Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Drill strings

14 Nonlinearity and Spectrum Analysis of Drill Strings with Component Mass Unbalance

Authors: F. Abdul Majeed, H. Karki, Y. Abdel Magid, M. Karkoub

Abstract:

This paper analyses the non linear properties exhibited by a drill string system under various un balanced mass conditions. The drill string is affected by continuous friction in the form of drill bit and well bore hole interactions. This paper proves the origin of limit cycling and increase of non linearity with increase in speed of the drilling in the presence of friction. The spectrum of the frequency response is also studied to detect the presence of vibration abnormalities arising during the drilling process.

Keywords: Drill strings, Nonlinear, Spectrum analysis, Unbalanced mass

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13 A Hybridization of Constructive Beam Search with Local Search for Far From Most Strings Problem

Authors: Sayyed R Mousavi

Abstract:

The Far From Most Strings Problem (FFMSP) is to obtain a string which is far from as many as possible of a given set of strings. All the input and the output strings are of the same length, and two strings are said to be far if their hamming distance is greater than or equal to a given positive integer. FFMSP belongs to the class of sequences consensus problems which have applications in molecular biology. The problem is NP-hard; it does not admit a constant-ratio approximation either, unless P = NP. Therefore, in addition to exact and approximate algorithms, (meta)heuristic algorithms have been proposed for the problem in recent years. On the other hand, in the recent years, hybrid algorithms have been proposed and successfully used for many hard problems in a variety of domains. In this paper, a new metaheuristic algorithm, called Constructive Beam and Local Search (CBLS), is investigated for the problem, which is a hybridization of constructive beam search and local search algorithms. More specifically, the proposed algorithm consists of two phases, the first phase is to obtain several candidate solutions via the constructive beam search and the second phase is to apply local search to the candidate solutions obtained by the first phase. The best solution found is returned as the final solution to the problem. The proposed algorithm is also similar to memetic algorithms in the sense that both use local search to further improve individual solutions. The CBLS algorithm is compared with the most recent published algorithm for the problem, GRASP, with significantly positive results; the improvement is by order of magnitudes in most cases.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Far From Most Strings Problem, Hybrid metaheuristics, Matheuristics, Sequences consensus problems.

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12 A Dynamic Model for a Drill in the Drilling Process

Authors: Bo Wun Huang, Ah Der Lin, Yung Chuan Chen, Jao Hwa Kuang

Abstract:

The dynamic model of a drill in drilling process was proposed and investigated in this study. To assure a good drilling quality, the vibration variation on the drill tips during high speed drilling is needed to be investigated. A pre-twisted beam is used to simulate the drill. The moving Winkler-Type elastic foundation is used to characterize the tip boundary variation in drilling. Due to the variation of the drill depth, a time dependent dynamic model for the drill is proposed. Results simulated from this proposed model indicate that an abrupt natural frequencies drop are experienced as the drill tip tough the workpiece, and a severe vibration is induced. The effects of parameters, e.g. drilling speed, depth, drill size and thrust force on the drill tip responses studied.

Keywords: Drilling, vibration of drill, twisted beam

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11 A Study of Classification Models to Predict Drill-Bit Breakage Using Degradation Signals

Authors: Bharatendra Rai

Abstract:

Cutting tools are widely used in manufacturing processes and drilling is the most commonly used machining process. Although drill-bits used in drilling may not be expensive, their breakage can cause damage to expensive work piece being drilled and at the same time has major impact on productivity. Predicting drill-bit breakage, therefore, is important in reducing cost and improving productivity. This study uses twenty features extracted from two degradation signals viz., thrust force and torque. The methodology used involves developing and comparing decision tree, random forest, and multinomial logistic regression models for classifying and predicting drill-bit breakage using degradation signals.

Keywords: Degradation signal, drill-bit breakage, random forest, multinomial logistic regression.

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10 The Effects of Drill and Practice Courseware on Students’ Achievement and Motivation in Learning English

Authors: Y. T. Gee, I. N. Umar

Abstract:

Students’ achievement and motivation in learning English in Malaysia is a worrying trend as it is lagging behind several other countries in Asia. Thus, necessary actions have to be taken by the parties concerned to overcome this problem. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of drill and practice courseware on students’ achievement and motivation in learning English language. A multimedia courseware was developed for this purpose. The independent variable was the drill and practice courseware while the dependent variables were the students’ achievement and motivation. Their achievement was measured using pre-test and post-test scores, while motivation was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 60 students from three vernacular primary schools in a northern state in Malaysia were randomly selected in this study. The findings indicate: (1) a significant difference between the students’ pre-test and posttest scores after using the courseware, (2) no significant difference in the achievement score between male and female students after using the courseware, (3) a significant difference in motivation score between the female and the male students, and (4) while the female students scored significantly higher than the male students in the aspects of relevance, confidence and satisfaction, no significant difference in terms of attention was observed between them. Overall, the findings clearly indicate that although the female students are significantly more motivated than their male students, they are equally good in terms of achievement after learning from the courseware. Through this study, the drill and practice courseware is proven to influence the students’ learning and motivation.

