The non integer case is taken in sense of Riemann-Liouville fractional operators. Applications are illustrated.

**Keywords:**
Fractional calculus,
fractional differential equation,
Cauchy equation,
Riemann-Liouville fractional operators,
Volterra
integral equation,
non-expansive mapping,
iterative differential equation.