Keywords: Courseware, drill and practice, English learning, motivation.

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9 Optimal Economic Load Dispatch Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Jagdev Singh, Yaduvir Singh, Sanjay Sood

Abstract:

In a practical power system, the power plants are not located at the same distance from the center of loads and their fuel costs are different. Also, under normal operating conditions, the generation capacity is more than the total load demand and losses. Thus, there are many options for scheduling generation. In an interconnected power system, the objective is to find the real and reactive power scheduling of each power plant in such a way as to minimize the operating cost. This means that the generator’s real and reactive powers are allowed to vary within certain limits so as to meet a particular load demand with minimum fuel cost. This is called optimal power flow problem. In this paper, Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) of real power generation is considered. Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) is the scheduling of generators to minimize total operating cost of generator units subjected to equality constraint of power balance within the minimum and maximum operating limits of the generating units. In this paper, genetic algorithms are considered. ELD solutions are found by solving the conventional load flow equations while at the same time minimizing the fuel costs.

Keywords: ELD, Equality constraints, Genetic algorithms, Strings.

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8 Segmentation of Arabic Handwritten Numeral Strings Based on Watershed Approach

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Remah W. Al-Khatib, Sameer A. Nooh

Abstract:

Arabic offline handwriting recognition systems are considered as one of the most challenging topics. Arabic Handwritten Numeral Strings are used to automate systems that deal with numbers such as postal code, banking account numbers and numbers on car plates. Segmentation of connected numerals is the main bottleneck in the handwritten numeral recognition system.  This is in turn can increase the speed and efficiency of the recognition system. In this paper, we proposed algorithms for automatic segmentation and feature extraction of Arabic handwritten numeral strings based on Watershed approach. The algorithms have been designed and implemented to achieve the main goal of segmenting and extracting the string of numeral digits written by hand especially in a courtesy amount of bank checks. The segmentation algorithm partitions the string into multiple regions that can be associated with the properties of one or more criteria. The numeral extraction algorithm extracts the numeral string digits into separated individual digit. Both algorithms for segmentation and feature extraction have been tested successfully and efficiently for all types of numerals.

Keywords: Handwritten numerals, segmentation, courtesy amount, feature extraction, numeral recognition.

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7 Approximation Algorithm for the Shortest Approximate Common Superstring Problem

Authors: A.S. Rebaï, M. Elloumi

Abstract:

The Shortest Approximate Common Superstring (SACS) problem is : Given a set of strings f={w1, w2, ... , wn}, where no wi is an approximate substring of wj, i ≠ j, find a shortest string Sa, such that, every string of f is an approximate substring of Sa. When the number of the strings n>2, the SACS problem becomes NP-complete. In this paper, we present a greedy approximation SACS algorithm. Our algorithm is a 1/2-approximation for the SACS problem. It is of complexity O(n2*(l2+log(n))) in computing time, where n is the number of the strings and l is the length of a string. Our SACS algorithm is based on computation of the Length of the Approximate Longest Overlap (LALO).

Keywords: Shortest approximate common superstring, approximation algorithms, strings overlaps, complexities.

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6 An Automated Approach to the Nozzle Configuration of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Drill Bits for Effective Cuttings Removal

Authors: R. Suresh, Pavan Kumar Nimmagadda, Ming Zo Tan, Shane Hart, Sharp Ugwuocha

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits are extensively used in the oil and gas industry as well as the mining industry. Industry engineers continually improve upon PDC drill bit designs and hydraulic conditions. Optimized injection nozzles play a key role in improving the drilling performance and efficiency of these ever changing PDC drill bits. In the first part of this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is performed to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of drilling fluid flow around the PDC drill bit. An Open-source CFD software – OpenFOAM simulates the flow around the drill bit, based on the field input data. A specifically developed console application integrates the entire CFD process including, domain extraction, meshing, and solving governing equations and post-processing. The results from the OpenFOAM solver are then compared with that of the ANSYS Fluent software. The data from both software programs agree. The second part of the paper describes the parametric study of the PDC drill bit nozzle to determine the effect of parameters such as number of nozzles, nozzle velocity, nozzle radial position and orientations on the flow field characteristics and bit washing patterns. After analyzing a series of nozzle configurations, the best configuration is identified and recommendations are made for modifying the PDC bit design.

Keywords: ANSYS Fluent, computational fluid dynamics, nozzle configuration, OpenFOAM, PDC dill bit.

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5 Real Time Monitoring of Long Slender Shaft by Distributed-Lumped Modeling Techniques

Authors: Sina Babadi, K. M. Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to determine the stress levels at the end of a long slender shaft such as a drilling assembly used in the oil or gas industry using a mathematical model in real-time. The torsional deflection experienced by this type of drilling shaft (about 4 KM length and 20 cm diameter hollow shaft with a thickness of 1 cm) can only be determined using a distributed modeling technique. The main objective of this project is to calculate angular velocity and torque at the end of the shaft by TLM method and also analyzing of the behavior of the system by transient response. The obtained result is compared with lumped modeling technique the importance of these results will be evident only after the mentioned comparison. Two systems have different transient responses and in this project because of the length of the shaft transient response is very important.

Keywords: Distributed Lumped modeling, Lumped modeling, Drill string, Angular Velocity, Torque.

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4 Multi Response Optimization in Drilling Al6063/SiC/15% Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: Hari Singh, Abhishek Kamboj, Sudhir Kumar

Abstract:

This investigation proposes a grey-based Taguchi method to solve the multi-response problems. The grey-based Taguchi method is based on the Taguchi’s design of experimental method, and adopts grey relational analysis (GRA) to transfer multi-response problems into single-response problems. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize the drilling process parameters considering weighted output response characteristics using grey relational analysis. The output response characteristics considered are surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error under the experimental conditions of cutting speed, feed rate, step angle, and cutting environment. The drilling experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. A combination of orthogonal array, design of experiments and grey relational analysis was used to ascertain best possible drilling process parameters that give minimum surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error. The results reveal that combination of Taguchi design of experiment and grey relational analysis improves surface quality of drilled hole. 

Keywords: Metal matrix composite, Drilling, Optimization, step drill, Surface roughness, burr height, hole diameter error.

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3 Influence of Combined Drill Coulters on Seedbed Compaction under Conservation Tillage Technologies

Authors: E. Šarauskis, L. Masilionyte, Z. Kriaučiūniene, K. Romaneckas

Abstract:

All over the world, including the Middle and East European countries, sustainable tillage and sowing technologies are applied increasingly broadly with a view to optimising soil resources, mitigating soil degradation processes, saving energy resources, preserving biological diversity, etc. As a result, altered conditions of tillage and sowing technological processes are faced inevitably. The purpose of this study is to determine the seedbed topsoil hardness when using a combined sowing coulter in different sustainable tillage technologies. The research involved a combined coulter consisting of two dissected blade discs and a shoe coulter. In order to determine soil hardness at the seedbed area, a multipenetrometer was used. It was found by experimental studies that in loosened soil, a combined sowing coulter equally suppresses the furrow bottom, walls and soil near the furrow; therefore, here, soil hardness was similar at all researched depths and no significant differences were established. In loosened and compacted (double-rolled) soil, the impact of a combined coulter on the hardness of seedbed soil surface was more considerable at a depth of 2 mm. Soil hardness at the furrow bottom and walls to a distance of up to 26 mm was 1.1 MPa. At a depth of 10 mm, the greatest hardness was established at the furrow bottom. In loosened and heavily compacted (rolled for 6 times) soil, at a depth of 2 and 10 mm a combined coulter most of all compacted the furrow bottom, which has a hardness of 1.8 MPa. At a depth of 20 mm, soil hardness within the whole investigated area varied insignificantly and fluctuated by around 2.0 MPa. The hardness of furrow walls and soil near the furrow was by approximately 1.0 MPa lower than that at the furrow bottom

Keywords: Coulters design, seedbed, soil hardness, combined coulters, soil compaction.

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2 Process Optimization Regarding Geometrical Variation and Sensitivity Involving Dental Drill- and Implant-Guided Surgeries

Authors: T. Kero, R. Söderberg, M. Andersson, L. Lindkvist

Abstract:

Within dental-guided surgery, there has been a lack of analytical methods for optimizing the treatment of the rehabilitation concepts regarding geometrical variation. The purpose of this study is to find the source of the greatest geometrical variation contributor and sensitivity contributor with the help of virtual variation simulation of a dental drill- and implant-guided surgery process using a methodical approach. It is believed that lower geometrical variation will lead to better patient security and higher quality of dental drill- and implant-guided surgeries. It was found that the origin of the greatest contributor to the most variation, and hence where the foci should be set, in order to minimize geometrical variation was in the assembly category (surgery). This was also the category that was the most sensitive for geometrical variation.

Keywords: Variation Simulation, Process Optimization, Guided Surgeries, Dental Prosthesis.

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1 Preparation and Cutting Performance of Boron-Doped Diamond Coating on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools with High Cobalt Content

Authors: Zhaozhi Liu, Feng Xu, Junhua Xu, Xiaolong Tang, Ying Liu, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated cutting tool has excellent cutting performance, it is the most ideal tool for the processing of nonferrous metals and alloys, composites, nonmetallic materials and other difficult-to-machine materials efficiently and accurately. Depositing CVD diamond coating on the cemented carbide with high cobalt content can improve its toughness and strength, therefore, it is very important to research on the preparation technology and cutting properties of CVD diamond coated cemented carbide cutting tool with high cobalt content. The preparation technology of boron-doped diamond (BDD) coating has been studied and the coated drills were prepared. BDD coating were deposited on the drills by using the optimized parameters and the SEM results show that there are no cracks or collapses in the coating. Cutting tests with the prepared drills against the silumin and aluminum base printed circuit board (PCB) have been studied. The results show that the wear amount of the coated drill is small and the machined surface has a better precision. The coating does not come off during the test, which shows good adhesion and cutting performance of the drill.

Keywords: Cemented carbide with high cobalt content, CVD boron-doped diamond, cutting test, drill.

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